Publications

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2016
Kimani ST, Patel NB, Kioy PG. "Memory deficits associated with khat (Catha edulis) use in rodents." Metab Brain Dis. 2016;31(1):45-52. Abstract

Khat products and chewing practices are common in East Africa, Middle East for centuries with concomitant socio-economic and public health repercussions. We assessed memory deficits associated with khat use in rodents. Young male CBA mice, 5-7 weeks old (n = 20), weighing 25-35 g were used. Mice were treated with either 40, 120 or 360 mg/kg body weight (bw) methanolic khat extract, or 0.5 ml saline for 10 days. Spatial acquisition, reversal and reference memory were assessed using modified Morris Water maze (MMWM). Mice treated with 40 mg/kg khat extract had longer (t4 = 4.12 p = 0.015) and t4 = 2.28 p = 0.065) escape latency on first and second day during reversal relative to the baseline. Under 120 mg/kg khat dose, the escape latency was shorter (t4 = -2.49 p = 0.05) vs (t3 = -2.5 p = 0.05) on third and fourth day. Further, treatment with 360 mg/kg khat extract resulted in significantly longer time (49.13, 33.5, 40.2 and 35.75) vs. (23.5 s), compared to baseline. Mice treated with khat or control preferred the target quadrant post acquisition while differential pattern was seen during reversal phase. Mice treated with 40 or 120 mg/kg khat showed significant preference for target quadrant. Substantial time (19.9) was spent in the old target compared to the new (16.9 s) by animals treated with highest dose however, the difference was not significant. There is a biological plausibility that chronic khat use may induce memory deficits and impair cognitive flexibility. The differential patterns of memory deficits may reflect the differences in dose effect as well as time dependent impairment.

2014
Kimani S, Sinei K BT-KMFD. "Cassava cyanogenesis and neurotoxicity: experimental modeling. Part I. Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents.". In: Brain Disorders in the Developing World Tenth Anniversary Symposium. NIH, Bethsda, Maryland USA ; 2014.
2. Kimani S, Moterroso V MWKBMT-KPJSF. "Cassava cyanogenesis and neurotoxicity: experimental modeling. Part II. Cross species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.". In: Brain Disorders in the Developing World Tenth Anniversary Symposium . NIH, Bethsda, Maryland USA ; 2014.
Kimani S, Sinei K BT-KMFDC. "Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents." Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014;(29):105-112.
2013
2012
Eileen M. Stuart-Shor, Anna K. Karani AMPJKJMCJDMKBSS. "Distribution of CV risk factors in a convenience sample of community dwelling Kenyans .". In: World congress of cardiology. Dubai, UAE; 2012.wc_of_cardiology.pdf
Stephen Kainga, Margaret Chege MWSK. "Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus attending Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. Nairobi; 2012.
Jessica DeMita, € Dennis Munene DGMSSSKJMMJK¥ £ € ¥. "KHAS (Kenya Heart and Sole Afya Njema) Project; an Academic-Clinical-Policy Partnership for Health.". In: Global Nursing caucus. Boston, USA; 2012.
Jacob Kariuki, Anna Karani SKES-S. "Cardiovascular risk factors among Kenyans." Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2012;27(4):287-291.
Stuart-Shor EM, Kariuki JK, Chateauneuf J, Kimani S, Karani AK. "PCNA Annual Symposium Abstracts.". 2012. Abstract

Global risk assessment has become an important part of comprehensive CV evaluation and guides treatment. Most global risk tools require laboratory measurement of lipids, a test not readily available in resource-constrained countries. The Gaziano Risk Score (GRS) is a non-lab based model which includes age, gender, diabetes, smoking, systolic BP and substitutes BMI for cholesterol. In comparative effectiveness analysis the GRS has similar predictive value compared to the Framingham score. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to add risk stratification using clinical estimations of the number of CV risk factors (CVRF) and the GRS to our community-based CV screenings.

