Publications

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2017
Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "An Assessment of e-Extension Platforms in Kenya.". 2017. Abstract

The use of ICT in agriculture within developing countries has quickly gained
popularity among development agencies, the private sector and even the government. ICT
for agriculture (ICT4Ag) services such as trade platforms, notification platforms and
advisory/extension services have been developed. This has been catalyzed by the growing
number of farmers with access to ICT devices such as mobile phones. Among the available
services, advisory/extension platforms have gained popularity among farmers an

Gichamba A, Wagacha PW, Ochieng DO. "Designing mAgriculture Applications for Rural Smallholder Farmers.". 2017. Abstract

ICT has been widely accepted and adopted as a key driver for various sectors of
the economy for both the developing and developed nations. In developing countries, there
have been multiple interventions to employ the available technology such as mobile,
wireless, radio and TV technologies in key areas that concern human development such as
health, agriculture, education and finance. The design and development practices, are
mostly borrowed from established markets with different user profiles, and do not always

Maina ME, Wagacha PW, Oboko RO. "A Model for Improving Online Collaborative Learning through Machine Learning." IGI Global. 2017:424-440. AbstractFull Text

Online collaborative learning provides new opportunities for student
collaboration in an online learning environment and at the same time spawns new
challenges for teachers supporting group work. With the current Course Management
Systems (CMS) such as Moodle, technology has provided online tools that include
discussions forums, chat rooms, e-mails, newsgroups, workshops, etc. These tools provide a
collaborative learning environment. To include constructivist learning in an online learning ...

Mwangi HN'u, Wagacha P, Mathenge P, Sijenyi F, Mulaa F. "Structure of the 40S ribosomal subunit of Plasmodium falciparum by homology and de novo modeling." 7. 2017;1:97-105. AbstractFull Text

Generation of three dimensional structures of macromolecules using in silico
structural modeling technologies such as homology and de novo modeling has improved
dramatically and increased the speed by which tertiary structures of organisms can be
generated. This is especially the case if a homologous crystal structure is already available.
High-resolution structures can be rapidly created using only their sequence information as
input, a process that has the potential to increase the speed of scientific discovery.

2016
Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Ambient Learning Conceptual Framework for Bridging Digital Divide in Higher Education." IGI Global. 2016;4:179. AbstractFull Text

According to ITU (2012), digital divide is the difference between countries in
terms of levels of ICT development. This difference remains significant. In 2011, the ICT
Development Index (IDI) value of developed countries (6.52) was twice as high as that of
developing countries (3.24). The need to link the digital divide for universal broadband
Internet access is within the key international development goals, which include World
Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) goals and Millennium Development Goals

Williams S, White A, Waiganjo P, Orwa D, Klopp J. "The digital matatu project: Using cell phones to create an open source data for Nairobi's semi-formal bus system." Journal of Transport Geography. 2016;49:39-51. AbstractFull text link

In many of the world's growing cities, semi-formal buses form the basis of public transit systems. However, little open and standardized data exist on these systems. The Digital Matatus project in Nairobi, Kenya set out to test whether the geo-locative capabilities of mobile technology could be used to collect data on a semi-formal transit system and whether that data could be translated into the General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) data standard for wider use. The results of this work show that mobile technologies, particularly mobile phones, which are increasingly prevalent in developing countries, can indeed be used effectively to collect and deliver data in a modified GTFS format for semi-formal transit. Perhaps more importantly, through our work in Nairobi, we were able to identify the benefits and technical needs for developing data on semi-formal transit. Overall, the work illustrates (1) how the GTFS can be adapted to semi-formal systems and used by other cities with such transit systems, (2) that there is demand from technologists as well as transport communities for comprehensive data on semi-formal transit, (3) that releasing the data openly in the GTFS standard format can help to encourage the development of transportation applications, and (4) that including the entire transit community during the data development can create a community of users and mechanisms for institutionalizing a process of data updating and sharing. The engagement strategies our research team developed around the data collection process in Nairobi became just as important as the resulting data it produced.

