Bio

Dr. Wellington Ekaya

He is the Training & Quality Assurance Manager, Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM), Received  PhD IN dryland Ecology in  1999, University of Nairobi  , MSc    and BSc in Range management  in  1993 and 1989 respectively from   Department of Range Managment , University of Nairobi

Publications


Submitted

2012

Elhadi, Y;A, Nyariki DM, Wasonga VO, Ekaya WN.  2012.  Fundamentals of sociology of Education African Perspective. Abstract

This study was carried out in Baringo District of Kenya to determine poverty among sedentary and semi-nomadic pastoral households. Results indicate that the sedentary agro-pastoralists tend to diversify their sources of income more than semi-nomadic pastoralists. Poverty and income inequality levels were found to be higher during the dry season than the wet season. Lorenz curves demonstrated significant income gap between the rich and the poor during the dry season than the wet season. The findings demonstrate that poverty indicators in the study area vary with respect to seasonal climatic variability. Despite relying on relatively degraded environment, sedentary agro-pastoralists were found to be almost twice wealthier than the semi-nomadic pastoralists. This is explained by the higher contribution of the climate-proof economic activities pursued by sedentary agro-pastoralists than their semi-nomadic counterparts. Diversification of livelihood activities through pursuance of off-farm activities is, therefore, imperative in unpredictable environments to ensure income and food security of pastoral households.

2011

Macharia, PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG.  2011.  The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Mganga, KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, Mwang'ombe AW, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J.  2011.  Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya. AbstractWebsite

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

2010

Koech, OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Choge SK;, Ekaya NW.  2010.  The importance of trees and shrubs as livestock feed in the arid and semi arid rangelands of Kenya: Case of Prosopis juliflora in Baringo district. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the potential of integrating Prosopis juliflora in drylands livestock production where the tree is abundant and has been reported by the community to be a menace to their livelihoods. Despite these allegations, the tree has great potential as a source of livestock feed among other many uses that has not been fully exploited. The overall aim of this study was therefore, to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis juliflora seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing the goats with Prosopis juliflora through cost benefit analysis and find out the optimum supplementation level for improved performance. The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were; No P. juliflora (0PJP), 100 g/goat/day P. juliflora (100PJP), 200 g/goat/day P. juliflora (200PJP), 400g/goat/day P. juliflora (400PJP). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective diets in the morning before mixed species range grass hay was offered as basal diet. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and weight gains calculated as previous week’s weight and current week’s weight. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control group throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, this was not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week up to the tenth week, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in the growth rates for the treatments except for the control group. Overall, treatment 200Pjp exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96kg), followed by 400Pjp (2.70kg). Group 0Pjp lost weight by the end of the experiment (-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with 200g/ goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. The 100PJP was also cost effective but at a lower level BCR 0f 1.47. Treatment 400Pjp was not cost effective with BCR of 0.57, which is less than 1. It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum improves productivity.

Koech, OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W.  2010.  Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Mganga, KZ, Msimba NKR;, Nyangito, Moses M, Nyariki D, Mwang'ombe AW, Ekaya W, Muiru W, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Vergahen J.  2010.  The role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches of a Semi-Arid environment in Kenya.. Abstract

This study investigated the role of moisture in the successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid land, of Kenya and the primary productivity of three perennial rangelands grasses namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail), Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) and Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) at three phenological stages (early growth, elongation and reproduction) as pure stands and two-grass mixtures. The grasses were sown on either rainfed (Sites 1 and 2) or simulated rainfall conditions (site 3). Site preparation ill all the 3 sites involved mechanical bush clearing, use of fire and creation of micro-catchments using an ox-drawn plough. Soils in site 3 were sanely clay loams and those in sites 1 and 2 were sandv clavs. There was total failure in establishment ,./ ..I :' • sites 1 and 2 under natural rainfall. Site 3 had good germination and subsequent establishment These results were attributed to the moisture conditions in the three sites. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in primary production of the three grasses at the different phenological stages. Cenchrus ciliaris was the most productive among the three grasses at the reproduction stage. Eragrostis superba and Enteropogon macrostachyus were ranked second and third respectively. Enterapogan macrostachyus was more prolific at the early growth stages. Results from this study strongly suggest that moisture is the most important ecological factor necessary for successful rehabilitation of denuded patches in semi-arid environments of Kenya and that differences in primary production among the three grass species can be attributed to their growth. morphological and physiological characteristics and competitive advantage.

