Bio

Prof George Karuoya Gitau Biography

Professor George Karuoya Gitau is a Full Professor at the Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. He has specialised training and teaches Food Animal Medicine, Ruminant Health Management (Herd Health) and Epidemiology (Population Medicine).

Publications


2013

Bundi, RM;, Gitau GK;, Vanleeuwen, J; Mulei CM, Vanleeuwen, J; Mulei CM.  2013.  The application of petrifilmsTM for diagnosis of bovine mastitis in Kenya.
Kairu-Wanyoike, SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D.  2013.  Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: A case study of Narok District of Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 110(3-4):356–369. Abstractexploring_farmer_preferences_for_contagious_bovine_pleuropneumonia_vaccination.pdf

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p < 0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p > 0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI = 43.6%), price was the least important (RI = 0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95–100% safety, 2 h to greater than 2 h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be compensated or persuaded to accept biannual and private vaccination against CBPP. There is need for consideration of farmer preferences for vaccine attribute levels during vaccine formulations and farmer preferences for vaccination attribute levels when designing delivery of vaccines.

Gitau, GK, Bundi RM, Vanleeuwen J, Mulei CM.  2013.  Evaluation of PetrifilmsTM as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. Trop Anim Health Prod. 45(3):883–886. Abstracttrop_anim_health_prod-2013.pdf

The study purpose was to validate PetrifilmsTM (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and PetrifilmsTM (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count –3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and PetrifilmTM (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the PetrifilmsTM had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. PetrifilmsTM should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected.

2012

M, KP, GK G, Maingi N, A VJ, M KW.  2012.  THE EFFICACY OF ALBENDAZOLE AND MOXIDECTIN IN THE CONTROL OF NEMATODE INFECTION IN DAIRY CATTLE. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (60):393-397.kabaka_et_al_1.pdf
T.O., A, M.J. N, J.K W, V.T. T, Gitau G.K..  2012.  Incidence and risk factors of periparturient conditions in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. Abstractabuom_et_al-eth_vet_journal-2012.pdf

A study was carried out on 117 smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division
of Kiambu District Kenya between April 2004 and December 2004 to determine
the incidence of periparturient conditions (downer cow syndrome, dystocia, milk
fever and retained placenta among others) in smallholder dairy cattle herds and
the associated factors (plausible predictor variables; age, parity and management
systems among others) from a total of 206 dairy cattle. Data were collected during
farm visits by observation, interviews using semi-structured questionnaires and
clinical examination of animals. The most common conditions encountered were
downer cow syndrome (12.6 %), dystocia (17.0 %), mastitis (9.5 %), metritis (7.3 %)
milk fever (13 %) and retained afterbirth (26.6 %). The overall cumulative incidence
of the periparturient conditions was 67 %. Animals with milk fever were 5 times
more likely to develop retained placenta (P=0.04) while those with a history of
having developed retained placenta in a previous parturition were at 2 times more
likely to develop retained afterbirth (P=0.05). Cows with milk fever were 9 times
more likely to develop owner cow syndrome (P <0.001) while those that were not
given supplemental feed in the last trimester were 4.8 times more likely to develop
downer cow syndrome (P=0.007). Animals that had dystocia were 3.9 times more
likely to develop metritis (P=0.02) and while those with retained placenta were 5.2
times more likely to develop metritis (P=0.03). In addition, animals with dystocia
were 10.55 times more likely to develop postpartum haemorrhage (P=0.01) and
58.9 times more likely to develop injuries to the birth canal (P<0.01). From this
study it can be concluded that downer cow syndrome, dystocia, mastitis, metritis,
milk fever and retained placenta were the most common periparturient conditions
in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu division of Kiambu district

W, K, GK G, J M, N A.  2012.  The use of participatory epidemiology to determine the Prevalence rate and economic impacts of ppr and ccpp in Turkana county of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr . (60):241–249. Abstractbahpa-2012.pdf