Muuro ME, Oboko RO, Wagacha PW. "Evaluation of Intelligent Grouping Based on Learners’ Collaboration Competence Level in Online Collaborative Learning Environment." The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2016;17(2). AbstractFull Text

In this paper we explore the impact of an intelligent grouping algorithm based on
learners' collaborative competency when compared with (a) instructor based Grade Point
Average (GPA) method level and (b) random method, on group outcomes and group
collaboration problems in an online collaborative learning environment. An intelligent
grouping algorithm has been added in a Learning Management System (LMS) which is
capable of forming heterogeneous groups based on learners' collaborative competency

2015
Maina ME, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Enhancing active learning pedagogy through online collaborative learning.". In: Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age. IGI Global: Handb. Res. Act. Learn. Flip. Classr. Model Digit. Age; 2015. Abstract

Learner-centered learning theories such as active learning and collaborative
learning are highly supported by Web 2.0 technologies and they are augmenting traditional
teacher-centered approaches. New teaching pedagogies such as flipped classroom have
also embraced the use of collaborative learning where students engage in group-based
activities during class time and they embark on asynchronous video lectures after the
classroom. However, there is little research on how flipped classrooms can support online

Wagacha P. "SCHOOL OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATICS.". 2015. Abstract

The increased demand for higher education has made online learning popular
and appealing to many stakeholders including working staff and students. Though online
learning has gained popularity, it is still being criticized for being a faceless medium that
does little to support social interaction. Social constructivist argue that knowledge is
constructed through social activities and therefore, knowledge developed using
collaboration is more than what can be achieved by an individual alone. Online learning,

2014
Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Culture Aware M-Learning Classification Framework for African Countries." Cross-Cultural Online Learning in Higher Education and Corporate Training. 2014:98-111. AbstractFull Text

African countries are currently experiencing proliferation of mobile phone
subscriptions but no prevalence of personal computers or electricity (Parker, 2011). It is
estimated that, by the end of 2015 in Sub-Saharan Africa, the percentage of people with
mobile network access will surpass that of access to electricity in homes (Rao, 2011). This
phenomenon is also experienced in learning institutions, particularly universities, where
almost every student owns a mobile phone (Kashorda & Waema, 2009). Although there is

Okojie MCPO, Bourke B, Masoumi D, Lindström B, Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Designing and Delivering Web-Based Instruction to Adult Learners in Higher Education.". 2014. Abstract

The essence of this chapter is to discuss theories and practices including
approaches that instructional designers consider when designing Web-based instruction for
adult learners. The importance of the chapter is to discuss best practice activities and
theories as well as technologies that enable adult online learners to be involved in the
design of their Web-based instruction. This represents recognition that adults have
accumulated a repertoire of knowledge and experiences that inevitably will enrich the

Kang’ethe SM, Wagacha PW. "Extracting Diagnosis Patterns in Electronic Medical Records using Association Rule Mining." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2014.Full Text
Mulunda C, Wagacha P, Oyugi A. "Genetic Algorithm Based Model in Text Steganography: A Framework for Securing Online Data Communication." Scholars Press. 2014. AbstractFull Text

Steganography is an ancient art. It is used for security in open systems. It focuses
on hiding secret messages inside a cover medium. The most important property of a cover
medium is the amount of data that can be stored inside it without changing its noticeable
properties. There are many sophisticated techniques with which to hide, analyze, and
recover that hidden information. This research work discusses an exploration in the use of
Genetic Algorithm operators on the cover medium. We worked with text as the cover

Muuro E, Wagacha P, Oboko R. "Improving Online Collaborative learning Using Machine Learning." Models for Improving and Optimizing Online and Blended Learning in Higher Education. 2014:204-219.
Ombu E, Wagacha P. "InterlinguaPlus Machine Translation Approach for Local Languages: Ekegusii & Swahili." Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on the Use of Computational Methods in the Study of Endangered Languages. 2014:68-72. Abstract

Abstract This paper elucidates the InterlinguaPlus design and its application in bi-directional
text translations between Ekegusii and Kiswahili languages unlike the traditional translation
pairs, one-by-one. Therefore, any of the languages can be the source or target language.
The first section is an overview of the project, which is followed by a brief review of Machine
Translation. The next section discusses the implementation of the system using Carabao's
open machine translation framework and the results obtained. So far, the translation

Muuro ME, Wagacha WP, Kihoro J, Oboko R. "Students’ perceived challenges in an online collaborative learning environment: A case of higher learning institutions in Nairobi, Kenya." The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2014;15(6). AbstractFull Text

Earlier forms of distance education were characterized by minimal social interaction
like correspondence, television, video and radio. However, the World Wide Web (WWW) and
online learning introduced the opportunity for much more social interaction, particularly
among learners, and this has been further made possible through social media in Web 2.0.
The increased availability of collaborative tools in Web 2.0 has made it possible to have
online collaborative learning realized in Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs). However,

