Bio

DR. OGARA WILLIAM O

Prof Ogara is an Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology. He got his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) in 1981 and PhD in 1985 from Moscow Academy of Veterinary Sciences. He joined the Department in 1989 as a Lecturer and rose through the ranks to attain his current position in 2012. He served as chairman of department for 6 years between 2005 and 2010.  Prior to his appointment as chairman, he was coordinator of the meat inspection course offered in the department.

Publications


Submitted

O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya. Journal. : Livestock Research for Rural Development Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Factors Influencing Adoption of Dairy Goats in Meru County, Kenya: Prospects And Constraints. Journal. : Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Challenges of camel production in Samburu District, Kenya. Journal. : Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010) 01-05
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Community- And Road-Kill Rabies Surveillance In Kibwezi, Kenya. Conference. : Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association (JCVA) Abstract
JG Kamau1, WO Ogara1, JJ McDermott2, PM Kitala*   1 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya * Corresponding Author   Summary   We investigate the possibility of cross-infection by rabies between domestic animals and wild mammalian carnivores at a wild-domestic animal interface. The area was known to have a domestic-dog rabies but the involvement of wildlife was unknown. Four sublocations within a transect of approximately 20 km along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway were selected as the study area. A total of 202 households within the area were randomly selected and visited to collect information on wildlife abundance and habits, and for wild-life-domestic dog interactions. Forty of the 202 households were randomly selected for wildlife trapping. An eight-month long community-and road-kill-based rabies surveillance was implemented in the 4 sublocations. The white-tailed mongoose (Ischeumia albicauda), the genet cat (Genetta genetta), the common mongoose (Herpestes spp), the civet cat (Viverra civetta) and the bush squirrel (Paraxerus spp), were identified as the most prevalent species of wildlife in the area. Seventy-one percent (143/202) of the households reported having heard or witnessed their dogs fighting with unspecified wild animal species. White-tailed mongooses (11) and genet cats (11) were the species of wild carnivores trapped within the precincts of the households. The domestic dog accounted for 91% (20/22) of the rabies positive animal brain specimens collected in the community-based rabies surveillance. Only 6.2% (5/81) of the specimens from road-kills were positive for rabies including a domestic cat, a goat, a common mongoose (Herpestes spp), a genet cat, and an unidentified wildlife species.   This study has revealed that small wild carnivores are frequent in Kibwezi and interact with dogs. Dogs are currently the main species for transmission of rabies but there is some rabies in wildlife. The potential for wildlife to act as a reservoir for rabies as in other areas where dog rabies has been controlled needs further investigation.   Keywords: Rabies; Surveillance; Community-based; road-kills; Kenya  
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG. Journal. : EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA. Journal. : Ecological Society for Eastern Africa
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya. Journal. : African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples. Journal. : African Journal of Microbiology Research
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES. Journal. : Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya. Journal. : Livestock Research for Rural Development Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Institutional and organisational requirements for implementing the Livestock Identification and Traceability System in Kenya. Journal. : Livestock Research for Rural Development Abstract
G O Matete, J M Gathuma, G Muchemi, W Ogara, N Maingi, W Maritim* and B Moenga* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya   Abstract Livestock Identification and Traceability Systems (LITS) contribute to reduction, control or eliminated safety scares that result from transbounadry diseases outbreaks.  Recent studies on LITS in Kenya have been focused on testing  innovative technology, information and traceability system management, and examining the determinants for effective implementation. This paper analyzes the strengths and limitations of the operating a LITS institutional and organisational mechanisms in Kenya.   The result revealed that a disarticulated intitutional and organisational environment was the main constraint to effective implementation of LITS.  It proposes that for successful implemenation, a regional approach covering multiple countries, substantial private sector involvement and intensive stakeholder education are essential. Keywords: Institutional and organisational mechanisms, livestock identification, traceability  
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Knowledge Management & Institutional Framework: Kenyan Veterinary Services. Journal. : Journal of Knowledge Management Practice
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG. Journal. : EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA. Journal. : Ecological Society for Eastern Africa
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Challenges of camel production in Samburu District, Kenya. Journal. : Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010) 01-05
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Long-term performance of electronic identification devices and model traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems of Kenya. Journal. : Livestock Research for Rural Development Abstract