2009

2008

2007

2006

Mnene, WN;, Ekaya WN;, Kinyamario JI;, Hanson J.  2006.  Effect of method of harvesting, storage container type and duration on seed germination of four rangeland grasses. Abstract

The study tested 2 techniques of harvesting pasture grass seed (hand stripping and cutting with stalks), 4 storage containers (Aluminium tins, Polythene, Cotton cloth and brown paper bags), and 10 post harvest periods of storage (0-72 weeks) of four species seed lots harvested in two different seasons during 2001-2002 at Kiboko, Kenya. The species were C. roxburghiana, C. ciliaris, E. superba and E. macrostachyus and seeds were stored from 0 to 72 weeks post harvest. The Germination (percentage) test using caryopses extracted with sandpaper and placed in covered Petri dishes lined with moist filter paper was used for duration of 14 days. The overall mean daily germination (percentage) was 3.61+ 0.060, ranging from 2.5percentage for C. ciliaris to 6.4percentage for E. macrostachyus. Harvesting by cutting with stalks resulted in superior seeds than by stripping them. Seeds stored in aluminium tins germinated better than those in plastic, cloth or brown paper bags. Seeds stored for less than eight weeks had lower germination percentage which then increased with storage.

2005

Macharia, PN;, Ekaya WN.  2005.  Vegetation degradation and its influence on rangeland of condition and trend in semi-arid Mashuru division, Kajiado district, Kenya :oil. Abstract

Rangeland condition and trend in Mashuru s. .DivIsion of Kajiado District in Kenya has been deteriorating in terms of grazing capacity due to degradation of vegetation resources. Therefore a research study was conducted in 2001/2 with the objective of analyzing the types of vegetation degradation, their causes and their influence on rangeland condition and trend. The results ofthe qualitative study showed that excessive use of the woody species by humans for woodfuel, building and fencing materials, medicine and ornamentals had led ,I I to vegetation degradation due to loss of cover, change in plant composition and biodiversity. On the other hand, overgrazing and ecological succession of the grazing ]ands had led to bush encroachment and thickening. These types of vegetation degradation have had an overall effect of loss of grass cover and hence loss of grazing capacity for livestock, especially cattle. The causes of vegetation decrease or increase over the last 30 years have been due to deforestation (trees and shrubs), bush encroachment and thickening, change in plant species composition and natural calamities such as droughts, wild fires and armyworm invasions at various times. The overall results indicated that there has been a downward trend in range condition over the last 30 years which had affected livestock productivity. There is need therefore, for concerted efforts to be made to reverse or halt further vegetation degradation in the area through the participation of the local people, governmental and non-governmental organizations presently involved in rehabilitation and conservation of vegetation resources in the area.

Ekaya, WN.  2005.  The shift from mobile pastoralism to sedentary crop-livestock farming in the drylands of eastern Africa: Some issues and challenges for researc. Abstract

The Drylands of Eastern Africa have been home to many mobile/nomadic pastoral communities for centuries. These communities traversed large areas in search of pasture and water for their livestock. The objective of their livelihood system was subsistence based on milk. However, within the past one third of a century or so, there has been a sharp shift towards sedenta ry type of production and livelihood system. This shift has been caused by, inter alia , economic, political, demographic and environmental changes. Prolonged droughts, population growth, expanding crop agriculture, political insecurities including civil wars and et hnic conflicts, and conservation policies have all affected the ability of mobile pastoralists to keep their large herds, move freel y across the drylands and rely on mobile pastoralism as a livelihood system. As a consequence, crop agriculture is becoming increasingly common, and sometimes necessary subsistence strategy, albeit one that is considered a poor choice to animal husbandry particula rly since the drylands they occupy are uniquely suited to rearing of livestock. Still the majority of pastoral households in Easte rn Africa remain committed to raising livestock even as they adapt to a sedentary life and crop cultivation. Research on sedenterization of mobile pastoralists in this region has mainly been anthropological in nature. Published studies have addressed consequences an d impacts of sedenterization in terms of direct impact on immediate environment, human health and general welfare changes, social order within the household and community, and participation in the mainstream national economy. Hardly any research has been conducted to investigate the key parameters, characteristics and impacts of the crop-livestock production/livelihood system tha t emerges from mobile pastoralists who settle and take up crop agriculture in combination with livestock keeping, albeit at a red uced scale. This paper argues that crop-livestock systems by formerly mobile pastoralists in the drylands present issues and challe nges directly related to environmental quality, food security, natural resource management, human welfare and ultimately the Millenn ium Development Goals. This forms a priority research axis for Eastern Africa’s drylands

Wellington, N; Ekaya, Joseph; Gathuma M, Boniface; Makau F;, Dickson, M; Nyariki.  2005.  Guidelines For Emergency Livestock Off -take Handbook. AbstractWebsite

