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ZHU (Eds.)..; Submitted. Abstract
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Pan J, Utama MIB, Zhang Q, Liu X, Peng B, Wong LM, Sum TC, Wang S, Xiong Q. "for Adv. Mater., DOI: 10.1002/adma. 201104996.". Submitted. Abstract
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Zhu Y, Zhou Y, Utama MIB, de la Mata M{\'ıa, Zhao Y, Zhang Q, Peng B, Magen C, Arbiol J, Xiong Q. "Supplementary Information Solution Phase van der Waals Epitaxy of ZnO Wire Arrays.". Submitted. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Chen W, Qiu Z-J, Shao H, Zhu H, Monserrat B, Fu D, Weng H. "Ultrafast Photo-induced Phase Transition in 2D MoTe2.". Submitted. Abstract
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2022
Plisnier P-D, Kayanda R, MacIntyre S, Obiero K, Okello W, Vodacek A, Cocquyt C, Abegaz H, Achieng A, Akonkwa B, Albrecht C, Balagizi C, Barasa J, Abel Bashonga R, Bashonga Bishobibiri A, Bootsma H, Borges AV, Chavula G, Dadi T, De Keyzer ELR, Doran PJ, Gabagambi N, Gatare R, Gemmell A, Getahun A, Haambiya LH, Higgins SN, Hyangya BL, Irvine K, Isumbisho M, Jonasse C, Katongo C, Katsev S, Keyombe J, Kimirei I, Kisekelwa T, Kishe M, Otoung A. Koding S, Kolding J, Kraemer BM, Limbu P, Lomodei E, Mahongo SB, Malala J, Mbabazi S, Masilya PM, McCandless M, Medard M, Migeni Ajode Z, Mrosso HD, Mudakikwa ER, Mulimbwa N'sibula, Mushagalusa Déo, Muvundja FA, Nankabirwa A, Nahimana D, Ngatunga BP, Ngochera M, Nicholson S, Nshombo M, Ntakimazi G, Nyamweya C, Ikwaput Nyeko J, Olago D, Olbamo T, O'Reilly CM, Pasche N, Phiri H, Raasakka N, Salyani A, Sibomana C, Silsbe GM, Smith S, Sterner RW, Thiery W, Tuyisenge J, Van der Knaap M, Van Steenberge M, van Zwieten PAM, Verheyen E, Wakjira M, Walakira J, Ndeo Wembo O, Lawrence T. "Need for harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring of African Great Lakes.". 2022. AbstractWebsite

To ensure the long-term sustainable use of African Great Lakes (AGL), and to better understand the functioning of these ecosystems, authorities, managers and scientists need regularly collected scientific data and information of key environmental indicators over multi-years to make informed decisions. Monitoring is regularly conducted at some sites across AGL; while at others sites, it is rare or conducted irregularly in response to sporadic funding or short-term projects/studies. Managers and scientists working on the AGL thus often lack critical long-term data to evaluate and gauge ongoing changes. Hence, we propose a multi-lake approach to harmonize data collection modalities for better understanding of regional and global environmental impacts on AGL. Climate variability has had strong impacts on all AGL in the recent past. Although these lakes have specific characteristics, their limnological cycles show many similarities. Because different anthropogenic pressures take place at the different AGL, harmonized multi-lake monitoring will provide comparable data to address the main drivers of concern (climate versus regional anthropogenic impact). To realize harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring, the approach will need: (1) support of a wide community of researchers and managers; (2) political goodwill towards a common goal for such monitoring; and (3) sufficient capacity (e.g., institutional, financial, human and logistic resources) for its implementation. This paper presents an assessment of the state of monitoring the AGL and possible approaches to realize a long-term, multi-lake harmonized monitoring strategy. Key parameters are proposed. The support of national and regional authorities is necessary as each AGL crosses international boundaries.

