Bio

Prof. Shem Wandiga CV- 2019

Dr. Shem O. Wandiga is Professor of Chemistry at the department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi and Acting Director, Institute for Climate Change and Adaptation. Professor Wandiga’s research interests lie in studying sources and sinks of biogenic gases; persistent organochlorine pesticides in the tropics; trace metals concentration in various environmental media; complexes of Group VB metals with sulfur and oxygen binding ligands; and climate change and health.

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Publications


Submitted

OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  Effects of Chemical Events on Environment in Africa. Pontifical Academy of Science's Study Week on "Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and Their Impact", November 1983, P.649-673.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  Analysis of Nitrosamines in Grains, Flours and Local Alcoholic Beverages. Final Report to the National Council for Science and Technology Grant No. NCST/SEC/440055, 1983.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  Concentration of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediments and Plants of Kenya Lakes. Kenya J. of Science and Technology. Series (A) (1983) (2): 89-94.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  DDT Persistence in a Tropical Climate. Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. Series (A), (1984) 5, 31-44.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  The Future of Atmospheric Chemistry in Africa. Impact of Science on Society, 1982. (3), 339-345.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  The Concentration of Heavy Metals: Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Mercury, Iron and Calcium in Head Hair of Randomly Selected Sample of Kenya People. Kenya Journal of Science and Technology (A) 3, 27-41 (1982).. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  The Concentrations of Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Rivers and Lakes in Kenya ,. Sinet: 1981, 3, 67.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  National Standards and Environmental Pollution. paper presented at a Seminar organized by Kenya Bureau of Standards on National Standards and Technology for Development. Hotel Oceanic, Mombasa , 1982.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  Induced Optical Rotation in Zinc(II) and Cobalt(II) Complexes Derived from 1,1,1-Tris- (aminomethyl) ethane and cis, cis-1,3,5-Triaminocyclohexane,. Science and Technology Journal, 1980 Series A: 1 (1), 23-26.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  Analysis of Chemical Pollution in Some Kenya Water Systems with Special Reference to Lake Nakuru. in the Role of Water Resources in Development, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Symposium of the East African Academy, September 1977, p.120.. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  "Dipole Moments of Halogenogermanes from Non-Resonant Absorption of Vapours. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 11, 70 719 (1974. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  The Electric Dipole Moments of Monohalogen Derivatives of German. Letters. 7, 71 (1971).. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM.  Submitted.  Evidence for the pseudo Octahedral Geometry and Ready Racemization of 1,1 1 Tris-(pyridine-2-carboxaldiminomethyl)-ethaneiron(II),. Soc. Chem. Commun., 1572 (1970).. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
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2019

Addisu, A, Olago D, Wandiga S, Oriaso S, Amwata DA.  2019.  Smallholder Farmers Vulnerability Level to Climate Change Impacts and Implications to Agricultural Production in Tigray Regional State, Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Agriculture and Crops, Academic Research Publishing Group . 5(12):237-250. Abstractideas.repec.org

Vulnerability to climate change impact is the most pressing issues for less developed countries whose economy mainly depends on the agricultural sector. The demand for food is growing swiftly whereas impacts of climate change on the global food production are increasing. More area specific research outputs and evidences-based policy directions are needed to tackle the ever changing climate and to reduce its impacts on the agricultural production. The aim of this study was to investigate subsistence farmer household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and its associations with household’s agricultural production. Then primary data was collected from 400 households from Kolla Temben District, Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Multistage sampling techniques were applied to select households for interview from the district. In the first stage, 4 Kebelles (Kebelle - administration unit) were selected randomly out of 27 Kebelles and then400 households were selected for interview through systematic random sampling techniques (Figure 1). Multiple regressions were used to examine the associations between household’s vulnerability to climate change impacts and agricultural production. Grounded theory and content analysis techniques were use to analyze data from key informant interviews and focus group discussions. For every single unit increase in household vulnerability to climate change impacts, there was an average agricultural production decrease between 16.99 and 25.83 (Table 4). For single unit increase in household’s vulnerability to climate change impact, there was a decrease of total crop production, Total income, total livestock, total food consumption and food consumption per adult equivalent. Rainfall decrease, small farmland ownership, steep topography, frequent flood occurrences and large family size are among the major factors that negatively affect household’s agricultural production and total income. The more the vulnerable the households, the less in total annual crop production, total livestock size, total income from agricultural production and the more dependent on food aid). There is a negative association between household’s vulnerability level to climate change impacts and agricultural production (crop production, total livestock ownerships and total income from crop production). More access to irrigation and agricultural fertilizers, improved varieties of crops, small family size, improve farmland ownership size, more access to education and Agricultural Extension services are an effective areas of intervention to improve household’s resilient, reduce households vulnerability level to climate change impacts and increase household’s total agricultural production.

