Prof. Timothy Waema CV

Timothy Mwololo Waema is a Professor of Information Systems in the School of Computing and Informatics in the University of Nairobi and a Founder Director of several local companies. He holds a Ph.D. degree in Strategic Management of Information Systems from the University of Cambridge (UK) and a bachelor’s Honours Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from the University of Bath (UK). He has worked for many years as a researcher and practitioner at the intersection of information technology, strategy, policy, and innovation.



Kieti, J, Waema TM, Ndemo EB, Omwansa TK, Baumüller H.  2020.  Sources of value creation in aggregator platforms for digital services in agriculture - insights from likely users in Kenya. Abstract

A fragmented digital agriculture ecosystem has been linked to the slow scale-out of digital platforms and other digital
technology solutions for agriculture. This has undermined the prospects of digitalizing agriculture and increasing sectoral outcomes in sub-Saharan African countries. We conceptualized an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture as a special form of digital platforms that can enhance the value and usage of digital technologies at the industry
level. Little is known about how such a platform can create value as a new service ecology in agriculture. We set out to
examine the underlying structure and prioritizations of value creation sources in such a platform from the perspective
of likely users in Kenya. We used a parallel convergent mixed methods approach to the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 405 respondents supported a two-factor structure, being an adaptation of the framework on value creation sources in e-Business by Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). We conceptualized the two factors as platform-wide efficiency
and loyalty-centeredness. User experience related search costs were most impactful on platform-wide efficiency, while
loyalty-centeredness was impacted most by providing guarantees for quality and reliability to platform users. Thematic
analysis of 369 qualitative responses obtained platform inclusivity - comprising value chain coverage and digital inclusivity,
as additional considerations for amplifying sector-wide benefits of an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture. We discuss implications for policy and practice in the light of resource constraints and the promise to digitally
transform agriculture in SSA countries.

Akuku, B, Oboko R, Waema TM.  2020.  Institutionalization of knowledge management strategies in agricultural research organizations: a systematic literature review. Knowledge Management for Development Journal. Vol. 15 No. 1 (2020): Abstract

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management Strategy, Institutionalization, Adoption, Implementation, Entrenchment, process, practice, influencing factors
In recent years Knowledge Management (KM) has emerged as a significant field for research and practitioners in Information Systems (IS) domain. Despite the rapid growth in literature, the concept of institutionalization of KM strategies in organizations is understudied. Consistent with a “practice turn” emphasis in recent literature in IS strategy-related studies, this study examines the body of knowledge on institutionalization of KM strategies in Agricultural Research organizations (AROs). A complimentary approach combining systematic and hermeneutics literature review methods is used to search, select, analyze extant literature and presentation of study results. While studies have expanded neo-institutional theory and recommends linking process analysis to context with a specific focus on organizational level analysis, the concepts are not used in extant literature. Similarly, a comparative analysis studies or a framework to compare similar or different contexts with regard to institutionalization processes or practices of KM strategies is not found in extant literature. A conclusion is drawn that micro-processes analysis of institutionalization of KM strategies at organizational level in practice are not adequately explored. To date it is not known how KM strategies are adopted, implemented and entrenched in organizations including what processes takes place in day-to-day activities, yet literature continues to report that AROs are facing difficulties this area.

Akuku, B, Oboko R, Waema TM, Brown I.  2020.  Knowledge management strategies adopted in agricultural research organizations in East Africa. AbstractWebsite

In previous studies, Knowledge Management (KM) strategies have been examined as objects of organizations, instead of scrutinizing their characteristics or relative quality and content. This study aims to examine the key characteristics of KM strategies in Agricultural Research Organizations (AROs) in East Africa in terms of what exists, what does not exist and why. To comprehensively answer the research questions and understand the phenomena under investigation the study adopted a pragmatism paradigm to allow facts and concerns to arise from the context. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed using semi-structured Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and a questionnaire respectively. A novel empirical description and explanation of the key characteristics of KM strategies in AROs in East Africa is presented. The study identifies the key concepts and gaps in the characteristics of KM strategies and elucidates what AROs in East Africa should do differently to coherently formulate and execute KM strategies in practice. The main characteristics of KM strategies in AROs in East Africa are practicability, technology-focus, alignment, implementation processes and relevance. Through abstraction and theorization of the key concepts, a detailed description and explanation as a reference for scholars and practitioners in the KM field is provided. Further, the study highlights context as an important and relevant perspective in particularizing the characteristics of a KM strategy and interpretation of related empirical findings. Future studies can use the concepts presented in this study to develop a theoretical framework for analyzing the characteristics of KM strategies in organizations. The idea of linking the study outcome to an empirical situation is a novel contribution. The findings of this study shed new insights that confirm that understanding characteristics of KM strategies is beneficial to practitioners and scholars.

Keywords agricultural research organizations, characteristics, East Africa, knowledge management, KM strategies


Foster, C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N.  2018.  Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms Economic Geography. 94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.


Mulwa, MM, Waema TM.  2016.  Understanding Mobile Banking from a Theoretical Lens: Case Studies of Selected Kenyan m-Banking Products. International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy. 7(1):54-68.
Mutunga, IM, Waema TM.  2016.  Context of mobile phone use and its effects on smallholder farmer’s livelihood outcomes in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 3(4):121-136.
Mwangi, H, Williams D, Waema T, Nganga Z.  2016.  Leveraging HIV advancement in the light of Tuberculosis and Malaria using System Dynamics. Advances in Computer System. 5:47-54.