Participatory epidemiological Research was conducted in Turkana to identify the two most important livestock diseases, and then characterize their incidence and the economic impact. The study was carried out between 12th to 26th September 2011. Semi-structured interviews, guided by checklists were completed with groups of respondents in each of the 16 randomly selected villages (adakars) to collect
data on livestock diseases and their impact on the livelihood of the people. Simple ranking techniques,
proportional piling exercises and matrix scoring methods were used to collect data on the importance of
the diseases identified. Matrix scoring of clinical signs was used to correlate the disease terms provided by the respondents in local language with the scientific names. The research focused on Lomooh or peste des petit ruminants (PPR) and Loukoi or contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). Disease impact matrix scoring (DIMS) was used to correlate the diseases to the economic losses, while participatory mapping, time lines and seasonal calendars were used describe the spatial and seasonal distribution of the diseases. Transect drives was used to collect data on the pasture conditions. Lomooh (peste des petits ruminants) was reported to occur in outbreaks with a median morbidity of 65% and a range of 25% to 90% and a case fatality rate median and range of 95% and 75, to 100% respectively. Loukoi (CCPP) on the other hand was described to be an endemic disease known by the community for a long time and had a median morbidity rate of 50% (with range of 39 to 75% and a median and range case fatality rate of 62% and 40 to 85%, respectively). These losses led to reduced income and food insecurity at the household levels. The biggest challenge to livestock farming (which contributed to 75% of the livelihood) was recurrent drought, insecurity and diseases, with CCPP and PPR being considered as having the largest impact. Respondents indicated that these challenges have made people worse off than they were 20 and 10 years ago and more reliant on external food aid.

2011

Kairu-Wanyoike, SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D.  2011.  Eliciting willingness-to-pay and benefits of livestock vaccination in Kenya.
KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2011.  G. K. Gitau, J. K. Wabacha, S. Ndurumo and J. M. Nduhiu. Isolation rates and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bovine mastitis pathogens in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kabete, Kenya.. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal (2011) 15(1). : Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 15 (1): 1-13 Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity to commonly occurring bovine mastitis pathogens in the peri-urban area of Nairobi between 1994 and 2004. Samples were mainly drawn from the area covered by the ambulatory services of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Veterinary Clinic in Kabete, Nairobi.A total of 888 isolates were studied from bacterial cultures obtained from the bovine samples collected at the clinic. The most common microbial isolates were Streptococcus species (20.6%), Staphylococcus species (20.1%), Escherichia coli (16.8%), Klebsiella species (15.4%), Actinomyces (13.9%) and Pseudomonas species (8.3%). The study showed that sensitivity to antimicrobial agents was highest for gentamycin and kanamycin while it was moderate to low for penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, amoxicillin and penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin. The results of the study however did not show any clear trend i

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2011.  Fredrick Maloba, John M. Kagira, George Gitau, Jackson Ombui, Maina Ngotho. Astrocytosis as a biomarker for late stage human African trypanosomiasis in the vervet monkey model. Sci ParasitoI12[Z"):53-59, June 2011. : Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 15 (1): 1-13 Abstract

The late stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is charactertzed by central nervous system (CNS) involvement resulting in activation ofastrocytes. The aim of the CUITent study was to determine the relationship between the occurrence of astrocytosis and other biological markers for late stage disease in the vervet monkey model of HAT. Twelve (12) vervet monkeys were infected intravenously with 104 Trypanosoma brucei rbodesiense, and sub-curatively treated with diminazene aceturate (5 mgfkg x 3 days, intramuscularly) starting 28 days post infection (dpi) to induce advanced late stage disease. The monkeys were further curatively treated with Melarsoprol (3.6 mgfkg x 4 days. intravenously) starting 140 dpi following the hlood rei apse of trypanosornes. Brain samples were collected upon euthanasia at fortnight intervals from 42 dpi and brain sections were stained for astrocytosis, During the study, data on clinical signs, haematology, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and immunology (IL-IO, igG, and IgM) were collected fortnightly and correlated with the level of astrocytosis. The earliest time for astrocytosis detection was 42 dpi, in areas adjacent to the choroid plexus and the size and density of the astrocytes increased with time to peak at 98 dpi. Astrocytosis was WIdely distributed in the brain with predominance in the white matter. The size and density of the astrocyres regressed after curative treatment at 140 dpi to almost clear at 300 days pOSL melarsoprol treatmenL Serum parasite specific IgM and IgG had high sensitivities and were assoctated (p<O.05) with time post infection. The levels of C   IgC., CSF IgM and white cell counts highly corre

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2011.  Gitau, G.K., Wabacha, J.K., Mulei, C.M., Ndurumo, and S. J. Nduhiu. Isolation Rates and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Patterns of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Peri-Urban Area of Nairobi, Kabete, Kenya.. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal (2011) 15 (1): 1-13. : Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 15 (1): 1-13 Abstract