Su R, Wu J, Hu J, Ma L, Ahmed S, Zhang Y, Abdulraheem MI, Birech Z, Li L, Li C, Wei W. "Minimalizing Non-Point Source Pollution Using a Cooperative Ion Selection Electrode System for Estimating Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil." Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022;12:810214.
Zhang Y, Li L, Zhang H, Shang J, Li C, Naqvi SMZA, Birech Z, Hu J. "Ultrasensitive detection of plant hormone abscisic acid-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy aptamer sensor." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2022;414:2757-2766 .
Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
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Su G, Gao A, Peng B, Hu J, Zhang Y, Liu F, Zhang H, Zhan P, Wu W. "Observation of in-plane exciton–polaritons in monolayer WSe2 driven by plasmonic nanofingers." Nanophotonics. 2022. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alu A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons (vol 600, pg 75, 2021)." NATURE. 2022. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhou H, Liu Z, Li Y, Shang Q, Xie J, Deng L, Zhang Q, Liang D. "Pattern-Selective Molecular Epitaxial Growth of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Arrays toward Ultrasensitive and Ultrafast Photodetector." Nano Letters. 2022;22:2948-2955. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alù A, others. "Publisher Correction: Optomechanical dissipative solitons." Nature. 2022. Abstract
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2021
Zheng Y, Yang X-W, Schols D, Mori M, Botta B, Chevigné A, Mulinge M, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C. "Active Components from Prevent HIV-1 Entry by Distinct Mechanisms of Action." Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9). Abstract

is widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa for treating many diseases, including HIV-1 infection. We have recently described the chemical structures of 28 compounds isolated from an alcoholic crude extract of barks and roots of , and showed that six bioactive compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that the six compounds block HIV-1 entry into cells: oleanolic acid, palmitic acid, taxifolin, piceatannol, guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, and a novel compound named as cassiabrevone. We report, for the first time, that guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone inhibit HIV-1 entry (IC of 42.47 µM and 30.96 µM, respectively), as well as that piceatannol interacts with cellular membranes. Piceatannol inhibits HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber assay mimicking the female genital tract, as well as HSV infection, emphasizing its potential as a microbicide. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) showed that pharmacophoric groups of piceatannol are strictly required to inhibit HIV-1 entry. By a ligand-based in silico study, we speculated that piceatannol and norartocarpetin may have a very similar mechanism of action and efficacy because of the highly comparable pharmacophoric and 3D space, while guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone may display a different mechanism. We finally show that cassiabrevone plays a major role of the crude extract of by blocking the binding activity of HIV-1 gp120 and CD4.

Yang X, He Z, Zheng Y, Wang N, Mulinge M, Schmit J-C, Steinmetz A, Seguin-Devaux C. "Chemical Constituents of and Their Anti-HIV-1 Activity." Molecules. 2021;26(9). Abstract

Three new (-) and 25 known compounds were isolated from the crude extract of . The chemical structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Cassiabrevone () is the first heterodimer of guibourtinidol and planchol A. Compound was a new chalcane, while was a new naphthalene. Cassiabrevone (), guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin (), taxifolin (), oleanolic acid (), piceatannol (), and palmitic acid (), exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with IC values of 11.89 µM, 15.39 µM, 49.04 µM, 7.95 µM, 3.58 µM, and 15.97 µM, respectively.

Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

Debrah I, Afrane YA, Amoah LE, Ochwedo KO, Mukabana WR, Zhong D, Zhou G, Lee M, Onyango SA, Magomere EO, Atieli HE, Githeko AK, Yan G. ", Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;16(10):e0255321.
Masika SJ, Muchemi GM, Okumu TA, Mutura S, Zimmerman D, Kamau J. "Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in olive baboons and vervet monkeys in Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2021;17(1):385.
Gashururu SR, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Gasana MN, Odhiambo PO, Getange DO, Habimana R, Cecchi G, Zhao W, Gashumba, J, Bargul JL, Masiga DK. "Occurrence, diversity and distribution of Trypanosoma infections in cattle around the Akagera National Park, Rwanda." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2021;15(12).
H.M K, Z. O, R. T, K. M. "The Societal Construction of Femininity as Depicted in the Metaphor of Chicken in Swahili Proverbs." Mwanga wa Lugha -Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrica. 2021;6/1(April 2021):19-26.
Lengoiboni M, Katcho Karume, Siriba D, Ssengendo R, Potel J, Lemmen C, Zevenbergen J. "Strengthening the Eastern Africa Land Administration Network (SEALAN) project in enhancing inter-university Collaboration in land administration Eastern Africa." African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences . 2021;4(1):143-161.
Mulinge E, Zeyhle E, Mpario J, Mugo M, Nungari L, Ngugi B, Gathura P, Sankale B. "A survey of intestinal helminths in domestic dogs in a human–animal–environmental interface: the Oloisukut Conservancy, Narok County, Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2021;95.
Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Habimana RS, Maingi N, Gecchi G, Paone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the Distribution of Glossina (tsetse flies) at the Wild;life-Human-Livestock interface at Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(PARAV- D- 21 0016).
Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Gasane MN, Habiman R, Maingi N, Cecchi G, Pacone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the distribution of Glossina(tsetse flies) at the wildlife-human-livestock interface of Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites and Vectors. 2021;14(1):294.
Wang N, Zhang H, Liu S, Peng B, Deng Z. "Composite polydopamine-based TiO2 coated mesh with restorable superhydrophobic surfaces for wastewater treatment." Journal of Materials Science. 2021;56:7321-7333. Abstract
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Biermann O, Mwoka M, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Shawky S, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Mberu B, others. "Data, Social Determinants, and Better Decision-making for Health: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:4-14. Abstract
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Peng B, Murakami S, Monserrat B, Zhang T. "Degenerate topological line surface phonons in quasi-1D double helix crystal SnIP." npj Computational Materials. 2021;7:1-8. Abstract
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Wu Y, Hua J, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Liu S, Peng B, Fang Y, Ning X, Nie Z, Li F, others. "High-throughput injection–acceleration of electron bunches from a linear accelerator to a laser wakefield accelerator." Nature Physics. 2021;17:801-806. Abstract
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Mwoka M, Biermann O, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Rashid SF, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Valladares LM, others. "Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Evidence from Singapore, the UK, and Kenya: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:15-30. Abstract
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Wang C, Jiang X, Sweeney WR, Hsu CW, Liu Y, Zhao G, Peng B, Zhang M, Jiang L, Stone DA, others. "Induced transparency by interference or polarization." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2021;118. Abstract
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Wan Y, Cheng X, Li Y, Wang Y, Du Y, Zhao Y, Peng B, Dai L, Kan E. "Manipulating the Raman scattering rotation via magnetic field in an MoS 2 monolayer." RSC Advances. 2021;11:4035-4041. Abstract
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Meng T, Zhang J, Wang H, Fu N, Wang M, Li W, Shi R, Peng B, Li P, Deng Z. "Multifunctional CuO-Coated Mesh for Wastewater Treatment: Effective Oil/Water Separation, Organic Contaminants Photodegradation, and Bacterial Photodynamic Inactivation." Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2021;8:2101179. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Faria Junior PE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Narrow-band high-lying excitons with negative-mass electrons in monolayer WSe2." Nature communications. 2021;12:1-8. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alù A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons." Nature. 2021;600:75-80. Abstract
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Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Phonon-assisted electronic states modulation of few-layer PdSe2 at terahertz frequencies." npj 2D Materials and Applications. 2021;5:1-8. Abstract
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Zhao X, Qiao J, Zhou X, Chen H, Tan JY, Yu H, Chan SM, Li J, Zhang H, Zhou J, others. "Strong Moiré Excitons in High-Angle Twisted Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Homobilayers with Robust Commensuration." Nano Letters. 2021. Abstract
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2020
Mulinge E, Odongo D, Magambo J, Njenga SM, Zeyhle E, Mbae C, Kagendo D, Addy F, Ebi D, Wassermann M, Kern P, Romig T. "Diversity of Taenia and Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in domestic dogs in Kenya." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(9):2863-2875. Abstract

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Owor RO, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo GO, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of Natural Products. 2020;83(4):996-1004. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and …