2013
2012
Pauw GD, de Schryver GM, Forcada ML, Sarasola K, Tyers FM, Wagacha PW. "Language Technology for Normalisation of Less-Resourced Languages." Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC2012). 2012:2012. Abstract

The 8th International Workshop of the ISCA Special Interest Group on Speech and
Language Technology for Minority Languages (SALTMIL) 1 and the Fourth Workshop on
African Language Technology (AfLaT2012) 2 is held as a joint effort as part of the 2012
International Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2012). Entitled
“Language technology for normalisation of less-resourced languages”, the workshop is
intended to continue the series of SALTMIL/LREC workshops on computational language

2011
Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Exploring the SAWA corpus: collection and deployment of a parallel corpus English—Swahili." Language resources and evaluation. 2011;45(3):331-344. Abstract

Research in machine translation and corpus annotation has greatly benefited from the increasing availability of word-aligned parallel corpora. This paper presents ongoing research on the development and application of the sawa corpus, a two-million-word parallel corpus English-Swahili. We describe the data collection phase and zero in on the difficulties of finding appropriate and easily accessible data for this language pair. In the data annotation phase, the corpus was semi-automatically sentence and word-aligned and morphosyntactic information was added to both the English and Swahili portion of the corpus. The annotated parallel corpus allows us to investigate two possible uses. We describe experiments with the projection of part-of-speech tagging annotation from English onto Swahili, as well as the development of a basic statistical machine translation system for this language pair, using the parallel corpus and a consolidated database of existing English-Swahili translation dictionaries. We particularly focus on the difficulties of translating English into the morphologically more complex Bantu language of Swahili.

Kituku B, Wagacha P, Pauw GD. "A memory-based approach to Kıkamba named entity recognition." Proceedings of conference on human language technology for development. 2011. AbstractFull text link

This paper describes the development of a data-driven part-of-speech tagger and
named entity recognizer for the resource-scarce Bantu language of Kıkamba. A small
webmined corpus for Kıkamba was manually annotated for both classification tasks and
used as training material for a memory-based tagger. The encouraging experimental results
show that basic language technology tools can be developed using limit amounts of data
and state-of-the-art language-independent machine learning techniques

Chege K, Ng'ang'a W, Wagacha PW, Pauw GD, Mutiga J. "Morphological analysis of Gikuyu using a finite state machine." Proceedings of the Conference on Human Language Technology for Development. 2011:112-117. AbstractFull Text

Abstract In this paper we present the development of a morphological analysis system for
Gikuyu Major morphological processes prevalent in Gikuyu language are explored. These
include verb inflection, verb and noun derivation and verb reduplication. In this work, finite
state transducers are used to model Gikuyu morphology. Xerox finite state tools are used to
build the lexical transducers for the system and to model rewrite rules prevalent in Gikuyu.
The system achieves an acceptable representation of Gikuyu morphology. It can correctly

Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Towards english-swahili machine translation." Research Workshop of the Israel Science Foundation. 2011. AbstractFull Text

Even though the Bantu language of Swahili is spoken by more than fifty million people in
East and Central Africa, it is surprisingly resource-scarce from a language technological
point of view, an unfortunate situation that holds for most, if not all languages on the
continent. The increasing amount of digitally available, vernacular data has prompted
researchers to investigate the applicability of corpus-based approaches to African language
technology. In this vein, the SAWA corpus project attempts to collect and deploy a parallel

Kituku B, Wagacha PW, Pauw GD. "A Memory-Based Approach to Kikamba Named Entity Recognition.". In: Proceedings of Conference on Human Language Technology for Development. Alexandria, Egypt: Bibliotheca Alexandrina; 2011:. Abstract
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Chege K, Ng’Ang’a W, Wagacha PW, Pauw GD, Mutiga J. "Morphological Analysis of Gikuyu using a Finite State Machine.". In: Proceedings of Conference on Human Language Technology for Development. Alexandria, Egypt: Bibliotheca Alexandrina; 2011:. Abstract
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2010
Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng’ang’a W. "Developing an Open source Spell-checker for Gıkuyu.". 2010. AbstractFull Text