G O Matete*, W Maritim**, G Muchemi**, N Maingi***, J M Gathuma* and W Ogara* * Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com** Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya*** Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract The readability of two different types of electronic identifiers (EID) were evaluated under pastoral production system in North-Eastern Kenya.  Physical verification and reading was done at day 0, and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months respectively on a total of 1943 beef cattle of which 934 were tagged using ear button tags and 1009 with rumen boluses.  The retention rates were recorded and readability determined using a hand-held reader and subsequently compared using a non parametric survival analysis.   The results showed that, rumen boluses were more effective with retention and readability of 100% after the one-year period.  The retention rate for ear button tags deteriorated after day 120 to 94.6%.  This implied that rumen boluses are safe and tamper-proof and are thus recommended for use in pastoral production systems. When tested within the model Livestock Identification and Traceability System (LITS), the use of RFID identifiers were able to substantially contribute to better record keeping, and proof of credible livestock certification. However, due to cost considerations, undertaking a benefit-cost analysis and provisional analysis of the institutional and organisational infrastructure may be critical for successful implementation. Keywords: livestock identification, radio frequency identification devices, traceability system
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Factors Influencing Adoption of Dairy Goats in Meru County, Kenya: Prospects And Constraints. Journal. : Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya. Journal. : Livestock Research for Rural Development Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Institutional and organisational requirements for implementing the Livestock Identification and Traceability System in Kenya. Journal. : Livestock Research for Rural Development Abstract
G O Matete, J M Gathuma, G Muchemi, W Ogara, N Maingi, W Maritim* and B Moenga* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya   Abstract Livestock Identification and Traceability Systems (LITS) contribute to reduction, control or eliminated safety scares that result from transbounadry diseases outbreaks.  Recent studies on LITS in Kenya have been focused on testing  innovative technology, information and traceability system management, and examining the determinants for effective implementation. This paper analyzes the strengths and limitations of the operating a LITS institutional and organisational mechanisms in Kenya.   The result revealed that a disarticulated intitutional and organisational environment was the main constraint to effective implementation of LITS.  It proposes that for successful implemenation, a regional approach covering multiple countries, substantial private sector involvement and intensive stakeholder education are essential. Keywords: Institutional and organisational mechanisms, livestock identification, traceability  
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya. Journal. : African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Knowledge Management & Institutional Framework: Kenyan Veterinary Services. Journal. : Journal of Knowledge Management Practice
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples. Journal. : African Journal of Microbiology Research
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples. Journal. : African Journal of Microbiology Research
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  Community- And Road-Kill Rabies Surveillance In Kibwezi, Kenya. Conference. : Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association (JCVA) Abstract
JG Kamau1, WO Ogara1, JJ McDermott2, PM Kitala*   1 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 29053 00625, Nairobi, Kenya 2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya * Corresponding Author   Summary   We investigate the possibility of cross-infection by rabies between domestic animals and wild mammalian carnivores at a wild-domestic animal interface. The area was known to have a domestic-dog rabies but the involvement of wildlife was unknown. Four sublocations within a transect of approximately 20 km along the Nairobi-Mombasa highway were selected as the study area. A total of 202 households within the area were randomly selected and visited to collect information on wildlife abundance and habits, and for wild-life-domestic dog interactions. Forty of the 202 households were randomly selected for wildlife trapping. An eight-month long community-and road-kill-based rabies surveillance was implemented in the 4 sublocations. The white-tailed mongoose (Ischeumia albicauda), the genet cat (Genetta genetta), the common mongoose (Herpestes spp), the civet cat (Viverra civetta) and the bush squirrel (Paraxerus spp), were identified as the most prevalent species of wildlife in the area. Seventy-one percent (143/202) of the households reported having heard or witnessed their dogs fighting with unspecified wild animal species. White-tailed mongooses (11) and genet cats (11) were the species of wild carnivores trapped within the precincts of the households. The domestic dog accounted for 91% (20/22) of the rabies positive animal brain specimens collected in the community-based rabies surveillance. Only 6.2% (5/81) of the specimens from road-kills were positive for rabies including a domestic cat, a goat, a common mongoose (Herpestes spp), a genet cat, and an unidentified wildlife species.   This study has revealed that small wild carnivores are frequent in Kibwezi and interact with dogs. Dogs are currently the main species for transmission of rabies but there is some rabies in wildlife. The potential for wildlife to act as a reservoir for rabies as in other areas where dog rabies has been controlled needs further investigation.   Keywords: Rabies; Surveillance; Community-based; road-kills; Kenya  
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  Submitted.  TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER - THE IMPERATIVES AND PRACTICES. Journal. : Journal of the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa Abstract
Wycliffe Omanya, Development Communication Consultant womanya@gmail.com & Dr. William O. Ogara, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi wogara@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract:   This paper seeks to explore tacit knowledge in the light of knowledge transfer. Specifically it looks at the technique of mentoring as a process through which this highly personalized knowledge can be replicated in any organisation. It also introduces knowledge acquisition process as innate and broadly presents various existing models of tacit knowledge transfer. In addition, it explores the significance of mentoring to all key actors in the process of knowledge transfer while also providing some case scenarios in which this strategy has been successfully used to ensure competitive advantage based on developed long standing knowledge.   Key words: Knowledge management, Tacit Knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, mentoring, transfer models.

