Publications

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2021
Johnson L, Onjala J. "Logic of the Belt and Road Initiatives Early Eastern Africa Node: Economic, Demographic and Political Economy Rationales." Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies,. 2021.
S. R, M. P, V. O. "LP Fracturing: A Review on Waterless Fracturing Technology in Unconventional Reservoir." Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (JSAER). 2021;8(1):48-54.
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø&. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya ." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8896604).
Mulei, I., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Nyaga, P. N., Mutoloki, Evensen. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021.
Ong’ang’a MA, Indangasi H, Kitata M. "Manipulation of Narrative Paradigm in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Wrestling with the Devil." Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies. . 2021;3(1).
MD Wanjere, Iraki XN, MO Ogutu, Kinoti M. "Mediating Role of Absorptive Capacity on the Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Local Firm’s Performance." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2021;6(5):256-263. Abstractmediating_role_of_absorptive_capacity_on_the_relationship_between_foreign_direct_investment_and_local_firms_performance.pdf

There is little documentation on the role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and performance of firms. This paper investigates the mediating role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya. The population of study comprised 100 companies registered with Kenya Association of Manufacturers that had over 10 percent foreign ownership as at the time of data collection in 2019. The respondents were the CEOs of organization or their designated officers. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect primary data. The respondent were required to indicate how the introduction of FDI impacted on organizations capital flow, advanced production technology, marketing expertise and management knowhow. They were also to indicate the extent their Organisation had invested in absorptive capacity and the effect absorptive capacity had on the relationship between FDI and local firm performance. Descriptive and inferential statistics were both used to analyze the data. The results revealed that absorptive capacity has statistically significant mediating effect on the relationship between FDI and firm performance. This imply that an incremental change in the absorptive capacity would generate growth in company’s performance. As such Kenyan and other sub-Sahara African countries government need to come up with polices geared to supporting improvement of firms absorptive capacities so as to spur the growth of their key sectors of the economy.

Mwangi AN, Njogu PM, Maru SM, Njuguna NM, Njaria PM, Mathenge AW. "Meloxicam emulgels for topical management of rheumatic diseases: Formulation development, in vitro and in vivo characterization." Saudi Pharmaceut. Jour. 2021;29(4):351-360.
Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Kerubo JO, Muthumbi AWN, Onyari JM, Robertson-Andersson D, Kimani E. "Microplastics pollution in the sediments of creeks and estuaries of Kenya, western Indian Ocean." African Journal of Marine Science. 2021;43(3):337-352. AbstractAfrican Journal of Marine Science

Description
Microplastic pollution has been recognised as a global threat in marine environments and a danger to prey, predators and humans. Yet, there have been few studies in the western Indian Ocean, specifically along the Kenyan coast, which makes it difficult to estimate the extent of such pollution in the region. This is the first study on microplastics (MPs) in the sediments within creeks and estuaries (Tudor, Port Reitz and Mida creeks) on the Kenyan coast. In January/February and September 2018 sediment samples were collected for MPs analysis. The concentration of MPs differed between the sampling seasons and was distinctively higher in the second sampling season across particle sizes, suggesting that there were more MPs from larger terrestrial discharges due to increased runoff. The concentrations of total MPs, and the occurrence of different sizes, shapes and colours, were established under a microscope …

Irene Wakio Mwakesi, Wahome RG, Ichang’i DW. "Mining Impacts on Society: A Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021;11(11):986-997.
Irene Wakio Mwakesi, Wahome RG, Ichang’i DW. "Mining Impacts on Society: A Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021;11(11):986-997.
Purity MJ, Opere AO, Mutemi JN, Mutua FM. "Modeling climate change impacts on water resources in the upper tana catchment of Kenya." J. Meteorol. Relat. Sci. . 2021;in press.
Makau CM, Towett PK, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Modulation of nociception by amitriptyline hydrochloride in the Speke’s hinge‐back tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)." Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021;early view. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are limited studies on the utilization of analgesics in testudines.
Management of pain in reptiles is by use of analgesics generally used in other vertebrate species. Evidently, some analgesics considered to be generally effective in
reptiles are not effective in certain reptile species.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociceptive behaviour in Speke's hinge-back tortoise.
Methods: Twenty-four adult Speke-hinged tortoises weighing 500–700 g were used.
The effects of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociception were evaluated using the
formalin, capsaicin and hot plate nociceptive tests. Amitriptyline was administered
intracoelomically at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg.
Results: The higher doses of amitriptyline hydrochloride caused an increase in nociceptive behaviour (time spent in hindlimb withdrawal) on the formalin and capsaicin
nociceptive tests, suggesting a potentiating effect. However, the doses used had no
significant change in nociceptive behaviour on withdrawal response in the hot plate
test.
Conclusions: The study showed that amitriptyline hydrochloride which is widely used
in management of neuropathic pain potentiates nociceptive effects in the formalin
and capsaicin nociceptive tests in the Speke's hinge-back tortoise. The hot plate test,
which previously has not been reported in these animals, gave results not in line
with the other tests and therefore more testing and validation of the test is required.
Amitriptyline modulates chemical and thermal pain differently

Tum PK, Kariuki DK. "Morphological Characterization of Selected Natural and Calcined TiO2 Photocatalysts Using SEM, XRD and BET." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development . 2021;10(5):26-33.
"Mr Hassler: The Hassle and Pain of being a Male Bachelor." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):36-41.
FW N, K O, A A, J O, GW A. "Multiple Cytokines Elevated in Patients with Keloids: Is It an Indication of Auto-Inflammatory Disease?" J. Inflam Res. 2021;14(7):2465-2470. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Inflammation seems to play a major role in the pathophysiology of keloids. However, the role of cytokines in keloid pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated with only a few cytokines studied. We undertook this study to compare various cytokines in patients with keloids and a control group of patients without keloids nor family history of keloids so as to determine which cytokines are elevated and could thus be critical in keloid formation.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with keloids and a control group of those without. Patients in both groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Their plasma was analyzed for both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines using the Bio-flex ElisaTM method. Comparisons of cytokines means in both groups were done using Student's t-test.