Chirwa TF, Zingoni ZM, Munyewende P, Manda SO, Mwambi H, Kandala N-B, Kinyanjui S, Young T, Musenge E, Simbeye J, Musonda P, Mahande MJ, Weke P, Onyango NO, Kazembe L. "Developing excellence in biostatistics leadership, training and science in Africa: How the Sub-Saharan Africa Consortium for Advanced Biostatistics (SSACAB) training unites …." AAS Open Research. 2020;3(51). AbstractWebsite

The increase in health research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has led to a high demand for biostatisticians to develop study designs, contribute and apply statistical methods in data analyses. Initiatives exist to address the dearth in statistical capacity and lack of local biostatisticians in SSA health projects. The Sub-Saharan African Consortium for Advanced Biostatistics (SSACAB) led by African institutions was initiated to improve biostatistical capacity according to the needs identified by African institutions, through collaborative masters and doctoral training in biostatistics. SACCAB has created a critical mass of biostatisticians and a network of institutions over the last five years and has strengthened biostatistics resources and capacity for health research studies in SSA. SSACAB comprises 11 universities and four research institutions which are supported by four European universities. In 2015, only four universities …

Li D, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang H, Wang S, Birech Z, Hu J. "An efficient LSPR method to quantitatively detect dimethoate: Development, characterization and evaluation. ." Plos one. 2020;15(9):e0239632.
Elsayed HM, Wadee S, Zaki MS, Were AJO, Ashuntantang GE, Bamgboye EL, Davids MR, Hafez MH, Mahamat M, Naicker S, Niang A, Seck SM, Swanepoel CR, Tannor EK, Twahir A, Yao HK. "Guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of the renal complications of COVID-19 in Africa." African Journal of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):S117-S134.Website
Njeru N, Charles Midega, Muthomi J, Wagacha J, Zeyaur Khan. "Impact of push–pull cropping system on pest management and occurrence of ear rots and mycotoxin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Plant Pathology . 2020;69(9):1644-1654.
Owor RO, Derese S, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Isoflavones from the seedpods of Tephrosia vogelii and pyrazoisopongaflavone with anti-inflammatory effects." Fitoterapia. 2020;146:104695. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
Phytochemical investigation of Tephrosia vogelii seedpods led to the isolation of twelve compounds: vogelisoflavone A (1), vogelisoflavone B (2), isopongaflavone (3), onogenin, luteolin, 4′,7-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone, trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, tephrosin, 2-methoxygliricidol, dehydrorotenone, 6a,12a-dehydro-α-toxicarol and pinoresinol. Compounds 1 and 2 are reported as new natural products. Isopongaflavone (3) was structurally modified using hydrazine to pyrazoisopongaflavone (4). These compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRESIMS data. Further, four compounds (1–4) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the compounds at a concentration of 100 μM suppressed the secretion of interleukin IL-1β interferon-gamma (IFN-γ …

Owor RO, Derese S, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Isoflavones from the seedpods of Tephrosia vogelii and pyrazoisopongaflavone with anti-inflammatory effects." Fitoterapia. 2020;146:104695.
Omwenga I, Kanja Laetitia W, Zomer P, Louisse J, Rietjens IMCM, Mol HGJ. "Organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues and accompanying risks in commonly consumed vegetables in Kenya." Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B Surveillance . 2020;14(1):1-11.
Omondi HA, Gitau G, Gathura P, Mulinge E, Zeyhle E, Kimeli P, Bett B. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from livestock in North-Eastern Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2020:94.
Nancy M, Githigia S, Karanja D, Mbae C, Zeyhle E, Mulinge E, Magambo J, ogolla K. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in selected abattoirs in Kenya. ." Hindawi Scientifica . 2020;Article ID 5672140(https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5672140).
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Owor RO, Bedane KG, Openda YI, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo G, Ong’amo G, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
Njeri GL, Zaja JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):185-194.
"Fungomeli M", Cianciaruso M, Zannini P, Githitho A, Frascaroli F, Fulanda B, Kibet S, Wiemers B, Mbuvi MT. "Woody plant species diversity of the coastal forests of Kenya: filling in knowledge gaps in a biodiversity hotspot." Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology. 2020;154(6):973-982.
Fu W, Zhao X, Wang K, Chen Z, Leng K, