Bio

PROF. VICTOR TREVOR TSUMA, PhD

Born in Bungoma District of Western Province of Kenya in May 1965. Got Primary education in Naivasha Boys Boarding Primary School, Naivasha; Secondary education in Kibabii High School, Bungoma,  and High School Education in Menengai High School, Nakuru. Joined University of Nairobi in 1985 for undergraduate course in Veterinary Medicine, culminating in a Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine degree in 1989.

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Publications


2013

2012

Kipyegon, AN, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA.  2012.  Effects of ripe Carica papaya seed powder on testicular histology of boars.. Int. J. Vet. Sci., . 1:1-4.
T.O.Abuom, Njenga MJ, J.K.Wabacha, Tsuma VT, G.K.Gitau.  2012.  Incidence and risk factors of periparturient conditions in smallholder dairy cattle herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.. Ethiop. Vet. J.. 16:85-102.

2011

Tsuma, VT;, Okeyo AM, Camargo; Viana JHM;, Origa RA;, Mutembei HM;, Muasa B;.  2011.  In vitro embryo production using Boran (Bos indicus) oocytes in Kenya. Website

2009

Mutembei, HM, Muasa BS, Origa R, Jimbo S, Ojango JMK, Tsuma VT, Mutiga ER, Okeyo AM.  2009.  Delivery of appropriate cattle genotypes to Eastern African smallholder farmers through in vitro embryo production technologies – the technical procedures, prospects and challenges.. Royal Society Chemistry Journal. 32:84-90.

2007

2006

2004

TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  2004.  Njenga, J. M. and Tsuma, V. T. (2004). Sudden death following rupture of the middle uterine artery, in a bovine dystocia. Kenya Veterinarian 26: 27-28.. IHE/TU Delft, The Netherlands.. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
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2002

2000

TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  2000.  Mogoa, E.G.M., Omiti, J.M., Tsuma, V.T. and Bwanga, C.O. (2000). Some constraints and opportunities in the privatization of animal breeding services in Kenya.. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya.. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  2000.  Mutembei, H.M., Mutiga, E.R. and Tsuma, V.T. (2000). A retrospective study on some parameters of German shepherd bitches in Kenya. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass., 71(2): 115-117,. IHE/TU Delft, The Netherlands.. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

1999

TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1999.  Munyua, M., Mbai, K., Thaiya, A.G., Wabacha, J.K. and Tsuma, V.T. (1999). Reproductive health care in dairy animals. CAIS Magazine, Oct. 1999. PP 25-26,. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya.. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

1998

TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1998.  Magnusson, U., Wattrang, E., Tsuma, V.T. and Fossum, C. (1998). Effects of stress resulting from short-term restraint on in vitro functional capacity of leucocytes obtained from pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 59: 421-425,. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya.. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1998.  Mutembei, H.M., Mutiga, E.R. and Tsuma, V.T. (1998). Reproductive parameters in Kenyan GSD bitches.. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1998.  Madej, A., Einarsson, S., Mburu, J.N. and Tsuma, V.T. (1998). Involvement of thyroid hormones and cortisol in the stress response and their possible effects on fertility in the pig. Reprod. Dom. Anim., 33: 317-320,. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya.. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1998.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Forsberg, M. and Lundeheim, N. (1998). Plasma levels of progesterone and cortisol after ACTH administration in lactating primiparous sows. Acta Vet. Scand., 39: 71-76,. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya.. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

1996

TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1996.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S. and Madej, A. (1996). Adrenocortical activity and reproduction in primiparous sows. .. Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1996.  Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Tsuma, V.T. (1996). The influence of stress on early pregnancy in the pig. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 42: 165-172,. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1996.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Kindahl, H., Lundeheim, N. and Rojkittikhun, T. (1996). Endocrine changes during group housing of primiparous sows in early pregnancy. Acta Vet. Scand., 37: 481-490,. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1996.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Kindahl, H. and Lundeheim, N. (1996). Effect of food deprivation during early pregnancy on endocrine changes in primiparous sows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 41: 267-278,. Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

1995

TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1995.  Roozen, A.W.N., Tsuma, V.T. and Magnusson, U. (1995). Effects of short-term stress on plasma concentrations of catecholamines, B-endorphin, and cortisol in gilts. Am. J. Vet. Res., 56: 1225-1227,. Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1995.  Einarsson, S., Sterning, M., Tsuma, V.T. and Rydmer, L. (1995). Oestrus in primiparous sows: relationships with weight loss, metabolism and endocrine regulation.. 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1995.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1995). Hormone profiles around weaning in cyclic and anoestrous sows. J. Vet. Med. A., 42: 153-163,. Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1995.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1995). Cortisol and B-endorphin in peripheral circulation around weaning in primiparous sows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 37: 175-182,. Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

1994

Tsuma, VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Lundeheim N.  1994.  Endocrine changes during fasting of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr.. :502., Bangkok, Thailand
Tsuma, VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Kindahl H.  1994.  Effects of fasting sows during early pregnancy on hormone patterns and embryonic survival.. J. Reprod. Fertil. Abstract series. (14):27.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1994.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1994). Endocrine changes during fasting of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.. Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1994.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Kindahl, H. (1994). Effects of fasting sows during early pregnancy on hormone patterns and embryonic survival. J. Reprod. Fertil. Abstract series No. 14. PP 27,. Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1994.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1994). Endocrine changes during grouping of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.. Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 501. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1994.  Einarsson, S. and Tsuma, V.T. (1994). Relationship between nutrition and fertility. Reprod. Dom. Anim., 29: 340-342,. 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1994.  Mutiga, E.R., Munyua, S.J.M. and Tsuma, V.T. (1994). The effect of improved reproductive herd health on milk production from peri-urban dairy farms. Kenya Veterinarian 18: 3-6,. 46th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. PP 31. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

1993

Tsuma, VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Rojkittikhun T, Lundeheim N.  1993.  Peripheral plasma concentration of B-endorphin and cortisol in sows around weaning.. IV Int. Conf. on Pig Reprod. , Missouri, USA
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1993.  Mutiga, E.R., Mbai, K., Tsuma, V.T., Karitu, P.T. and Ojiayo, S.O. (1993). Incidence and causes of retained placenta in small-holder dairy herds. Indian Vet. J., 70: 333-336,. Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1993.  Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Rojkittikhun, T. and Lundeheim, N. (1993). Peripheral plasma concentration of B-endorphin and cortisol in sows around weaning.. Proc. IV Int. Conf. On Pig Reprod. Missouri, USA,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

1992

Tsuma, VT, Magnusson U.  1992.  Opsonic activity in mammary secretion and serum of gilts during the lactation period. Abstract

Opsonic activity was studied in mammary secretion and serum during lactation in four healthy gilts. The opsonic activity was determined as peak chemiluminescence and time to peak chemiluminescence in a luminol enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The peak chemiluminescence was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in mammary secretion around parturition than later in lactation. No changes in the opsonic activity were seen in serum during lactation. Overall, the peak chemiluminescence and time to peak chemiluminescence were significantly higher (p < 0.001) and shorter (p < 0.05) respectively, in serum than in mammary secretion. The present study indicates that the opsonic activity is highest in mammary secretion around parturition but decreases later in lactation, and that this change is confined to the mammary gland.

TREVOR, DRTSUMAVICTOR.  1992.  Tsuma, V.T. and Magnusson, U. (1992). Opsonic activity in mammary secretion and serum of gilts during the lactation period. J. Vet. Med. B., 39: 285-289,. Proc. IV Int. Conf. On Pig Reprod. Missouri, USA,. : MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.

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