Results: A total of 84 participants with 42 participants in each group were followed during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age ranges were similar with a mean of 29.6 years. A total of 28 cytokines were assayed. Statistically significant differences were noted in 15 of the 28 cytokines assayed with 11 being elevated more in keloid patients with only four in the non-keloid forming group. Among elevated cytokines in keloid patients were granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factors, interleukins 4, 6 and 13.

Conclusion: Patients with keloids have significantly higher cytokines compared with non-keloid forming patients. This finding suggests that keloid formation could be influenced by multiple inflammatory cytokines, an indication that the patient's immune system could play a role in keloid formation akin to auto-inflammatory disease.

Murungi MK, M.Muloi D, Muinde P, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akoko J, Fevre EM, Rushton J, Alarcon P. "The Nairobi Pork Value Chain, Mapping and Assessment of Governance, Challenges and Food Safety Issues." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.581376).
Obino VK. "Natural Gas Hydrates: Technical Review and Prospects in Asia." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2021;10(01):290-299.
Ochora DO, Kakudidi E, Namukobe J, Heydenreich M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Mwakio EW, Andagalu B, Roth A, Akala HM, Wong VKW, Yenesew A. "A new benzophenone, and the antiplasmodial activities of the constituents of Securidaca longipedunculata fresen (Polygalaceae)." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-9. AbstractView Website

Description
Extracts from Securidaca longipedunculata showed antiplasmodial activities against reference clones and clinical isolates using SYBR Green I method. A new benzophenone, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzophenone (1) was isolated and characterized along with seven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzophenone (2); 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (4), benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (5), 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzophenone (7) and 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (8). Compounds 1 and 2 showed ex vivo antiplasmodial activities (IC50 28.8 μM and 18.6 μM, respectively); while 5 and 8 showed in vivo activities (IC50 19.7 μM and 14.5 μM, respectively) against D6 strain. In a cytotoxicity assay, all the extracts (with an exception of the MeOH extract of the leaves) and pure compounds were not toxic to the …

Mugambi MM, Miriti GM. "Nurturing the Industrial Economy through Enterprise Education:The Case of Kenyan Universities.". In: Handbook of Research on Nurturing Industrial Economy for Africa’s Development. Hershey: IGI-global; 2021.
Osoro EM, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Sediments from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(1):274-286. Print ISSN: 2395-1990 | Online ISSN : 2394-4099. doi : https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRSET218148.
Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET, Mwema FM, Tanya B. "Optimization of material removal rate in the CNC milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composites using the Taguchi technique." Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;44(1):1130-1132. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.11.229

This research paper focuses on the optimization of the input parameters used in the computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite. The efficiency and profitability of the cutting operation was assessed using the material removal rate (MRR). Finding the optimal and suitable parameters to use in the cutting of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite is crucial when it comes to increasing productivity without increasing the cost of production and machining time. Therefore, the Taguchi technique was utilized to optimize the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut used while focusing on their effects on the material removal rate. The analysis of the input parameters was carried out using the L9 Taguchi orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The finding showed that the optimal milling parameters for efficient productivity were; the cutting speed of 600 rpm, a feed rate of 200 mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8 mm. Additionally, the feed rate is the most contributing factor in affecting the material removal rate, followed by the depth of cut and lastly the cutting speed at 53%, 17 and 10% respectively.

Nyiranzeyimana G, Mutua JM, Mose BR, MBUYA TO. "Optimization of process parameters in fused deposition modelling of thermoplastics: A review." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(6):682-694. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000193

Among the several techniques for additive manufacturing (AM), fused deposition modelling (FDM) is widely used. Fused deposition modelling process uses a thermoplastic material, which is melted and then extruded layer by layer through a nozzle, in order to create a three-dimensional object. As a result of the default setting of process parameters provided by the manufacturers, produced parts normally have a poor surface finish, low mechanical properties, low dimensional accuracy, and increased residual stresses compared to the parts produced using conventional manufacturing processes like molding (casting). Qualities of fused deposition modelled (FDMed) parts are generally affected by process parameters including the layer thickness, extrusion temperature, build orientation, printing speed, raster angle, infill density, raster width, nozzle diameter, and air gap. Increasing infill density, printing temperature, and decreasing print speed and layer thickness lead to increase mechanical strength and improve the surface finish of the printed parts. The optimal process parameters are preferred to achieve superior properties of the parts. This paper reviews the optimal fused deposition modelling process parameters on part qualities for making the stability of used deposition modelled parts for use. Various process parameters are identified in order to obtain desirable qualities in the manufactured parts. Areas for future research are proposed.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, Obiko JO, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET. "The Optimization of the Surface Roughness of Milled Polypropylene + 60wt.% Quarry Dust Composite Using the Taguchi Technique." Advances in Material Science and Engineering. 2021;Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering:169-174. Abstracthttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-16-3641-7_20

This study is based on the optimization of the parameters that influence the computer numerical control (CNC) milling operation during the machining of polypropylene+60wt.% quarry dust composite. The input parameters studied are the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut. These input parameters were optimized using the Taguchi optimization technique with the output response taken into consideration was the surface roughness. An L9 orthogonal array (OA) was selected and formulated in a commercial software Minitab 19 based on three factors and three levels combination. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was analysed to give a combination of values of the input parameters that produced optimum results for surface roughness. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then conducted to determine the significance and percentage contribution of each parameter. From the results, the optimum values obtained were cutting speed of 1000 rpm, feeding rate of 120 mm/min and depth of cut of either 0.5 mm or 0.8 mm. The cutting speed had the highest contribution towards the surface roughness at 81.98%, followed by the depth of cut at 7.43% and the feed rate having the least contribution at 3.69%.