A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity to commonly occurring bovine mastitis pathogens in the peri-urban area of Nairobi between 1994 and 2004. Samples were mainly drawn from the area covered by the ambulatory services of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Veterinary Clinic in Kabete, Nairobi.A total of 888 isolates were studied from bacterial cultures obtained from the bovine samples collected at the clinic. The most common microbial isolates were Streptococcus species (20.6%),Staphylococcus species (20.1%), Escherichia coli (16.8%), Klebsiella species (15.4%), Actinomyces (13.9%) and Pseudomonas species (8.3%). The study showed that sensitivity to antimicrobial agents was highest for gentamycin and kanamycin while it was moderate to low for penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, amoxicillin and penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin. The results of the study however did not show any clear trend in sensitivity to antimicrobial agents over the ll-years period.

2010

Gitau, GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C.  2010.  Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya.
Maichomo, MW, Gitau GK, Gathuma JM, Ndung'u JM, Kosura WO.  2010.  The prevalence of trypanosomosis, helminthosis and tick-borne infections in agro-pastoral production system in Kenya. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess prevalence of trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, ECF and helminth infections and factors associated with them in Kajiado District, Kenya. Purposive and random selection procedures were used to identify participating pastoralists and animals from Olkilamatian and Shompole group ranches (GR). Data were gathered using questionnaires and animal screening for prevalence of infections, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Pastoralists had low level of formal education of 5.8 years and total livestock holding of 232 valued at US$11619. There was substantial breed improvement in the area. Prevalence of infections were, ECF 26.5%, anaplasmosis 61%, babesiosis 24%, trypanosomosis 4.9% and helminthosis 6.3% suggesting that these animal herds were important sources of infection to naïve and immuno-compromised animals. There is need of understanding the extensive production system and instituting appropriate management and disease control measures likely to reduce sources of infections.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2010.  George K. Gitau . Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 15 (1): 1-13 Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2009

Maichomo, MW;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Kosura WO;, Nyamwaro SO.  2009.  Comparative returns from livestock and crops among the agro-pastoralists of Magadi division, Kajiado District, Kenya. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kajiado District in August 2003 to estimate incomes from livestock and crop agricultural enterprises, and assess important factors associated with them. Purposive and random selection of pastoralists and their animals was used in order to collect data which were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and Generalized Linear Models from the households (HHs) that were all headed by men. These pastoralists were considered generally wealthy with an average livestock holding of 232 heads of livestock and annual total profit margins of Kshs 436,300 from both livestock and crops, demonstrating their complementarity and livelihood diversification for risk aversion. Cost of inputs and value of income were significantly associated with profit from either crop or livestock production enterprises. This study revealed that livestock production still remained the major source of livelihood in Kajiado District compared to crop production. While reducing cost of livestock and crop production could increase profit for the large and small scale pastoralists respectively, complementarity of crop and livestock production could be exploited by medium scale pastoralists to harness existing opportunities for significant wealth generation and achieve food security.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2009.  Maichomo M W, Kosura, W.O., Gathuma J M, Gitau G K, Ndung. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Journal of South African Veterinary Association Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2009.  1. Gitau G.K. et al. Dryland Livestock Wildlife Environment Interface Project: Experiences and lessons learnt from Livestock-Wildlife Environment Interface Management in Kenya and Burkina Faso. www.gefweb.org/uploadedFiles/Focal_Areas/Land.../livestock-wi. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : /Land.../livestock-wildlife Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2009.  3. Maichomo, M. W., Gitau, G. K., Gathuma, J. M., Ndung. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2008

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2008.  5. Njanja J C, Gathuma J M, Gitau G K, Njeruh F M, Ngugi R. K. Measures of Health and Production in Preweaned Kids in Pastoral Herds in Northern Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa (2008) 56: 78-89. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2008.  6. Maichomo M W, Gitau G K, Gathuma J M, Ndung. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : . Livestock Research for Rural Development Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2006

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2006.  7. E.G. Kiarie, L.W. Kabuage, G.K. Gitau, J.W. Wakhungu, J. Githure and C.M. Mutero. Description of livestock and their role in Mwea irrigation scheme. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa (2006) 54: 110-117.. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2005