2014

Owange, NO, Ogara WO, Peter GB, Okuthe S, Mbabu M.  2014.  Occurrence of rift valley fever in cattle in Ijara district, Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 117:121-128.abstract.pdf

2013

Lily, B, Portas O, William O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A.  2013.  Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

2012

2011

Ogara, WO, Schelling E, Arimi SM, Dewey CE, Mutua FK.  2011.  Prediction of live body weight using length and girth measurements for pigs in rural Western Kenya. Abstract

To develop and validate a pig weight-estimation method using body length and girth measurements. Methods: In a random sample of 288 smallholder pig farms in Western Kenya, pigs were weighed (kg) and their lengths and girths were measured (cm). Prediction models were generated using 75% of the data and validated using the remaining 25%. Weight was regressed on length and girth using mixed model analysis after controlling for village as a random effect. Models were developed for pigs categorized as young (? 5 months), market age (5.1 months to 9.9 months), and breeding age (? 10 months). Results: Weights (mean ± SD) of the young, market-age, and breeding-age pigs were 12 ± 6.1 kg, 30 ± 11.4 kg, and 42 ± 17.0 kg, respectively. Models for the young, market-age, and breeding-age pigs were weight = 0.18 (length) + 0.36 (girth) – 16, weight = 0.39 (length) + 0.64 (girth) – 48, and weight = 0.36 (length) + 1.02 (girth) – 74, respectively. A single prediction model for weight = 0.25 (length) + 0.56 (girth) – 32 was also developed. Weight predicted by the models was a more accurate estimate than that provided by the farmers (P < .05). Length and girth explained 88% to 91% of the total variation in weight. Implications: The weight-estimation tool will empower Kenyan farmers to have better bargaining powers when they sell their pigs and will act as an incentive to better manage their pigs through improved feeding and husbandry.

2010

  2010.  Assessing the productivity of indigenous chickens in an extensive management system in southern Nyanza, Kenya. Abstract

The present study was conducted to assess the performance of indigenous chickens under exten¬sive system in southern Nyanza, Kenya. The study was carried out in two phases in Komolorume and Kawere villages in Rongo and Rachuonyo districts, respective¬ly. The first phase was a cross-sectional study in 81 farms selected by cluster sampling to get the overview of the indigenous chicken production. A four-month prospective longitudinal study in 60 farms randomly selected from the previous 81 farms followed. Mean flock sizes per household were 20 and 18 birds in Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. Overall mean flock size was 19 birds ranging from 1 to 64. The mean clutch size, egg weight and hatchability were 12 eggs, 48 g and 81 % respectively in Komolorume and 10 eggs, 45 g and 70%, respectively, in Kawere. The chick survival rates to the age of eight weeks were 13 % and 10% in Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. Mean live weights for cocks and hens were 2096 g and 1599 g in Komolorume and 2071 g and 1482 g in Kawere, respectively. The mean household cock to hen ratio was 2:5 and 2:4 for Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. The mean chick to grower to adult ratio per household was 8: 6:6 in Komolorume and 8:4:6 in Kawere, Clutch sizes and hatchability rates were significantly higher in Komolorume village (P<0.5). The productivity of the indigenous chickens was shown to be low compared to that of the improved chickens in other parts of the world.

