Bio

PROF. KIHURANI DAVID O.

Prof. David O. Kihurani, a veterinarian, has PhD, MSc and Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine degrees from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. He began his career as an Assistant Lecturer in 1984 at the Clinical Studies Department, University of Nairobi, rising through the ranks to become an Associate Professor in 2004, a position he still holds. While there he has taught subjects in Clinical Veterinary Surgery to undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as supervising degrees by the latter.

Publications


2009

Kihurani, DO, Carstens A, Saulez MN, Donnellan CM.  2009.  Transcutaneous ultrasonographic evaluation of the air-filled equine stomach and duodenum following gastroscopy.. Abstract

Gastroscopy with air insufflation was performed in 10 ponies, after which a transcutaneous ultrasound examination of the stomach and duodenum was performed immediately and at 1, 2, and 4 h postgastroscopy, and 24 h after feeding. Stomach measurements included the dorsoventral and craniocaudal dimensions, as well as the stomach depth from the skin surface and stomach wall thickness at the different time periods. Gastric wall folding was observed in one pony, becoming most distinct 2-4 h postgastroscopy. An undulating stomach wall was noted in eight other ponies postgastroscopy. These observations appeared to be a response to the deflation of the stomach as the insufflated air was released gradually. Gas was detected in the duodenum after the gastroscopy. The parameters measured were noted to be useful to evaluate the extent of stomach distension due to air or feed. The ultrasonographic appearance of the stomach can, therefore, be altered by gastroscopy and this should be borne in mind when examining horses with suspected gastric disease.

2006

Ndurumo, MS;, Mande JD;, Kihurani D;, Abuom TO.  2006.  Antidrool Cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery Of The Canine Lip. Poster Presentation..

2004

O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2004.  Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M. and Masake, R.A. (2004): Skin reactions in horses infected with Trypanosoma congolense.. Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Eight horses exposed to both Trypanosoma congolense- infected and non-infected tsetse flies ( Glossina pallidipes) were examined daily for a period of 12 weeks. Three types of skin reactions were observed. These included local inflammatory skin reactions, which developed 1-2 days after the tsetse bites, and were evident in 5 infected horses and one uninfected. As these initial swellings regressed, further skin reactions (chancres) developed in the 6 horses bitten by T. congolense infected tsetse. The chancres were observed 6-12 days post-infection. In addition, 3 infected horses developed a third type of skin reaction, namely urticaria, on days 51, 67 and 71 post-infection. Histological examination was done of skin biopsies taken from all three types of skin reactions and they revealed different cell types. These were predominantly neutrophils in the initial skin reactions, lymphocytes in the chancres, and eosinophils in the urticaria. The skin lesions observed in the T. congolense infected horse have not been well documented elsewhere, particularly with regard to the histological picture. The first two lesions also occur early in the course of infection, while all three are of brief duration, hence are often missed.