Abstract In this paper, we describe the development of an open source spell checker for
Gıkuyu, using the Hunspell language tools. We explore the morphology of Gıkuyu and
highlight the inflection of various parts of speech, including verbs, nouns, and adjectives. In
Hunspell, surface words are realized as a set of continuation classes, with each class
providing a morpheme with a specific function. In addition, circumfixation, which is prevalent
in Gıkuyu, is implemented. Hunspell also provides for word suggestion, using character

Chege K, Wagacha P, Pauw GD, Muchemi L, Ng'ang'a W, Ngure K, Mutiga J. "Developing an Open source Spell-checker for G˜ık˜uy˜u.". 2010.Website
Mbogo T, Omwenga E, Waiganjo P. A Framework for Distributed Learning Objects Repository. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Pauw GD, Anyango Maajabu NJ, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "A Knowledge-Light Approach to Luo Machine Translation and Part-of-Speech Tagging." In: Pauw GD, H. Groenewald, de Schryver G-M, eds. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on African Language Technology (AfLaT 2010). Valetta, Malta: European Language Resources Association (ELRA); 2010:. Abstract
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2009
Oboko RO, Wagacha PW, Omwenga E, Odotte Z. "Non-obtrusive determination of learning styles in adaptive web-based learning." East African Journal of Information Sciences. 2009;1(2):19-31.Full Text
Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "The SAWA corpus: a parallel corpus English-Swahili." Association for Computational Linguistics. 2009:9-16. AbstractFull Text

Abstract Research in data-driven methods for Machine Translation has greatly benefited
from the increasing availability of parallel corpora. Processing the same text in two different
languages yields useful information on how words and phrases are translated from a source
language into a target language. To investigate this, a parallel corpus is typically aligned by
linking linguistic tokens in the source language to the corresponding units in the target
language. An aligned parallel corpus therefore facilitates the automatic development of a

Pauw GD, de Schryver G-M, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "A Corpus-based Survey of Four Electronic Swahili - English Dictionaries." Lexikos. 2009;19:340. Abstract
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OBWOCHA MROBOKOROBERT, I DROMWENGAELIJAH, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract
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2008
Pauw GD, Wagacha P, De Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping machine translation for the language pair English-Kiswahili." Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research-Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. 2008:30-37. AbstractFull Text

HTQO VJG increasing availability of parallel corpora. Processing the same text in two
different languages yields useful information on how words and phrases are translated from
a source language into a target language. To investigate this, a parallel corpus is typically
aligned by linking linguistic tokens in the source language to the corresponding units in the
target language. An aligned parallel corpus therefore facilitates the automatic

Dharani N, Kinyamario JI, Wagacha PW, Rodrigues AJ. "Browsing impact of large herbivores on Acacia xanthophloea Benth in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." Africa Journal of Ecology. 2008;47(2):184-191.
Oboko RO, Wagacha PW, Masinde EM, Omwenga E, Libotton A. "Value difference metric for student knowledge level initialization in a learner model-based adaptive e-learning system." Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. 2008:411. Abstract

Web-based learning systems give students the freedom to determine what to study based on
each individual learner's learning goals. These systems support learners in constructing
their own knowledge for solving problems at hand. However, in the absence of instructors,
learners often need to be supported as they learn in ways that are tailored to suit a specific
learner. Adaptive web-based learning systems fit in such situations. In order for an adaptive
learning system to be able to provide learning support, it needs to build a model of each

Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping Machine Translation for the Language Pair English - Kiswahili." In: J. Aisbett, G. Gibbon, A.J. Rodrigues, K.K. Migga, R. Nath, G.R. Renardel, eds. Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research - Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain Publishers; 2008:. Abstract
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2007
Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages.". In: International Conference on Text, Speech and Dialogue. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2007. Abstract

The orthography of many resource-scarce languages includes diacritically marked
characters. Falling outside the scope of the standard Latin encoding, these characters are
often represented in digital language resources as their unmarked equivalents. This renders
corpus compilation more difficult, as these languages typically do not have the benefit of
large electronic dictionaries to perform diacritic restoration.