O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  2010.  Farmer Perceptions on Indigenous Pig Farming in Kakamega District, Western Kenya. Journal. : Nordic Journal of African Studies Abstract
Florence MUTUA International Livestock Institute (ILRI), University of Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel ARIMI and William OGARA University of Nairobi, Kenya, Cate DEWEY University of Guelph, Canada & Esther SCHELLING International Livestock Institute (ILRI), Swiss Tropical Institute, Switzerland   Objectives for this paper were to study farmer beliefs and perceptions on local pig farming practices; and to explore opportunities for improved located production in selected villages of Western Kenya. The paper seeks to understand why the local pig breed still remains the predominant breed in these areas despite numerous calls to introduce better exotic breeds. Most pigs in Kenya are of exotic breeds, intensively managed on commercial farms. Focus group discussions were used to gather data. Discussions were taped, transcribed and translated from Swahili to English. Farmers use pigs to guard homes at night, pigs also act as a charm to protect families against evil spirits. Women farmers manage the family pigs, men sell the pigs. Farmers identified feeding, marketing, and breeding as the main challenges affecting the sector. The discussions identified a number of opportunities for improved production, and likely strengthened the bond between the farmers, researchers and staff. This created an outlook that can now be used in further public engagement as ongoing research studies on appropriate feed, health and improvement of market access are being analysed. Keywords: Western Kenya, pig farming, focus group discussions, farmer perceptions.
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  2010.  Farmer Perceptions on Indigenous Pig Farming in Kakamega District, Western Kenya. Journal. : Nordic Journal of African Studies Abstract
Florence MUTUA International Livestock Institute (ILRI), University of Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel ARIMI and William OGARA University of Nairobi, Kenya, Cate DEWEY University of Guelph, Canada & Esther SCHELLING International Livestock Institute (ILRI), Swiss Tropical Institute, Switzerland   Objectives for this paper were to study farmer beliefs and perceptions on local pig farming practices; and to explore opportunities for improved located production in selected villages of Western Kenya. The paper seeks to understand why the local pig breed still remains the predominant breed in these areas despite numerous calls to introduce better exotic breeds. Most pigs in Kenya are of exotic breeds, intensively managed on commercial farms. Focus group discussions were used to gather data. Discussions were taped, transcribed and translated from Swahili to English. Farmers use pigs to guard homes at night, pigs also act as a charm to protect families against evil spirits. Women farmers manage the family pigs, men sell the pigs. Farmers identified feeding, marketing, and breeding as the main challenges affecting the sector. The discussions identified a number of opportunities for improved production, and likely strengthened the bond between the farmers, researchers and staff. This created an outlook that can now be used in further public engagement as ongoing research studies on appropriate feed, health and improvement of market access are being analysed. Keywords: Western Kenya, pig farming, focus group discussions, farmer perceptions.

2009

O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  2009.  Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya. Journal. : The Kenya Veterinarian
O, DROGARAWILLIAM.  2009.  Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya. Journal. : The Kenya Veterinarian

2008

Nanyingi, MO;, Mbaria JM;, Gakuya G;, Koros DW;, Ogara WO;, Wagate C.  2008.  Pharmacoepidemiology And Bioprospecting Of Herbal Medicines In Three Districts In Kenya.
Nanyingi, MO;, Mbaria JM;, Okello RO;, Wagate CG, Lanyasunya AL;, Koros KB;, Oguna MM;, Ogara WO.  2008.  Evaluation Of Resistance Development To Three Anthelmintics And Efficacy Of Plant Extracts Against N.
Nanyingi, Mark, O;, Mbaria JM;, Lanyasunya AL;, Cyrus G;, Cyrus W;G, Kipsengeret K;B, Ogara W.  2008.  Drug Discovery And Biodiversity Conservation In Samburu, Kenya..

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