2001

O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2001.  Kihurani, D.O. and Schusser, G. (2001): The use of Ultrasound in distinguishing complications of the Jugular vein arising from intravenous catheters and injections in horses. The Kenya Veterinarian, 21; 16-19.. Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
The ultrasound technique was used to provide both structural and functional information concerning the integrity of the jugular vein, following intravenous infusions and injections. These were performed in the routine administration of antibiotics and fluids for the treatment of horses, mainly suffering from colic. The complications noted during examination included peri-phlebitis, thrombo-phlebitis and peri-venous abscesses of varying sizes at the injection site, and sometimes affecting most of the jugular vein. The different lesions, which often could not be differentiated clinically, were clearly evident using ultrasonography. In addition, the integrity of the venous blood flow could be determined, particularly in cases of thrombo-phlebitis where partial or complete occlusion of the vein occurred. When noted early, using ultrasonography, exacerbation of the thrombus could be prevented by avoiding repeated intravenous injections or by the removal of indwelling catheters.
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2001.  Kihurani, D.O. (2001): Computer tomography: a novel diagnostic technique used in horses. The Kenya Veterinarian, 21; 32-33.. Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
In Veterinary Medicine, Computer Tomography (CT scan) is used more often in dogs and cats than in large animals due to their small size and ease of manipulation. This paper, however, illustrates the use of the technique in horses. CT scan was used in the diagnosis of two conditions of the head and limbs, namely Alveolar periostitis and Navicular disease. The advantages of the technique are evident in the clarity with which the lesions are seen, as well as the precise identification of the affected tooth or bone.
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2001.  Kihurani, D.O. (2001): Economics of early diagnosis of camel trypanosomiasis using Suratex. Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2001.  Ndeereh, D.R., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Kihurani, D.O. (2001): The reversal of xylazine hydrochloride by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in goats. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 72 (2): 64-67.. Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2001.  Mogoa, E.G.M., Mbithi, P.M.F., Nguhiu, J.M. and Kihurani, D.O. (2001):Alpha-2-Adrenoceptor agonists in Veterinary practice. The Kenya Veterinarian, 22: 82-90.. Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.

2000

O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2000.  Kihurani, D.O. (2000): Suratex. Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2000.  Ndeereh, D.R., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Kihurani, D.O. (2000): The evaluation of 4-Aminopyridine for the reversal of Xylazine sedation in goats. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 55 (1): 23-26.. Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  2000.  Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R.A., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (2000): Characterization of trypanosome isolates from naturally infected horses on a farm in Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology, 89: 173-185.. Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People

1994

O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1994.  Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M., Mbiuki, S.M., Mogoa, E., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A. and Mbithi, P.M.F. (1994): Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 26 (2); 95-101.. Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1994.  Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1994): Characterization of Trypanosoma congolense, parasites isolated from horses on the Del Monte Farm in Thika. ILRAD 1993: Annual Scientific Report of the International Laboratory for Researc. Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People

1993

O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1993.  Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1993):Epidemiology and diagnosis of Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei infections in horses on the Del Monte farm in Thika. ILRAD 1992: Annual Scientific Report of . Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1993.  Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M., Mbiuki, S.M. and Masake, R. (1993): Diagnosis and treatment of Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.. Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).

1991

O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1991.  Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. Mbiuki, S.M. and Mogoa,E.G.M. (1991): Factors used to predict prognosis and economic outcome of surgery for advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39. Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1991.  Mbithi, P.M.F., Mbiuki, S.M., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., and Kihurani, D.O. (1991):Non fracture lameness in cattle: A retrospective study. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39;307-309.. Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).

1990

Mbithi, PMF;, Mbiuki SM;, Nguhiu Mwangi JA;, Mogoa EG;, Kihurani DO.  1990.  Lameness in cattle in Kenya..
Kihurani, DO, Mbiuki SM, Ngatia TA.  1990.  The recovery of wounds by dehorning.
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1990.  Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1990): Prognosis indicators and economic implications of advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery, The Kenya Veterinarian, 14:23-25.. Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1990.  Kihurani, D.O. (1990): Surgical conditions of the urinary tract in cattle. The Kenya Veterinarian, 14:5-6.. Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).

1989

O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1989.  Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., Gathumbi, P.K., Kihurani, D.O., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1989): Atypical (cutaneous) Actinobacillosis in cattle: Clinical observations, diagnosis and treatment in eighteen cases. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Afr. Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1989.  Kihurani, D.O., Mbiuki, S.M. and Ngatia, T.A. (1989): Healing of dehorning wounds. British Veterinary Journal, 145;580-585. Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O., PROFKIHURANIDAVID.  1989.  Kihurani, D.O., Ngatia, T.A. and Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A. (1989): Anorectal squamous cell carcinoma in a cow and incidence of bovine intestinal tumours in Kabete, Kenya.. Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Special issue. p. 103-105.. : Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds

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