Bio

PROF. MAITHO T. ELIAS

Obtained a Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and a MSc. degree from the University of Nairobi. He was awarded a Ph.D degree in Pharmacology from the Royal Veterinary College, University of London in 1982.He is registered by the Kenya Veterinary Board and is a Member of Kenya Veterinary Association and the Kenya National Academy of Sciences.
Prof. Maitho is employed by the University of Nairobi as a full Professor in Pharmacology and Toxicology.

PROF. MAITHO TIMOTHY ELIAS CV

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Publications


2013

and Maitho, MAT.  2013.  Monitoring rainfall data to estimate milk production in Mweiga location, Nyeri County, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 25(8):1-8.prof._maitho.pdf

2009

Mbaria, JM, Mitema ES, Maitho TE.  2009.  The pharmacokinetics of pyrethrins in lactating and non-lactating ewes after oral and subcutaneous administration. Abstract

Pyrethrins were administered orally and subcutaneously (SC) at 150 mg/kg body weight to 10 lactating and non-lactating ewes in a cross over experimental design. A gas chromatographic method was used for analysis of Pyre-thrins in serum and milk samples from the experimental animals. The disposition curves were bi-exponential after first-order absorption and fitted 1 and 2 compartmental models. The maximum plasma concentration (Crnax) of Pyrethrins following oral and SC administra¬tion was 0.08 fig/ml and 0.1} fig/ml respectively with the corresponding time to maximum concentrations (Trnax) being 1 hr and 2 hrs respectively. At 48 hours, serum Pyrethrins levels were below the limit of detec¬tion of 0.005 fig/ml. Absorption was significantly higher for SC route compared to oral routes (p<0.05) but half¬lives (11/2B) were not significantly different for the two routes (p>0.05). The mean residence time (MRT) was 9.7 hours. Total clearance was 4,337 and 3,180 litres/ kg/hr for oral and SC routes respectively. Pyrethrins were secreted in milk at levels of up to 0.005 fig/ml. It was concluded that in ewes, Pyrethrins are rapidly absorbed after orally and SC, widely distributed and eliminated from the body within 24 hours, Secretion into milk occcurs in ewes but the residues in milk are too low to toxic effects in humans.

2006

ELIAS, PROFMAITHOT.  2006.  Mbaria, J.M., Maitho, T.E. and Mitema. E.S. 2006. The efficacy of a pyrethrum extract against mixed natural gastrointestinal helminths infestations in puppies. The Kenya Veterinarian 29. In: Gerd Antos & Eija Ventola in cooperation with Tilo Weber (eds.). Interpersonal Communication. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter. 1. : de Gruyter Abstract
with Gerd Antos & Eija Ventola.

2005

ELIAS, PROFMAITHOT.  2005.  Gakuya, D.W., Mbithi, P.M.F., Maitho, T.E., Musimba, N.K.R., and Mugambi, J.M. 2005. Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of Albizia Anthelmintica and Maerua Edulis against Nematode heligmosomoides Polygyrus infections in mice. The Kenya Veterina. Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . : de Gruyter Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
ELIAS, PROFMAITHOT.  2005.  Maitho, T. 2005. Guidelines on Regulations and Syllabus for Postgraduate Programmes. University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical & Infectious Diseases Curriculum Development Workshop, Lake Bogoria Hotel, 10th . Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . : de Gruyter Abstract
Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica bark and Maerua- edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Groups, 2, and 3 were given an oral dose of water extracts of A. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently given a double oral dose of 0.2ml of physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyus egg count reduction of 72%. 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and 1 respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, /5%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2 3,6, and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use of these plants as anthelmintics
ELIAS, PROFMAITHOT.  2005.  Mbaria, J.M., Class, T.J., Baker, R., Mitema, E.S. and Maitho, T.E. 2006. Analysis of pyrethroids in air using commerical XAD sampling catridges and gas chromatography. The Kenya Veterinarian 29. In: Gerd Antos & Eija Ventola in cooperation with Tilo Weber (eds.). Interpersonal Communication. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter. 1. : de Gruyter Abstract

with Gerd Antos & Eija Ventola.

ELIAS, PROFMAITHOT.  2005.  Maitho, T.E., Mbithi, P.M.F., and Mavuti, K.M. 2005. The Research Degree and Role of Supervisor: University of Nairobi examples of best practice and critical problem areas. Proceedings of University Science, Humanities & Engineering Partnerships in Africa (USHEPiA) Bench Marking Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 21st . : de Gruyter

2004

MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ, MITEMA PROFSEO, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT.  2004.  COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF PYRETHRUM MARC WITH ALBENDAZOLE AGAINST SHEEP GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES. Tropical Animal Health and Production. : de Gruyter Abstract
The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared.  Sheep were infected orally with     10 000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%).  Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4,6,8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep.  These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05).  The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
ELIAS, PROFMAITHOT, R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK.  2004.  The potential use of plant anthelmintic for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 26: 14-26.. Tropical Animal Health and Production. : de Gruyter Abstract
The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared.  Sheep were infected orally with     10 000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%).  Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4,6,8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep.  These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05).  The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.