Samuel Kimani, Stephen Kainga MCMW. "Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes at Kenyatta national hospital, Kenya." Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2012;27(5):369-378.
2011
Kassa R, Wentzell MKKMMDT-KJVS. "Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of tetanus toxin-derivatives in neurodegerative diseases.". In: the American Society of Neurochemistry (ASN). Saint Louis, mi, USA; 2011.
Kimani, S. MT-KVD. "Neurotoxicity behavior of cassava cyanogens analogs in sulfur amino acid (SAA) deficiency diet.". In: The 10th International Society Of Neuroscientists Of Africa (SONA) Conference, Basic to Clinic. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011.
Kimani S., Monterroso T-KMBVDC. "Impact of Sulphur amino acid (SAA) dietary deficiency on nervous system response to cyanogenic intoxication.". In: The 1st international scientific conference, CHS-UoN. Nairobi; 2011.
L Mutombo, VH Monterroso KKMDDT-KSKM. "Cellular Targete of Linamarin and Cyanate: Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Cassava-Associated Motor System Degeneration." Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 2011;50(5):739.
Joelle Chateauneuf, Samuel Kimani AKJKES-SKM. "Kenya Heart and Sole Quick Look Guide for Cardiovascular Disease Patient Evaluation." Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2011;26(4):278-279.
Mundan VK, Muiva MN KSTSBMF. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with Hypertension among armed-forces personnel In Kenya." Cardiovascular Journal of Africa. 2011;22(3):S15-S16.
2009
Kimani S.T, Patel N.B KPG. "Effects of Khat (Catha edulis) extract on acquisition and reversal learning and memory in CBA mice.". In: European Science Foundation Research Conferences. Linkoping, Sweden; 2009.
and Kambo I KKNST. Procedure manual for Nurses and Midwives. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF); 2009.
and Kambo I KKNST. Procedure manual for Nurses and Midwives. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF); 2009.
2008
Patel, N. B KKSTPG. "Effect of Catha edulis (khat) on learning and memory on CBA mice.". In: International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) World Congress. Melbourne, Australia.; 2008.
Kimani, S.T. PKNBPG. "Effect of single and repeated khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essays . 2008;3(5):187-196.
Kimani, S.T. PKNBPG. "Effect of single and repeated khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essays. 2008;3(5):187-196.
and Kimani NSTAW. "Effect of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory in CBA mice." Behavioral Brain Research. 2008;(195):192-197.
Karani A. K, Kazuko N JKWTSTP. "Strengthening masters of community health nursing in Kenya." Kenya Nursing journal. 2008;33(2).
THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Effects of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory in CBA mice.Kimani ST, Nyongesa AW. Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: PMID: 18588917 [PubMed - in process]. Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Kiama TN and Mwangi DK.; 2008. Abstract
This study investigated the effects of fresh khat extract on learning and memory in CBA mice. A total of 20 male CBA mice, weighing 20-30 g, 5-6 weeks old were administered intraperitoneally with a single daily dose of khat extract for 5 days. The animals were divided into four groups, each comprising five animals. The first three groups were administered three doses (40, 120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract, respectively. The last group served as controls and was administered with 0.5 ml normal saline intraperitoneally. The animals were then subjected to Morris water maze (MWM) task performance. Moderate and high doses (120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract significantly impaired (P<0.05) while low dose (40 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract did not have a significant effect on CBA mice acquisition learning. The high dose of khat extract significantly (P<0.05) improved while moderate and low doses impaired accuracy for spatial memory of the platform location. This study has shown that khat extract has selective effect on spatial learning and memory, with low dose having no effect on learning but impairing memory, whereas high dose impairs learning but improves memory.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, MUCHINA MRWAITHAKAPETER, THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Strengthening Masters of Community Health Nursing in Kenya By Prof.. Anna Karani, Ms Kazuko Nasire, Prof. Junko Tashiro, Kimani, Waithaka, et al. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Kiama TN and Mwangi DK.; 2008.

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