Kenya’s agricultural sector accounts for 20–30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Of this, the livestock sector alone makes a contribution of about 50%. Thus, livestock contributes heavily to the GDP and food security of its population. It also provides the necessary thrust for other forms of development in the country. Recent statistics indicate that currently over 50% of the country’s livestock population is based in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), which form about 80% of the country’s land area. However, comparative international statistics show that livestock contributes 88% of the total agricultural output in Botswana even though the country has half Kenya’s livestock population and is of less agricultural potential. Thus, there is a huge potential contribution that livestock can make to the Kenyan national economy. Unfortunately, this sector receives only 10% of the government’s agricultural expenditure and less than one per cent of total spending, yet it is estimated that Kenya’s potential to export livestock products if adequately exploited would earn more than the earnings from tea and coffee combined. This then calls for new thinking about livestock development strategies to harness the arid landsThe livestock sector accounts for 90% of employment and more than 95% of household incomes in the ASALs. Most of the livestock slaughtered in major urban centres originates in these areas, with an annual slaughter of about 1.6 million Tropical Livestock Units. Kenya’s livestock from the ASALs is worth Kshs 60 billion (US$800 million). The internal livestock trade in trade in thepastoral areas alone nets in about 6 billion shillings (US$80 million )a yearIn the arid areas of the ASALs, arable crop production is not possible without some form of irrigation; while in semi-arid areas rainfall may be sufficient for certain types of crops, requiring special management techniques. Therefore, except for the areaunder cropping, the rest of the arid areas is used for livestock......

N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2005.  Feeding characteristics of sheep (Ovis aries Linnaeus) and Grants gazelles (Gazella granti Brooke) on Kapiti ranch, Kenya.. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 22(1): 1-10. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2005.  Mahesh S., N. P. Hanan, R. J. Scholes, J. Ratnam, D. J. Augustine, B. S. Cade, J. Gignoux, S. I. Higgins, Xavier Le Roux, F. Ludwig8, J. Ardo, F. Banyikwa, A. Bronn, G. Bucini, K. K. Caylor, M. B. Coughenour, A. Diouf, W. N. Ekaya, C. J. Feral, E C. Febru. Nature, 438: 846 . : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2005.  Macharia, P. N. and W. N. Ekaya. 2005. The impact of rangeland condition and trend to the grazing resources of a semi-arid environment in Kenya. Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2005.  W. Ngoyawu Mnene, J. Hanson, W.N. Ekaya, J.I. Kinyamario, P. Mweki, G. Lall, J.W. Stuth, R.H. Jamnadass Genetic variation between ecotypic populations of Chloris roxbhurghiana grass detected through RAPD analysis. African Journal of Range and Forage Scien. CTA Knowledge Website. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
Chloris roxburghiana is an important rangeland grass in Kenya. In some areas it has disappeared due to land degradation resulting from overgrazing and drought. Efforts to re-introduce the grass through re-seeding using seeds from research stations have had little success. One possible reason for low establishment is attributed to transplanting since spatially separated populations may represent genetically distinct ecotypes. To test this hypothesis, germplasm diversity within and among four populations of C. roxburghiana from four ecologically distinct sites was analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 131 polymorphic markers were identified using nine RAPD primers. There was significant variation among populations with genetic diversity (He) ranging from 0.142 to 0.193. Twenty four percent of the variation observed was due to differentiation among the populations, compared to 76 percent accounted for by variation within populations. The UPGMA of the population frequency indicated that the four populations of C. roxburghiana were genetically distinct, probably as a result of variation in soil fertility, geographical isolation and socio-ecological history of the study sites. The implication for optimizing future seed collection is discussed and potential areas for further studies identified.

2004

N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2004.  M. Okoti, J. C. Ng. Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2004.  Indigenous knowledge: the basis of the Maasai ethnoveterinary diagnostic skills. Journal of Human Ecology, 16: 43-48.. Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2004.  Land use, ecology, and socio-economic changes in a pastoral production system. Journal of Human Ecology, 16: 83-89.. Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

2003

Ekaya, WN.  2003.  Towards Realistic Mitigation..
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  KY Dawd, NKR Musimba, WN Ekaya and KO Farah.The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia. African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia.. African Journal of Range and Forage Science,20(3): 265-270.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements.
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia. African Journal of Range and Forage Science,20(3): 265-270.. Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  Participatory classification and problem identification in management of rangeland: an example from Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July . Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  Some impacts of wildlife-livestock interactions in the rangelands of Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July . Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  Screening herbaceous forage legumes on the basis of soil moisture utilization for integration into natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July . Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  Chloris roxburghiana Schult grass genetic variation between ecological sites: the case for in situ reseeding seed multiplication. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July . Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  Herbaceous vegetation productivity in an arid rehabilitated rangeland in Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July . Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2003.  2003. Pastoralism and global climate change: towards realistic mitigation. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July . Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.

2002

Mnene, WN;, Ekaya WN;, Kinyamario JI;, Jamnadass RH;, Hanson J;, Stuth. JW.  2002.  Soil Type And Forage Genetic Diversity Dictate The Need For Conservative Use Of Native Rangelands..
N., DREKAYAWELLINGTON.  2002.  Land use and spatial distribution of two gum and incense producing tree species in the Blue-nile valley of Wogidi district, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Ecology, 14:77- 87.. African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270.. : ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements

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