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2005.  8. Karimi S.K., G.K. Gitau, J.J. McDermott, R.N. Kinuthia, J.M. Gathuma. Estimation of birth weight of Maasai Zebu calves and their crosses with Sahiwal and Boran in Kajiado District, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa (2005) 53: 35. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2004

Döpfer, D, Ersbøll AK, Evans R, Gettinby G, Gitau GK.  2004.  Publisher's Acknowledgement.
KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2004.  9. C.M. Mutero, C. Kabutha, V. Kimani, L. Kabuage, G. Gitau, J. Ssennyonga, J. Githure, L. Muthami, A. Kaida, L. Musyoka, E. Kiarie and M. Oganda. A transdisciplinary perspective of the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya. Acta Tropica (2004. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Acta Tropica Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2003

Diaz, CM;, Massawe SC;, Clemence A;, Gitau GK;, Kiara HK;, Muraguri GR;, O'Callaghan CJ;, Perry BD.  2003.  Risk mapping of East Coast fever in coastal and highland regions of Kenya based on predicted mortality and morbidity incidences. Abstract

This paper proposes risk mapping as a tool for interpolating epidemiological data from intensively surveyed local sites to make conclusions over a larger area. Two ECF risk models were built using morbidity and mortality incidence data from the coastal and the central highlands of Kenya as dependent variables. It is concluded that the available data were not adequate to predict accurately mortality and morbidity of ECF. The main problem with the approach was its inability to capture the biophysical variability when the original data were distributed into grid-cells for spatial analysis.

Karimi, SK;, McDermott JJ;, Gitau GK;, Gathuma JM;, Kinuthia RN.  2003.  Risk factors for sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases of calves in Maasai pastoral herds in Kajiado District, Kenya. Abstract

Risk factors for sero-prevalence of Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina were investigated in 729 calves from Maasai herds in Kajiado District, Kenya. Study herds were selected using a multistage sampling method. Serum antibodies were estimated using an indirect Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay and expressed as a percent positivity. The objective was to identify risk factors associated with sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases in Maasai pastoral systems in Kajiado District. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors varied between and within agro-climatic zones, group ranches and farms. Thus, targeted rather than blanket immunization of calves and other tick control should be conducted, with targeting being done at agro-climatic, group ranch and farm levels

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2003.  11. G. K. Gitau, M. Waridi, H. A. Makame, M. M. Saleh, R. A. Muhamed, A.P. Mkola and M. A. Haji. Occurrence of high udder infection rates in dairy cows in Ungunja Island of Zanzibar, Tanzania. The Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine (2003) . Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : The Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2002

Kiarie, E, G;, Kabuage LW;, Wakhungu JW;, Gitau GK;, Githure J;, Mutero CM.  2002.  A description of livestock and their role in Mwea irrigation scheme..
KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2002.  12. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott and B.D. Perry. Factors associated with Theileria parva infections in smallholder dairy farms in Murang. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Bulletin for Animal Health and Production in Africa Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2002.  13. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott and B.D. Perry. Constraints to dairy heifer calf rearing in smallholder dairy farms in Murang. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : The Kenya Veterinarian Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2001

Mutero, C;, Githure J;, Kabutha C;, Kimani V;, Kabuage L;, Gitau G;, Ssennyonga J;, Muthami L.  2001.  Agro-ecosystem Management for Malaria Control..
KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2001.  14. J. N. Kariuki, S. Tamminga, C.K. Gachuiri, G. K. Gitau, and J. M. K. Muia. Intake, DM degradation and rumen fermentation as affected by varying levels of desmodium and sweet potato vines in napier grass fed to cattle. South African Journal of Animal S. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : South African Journal of Animal Science Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2001.  15. A.G. Thaiyah, G.K. Gitau and Mugambi. Outbreaks of bovine rabies in Kiambu District, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian (2001) 24: 1-2.. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : The Kenya Veterinarian Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2001.  16. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott, B. McDermott and B.D. Perry. The impact of Theileria parva infections and other factors on calf mean daily weight gains in smallholder dairy farms in Murang. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Preventive Veterinary Medicine Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

2000

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2000.  18. G.K Gitau, J.J., McDermott, B.D., Perry and J.M. Katende. The Epidemiology of Theileria parva infections on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya. Tropical Veterinary Diseases, control and prevention in the context of the new world order. Annals of the New. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA, PROFGITAUGEORGE.  2000.  17. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott, J.M. Katende, C.J. O. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. : Epidemiology and Infection Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

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