Pauw GD, Wagacha PW. "Bootstrapping morphological analysis of Gĩkũyũ using unsupervised maximum entropy learning." Eighth Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association. 2007. AbstractFull Text

This paper describes a proof-of-the-principle experiment in which maximum entropy
learning is used for the automatic induction of shallow morphological features for the
resourcescarce Bantu language of Gıkuyu. This novel approach circumvents the limitations
of typical unsupervised morphological induction methods that employ minimum-edit
distance metrics to establish morphological similarity between words. The experimental
results show that the unsupervised maximum entropy learning approach compares

Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages." In: s}ek VM{\v, Mautner P, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Tenth International Conference. Vol. 4629. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg; 2007:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4629. Abstract
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Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, D.A. Abade. "Unsupervised Induction of Dholuo Word Classes using Maximum Entropy Learning." In: K. Getao, E. Omwenga, eds. Proceedings of the First International Computer Science and ICT Conference. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2007:. Abstract
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2006
Waiganjo Wagacha P, Pauw GD, K. Getao. "Development of a Corpus for Gikuyu using machine learning techniques." In: J.C. Roux, ed. Proceedings of LREC workshop - Networking the development of language resources for African languages. Genoa, Italy: European Language Resources Association; 2006:. Abstract

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Waiganjo Wagacha P, Pauw GD, P.W. Githinji. "A Grapheme-Based Approach for Accent Restoration in Gikuyu.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Genoa, Italy: European Language Resources Association; 2006:. Abstract
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Wagacha PW, Chege D. "Adaptive and Optimisation Predictive Text Entry for Short Message Service (SMS) .". In: Special topics in Computing and ICT research: Advances in Systems Modelling and ICT Applications. Kampala: Fountain publishers; 2006.
Wagacha PW, Pauw GD, Getao KW. "Developing an annotated corpus for Gıkuyu using language-independent machine learning techniques.". 2006. AbstractFull text link

Networking the development of computational resources for African languages can
be greatly advanced if researchers aim to develop tools that are to a large extent language-
independent and therefore reusable for other languages. In this paper we describe a
particular case study, namely the development of an annotated corpus of Gıkuyu, using
language-independent machine learning techniques. The general aim of our work on
Gıkuyu is two-fold: on the one hand we wish to digitally preserve this resource-scarce

Wagacha PW, Pauw DG, Getao K. "Development of a corpus for Gıkuyu using machine learning techniques." Proceedings of LREC workshop-Networking the development of language resources for African languages. Genoa, Italy: European Language Resources Association. 2006.Full Text
Pauw GD, De Schryver G-M, Wagacha PW. Kiswahili part-of-speech tagger: demonstration system.; 2006.
Pauw DG, De Schryver G-M, Wagacha PW. "Kiswahili Part-of-Speech Tagger–Demonstration system.". 2006.Full text link
W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Capacity building for information and communication technology higher education programmes in Africa: the case of the School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. Katherine Getao, Peter W. Wagacha, Bernard Manderick.". In: ICT and Education conference, Santa Clara, Cuba February 2006. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2006. Abstract
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Pauw GD, de Schryver G-M, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "Data-Driven Part-of-Speech Tagging of Kiswahili." In: P. Sojka, c}ek I K{\v, K. Pala, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Ninth International Conference. Vol. 4188/2006. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag; 2006:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4188/2006. Abstract
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2005
Wagacha PW, Manderick B, Muuro M. "On Support Vector and Relevance Vector Machines." BNAIC. 2005.Full text link
Ngugi K, William Okelo-Odongo, Wagacha PW. "Swahili text-to-speech system." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2005. AbstractFull text link

Text-to-speech (TTS) applications have been applied in diverse areas all over the
world. Considering the fact that Swahili pronunciation is not complicated, and the language
spoken by about 45–100 million people as their first or second language,, we considered
the feasibility, and developed a Swahili Text-to-Speech (TTS) system.

W DRWAGACHAPETER. "On Support Vector and Relevance Vector Machines, Peter Waiganjo Wagacha, Bernard Manderick, Maina E. Muuro.". In: BNAIC 2005 Proceedings of the Seventeenth Belgium-Netherlands Conference on Artificial Intelligence October 17-18, 2005. K.Verbeeck, K. Tuyls, A. Nowe, B. Manderick, B. Kuijpers (eds). Pg 297-304. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2005. Abstract
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W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Swahili Text-to-Speech System, Kamanda Ngugi, W. Okelo-Odongo, Peter Waiganjo Wagacha, African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) (ANSTI/UNESCO) July 2005.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) (ANSTI/UNESCO). Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2005. Abstract
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2004
Waiganjo PW. "Computer-Based Medical Diagnostic Decision Assistant." University of Nairobi. 2004.Full text link
Omwenga E, Waema T, Wagacha P. "A model for introducing and implementing e-learning for delivery of educational content within the African context." African Journal of Sciences and Technology. 2004;5(1). AbstractFull text link

In Africa, where we have enormous and varied challenges in accessing higher
education, there is need for relevant and customized content that is specific to our needs
and challenges. Most of the models that exist to address these challenges have their
limitations in terms of flexibility, time and space constraints and hence the need to address
the mitigating factors. A blend of different types of information and communication
technologies can be used in innovative ways in order to resolve some of these limitations.

