Bio

Dr.Wangia Sabina Makokha

Dr Wangia is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Agricultural Economics.  She has a PhD in Agricultural Economics from University of Missouri, Columbia, USA and a MSc in Rural Economics from University of Alberta, Canada.  She acquired her BSc in Agriculture from Nairobi University in 1983 and Diploma in Agriculture and Home Economics from Egerton College, Kenya in 1972.

Publications


2012

Maina, JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM.  2012.  Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County..

2009

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  2009.  Musalia L.M., Wangia, S.M, Shibairo, 2009.Policy Impact on Smallholder Dairy Farmers in Butere/Mumias and Kakamega Districts of Western Kenya. AJAR ,2009.. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1;164(3):1602-11.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

2007

Oluoch-Kosura, W, Staal SJ, Karugia JT.  2007.  Valuation of cow attributes by conjoint analysis: A case study of Western Kenya. AbstractWebsite

Better dairy production could reduce poverty and improve nutrition in western Kenya, but the requisite technologies have not been widely adopted. This study collected dairy cow attributes from 630 households to evaluate what factors influence smallholder farmers to adopt technologies. Conjoint analysis was used to compute the marginal rate of substitution between attributes, marginal willingness to pay, and marginal willingness to accept. Two ethnic groups had the highest willingness to pay for cattle with a high milk yield and low feed requirement. The highest marginal rate of substitution for cattle with a high disease resistance and a low feed requirement was from households with off-farm income, from areas with a good agro-climate, and from areas where cattle had cultural functions. The results suggest that farmers are more likely to choose cross-bred than high grade cows, and that extension services have little effect on their adoption of dairy technology. Kenya’s breed policy and infrastructure may need to be revised to reflect farmersâ€

2005

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  2005.  Musalia. L.M, angia, S. Mukoya-Wangia, Analysis of Household Food Security Status in Western Kenya.. Egerton Journal (2005). : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

2004

Makokha, S; Karugia, SKJ; S; O.  2004.  Combining stated and revealed preference methods: A dairy adoption case study of western Kenya. Abstract

The study was carried out in seven districts in western Kenya to determine factors influencing the adoption of dairy technologies. This paper looks at the complementarity in the analysis derived from the revealed preference (RP), and stated preference (SP) methods in the determination of these factors. The binary choice probit model was used for the RP method, while the ordered probit model (OPM) was used for conjoint analysis, an SP method. The SP methods are based on hypothetical choice behaviour and were used to place a value to each of the cow attributes (milk yield, disease resistance, feed requirement and price). Unlike the SP methods that have been criticized because actual choice is not observed, the RP methods, common in most adoption studies, are based on actual choices, hence the complementarity. The PPE, ethnicity, cultural values, education, income and extension influenced adoption. In some households, other reasons other than the economic reasons of rearing dairy influenced adoption, thus unfolding a unique adoption process. The willingness to pay (WTP) showed that externalities in the form of lack of information, ethnicity and farmer priorities reduced efficiency in resource use for dairy. The SP method is good at targeting interventions by explaining the households’ observed behaviour, thus it gives feedback signals on efficiency of resource use and apportions the stakeholders’ effort in dairy adoption. The interventions are addressed in the perspective of the resources available.

Owuor, G, Wangia SM, Onyuma S, Mshenga P.  2004.  Self-Help Groups, A social Capital for Agricultural Productivity.
MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  2004.  G. Owour, S. Mukoya-Wangia, P. Mishenga . S.O. Onyuma, P.M. Mshenga, and Paul Gamba.2004 .: A Social Capital for Agricultural Productivity, The Casde of Small holder Maize Farmers in Siaya, Kenya.Accepted for publication in Egerton Journal (2004). Accepted for publication in Egerton Journal (2004). : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

2002

Wangia, C;, Wangia S;, Groote H.  2002.  Review of maize marketing in Kenya: implementation and impact of liberalisation, 1989-1999.. Abstract

Maize is the key food crop in Kenya, with estimated production (1998) of 3 million tons of which about 40% are marketed. The Government strictly controlled all aspects of maize marketing until 1986 when gradual liberalisation started and this was completed in 1995. The objective of this study is to assess the degree of policy implementation and the impact of liberalisation of maize marketing on stakeholders between 1989 and 1999. The method of the study included review of available literature, conduct of interviews with stakeholders and the authors’ personal observations of maize marketing activities. Results indicate that liberalisation was implemented without the formation of alternative marketing institutions. Also, maize prices fluctuated substantially according to competitive market forces with limited moderating effects from the Government through open market interventions and import tariffs. But soon the rules of regional and worldwide trading organisations will render this impossible. Private sector participation at all levels in the marketing system increased substantially. There is easy maize flow and supplies to all parts of Kenya. One recommended intervention is to form maize farmer-based institutions for the marketing of maize, provision of maize market information and credit. Further studies should assess the impact of liberalisation and continued regulation of maize imports on producers and consumers.

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  2002.  Owuor G. Mukoya-Wangia and Dc Groote, II. (2002) Impact of Financial Self-help Group on Input use in Agricultural Production. The case of small-holder Maize farmers in Siaya District, Kenya.. Paper presented at the 7th Eastern & Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference & Symposium on Low-Nitrogen & Drought Tolerance in maize. Held at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Nairobi, between 11-15 February, 2002. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  2002.  Ithinji, G.K., Wasike, W.S.K., L.M., Mumera, L. M. and Wangia, S. 2002. . Accepted for publication in Egerton Journal (2004). : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

2000

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  2000.  Mukoya-Wangia 2000. Fruit Processing and Marketing in Western Kenya. IDRC-KARI paper. Paper presented at the 7th Eastern & Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference & Symposium on Low-Nitrogen & Drought Tolerance in maize. Held at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Nairobi, between 11-15 February, 2002. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

1999

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  1999.  Wangia Caleb, Hugo Degroote and Mukoya-Wangia. Maize Marketing in Kenya: Implementation and Impact of Liberalization 1989-1999. Paper presented at the 7th Eastern & Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference & Symposium on Low-Nitrogen & Drought Tolerance in maize. Held at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Nairobi, between 11-15 February, 2002. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

1998

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  1998.  Editor of an Overview Paper on Household Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: . Presented at the FAO Workshop Promoting Food Security and Nutrition in E astern and Southern Africa, Safari Park Hotel, Kenya, October 1998. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

1988

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  1988.  Crop-Livestock Production Systems in Kenya. paper presented in Harare, Zimbambwe, June, 1988. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

1985

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  1985.  Survey of Farming Systems in Rongai Division, Nakuru District, Kenya, 1984/85. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Wheat Production Trials in Timau, Kenya, 1984/85. paper presented in Harare, Zimbambwe, June, 1988. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

1980

MAKOKHA, DRWANGIASABINA.  1980.  Survey Report of Kakamega District Farming Systems, Kenya, 1979/80. paper presented in Harare, Zimbambwe, June, 1988. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

UoN Websites Search