Odote C, Hassan R, Mbarak H. "Over promising while Under Delivering: Implementation of Kenya’s Community Land Act." AJLP &GS. 2021;Vol 4 (2):292-307.
O M, Ayah R, Muriuki R, Nyangaya J. Oxygen Access and Affordability in Health Facilities in Kenya.; 2021.
FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

"The Pacesetter in a Relationship." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(3):44-46.the_pacesetter_in_a_relationship.pdf
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Pattern and Clinical Presentation of Endometriosis Among the Indigenous Africans." J Gynecol Obstet . 2021;9(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the existence of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% in reproductive age women and its clinical manifestation of infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Despite of years of research, the causative factor and understanding of ambidextrous endometriosis pathology remains elusive, perplex and disconnected. Worldwide, there is clear documentation of prevalence of endometriosis in the development countries, however, the prevalence of endometriosis in most of black Africa is unknown. The current perspective is that indigenous African are rarely affected by endometriosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of endometriosis in indigenous African women with the primary outcome measure being the prevalence of laparoscopic visually diagnosed, histologically confirmed endometriosis and clinical presentation. Methodology: This was a prospective analytical cross-selection study in 2 hospitals in Nairobi city, Kenya. The sample size was 443 women and the duration of the study was from March 2018 to March 2021. The inclusion criteria was women aged at least 18 years up to 49 years undergoing laparoscopic surgery and willing to take part in the study. The patient’s history, clinical and laparoscopic findings and histological diagnosis were recorded and analysed using Social SPSS version 22.0. Results: The mean age of the 443 patients recruited was 33 years. The prevalence of histological confirmed endometriosis in indigenous Africans was 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a positive predictive value of 39%. Dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significant symptoms of endometriosis P<0.001. Nulliparous patients significantly had a risk of having endometriosis p<0.001. The patients with menarche at 13 years and below had a significant risk of having endometriosis p=0.001. Physical findings on clinical examination of adnexal tenderness and findings of nodules in the pouch of Douglas were significant in relation to endometriosis p<0.001. The most common site of the histological endometriosis implants were on the Pouch of Douglas (30%) and the most common form of endometriosis was superficial (43%). Conclusion: The prevalence of endometriosis in Indigenous Africa is 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had low a positive predictive value of 39%. Nulliparity, menarche at the age of 13 and below, dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significantly associated with endometriosis. The most common site for endometriosis is the of Pouch of Douglas whilst the most common form of endometriosis was superficial.

Karuma AN, JW N, PT G. "Pedology, A disappearing skill in Eastern Africa? A Review." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2021;24(2):65.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Perception of Head Teachers and District Education Officers (DEOs) on School Infrastructure Policy Governance in Somaliland." Universal Journal of Management . 2021;9(1):20-27.
Too V, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JP. "PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE POPULAR SWRC MODELS AT DIFFERENT SOIL BULK DENSITY RANGES." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment (JEAE) . 2021;Vol 7(No. 2):40-48.
Too VK, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JPO. "Performance Evaluation of the Popular SWRC Models at Different Soil Bulk Density Ranges." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;published online (August 2021 ).
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, et.al. "Phenotypic traits,reproductive and milk performance of indigenous goats of south Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research. 2021;(Submitted).
Isaiah BM, Onyari JM, Omosa LK. "Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Composition and Antioxidant Potential of the Seed Kernel Oil of Oysternut (Telfairia pedata) Found in Kenya." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2021;32(1):46-56. AbstractEuropean Journal of Medicinal Plants

Abstract

Aim: Certain edible plant sources contain vegetable oils that have been under-exploited both commercially and in research. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, fatty acids composition, and antioxidant potential of the oil from the seed kernels of Telfairiapedata, which are used as food by the local population of Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya.

Materials and Methods: Telfairia pedata seeds were collected from farmers in the county of Tharaka-Nithi, Kenya. n-Hexane was used to extract the oil via soxhlet extraction. Standard laboratory protocols were used to characterize the oil’s physicochemical properties, while fatty acids composition and antioxidant potential were characterized using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, respectively.

Results: The seed kernels of Telfairia pedata yielded more than 66% of oil. The oil’s physicochemical properties were found to be within the Food and Agriculture Organization set limits and were as follows; moisture content (0.0592±0.0140%), peroxide value (0.9641±0.2021 meq O2/Kg), iodine value (23.0058±2.2473 gI2/100g) and acid value (0.6352±0.0330 mg KOH/g). Fatty acids such as myristic acid (14:0; 0.11%), palmitoleic acid (16:1n7; 0.13%), palmitic acid (16:0; 34.97%), margaric acid (17:0; 0.10%), linoleic acid (18:2n6; 48.46%), stearic acid (18:0; 15.33%), 10,13-octadecadienoic acid (18:2n5; 0.09%), 18-methylnonadecanoic acid (20:0; 0.68%), and behenic acid (22:0; 0.14%) were found in the oil. The antioxidant potential of the oil expressed in IC50 was found to be 18.05 mg/mL, in relation to that of ascorbic acid 2.406 mg/mL.

Conclusions: Telfairia pedata seed kernel oil can be economical to exploit commercially due to its relatively high yield. The determined properties of Telfairiapedata seed kernel oil present high nutritive value making the oil fit for edible applications.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. Polymer-Silica Based Composites in Sustainable Construction: Theory, Preparation and Characterizations. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1201/9781003231936

This book presents the application of Polymer-Silica Based Composites in the Construction Industry providing the fundamental framework and knowledge needed for the sustainable and efficient use of these composites as building and structural materials. It also includes characterization of prepared materials to ascertain mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and analyses results obtained using similar methods. Topics such as life cycle analysis of plastics, application of plastics in construction and elimination of plastic wastes are also discussed. The book also provides information on the outlook and competitiveness of emerging composites materials.

Covers theory, preparation and characterizations of polymer-silica based composites for green construction.

Discusses technology, reliability, manufacturing cost and environmental impact.

Reviews the classification, application, and processing of polymer-silica composites.

Gives a deeper analysis of the various tests carried out on polymer-silica composites.

Highlights role of such composites in the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies

The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in civil engineering, built environment, construction materials, and materials science.

