Publications


2012

Muketha, Silas M.; Konyimbih, TM.  2012.  Riparian Zones in Nairobi City.

2005

Konyimbi, T.  2005.  1Property Taxation In Western And South-Eastern African Countries: Principles And Applications In Zimbabwe, Tanzania And Ghana,. Abstract

Land is a vital resource for rural livelihoods. Establishing and clarifying land rights through formalisation has become a key issue in development policies that aim to promote more productive uses of land. This re port looks at some land reform initiatives from a gendered human rights perspective. The human rights-based approach (HRBA) has a direct bearing on international and national land reform policies, facilitating gender equality through elimination of discrimination against women. The overall aim of this report is to make a contribution to the operationalisation of the HRBA. Chapter 2 focuses on different approaches to formalisation in different historical periods to date, starting with a discussion of the concept itself. In Chapter 3 the hum an rights- based approach to development is developed in relation to women’s land rights, while Chapter 4 is an analysis of the approach to land policy found in the 2003 World Bank report. The country studies presented in Chapters 5–8 explore to what extent international and national formalisation initiatives are consonant with international human rights standards

2002

2001

Konyimbih, TM.  2001.  Major issues of smallholder land policy: past trends and current practices in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

The official government strategy on land policy in Kenya aims to achieve optimum utilization and equitable distribution of land for the country's rapidly increasing population. This strategy has been pursued with programmes to transform customary tenure structures to statutory freehold through land adjudication and registration for the issuance of individual titles. This article examines the landholding structure in the smallholder sector in Kenya. It analyses how interests in land in those areas are acquired, held and transferred. Among the smallholders in Kenya, the landholding system is still largely custom driven. Statutory stipulations are largely ignored as being irrelevant and bureaucratic. For the proper implementation of any land policy based on statutes, the socio-economic circumstances of smallholders must first be analysed and understood in order to make the law responsive to their aspirations.

2000

1998

KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1998.  Property Valuation Practice in Kenya: Trends & Challenges. Paper presented to a professional group at the Construction Review seminar at the Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi on the 30th September 1998.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1998.  1Property Taxation in Western and South-Eastern African Countries: Principles and applications in Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Ghana, Paper presented for the pilot core course in Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations and Municipal Financial Management in Harare Zi. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

1996

KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1996.  Professional Standards, Negligence, Liability and Indemnity as they relate to the Real Estate Valuer in Kenya. Paper presented to a seminar on Valuation Practice in a changing Socio-political and Economic Environment. UCLAS, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 4th . KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