  2019.  The effects of aflatoxin exposure on Hepatitis B-induced immunity in Kenyan children. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2019. :1-14. Abstractresearchgate

Background: Globally, approximately three million children die each year from vaccine preventable infectious diseases mainly in developing countries. Despite the success of the expanded immunization program, not all infants and children around the world develop the same protective immune response to the same vaccine. A vaccine must induce a response over the basal immune response that may be driven by population-specific, environmental or socio-economic factors. Mycotoxins like aflatoxins are immune suppressants that are confirmed to interfere with both cell-mediated and acquired immunity. The mechanism of aflatoxin toxicity is through the binding of the bio-activated AFB1-8, 9-epoxide to cellular macromolecules. Methods: We studied Hepatitis B surface antibodies [anti-HBs] levels to explore the immune modulation effects of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in children aged between one and fourteen years in Kenya. Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced for routine administration for Kenyan infants in November 2001. To assess the effects of aflatoxin on immunogenicity of childhood vaccines Aflatoxin B1-lysine in blood serum samples were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence detection while anti-HBs were measured using Bio-ELISA anti-HBs kit. Results: The mean § SD of AFB1-lysine adducts in our study population was 45.38 § 87.03 pg/mg of albumin while the geometric mean was 20.40 pg/mg. The distribution of AFB1-lysine adducts was skewed to the right. Only 98/205 (47.8%) of the study population tested positive for Hepatitis B surface antibodies. From regression analysis, we noted that for every unit rise in serum aflatoxin level, anti-HBs dropped by 0.91 mIU/ml (¡0.9110038; 95% C.I ¡1.604948,¡0.21706). Conclusion: Despite high coverage of routine immunization, less than half of the study population had developed immunity to HepB. Exposure to aflatoxin was high and weakly associated with low anti-HBs antibodies. These findings highlight a potentially significant role for environmental factors that may contribute to vaccine effectiveness warranting further research.

2015

Rodrigues, AJ, Oyoo WS, Odundo FO, Wambu EW.  2015.  Socio-economic factors influencing the spread of drinking water diseases in rural Africa: case study of Bondo sub-county, Kenya. Journal of Water and Health. 13(2):500-509. Abstract

Socio-economic and medical information on Bondo sub-county community was studied to help establish the relationship between the water quality challenges, community health and water rights conditions. Health challenges have been linked to water quality and household income. A total of 1,510 households/respondents were studied by means of a questionnaire. About 69% of the households have no access to treated water. Although 92% of the respondents appear to be aware that treatment of water prevents waterborne diseases, the lowest income group and children share a high burden of waterborne diseases requiring hospitalization and causing mortality. Open defecation (12.3%) in these study areas contributes to a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The community’s constitutional rights to quality water in adequate quantities are greatly infringed. The source of low-quality water is not a significant determinant of waterborne disease. The differences in poverty level in the sub-county are statistically insignificant and contribute less than other factors. Increased investment in water provision across regions, improved sanitation and availability of affordable point-of-use water purification systems will have major positive impacts on the health and economic well-being of the community.

Wandiga, SO.  2015.  Critical Water Issues in Africa. In Water Challenges and Solutions on a Global Scale. :Chapter6,95-113., Washington, DC: American Chemical Society Abstract

Water scarcity, purity and delivery have become major challenges of humanity especially in Africa. Globally 748 million and in Africa 325 million people lack access to safe water. Water diseases kill 842,000 people annually. The majority of those who lack water live in rural areas. Africa is second to Australia in dryness but is home to 15% of global human population and has only nine percent of global renewable water resources. Most of Africa’s surface water has become polluted by human activities and its wells are becoming dry. Impacts of climate change and climate variability are making water scarcity more stressful.

Technologies used for water harnessing are outmoded and inefficient. Africa needs to modernize its water purification technology; it requires adopting new methods like roof, pavement and urban water catchment to recharge its declining ground water level. Provision of safe drinking water policy need to change from piped water to every home to supply of point of use technologies at every home. There exist some potential new technologies that still require further research. The chapter highlights some recent development of nanoscience materials in water treatment that give promise to future trends. Similarly, small scale water harnessing technologies are outlined for ground water recharge and drinking water

S.N., M, W.S O, K.G N.  2015.  Photo Catalytic Inactivation of Escherichia coli Using Titanium (IV) Oxide- Tungsten (VI) Oxide Nanoparticles Composite. International Journal of Photocatalysis. 19:204-211. Abstractphoto_catalytic_inactivation_of_escherichia_coli_using_titanium__iv__oxide-tungsten__vi__oxide_nanoparticles_composite.pdf

This work focused on synthesis of Titanium (IV) Oxide and Tungsten (VI) Oxide composite and testing the composite as a photocatalyst in deactivation of Escherichi coli in water. Modified wet chemistry method was used and the synthesized nanoparticles calcined at 575° C, taken through XRay Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction. The result showed a particle size diameter of 18.99nm. The nanoparticles photocatalytic inactivation efficacy of Escherichia coli in water was tested. 3M Petrifilms from 3M Microbiology Products, U.S.A., was used for Escherichia coli colony forming units’ counts. ATUV 8W G8 T5 lamp from PHILIPS emitting between 350-600nm was used as energy source. The catalyst reduced Escherichia coli count by log 3.415 at an optimum catalyst amount of 0.75 g/L at pH 7.3 using the Chick-Watson model for disinfection kinetics. This work proved that photocatalysis is a promising technology in water purification with possible and practical opportunities existing especially for small-scale point-of-use water purification units where potable water could be treated for disinfection of pathogens or trace priority pollutants remaining in water distribution network after conventional treatment methods. This work proved that nano particles can provide solutions in treatment of drinking water especially for poor communities living in the tropics.