O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-Based Medical Diagnostic Decision Assistant.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 114-123. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-based medical Diagnostic decision assistant, Chepken K. Christopher, Elisha Opiyo, Peter Waiganjo Wagacha.". In: International ICT Workshop: Application of ICT in enhancing eucation higher learning education, April 28-30, 2004, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "An Integrated Regional ICT Policy for the East Africa Community (EAC): Impact on a Possible Information Revolution.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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W DRWAGACHAPETER. "A model for introducing and implementing E-learning for delivery of educational content within the African context, Elijah I. Omwenga, Timothy M. Waema, Peter W. Wagacha, African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions (ANSTI/UNESCO) 2004.". In: African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions (ANSTI/UNESCO). Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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2003
Wagacha PW. "Foundations of Learning and Adaptive Systems Course." Decision trees are powerful and popular tools for classification and prediction. Decision trees are attractive due to the fact that, in contrast to other machine learning techniques such as neural networks, they represent rules. Rules can readily be expre. 2003.full text link
Wagacha PW. Induction of Decision Trees.; 2003.
Wagacha PW. "Instance-based Learning: k-Nearest Neighbour." Foundations of Learning and Adaptive Systems Course. 2003. Abstract

The nearest neighbour classifier is one of the simplest and oldest methods for performing
general, non-parametric classification. It can be represented by the following rule: to classify
an unknown pattern, choose the class of the nearest example in the training set as
measured by a distance metric. A common extension is to choose the most common class in
the k nearest neighbours. Despite its simplicity, the nearest neighbour classifier has many
advantages over other methods as well as disadvantages.

W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Ph.D. Thesis. Support Vector Machines: A critical empirical evaluation. School of Computing & Informatics, University of Nairobi, 2003.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2003. Abstract
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2002
Wagacha PW. "Machine Learning Notes on: I. Classifier Learning and Generalization, II. Data Preparation, III. Validation Methods." Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi. 2002. Abstract

The goal of classifier model training is not to learn an exact representation of the training
data itself, but rather to build a statistical model of the process which generates the data.
This is important if the classifier is to exhibit good generalization, that is, to make good
predictions for new inputs. Using the simple analogy of curve fitting using polynomials, we
should that a polynomial with too few coefficients gives poor predictions for new data, ie
poor generalization, since the polynomial function has too little flexibility.

1997
Xu S, Waiganjo P, Dias PG, Shi B. "Testability Prediction for Sequential Circuits Using Neural Network.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Asian Test Symposium. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society; 1997:. ATS '97. Abstract
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1996
Milgo E, Ronoh N, Wagacha PW, Manderick B. "Improving the Effectiveness of MCMC through Adaptation." https://www.kuleuven-kulak.be/benelearn/papers/Benelearn_2016_paper_10.pdf. 1996. AbstractFull text link

The Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm uses a proposal
distribution to sample from a given target distribution. The proposal distribution has to be
tuned beforehand which is an expensive exercise. However, adaptive algorithms
automatically tune the proposal distribution based on knowledge from past samples,
reducing the tuning cost. In this study we first examine Adaptive Metropolis, Metropolis
Gaussian Adaptation and Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategies.

Wagacha PW, Pauw GD, Mutiga J. "Morphological Analysis of Gĩkũyũ using a Finite State Machine.". 1996. AbstractFull text link

Abstract In this paper we present the development of a morphological analysis system for
Gĩkũyũ Major morphological processes prevalent in Gĩkũyũ language are explored. These
include verb inflection, verb and noun derivation and verb reduplication. In this work, finite
state transducers are used to model Gĩkũyũ morphology. Xerox finite state tools are used to
build the lexical transducers for the system and to model rewrite rules prevalent in Gĩkũyũ.

Mwangi HN'u, Wagacha P, Mathenge P, Sijenyi F, Mulaa F. "Structure of the 40S ribosomal subunit.". 1996.
W DRWAGACHAPETER. "MSc. Thesis. Sequential Circuit Testability Parameter Prediction using Artificial Neural Networks. Shanghai University, 1996.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 1996. Abstract
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