2002

ELIAS, PROFMAITHOT.  2002.  Muchohi, S.N., Kokwaro, G.O., Maitho, T.E., Munenge, R.W., Watkins, W.M., and Edwards, I.G. 2002. Pharmacokinetics of phenytoin following intravenous and intramuscular Administration of fosphentoin and phenytoin sodium in the rabbit. European J. of Drug M. Tropical Animal Health and Production. : de Gruyter Abstract
The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared.  Sheep were infected orally with     10 000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%).  Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4,6,8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep.  These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05).  The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.

1998

WAKONYU, DRKANJAL, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT.  1998.  Levels of organochlorine Pesticide residues in milk of Urban Mothers in Kenya. journal. : de Gruyter
MUCUNU, DRMBARIAJ, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT, MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT.  1998.  MEDIAN LETHAL DOSES, CLINICAL SIGNS AND POST-MORTEM CHANGES IN ACUTE PYRETHRINS TOXICITY IN SHEEP AND RABBITS. journal. : de Gruyter

1997

MITEMA, PROFSEO, OLE DRMAPENAYISAACM, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT.  1997.  ASPECTS OF THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF DOXYCYCLINE GIVEN TO HEAL. journal. : de Gruyter Abstract

The effect of experimentally induced Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia on the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline (Doxycen Retard) administered intramuscularly was studied in seven East African dwarf goats. The study was conducted in two consecutive phases, separated by a washout ~eriod of four weeks. The experimental infection, induced by intratracheal administration of 5 ml of 10 to 109 cfu/ml of Pasteurella haemolytica, produced a temperature rise, depression and laboured breathing within 6-12 days after inoculation. The concentrations of doxycycline in the serum were determined by a quantitative microbiological assay using an agar-gel diffusion method employing Bacillus cereus var mycoides (ATCC 11778) as the test organism, with a level of detectability of approximately 0.05 ug/ml. The concentration-time curve of doxycycline in the serum after intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg bodyweight of the long-acting formulation before and after experimental infection was adequately described by a one-compartment open model. The maximum serum concentrations (CmaJ of doxycycline were lower in pneumonic goats than in healthy goats (3.87±0.52 and 5.56±0.213 ug/ml, respectively), suggesting an increased distribution volume in the peripheral compartment. The mean ± SEM absorption rate (ka) before infection (1.13 ± 0.02 h-l) was smaller than that after infection (8.23 ± 3.81 h-l), but the difference was not significant. The apparent elimination half-life (tI/2~) (24.51 ±0.02 h) after infection was significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the corresponding rate constant (p) was decreased (p < 0.01). The absorption half-life (t1/2J (0.137±0.03 h) was significantly decreased (p<0.01) after infection. The distribution volume (Vd(~) was significantly increased after infection (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, although experimental infection had an effect on the disposition kinetics of doxycycline, this was not sufficiently pronounced to require alteration of the dosage during disease

1995

1994

1993

Kayongo, SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Mbugua PN;, Maitho TE;, Nyaga PN.  1993.  Performance of weaner sheep fed wheat straw ensiled with caged layer waste. Abstract

The performance of weaner lambs fed for 90 days Rhodes grass hay alone (A) or supplemented with silages containing 0, 20 or 40% (B, C, D) caged layer waste (CLW) was examined. Weaver sheep on the diet of hay supplemented with 40% CLW silage had higher total DMI (P<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) than sheep on the other treatments. Mean DMI/kg W 0.75 and ADG were 59.4, 58.7, 60.0 and 65.0 g/day and 15.0, 20.5, 17.6 and 33.2 g/day for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. Carcass composition did not (P>0.05) differ between treatments except that kidney fat was lower (P<0.05) for sheep on the B silage diet. Dressing percentage, % lean, % fat were: 30.4, 31.4, 32.1 and 33.5, 58.0, 59.0, 58.9 and 58:5, 8.3, 7.2, 8.2 and 8.9% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The study showed that CLW was a suitable protein supplement for sheep when processed by ensilage for 42 days at a level of 40% inclusion with wheat straw.

1992

Kayongo, SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN.  1992.  Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Lamberti, GA, Lavens P, Lokken P, Maitho TE.  1992.  volume 234 (1992), author index.

1991

1990

ELIAS, PROFMAITHOT.  1990.  Mburu, D.N., Maitho,. T. and Lokken, P. 1990. Acetylsalicylic acid or Paracetamol. E. Afr. Medical. J. 67, 302-300. journal. : de Gruyter Abstract

Paracetamol, a widely used non-narcotic analgesic, has the same analgesic, and antipyretic efficacy as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). In contrast to ASA, paracetamol has traditionally been claimed to have little or no anti-inflammatory effect. There is, however, increasing support for the view that paracetamol has anti-inflammatory activity and reduces pain and swelling in inflammatory conditions other than rheumatoid arthritis. Overall, paracetamol seems to be equally effective as ASA. Since ASA has a greater potential for adverse effects, paracetamol is increasingly preferred to ASA, particularly in children.

1989

1988

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