DDT and metabolites in fish from Lake Edward, Uganda

Ssebugere P, Kiremire BT, Kishimba M, Wandiga SO, Nyanzi SA, Wasswa J. "DDT and metabolites in fish from Lake Edward, Uganda.". 2009.


This paper presents results based on determination of residue levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane (DDT) and its metabolites in five fish species from Rwenshama landing site on Lake Edward, Uganda. The residue levels were analysed by using a GC-ECD and confirmed by GC-MS. The DDT residues detected in fish samples from Lake Edward were p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDD. All the analysed samples of fish presented mean DDT residues ranging from non-detectable levels to 68 microg kg(-1) fresh weight. High levels of p,p'-DDT were detected in comparison to the metabolites (p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD). The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD, in most fish samples, suggests recent exposure of fish to DDT. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels below the maximum residue limits (MRL) recommended by FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission.

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