Omwansa, TK, Lule I, Waema T.  2015.  The Influence of Trust and Risk in Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Financial Services among the Poor. International Arab Journal of e-Technology (IAJeT). 4(1):8-16.
Waema, TM.  2015.  ICT4D and Global Connectivity. The International Encyclopedia of Digital Communication and Society. :1-4.
Mwangi, H, Williams D, Waema T, Nganga Z.  2015.  Using system dynamics to understand the role of cofactors TB and malaria in the progression of HIV. International Journal of System Dynamics.
Barasa, B, Kakembo V, Mwololo Waema T, Laban M.  2015.  Effects of heterogeneous land use/cover types on river channel morphology in the Solo River catchment, Eastern Uganda. Geocarto International Journal.
Mulwa, MM, Waema TM.  2015.  Understanding mobile banking from a theoretical lens: Case studies of selected Kenyan m-banking products. International Journal of Management & Information Technology. 10(8):2434-2444.


Omwansa, T.K., Waema TM, Chen C, Sullivan NP.  2013.  The Mobile Phone as the Tool to Redefine Savings for the Poor: Evidence from Kenya. African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 5(4):1-7.
Tocho, JA, Waema TM.  2013.  Towards an e-waste management framework in Kenya. info. 15(5):99–113.Website


Ochieng, DO, Waema TM, Onsomu JO.  2012.  Mobile Interfaced Crops Diagnosis Expert System (MICDES): a case for rural Kenyan farmers. Economics and Management. 4(1):4–26.
Ndung'u, MN, Waema TM, Mitullah WV.  2012.  Factors influencing usage of new technologies in low-income households in Kenya: the case of Nairobi. AbstractWebsite

Purpose – Use of e-mail, the internet and mobile phones, collectively referred to as the “new technologies” in this paper, is influenced by various factors in low-income households. These factors, which range between individual, social, economic, environmental, cultural and knowledge, have not been explored fully, particularly in low-income households in Kenya. This paper aims to argue that access to the new technologies does not lead automatically to use thereof, since a combination of the factors determines if (and how) the technologies are used. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses data collected through a survey conducted in 2010, which complemented the 2007 Research ICT Africa (RIA) data. The 2010 survey focused on three clusters based in Nairobi, a subset of RIA (2007). The three clusters are Ofafa 1 (A), Umoja II (B) and Riruta Satellite (C). Data from 40 households are used. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the households. Findings – Age, income, gender, education level, skills and marital status influenced usage of the new technologies in diverse ways. With innovations such as M-Pesa, the respondents who used the technology and were confident with the usage cut across education levels. Males used the new technologies more than females did. A possible reason for this may be found in a further finding which shows that males had acquired more years of education than had females. The implication of this is that if equal education opportunities were available for all, then the usage differences would be addressed across the gender divide. Originality/value – The paper uses the capability approach developed by Nobel laureate, Amartya Sen as the theoretical framework. A rigorous research design and methodology was used to collect and analyse the data.


Waema, TM, Waema TM.  2011.  Policy Implications of the Relationship Between ICT Access and Usage and Well-being: A Case Study of Kenya. African Journal of Science,Technology, Innovation and Development (AJSTID). 3(3):30-56.


M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2010.  Kizza, J.M., Muchie, M. and Waema, T. (2010). Reaching out: Efforts to build sustainable African research and innovation capacity. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (AJSTID), 2(2), 215-229. : Pambazuka Press Abstract
M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2010.  Wausi, A.N. and Waema, T.M. (2010). Implementing IS in developing country context: towards creating a favourable implementation context. International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR), 4(2), 12-26. : Pambazuka Press Abstract


M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2009.  Waema, T.M. (2009). E-local governance: a case study of financial management system implementation in two municipal councils in Kenya. International Journal on Electronic Governance, 2 (1), 55-73. : Pambazuka Press Abstract
M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2009.  Waema, T.M. and Mitullah, W. (2009). e-Governance in Local Authorities in Kenya: Policy and Institutional Elements of Implementation. Proceedings of the LOG-IN Africa e-Local Governance 1st Conference, June 5-6 2008, Cairo, Egypt, ISBN 978-9981-1-1062-0, pp. 67-78. : Pambazuka Press Abstract
M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2009.  Waema, T.M. and Mwamburi, C.M. (2009). Ex Ante Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Projects; Case Studies of Kenyan Universities. International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR), 3 (1), 65-76. : Pambazuka Press Abstract
M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2009.  Waema, T.M. (2009). e-Governance Evaluation: Towards an Integrated Outcome Evaluation Research Framework. Proceedings of the LOG-IN Africa e-Local Governance 1st Conference, June 5-6 2008, Cairo, Egypt. : Pambazuka Press Abstract
M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2009.  Dunckley, L., Camara, S.B., Abdelnour Nocera, J, and Waema, T.M. (2009). Socio-Technical Issues of Participatory Design in the Developing World. International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development, (IJSKD), 1(3), 1-14. : Pambazuka Press Abstract
M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2009.  Waema, T.M. and Musyoka, J.M. (2009). Shifting shores: investigating how the shift from electronic to mobile government interacts with the development practice in Kenya.. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, Bogota, Columbia, November 10-13, 2009. : Pambazuka Press Abstract
M., PROFWAEMATIMOTHY.  2009.  Waema, T.M., Mitullah, W. and Adera, E. (2009). Research in African e-Local Governance: Outcome Assessment Research Framework. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (AJSTID), 1(1), 227-256. : Pambazuka Press Abstract


Waema, TM, Mureithi M, Wanjira A, Schluep M, Finlay A.  2008.  E-waste in Kenya: Baseline Assessment..
Waema, TM, Camara SB, Abdelnour, Nocera J.  2008.  Cross-Cultural Participatory Design in the Developing World..
Waema, TM, Camara S, Abdelnour NJ, Luckin R.  2008.  Bridging the global digital divide with participatory customisation..

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