Inyega JO, Arshad-Ayaz A, Naseem MA, Mahaya EW, Elsayed D. "Post-independence basic education in Kenya: an historical analysis of curriculum reforms." FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education. 2021;7(1):1-24.
Mwaura MN, Mukoya-Wangia S, Origa JO, Mbatia OLE, Chimoita EL. "Potential for Sustainable Urban and Peri-Urban Agricultural Practices in Nairobi County." Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2021;25(1):Nairobi Cou https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i1.4.potential_for_sustainable_urban_and_peri-urban_agricultural_practices_in_nairobi_county.pdf
Mutende R, Imonje RK, Akala W;. "Pre-service Science Teachers’ Integration of Constructivist Ideas in the Lecture Method." ; International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2021;20(6):277-298.
M.Cecilia O, Justine NM, Johanna W, Mats S, Piikki K. "Precision Agriculture for Resource Use Efficiency in Smallholder Farming Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review." Sustainability Journal. 2021;13:1158.
M.Justine N, Cecilia OM, Johanna W, Mats S. "Precision agriculture research in sub‐Saharan Africa countries: a systematic map." Precision Agriculture Journal. 2021.
Igizeneza A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Preliminary Study on Disinfectant Susceptibility/Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Slaughtered Village Free-Range Chickens in Nairobi, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2021;2021(Article ID 8877675):7.abstract2.pdf
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Kosgei PK, Bebora LC, Waiboci LW, Waringa N, Kiambi SG, Kitala PN. "Prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2021.abstract3.pdf
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. 'Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels" Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo county, Kenya. Nairobi: lAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Muyodi MM, Oyoo GO, KAYIMA JK, Bhatt KM. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2021;14(2):72-80. Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity

Shikokoti H, Okoth UA, Chepkonga S. "Principals promoting professional development on Teacher's Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;26(5):30-37.
Nankaya, J. GLBNCH. "Prioritization of Loita Maasai medicinal plants for conservation." Biodiversity and Conservation . 2021;30:761-780.
S A, GO O, E A, J K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):23-27. Abstractprofiles_of_vitamin_d_among_patients_with_ra_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
is an autoimmune, chronic debilitating
condition of undetermined cause. It
affects numerous extra- articular organ
systems. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone
synthesized in the skin by the action of
ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Active
vitamin D is important in the inhibition
of T cell proliferation and downregulation
of key inflammatory cytokines
responsible for the pathogenesis of RA.
There is growing evidence demonstrating
the association between vitamin D
insufficiency and higher incidence of RA
as well as increased severity of disease
and increased functional disability in RA
patients.
Objective: The purpose of this study
was to determine serum vitamin D levels
among patients with rheumatoid arthritis
at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
and its association with disease activity
and functional disability.
Design: This was a descriptive crosssectional
survey.
Methods: The study involved subjects
with RA at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
Consecutive sampling technique to
recruit patients with rheumatoid arthritis,
having met the 2010 American College
of Rheumatology/ European League
Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR)
classification criteria was selected. Ten
mls of peripheral blood was collected
from the recruited subjects to determine
serum vitamin D levels. Every participant
had their demographics, clinical history
and disease duration documented. Clinical
Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was used
to assess disease activity and severity. It
comprised of number of tender joint out
of 28 joints (T-28), number of swollen
joints out of 28 (S-28) global health
assessment score by both the physician
and the patient. level of disability was
determined by the standard Modified
Health Assessment Questionnaire
(MHAQ). Data analyzed was correlated
to determine their association with serum
vitamin D levels. SPSS version 21 was
used to analyze the data collected and this
entailed descriptive statistics, chi-square,
ANOVA and students’-test to compare
and correlate vitamin D levels with age,
duration of disease, CDAI score and
modified HAQ score in RA.
Results: Eighty one patients with a mean
age of 48.7 (SD 13.9), median of 48.0
(IQR 40.0-59.0) were evaluated. The
female to male ratio was 4:1. The mean
serum 25-VD concentration was 34.9ng/
ml (SD11.6). Thirty five participants
(43.2%) had insufficient vitamin D levels
(<30ng/ml), whereas 46 study participants
(56.8%) had sufficiency of vitamin D.
Majority of the patients 54 (67.5%) had
low disease activity. Fourteen subjects
17.5% had high disease activity and while
2.5% were on remission. Functional
disability was assessed using the modified
health assessment questionnaire. Thirty
eight participants (46.5%) demonstrated
no disability, 33.8% had mild disability
while 9% had severe disability.
Correlation between vitamin levels with
age, duration of disease, CDAI and HAQ
did not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is
high among patients with rheumatoid
arthritis with no correlation with age,
duration of disease, functional disability
and disease activity.
Key words: Rheumatoid arthritis,
Vitamin D, Disease activity, Functional
disability, Cytokines
Introduction

S1 A, GO O, E3 A, J4 K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. 2021;1(1):23-27.
Wabwoba, C.N, Mugambi M, Okoth UA. "Promoting acquisition of English Language Among Pupils through the Lens of Active learning." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(2):18-33.
Akah NP, Kunyanga CN, Okoth MW, Njue1 LG. "Pulse Production, Consumption and Utilization in Nigeria within Regional and Global Context." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2021;10(2).60b6dcf18a312.pdf
Ngwili N, Johnson N, Wahome R, Githigia S, Roesel K, Thomas L. "A qualitative Assessment of the Context and Enabling Environment for the Control of Taenia solium Infections in Endemic Settings." PLOS Negl Trop Diseases. 2021;15(6. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009470).
Abuga K, Nyamweya N, King’ondu O. "Quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi metropolitan area." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2021;24(1):29-37. Abstract

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has propelled the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to the fore as a SARS-CoV-2 control measure. To be effective these products must comply with relevant quality parameters such as alcohol concentration, methanol limits and purity. The current study was designed to determine the quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products in the Nairobi metropolitan area. For this purpose, 74 commercially marketed samples were collected and subjected to analysis by gas chromatography. Only three samples (4.1%) complied with the regulatory specifications for alcohol content, methanol limits and pH. Five samples (6.8%) complied with the specification for alcohol content but did not meet methanol or pH limits. A total of 44 (59.5%) samples had methanol levels that exceeded threshold limits. Eleven samples (14.9%) were found with methanol substitution (i.e., methanol, instead of ethanol or isopropanol, was the main alcohol component). The results show that users of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are being exposed to substandard and falsified products which in addition to being non-efficacious pose harm due to unacceptable levels of toxic impurities. Regular, routine post-market surveillance is needed to prevent such products from reaching the market.