1991

KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Land Settlements, Land Reforms and the historical causes of land grievances in Kenya.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
The objective of this paper is to provide a general review of the historical and statutory genesis of the present land grievances in European settlement on fertile agricultural land in Kenya consigned the indigenous Kenyans in those areas to marginal reserves that soon became overpopulated with the consequent decrease of land acreage per capita leading to resource conflicts.   With the coming of independence, a programme of land re-settlement was hurriedly designed for those who had been marginalized but this had a minimal effect on landlessness because it did not offer enough land (sold to the Kenya Government by departing European settlers) for those who were landless. Those who obtained plots under the programme were saddled by loan repayment from the onset, on, at times very marginal unproductive land.   The policy of land adjudication, consolidation and registration meant to give proprietors indefeasible titles for greater productivity has not, after fifty years, had the economic impact earlier anticipated by its proponents. It has not stemmed landlessness as those with titles at times attempt to enforce their rights against family members whose ancestral rights could not have been recorded in the land registers. In a land-based agricultural country such as Kenya, the problem of landlessness is bound to increase (with increasing population and lack of off-farm economic opportunities) as resource competition increases leading to displacement and further land conflicts.   There is now a new opportunity to design and pass legislation that takes on board the socio-economic circumstances of the land tillers and that will protect multiple rights in periods of lack of alternative economic and social opportunities to guarantee some sort of beneficial access to land for the majority. It will be highly beneficial to these people if new legislations include a researched way of effectively communicating them to the rural population.   
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  LAND TITLING IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: Kenya. KLB. : WFL Publisher
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Landholding and Ethics: Critical issues for Kenya. KLB. : WFL Publisher
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Evaluating Community/Self-help Water Management Systems in Arid and Semi-Arid Districts in Kenya. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  LAND DEALINGS IN KENYA. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
PREAMBLE   In   The Act of Parliament gives wide powers to Land Control Boards established in Land Control Agricultural Areas (Section 5 Cap 302) to hear applications brought to them (through the District Land Registrars) and to consider the same under the criteria stipulated in the Act, with appeal procedures being also provided for in the same statute.   This paper analyses the administrative and circumstantial efficacy of controlling transactions in registered agricultural land as specified in section 6(1) of the Act. It uses the recent land control experiences of the Muhoroni Land Control Board in particular, and the decided court cases in general to analyze the operations of the Act in terms of its practical, legal,social, economic and procedural limitations.   The paper concludes that despite the seemingly good intentions, the forty year old statute should substantially be reviewed in order to be a useful tool of rural land policy.  In the event that it is interfering with private transactions in land in circumstances where a number of statutes also exert some controlling influence on agricultural land in Kenya, Parliament may now consider repealing the Act altogether.
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  LAND RIGHTS MATRIX: Developing Land Tenure Data for Kenya. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
The government of   This study is a contribution towards that outcome and is meant to examine the general land use structure, land tenure conditions and their interrelations in a matrix of the user-rights scenario that will enable the government to develop a useful data base.   Four of the largest nomadic pastoralist ethnic communities were surveyed in northern Kenya, the Somali, Gabra, Rendille and the Borana in Wajir and Marsabit districts (see Map 2) in locations where they predominantly live.   Against a backdrop of extensive and intensive literature review, a field work survey was carried out using convenience sampling.  Information was recorded in semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules, followed by focus group discussions and informant interviews.   The analysis shows that land rights, land use and livestock keeping are closely intertwined and form the economic, social and cultural basis of nomadic pastoralist livelihoods.   The detailed labour management requirement of each livestock type and age is well planned at family and community level.  Therefore, the pasture, water, veterinary and security needs of each species of livestock must be coordinated carefully in order to optimize on the use of land resources both at the settlement camps and at the grazing camps.   Land is categorized depending on the type of vegetation that it produces for dry season or wet season grazing and browsing.  Livestock, livelihood and land use therefore require flexibility and movement over large distances in order to pasture and water both the animal and human populations in an environment that is restricted by aridity, insecurity and soil infertility.   Access to suitable land means access to suitable pasture and this enables both livestock and human reproduction.  This is determined by ethnic community membership even when they own all the livestock and some of the water points (boreholes) individually.   Some more work however, remains to be done in tracking the land rights transitions over time and how these rights will respond to population pressure in these nomadic pastoralist areas in the near and distant future.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Enhancing Community Participation and Women. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Land, Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Kenya. Issues for the next millennium. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Improving community participation in the realization of sustainable sanitation in the Kenyan Market Centres.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  An Analysis of the relationship between land tenure and agricultural land use in selected subsistence and cash crop areas in Kenya.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  A strategy for strengthening the service urban centers in Kenya: Case Study of Maseno, Karatina and Athi River.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Promoting Agricultural Co-operative efficiency in Nyeri District, Kenya.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Control of the Rural Land Market in Kenya. Preliminary findings from the CaneCrop areas of Nyanza Province.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  A strategy for strengthening the service urban centers in Kenya: Case Study of Maseno, Karatina and Athi River.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH, DRTOM.  1991.  Statutory Land Control and the Small holder Land System in Kenya: A study of land control in the Nyanza Sugar belt. Ph.D, Department of Land Economy University of Cambridge, England. December 1991.. KLB. : WFL Publisher Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

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