Born in Nairobi, Kenya in 1946.  Obtained Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc.) degree from the University of East Africa in 1969 and Master of Science (MSc.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees in Surgery from Colorado State University, USA in 1973 and 1976 respectively.  Elected to Theta Chapter of Phi Zeta at Colorado State University in 1973.  Taught Veterinary Surgery at University of Nairobi from 1969 to 1980, with a study leave from 1971 – 1974 at Colorado State University on USAID scholarship. 



Zhou, W, Dong J-T, Moreno CS, Vertino PM, Yang VW, Sun X, Dong X-Y; L.  Submitted.  Sox7 Is an Independent Checkpoint for β-Catenin Function in Prostate and Colon Epithelial Cells. Abstractabstract5.pdfWebsite

The presence of somatic β-catenin mutations in some prostate cancers implies that aberrant WNT signaling is involved in the cancer development. Although β-catenin stability is regulated by a multicomponent destruction complex, mutational alterations of β-catenin or other components of the destruction complexes are rare in prostate tumors. Therefore, β-catenin may be regulated by another protein in the prostate. In fact, recent linkage and somatic deletion analyses in prostate cancers reveal a 1.4-Mb candidate tumor suppressor locus on 8p23.1, which includes the Sox7 gene. Here we show that Sox7 protein expression was indeed down-regulated in 47% (15 of 32) of prostate adenocarcinomas. In addition, Sox7 mRNA was down-regulated in 60% of snap-frozen tumors. This down-regulation was found to be due to tumor-specific promoter hypermethylation, which was present in 48% (10 of 21) of primary prostate tumors and 44% (11 of 25) of prostate cancer cell lines/xenografts. We discovered that Sox7 protein physically interacts with β-catenin and suppresses β-catenin–mediated transcription by depleting active β-catenin. Furthermore, in HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines with Sox7 inactivation, ectopic Sox7 expression suppressed cell proliferation and inhibited transcription that was activated by an endogenous mutant β-catenin. Although nearly all colorectal cancers contain mutations in β-catenin or adenomatous polyposis coli/axin, epigenetic silencing of Sox7 was still observed. These data suggest that Sox7 is a tumor suppressor that functions as an independent checkpoint for β-catenin transcriptional activity. Inactivation of Sox7 could promote the development of a majority of colorectal tumors and approximately half of prostate tumors.

Abbott, K, Gramlich T, Hunter S.  Submitted.  Y chromosome loss in esophageal carcinoma: An in situ hybridization study. AbstractWebsite

Carcinoma of the esophagus shows a strong male predominance and other epidemiologic differences from cancers arising at other sites. In this study, the prevalence of Y chromosome loss in 29 carcinomas of the esophagus and 53 carcinomas arising elsewhere in the aerodigestive tract was assessed by in situ hybridization of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Absence of the Y chromosome was defined as (1) negative staining for Y in neoplastic cells with positive staining for Y in immediately adjacent nonneoplastic epithelial and stromal cells, (2) positive staining of neoplastic cells with control probes for chromosomes X and 17, and (3) similar results at different stringencies and levels of protein digestion. According to these criteria, absence of the Y chromosome was observed in 13 of 14 (93%) adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, 8 of 13 (62%) squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, and 5 of 53 (9%) carcinomas arising in other sites. For the neoplasms examined, Y chromosome deletion was strongly and selectively associated with carcinomas, particularly adenocarcinomas, of the esophagus (P < .0001). These findings suggest that Y chromosome loss may be pathogenetically significant in these neoplasms.


Gathumbi, PK, Varma VS, Gathumbi JK, Shah DN.  2013.  Ocular Neoplastic Lesions of the Horse in Kenya from Specimens Recceived between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitiology, April. 47th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. , Mombasa, Kenya


Gathumbi, PK, Varma S, Wells C.  2001.  Pathological and Ultrastructural Features of Equine Klosiellosis.. Kenya Veterinarian. 21:45-48.


Mbugua, SW, Bencivenga A, Varma S, Wambua J, Wambua E, Majiba T, Muchai G.  1998.  Repair of Posterior Cruciate and Collateral Ligament Rupture in a Male Cheetah, September. Presented at the Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. , University of Nairobi, Kenya


Perry, BD, Kyendo TM, Mbugua SW, Price JE, Varma S.  1995.  Increasing Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Urban Dog Populations of High Human Population Density Suburbs; A Case Study in Nairobi, Kenya.. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 22:137-142.


Varma, V, Abbott K, Gramlich T, Hunter S.  1993.  Y chromosome loss in esophageal carcinoma: An in situ hybridization study.


Bwangamoi, O, Varma S.  1992.  Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteopathy in a Gelding – A Case Report., April. Presented at the Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. , Nairobi,Kenya
Bwangamoi, O, Varma S.  1992.  Pulmonary Tumour and Hypertrophic Osteopathy in a Horse. . Kenya Veterinarian. 16:13-17.


Varma, S.  1991.  Equine Practice in Kenya, April. Presented at the Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. , Nairobi, Kenya


Varma, S.  1989.  New Methods for Treatment of Angular and Flexural Limb Deformities in Foals.. Presented at the Scientific and Special General Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. , Nairobi, Kenya
Varma, S.  1989.  Equine Theriogenology. . Lectures given at the Continuing Education Course held at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. , University of Nairobi, Kenya
Varma, S.  1989.  Babesiosis Infection in Horses. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. 20:169-170.


Varma, S.  1988.  Equine Babesiosis. Presented at the Annual Congress of the Zimbabwe Veterinary Association, . , Harare, Zimbabwe


Varma, S.  1987.  Neonatal Foal Diseases. Presented at the Scientific Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association. , Kisumu, Kenya


Omara-Opuene, AI, Varma S.  1985.  Crosurgery of Bovine Squamuos Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva. Veterinary Record. 117:518-520.
Omara-Opuene, AI, Varma S.  1985.  Immunotherapy of Bovine Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Kenya Veterianarian. 9(1):25-28.
Varma, S.  1985.  Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Proceedings f the Scientific Meeting of the Nairobi Clusterand Kenya veterinary Association in Kenya Veterinarian, vol. 10. :10., Nairobi: Kenya Veterinary Association


Omara-Opuene, AI, Varma S.  1984.  Occurence of Bovine squamous Cell Carcinoma in Kenya.. Kenya Veterianarian. 8(1):5-8.


Shartry, AM, Wilson AJ, Varma S.  1981.  Sequential Study of Lymph Node and Splenic Aspirates during Theileria Parva Infection in calves.. Research in Veterinary Science. 30:1980-1984.
Varma, S, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL, Lumb WV.  1981.  Tissue Reaction to Suture Materials in Infected Surgical Wounds – A Histopathologic Evaluation.. American Journal of Veterinary Research . 42:563-570.
Varma, S, Lumb WV, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL.  1981.  Further Studies with Polyglycolic Acid (Dexon) and Other Sutures in Infected Wounds.. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 42:571-574.


Varma, S, Shartry AM.  1980.  A Technique for Partial Marsupialization of the Spleen in Calves. Veterinary Record. 106(a):127-128.


Varma, S.  1976.  Tissue Reaction to Surgical Sutures in Infected Wounds. , Colorado: Colorado State University


Varma, S, Lumb WV, Ferguson HL, Breen H.  1975.  Infection and Suture Tolerance. . Presented at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons.. , Denver, Colorado, USA.


Varma, S, Ferguson HL, Breen H, Lumb WV.  1974.  Comparison of Seven Suture Materials in Infected Wounds. Journal of Surgical Research. 17:165-170.


  1973.  Infection and Suture Tolerance. , Colorado: Colorado State University

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