Omari HK. Qur'an and hadith.; 2021.
Harmsen H, Wang’ondu VW, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological Conservation. 2021;253.
Harmsen H, Wangondu V, Mbau JS, J M, J M. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological conservation. 2021;253(108909).
Kitata M. "Re-narrating the Eastern Africa Coast through music on YouTube: Vitali Maembe’s Little Town Bagamoyo." African Identities. 2021:1-16. Abstract

The Eastern Africa coast has been a complex contact theatre between overseas peoples and the local population. These interconnections have over time produced mixed identities and cultural adaptation processes, expression, and transmission which are foundations of present-day Eastern Africa histories. The musician – historian’s account reflects the coastal identities as not simply painful and isolated historical creations upon a place, but also a part of global processes of cultural productions and affirmation. Through YouTube video, the coastal musician retells the coast’s history thereby preserving memory and lessons leant. The creative artist unveils the history – in an effort to gain inspiration from a cultural and commercial identity formation process. This paper, through Vitali Maembe’s YouTube music video, Little Town Bagamoyo, seeks to highlight the narrative that music exposes in retelling East African coast

Polline M, Mutua JM, MBUYA TO, Kyekyere E. "Recipe Development and Mechanical Characterization of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene 3D Printing Filament." Open Journal of Composite Materials. 2021;11(3):47-61. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.113005

Recycled polypropylene filaments for fused filament fabrication were investigated with and without 14 wt% short fibre carbon reinforcements. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the filaments and 3D printed specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and standard tensile testing. It was observed that recycled polypropylene filaments with 14 wt% short carbon fibre reinforcement contained pores that were dispersed throughout the microstructure of the filament. A two-stage filament extrusion process was observed to improve the spatial distribution of carbon fibre reinforcement but did not reduce the pores. Recycled polypropylene filaments without reinforcement extruded at high screw speeds above 20 rpm contained a centreline cavity but no spatially distributed pores. However, this cavity is eliminated when extrusion is carried out at screw speeds below 20 rpm. For 3D printed specimens, interlayer cavities were observed larger for specimens printed from 14 wt% carbon fibre reinforced recycled polypropylene than those printed from unreinforced filaments. The values of tensile strength for the filaments were 21.82 MPa and 24.22 MPa, which reduced to 19.72 MPa and 22.70 MPa, respectively, for 3D printed samples using the filaments. Likewise, the young’s modulus of the filaments was 1208.6 MPa and 1412.7 MPa, which reduced to 961.5 MPa and 1352.3 MPa, respectively, for the 3D printed samples. The percentage elongation at failure for the recycled polypropylene filament was 9.83% but reduced to 3.84% for the samples printed with 14 wt% carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene filaments whose elongation to failure was 6.58%. The SEM observations on the fractured tensile test samples showed interlayer gaps between the printed and the adjacent raster layers. These gaps accounted for the reduction in the mechanical properties of the printed parts.

FMA B, SW G. "Reconstruction of midface defect with temporalis myofascial pedicle flap: a review and case series." MedCrave Online Journal of Surgery (MOJ Surg.). 2021;2021; 9(1)(2021; 9(1)):15-19.
Ebrahim YH. Regional micro-bioclimatic architecture 1.0: Tropical scientific design and planning guidance. Chisinau, Moldova: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Maina, ndugu. "RELATIVITY OF INDIGENOUS EAST AFRICAN DESIGN CHAMPIONS: JACQUE NJERI, MARC VAN RAMPELBERG." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):75-111.
Maina, ndugu. "RELATIVITY OF INDIGENOUS EAST AFRICAN DESIGN CHAMPIONS: JACQUE NJERI, MARC VAN RAMPELBERG." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):75-111.
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(1):1898762.
Olufemi Adelowo, Girish M. Mody, Mohammed Tikly, Omondi Oyoo, Samy Slimani. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Nature reviews. 2021;s41584(021):00603-4. Abstract

Abstract | Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Adelowo O, Mody GM, Tikly M, Oyoo O, Slimani S. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;7(1):1-6. Abstracts41584-021-00603-4_1_2.pdf

Abstract
|
Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Kibet S, M N, L MO, D K. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock-wildlife landscape." Journal of Ecological Solutions and Evidence.. 2021;2(3):1-13.
Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock–wildlife landscape." Ecological Solutions and Evidence. 2021;2(3):e12083.
S.I.Akaranga, T.K.Musili, J.M.Karicha. "Secularization of Marriage Ritual Among the Ameru in Kenya." East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion. 2021;3(2):52-59.
Aura C, Okronipa H, Olela P, Mojica L, Forella K, Otuo P, Bageant E, Obuya J, Onyango H, Ochieng J. "Small-scale fishing households facing COVID-19: The case of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2021.
H.M K, Z. O, R. T, K. M. "The Societal Construction of Femininity as Depicted in the Metaphor of Chicken in Swahili Proverbs." Mwanga wa Lugha -Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrica. 2021;6/1(April 2021):19-26.
Wairire G, Okemwa P, Akinyi M. "Society and Successful Transition: Female Genital Mutilation." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):19-24.
Leonard M. Nderitu, John Gachohi FO, Eddy G. Mogoa, Mathew Muturi AM, Eric M. Osoro, Isaac Ngere, Peninah M. Munyua, Harry Oyas ON, Eric Lofgren, Thomas Marsh M-AW, Bernard Bett KNM. "Spatial clustering of livestock Anthrax events associated with agro-ecological zones in Kenya, 1957–2017." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2021;21(191).
Rop KV, Langat PK, Ouma HA. "Spectrum Sensing on High Density Cognitive Radio Vehicular Ad Hoc Network." ,” Journal of Communications (JCM). 2021;16(7):259-266.
2 Joyce Eunice, Douglas Miano MEMIMWM &. "Status of maize lethal necrosis disease in seed production system in Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(11918406):Online. Abstract

n/a

Ochukut SA, Oboko RO. "Strategies for Managing Cognitive Load and Enhancing Motivation in E-Learning." igi-global.com. 2021:17. Abstract

Cognitive load and motivation are two factors that have been established as mediators of learning. It has been established that learners who experience low cognitive loads and are highly motivated to succeed in learning. Since e-learning is becoming a very popular means of delivering learning, there needs to be established strategies to ensure that learners learn. This study sought to look at the various means that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load and enhance motivation through the analysis of literature. Use of metaphorical interfaces, hypertext, sequencing, and fading of learning content, use of transient information, and adaptation of the problem-solving support were the strategies that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load. Motivation has been enhanced through the use of motivational messages and adaptive navigational support and pedagogical agents.