2012

Ongeri, DM, LALAH JO, Wandiga SO, Wandiga SO, Michalke B.  2012.  Seasonal variability in cadmium, lead, copper, zinc and iron concentrations in the three major fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus and Rastrineobola argentea in Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria: impact of wash-off into the lake. AbstractWebsite

Trace metals Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) were analyzed in edible portions of three main finfish species namely Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus and Rastrineobola argentea sampled from various beaches of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya, in order to determine any seasonal and site variations and the results showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Fe during the wet season compared to the dry season for all the three species indicating the impact of wash-off into the lake during the rainy periods. The overall mean concentrations of the heavy metals (in μg/g dry weight) in all combined samples ranged from 0.17-0.40 (Cd), 0.47-2.53 (Pb), 2.13-8.74 (Cu), 28.9-409.3 (Zn) and 31.4-208.1 (Fe), respectively. It was found that consumption of Rastrineobola argentea can be a significant source of heavy metals especially Zn, to humans, compared with Lates niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus, if only the muscle parts of the latter two are consumed.

2011

2010

2009

Ssebugere, P, Kiremire BT, Kishimba M, Wandiga SO, Nyanzi SA, Wasswa J.  2009.  DDT and metabolites in fish from Lake Edward, Uganda. Website
Wandiga, SO.  2009.  The Right to Access to Healthcare.
Bowa O. Kwach, WSO, et al.  2009.  Spartial and Seasonal Variations in Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediment of Kisumu City Bay of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria-Kenya. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 83(2009)(DOI 10.1007/s00128-009-9830-5):734-741.
ODONGO, MRMADADIVINCENT, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM.  2009.  Water quality issues in East Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. : Academic Press Elsevier. Int. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
OYOO, PROFWANDIGASHEM.  2009.  Water quality issues in East Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. : Academic Press Elsevier Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.

2008

LALAH, JO, chieng EZ, Wandiga SO.  2008.  Sources of heavy metal input into Winam Gulf, Kenya. AbstractWebsite

Water and surface sediment from rivers Kisat, Nyamasaria, Nyando, Sondu-Miriu, Kuja, Awach, Yala, and Nzoia, which flow into Winam Gulf, were analyzed for heavy metals in order to assess the influence of the catchment activities on heavy metal input into the lake. Sampling was done both upstream and at river mouths where the rivers entered in to the lake. The mean sediment concentration of exchangeable cations (in microg/g) for Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn ranged from 0.01 to 263 (for Mn at Kuja). Ag, Cr, and Cd were poorly leachable with 0.1 MHCl but the other cations were found to be fairly exchangeable. Most exchangeable cations in sediment ranged between 2% and 20% of the total heavy metal content obtained by digestion with strong acid. The mean total dissolved metal (0.45 microm filter cut-off) and mean total sediment concentrations ranged from nd-16 (Ag), nd-8 (Cd), nd-23.3 (Co), nd-50 (Cr), 5-157.5 (Cu), 50-3276 (Mn), nd-54.1 (Ni), 7-93.6 (Pb), 25-219.5 (Zn) in microg/L and from nd-8.34 (Ag), 0.48-1.75 (Co), nd-1.78 (Cd), 2.92-5.36 (Cr), 3.90-150.2 (Cu), 133.5-7237 (Mn), 4.33-42.29 (Ni), 3.09-66.06 (Pb), 23.39-7.83 (Sn) and 23.39-350.8 (Zn) in microg/g dry weight, respectively. The rivers analyzed were found to be non-polluted in terms of sediment loads except river Kisat which was found to be polluted because of elevated levels of Pb, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Nyamasaria and Nyando were also found to have higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn than those reported previously in the lake sediment. The dissolved metal concentrations were acceptable by WHO maximum limits in drinking water except Mn which was above WHO limit in Kisat, Nyando, and Nyamasaria waters. Enrichment of Cd and Pb was found in all the river sediment samples with factors ranging from 2.12 at Kisat river mouth to 4.41 at Awach (for Cd) and from 1.49 (at Kisat river mouth) to 2.38 (at Nyando river mouth).

Wandiga, SO.  2008.  Report of the Satellite Workshop.

2007

LALAH, JO, Lalah, J O; Wandiga SO.  2007.  Copper binding by dissolved organic matter in freshwaters in Kenya. Website
Daniel Olago, Michael Marshall, SWO.  2007.  Climatic, Socio-economic and Health Factors Affecting Human Vulnerability to Cholera in the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa, 06/2007. :350-358.: Royal Swedish Academy for Sciencesambi-36-04-350_olago.pdf

2006

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