Lengoiboni M, Katcho Karume, Siriba D, Ssengendo R, Potel J, Lemmen C, Zevenbergen J. "Strengthening the Eastern Africa Land Administration Network (SEALAN) project in enhancing inter-university Collaboration in land administration Eastern Africa." African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences . 2021;4(1):143-161.
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

K SARNA, M K, SW G. "Surgical Management of A Massive Congenital Haemangioma of the Tongue in an Infant: A rare Case Report." International Journal of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2021;9:e04909(9:e04909):9:e04909.
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction assessment: A Kenyan interior design market segment perspective." Africa Habitat Review. 2021;15(1).
RUFINO MC, Gachene CKK, DIOGO RVC, HAWKINS J, ONYANGO AA, SANOGO OM, WANYAMA I, YESUF G, PELSTER DE. "SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA.". 2021.
H Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Mwema FM, Michael H, Akinlabi ET. "Taguchi Optimization of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate in CNC Milling of Polypropylene + 5wt.% Quarry Dust Composites." IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2021;1107(1):012040. Abstractdoi:10.1088/1757-899X/1107/1/012040

The Taguchi optimization technique was utilized to determine the optimal milling parameters that can be used in end face CNC milling operation of polypropylene+5wt.% quarry dust using high-speed steel (HSS) tool. Three milling input parameters i.e. the feed rate (f), the cutting speed of the spindle (N) and the depth of cut (dc) were optimized while considering the surface roughness (Ra) of the machined composite material and the material removal rate (MRR) during machining as the responses of the experimental design. From the results, the cutting speed (100 rpm) and the feed rate (120 mm/min) were the most important control parameters which greatly influence the surface roughness at 41.4% and 28.8% contribution respectively. In the case of the material removal rate, the depth of cut (0.8 mm) was the dominating factor at 98% contribution.

Muasya JN. "Teacher Education and Curriculum Studies." Teacher Education and Curriculum Studies. 2021;6(3):101-108.
"Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basin." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(1).
Akintayo RO, Akpabio AA, Kalla AA, Dey D, Migowa AN, Olaosebikan H, Bahiri R, Miedany YE, Hadef D, Oyoo O. "TheimpactofCOVID-19onrheumatologypractice acrossAfrica." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):1-6. Abstractthe_impact_of_covid-19_on_rheumatology_practice.pdf

Objectives. To identify the changes in rheumatology service delivery across the five regions of Africa from the
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods. The COVID-19 African Rheumatology Study Group created an online survey consisting of 40 questions
relating to the current practices and experiences of rheumatologists across Africa. The CHERRIES checklist for
reporting results of internet e-surveys was adhered to.
Results. A total of 554 completed responses were received from 20 countries, which include six in Northern
Africa, six in West Africa, four in Southern Africa, three in East Africa and one in Central Africa. Consultant grade
rheumatologists constituted 436 (78.7%) of respondents with a mean of 14.56 10.3 years of experience. A total of
77 (13.9%) rheumatologists avoided starting a new biologic. Face-to-face clinics with the use of some personal
protective equipment continued to be held in only 293 (52.9%) rheumatologists’ practices. Teleconsultation modalities
found usage as follows: telephone in 335 (60.5%), WhatsApp in 241 (43.5%), emails in 90 (16.3%) and video
calls in 53 (9.6%). Physical examinations were mostly reduced in 295 (53.3%) or done with personal protective
equipment in 128 (23.1%) practices. Only 316 (57.0%) reported that the national rheumatology society in their
country had produced any recommendation around COVID-19 while only 73 (13.2%) confirmed the availability of a
national rheumatology COVID-19 registry in their country.
Conclusion. COVID-19 has shifted daily rheumatology practices across Africa to more virtual consultations and
regional disparities are more apparent in the availability of local protocols and registries.
Key words: COVID-19, Africa, rheumatology, DMARD, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, telem

Ebrahim YH. Theoretical architecture (Aleamarat alnazania): Regional bioclimatic architecture. Chisinau, Moldova: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Siriba DN. "Towards a GNSS Data Accuracy Standard for Georeferencing." Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2021;2021:5.
Moturi C, Abdulrahim N, Orwa D. "Towards adequate cybersecurity risk management in SMEs." International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are core to the growth of the African economy. Their continued dependency on technology is driving them deeper into risks. SMEs that are developing technology-based solutions need an effective way to manage cyber risks. This study sought to determine the key cybersecurity risks faced by SMEs in Kenya that develop technology-based solutions. Using a case study approach and based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework, an in-depth evaluation of the cybersecurity risk management practices within a selected SME was undertaken. The paper reports on the components identified as critical in the management of cyber risks within SMEs. An implementation strategy has been developed to provide a roadmap to assist in the management of cyber risks as part of their business risks. Insights provided will assist the Government and regulatory bodies assess the adequacy of current cybersecurity legislations and guidelines. This study has practical implications for SME managers in fostering a cybersecurity culture in this growing sector.

Mungai GN, Njenga HN, MATHU ELIUDM, Madadi VO. "Trace Elements in Carbonated Cold Springs of Eastern Mt. Kenya, Meru County." Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. 2021;14(1):9-16.
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, E M, Dale J, L T. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants.. 2021;10 (4)(613):1-18.
Maina. "TRANSITIONAL ITINERARY OF VERNACULAR BASKETRY IN EAST AFRICA." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):41-74.
Maina. "TRANSITIONAL ITINERARY OF VERNACULAR BASKETRY IN EAST AFRICA." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):41-74.
Nzuma MJ, Kirui P. "Transmission of Global Wheat Prices to Domestic Markets in Kenya: A Cointegration Approach." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2021;16(1):80-93.
W G, M O, GO O. "Treatment Approaches for Multiple Myeloma: A Review." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2021;3(1):29-34. Abstract

Background: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a
haematological cancer characterized by complications
of end-organ damage and subsequently high mortality.
Previously, there were few therapies available with
minimal survival benefit for most patients. Survival
was less than a year in many countries. The survival of
MM patients can range from 6 months to over 10 years,
with a median of 6 years, depending on stage of the
disease at diagnosis and prognostic factors. However,
with the advent of newer immune modulating agents
and novel therapies, there exists an opportunity to
improve the management of MM.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss
the current chemotherapy and novel agents available
for treatment of Multiple Myeloma and highlight
emerging therapies in treatment of Multiple Myeloma,
some of which are now locally available in Kenya.
Data Sources: International Guidelines on Treatment
of Multiple Myeloma; Published articles from peerreviewed
journals; ESMO, NCCN guidelines on
Multiple Myeloma
Conclusion: New MM therapies have been shown to
improve progression-free survival and overall survival
of to upto 82% at four years. Some of these therapies
are now accessible locally through government
funding. In combination with a wholesome approach
which includes appropriate supportive care, there
exists an opportunity to improve the quality and
standard of care of MM patients in Kenya to replicate
the success of that in developed countries.
Key words: Multiple myeloma, Cancer

Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Kabange D, et.al. "Typology,management and smallholders farmer preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats(Capra hircus) in three agro-ecological zones in the D.R Congo." Journal of Applied animal research. 2021;(Submitted).
Kenfack D, Arellano G, Kibet S, Kimuyu D, Musili D. "Understanding the monodominance of Acacia drepanolobium in East African savannas: insights from demographic data." Trees. 2021;35:1439-1450.
Muita R, Dougill A, Mutemi J, Aura S, Graham R, Awolala D, Nkiaka E, Hirons L, Opijah F. "Understanding the Role of User Needs and Perceptions Related to Sub-Seasonal and Seasonal Forecasts on Farmers’ Decisions in Kenya: A Systematic Review." Frontiers in Climate. 2021;3(1).
K SARNA, I MURITHI, F OPONDO, S G. "A unique presentation of bilateral Kissing Molars and three-rooted Maxillary Premolars: A case report and review of literature." Clinical Case Reports Journal. 2021;2021; 9:e04679(2021; 9:e04679):2021; 9:e04679.
Eric A, Elizaphan M, Rhoda G, Robert O, John K. "University Students' Perception on the Usefulness of Learning Management System Features in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2021;v17 (n1 ):45-64 . Abstract

Online learning has increasingly been adopted by most institutions of higher learning to facilitate teaching and learning as a continuum to the traditional face-to-face approach. Most of these institutions utilize Learning Management Systems which contain features that are intended to make students active participants not only by delivering learning resources to learners but also providing the environment for effective interaction in the learning process. Our examination of the literature reveals that there is limited empirical evidence that addresses how these features are being utilized by students in promoting Self-Regulated learning. To realize the usefulness of the features of Learning Management Systems in promoting Self-Regulated Learning, a structured survey was carried out among University students in Kenya. The findings reveal that the features of Learning Management Systems are underutilized by students. The qualitative results of the study illustrate that students face several challenges that obstruct them from being actively involved in online learning. There is lack of individualized feedback on students' learning habits, lack of instructor guidance, lack of interaction with course instructors, lack of peer interaction and lack of automation tools. This study provides insights for educators and researchers on the areas of focus that can be prioritized towards offering support to students in improving their Self-Regulated learning in online learning environments.

Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Habimana RS, Maingi N, Gecchi G, Paone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the Distribution of Glossina (tsetse flies) at the Wild;life-Human-Livestock interface at Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(PARAV- D- 21 0016).
Okeyo MP;, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Use of Civil Litigation Process and Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms in Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing. 2021:596-612.
"Valuation for Compensation Practices in Kenya: An Evaluation." Property Management. 2021;39(4):479-492.
Omwando KJ, Moturi CA. "Virtual banking adoption by SACCOs in the face of Covid-19 pandemic - a case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 2021;8(4):1-13. AbstractWebsite

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic saw overwhelming effects on consumers’ buying behavior globally, with economic productive activities shifting from offline to online. As a result, many business leaders were left with no option other than adopt the use of Information Technology to ensure business operations continuity, enhance efficiency as well as sustainability. In Kenya, unlike most commercial banks, Saccos have largely been left behind in embracing new banking technologies such as agency banking, internet banking, or mobile banking. Therefore, the use of paperwork, physical and in-person meetings to conduct business has remained widespread amongst many Saccos in the country, before COVID 19 that forced Saccos to shift to virtual banking as an effective alternative, toward addressing their customers’ needs while ensuring safety. This study examined the adoption of Mobile Banking models and Virtual Banking technologies and innovations to establish the factors influencing their adoption by potential users. The study also explored the adoption of Virtual banking amongst Saccos in Kenya, investigating the electronic delivery channels used, and their suitability. The study objectives were accomplished through an exploratory and descriptive approach based on ways of improving access to credit through relationships between Sacco and their clientele in Kenya through the adoption of Virtual Banking. The data used was collected from SACCO-based respondents who included Sacco ICT officers, managers, and members using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study established that there was wide adoption of various Mobile Banking models and technologies to realize virtual banking adoption by Saccos. Most Saccos were found to favor the Joint venture model and the non-bank-driven model. The extent of adoption of virtual banking amongst bank clientele was found to be influenced by social, economic, and technological factors. The study recommended that Saccos should consider sharing information and technologies across various networks as this is likely to lead to much more gains in adopting technologies that would improve their sustainability as while fostering better customer experience.

Rebecca Lynne C, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel, Michael G, Moses N, Nyangaya J, O M, J M, P K, A A, A R, M P, V J. "Volatile Organic Compound Composition of Urban Air in Nairobi Kenya and Lagos Nigeria.". 2021.
Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga CN. "Water Disinfection Techniques: A review." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2021;7(1):54-78.
Moturi CA, Okemwa VO, Orwa DO. "Why the Insurance Sector Needs Big Data Analytics Capability for Digital Transformation." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021. Abstract

In order for organisations to generate competitive advantages from big data investments, they need to acquire a unique blend of technology, human skills, financial resources and a data-driven culture. Organisations need to measure their big data analytics capability in order to yield competitive performance. This study sought to examine the relationship between a firms big data analytics capability (BDAC) and competitive performance through mediating role of dynamic and operational capabilities. To test the proposed research model, we used survey data from 110 employees across 54 insurance companies in Kenya. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling, the results provide evidence that BDAC leads to superior firm performance. Various resources that form big data analytics (BDA) capability have been identified and an instrument to measure BDAC proposed. The findings from this study provides a roadmap strategy for implementing BDA projects.

Nyawade SO, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Yield and evapotranspiration characteristics of potato-legume intercropping simulated using a dual coefficient approach in a tropical highland." Field Crops Research . 2021;274 :108327.
"“Reflections on the Detective Novel as an Allegory of Contemporary Kenya.”." Journal of Language, Technology& Entrepreneurship in Africa. 2021;12(1):17-35.
Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, others. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLoS one. 2021;16:e0246248. Abstract
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Nelson K, Muge E, Wamalwa B. "Cellulolytic Bacillus species isolated from the gut of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria." Scientific African. 2021;11:e00665. Abstract
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Ogonda LA, Saumonneau A, Dion M, Muge EK, Wamalwa BM, Mulaa FJ, Tellier C. "Characterization and engineering of two new GH9 and GH48 cellulases from a Bacillus pumilus isolated from Lake Bogoria." Biotechnology Letters. 2021;43:691-700. Abstract
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Bahati V, Bulimo W, Gachara G. "Comparative Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among in-Mates and Low Risk Voluntary Blood Donors in Garissa, Kenya." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2021;09:85-95. AbstractWebsite
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Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J, Magambo G. "Consumer awareness and willingness to pay for naturally preserved solar-dried mangoes: Evidence from Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;5:100188. Abstract
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Biermann O, Mwoka M, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Shawky S, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Mberu B, others. "Data, Social Determinants, and Better Decision-making for Health: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:4-14. Abstract
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Murage MW, Muge EK, Mbatia BN, Mwaniki MW. "Development and Sensory Evaluation of Omega-3-Rich Nile Perch Fish Oil-Fortified Yogurt." International Journal of Food Science. 2021;2021. Abstract
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Amwoka EM, Ambuko JL, Jesang HM, Owino WO. "Effectiveness of Selected Cold Chain Management Practices to Extend Shelf Life of Mango Fruit." Advances in Agriculture. 2021;2021. Abstract
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Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko JL, WO O, Bitange NM. "EFFECTS OF MODE AND TIMING OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON TISSUE CALCIUM CONCENTRATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF MANGO FRUITS." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2021;21:18552-18574. Abstract
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Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Muge EK. "Electrochemical Determination of Penicillin G in Cow Milk and pharmaceuticals in SDS/Acetate buffer." International Journal of Electrochemical Science. 2021;16. Abstract
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Pretorius B, Ambuko J, Papargyropoulou E, Schönfeldt HC. "Guiding Nutritious Food Choices and Diets along Food Systems." Sustainability. 2021;13:9501. Abstract
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Awuor OL, Edward MK. "Harnessing the Potential of Underutilized Aquatic Bioresource for Food and Nutritional Security in Kenya.". In: Food Security and Safety. Springer; 2021:. Abstract
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Mwoka M, Biermann O, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Rashid SF, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Valladares LM, others. "Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Evidence from Singapore, the UK, and Kenya: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:15-30. Abstract
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Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "The Influence of Agro-Ecological Factors on Fruit Mineral Content and Occurrence of Jelly Seed Disorder in ‘Tommy Atkins’ and ‘Van Dyke’Mangoes in Kenya." Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8. 2021:135-145. Abstract
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Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "The Influence of Dolomitic Lime and Muriate of Potash Application on Fruit Mineral Content and Jelly Seed Disorder Incidence of Mango (Mangifera indica L.)." Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8. 2021:125-134. Abstract
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Mujuka E, Ambuko J, Mburu J, Ogutu A. "Investment in Postharvest Technologies: Key Strategy for Postharvest Loss Reduction." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2:47-48. Abstract
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Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J, Magambo G. "Journal of Agriculture and Food Research." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;5:100188. Abstract
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Mwangi HN’u, Muge EK, Wagacha PW, Ndakala A, Mulaa FJ. "Methods for Identifying Microbial Natural Product Compounds that Target Kinetoplastid RNA Structural Motifs by Homology and De Novo Modeled 18S rRNA." International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22:4493. Abstract
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Ochieno DMW, Karoney EM, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN, Baraza DL, Shibairo SI, Naluyange V. "Rhizobium-linked nutritional and phytochemical changes under multitrophic functional contexts in sustainable food systems." Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;4:283. Abstract
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Yumbya P, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W, Juma J, Machuka E, Mutuku MJ. "Transcriptome analysis to elucidate hexanal's mode of action in preserving the post-harvest shelf life and quality of banana fruits (Musa acuminata)." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;3:100114. Abstract
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Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J, Tripathi L. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants. 2021;10:613. Abstract
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2020
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J. "Effect of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi; 2020.
Faris AA, Akuon PO. "Q-Function: Trapezoidal Rule Approximation and Application.". In: AEC 2020. Nairobi, University of Nairobi; 2020.
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J, Mwea S, Kyalo G. "Academia & Practice: A Case Study of Retrofitting Reinforced Concrete Columns with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Wrap.". In: Institution of Engineers Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2020.

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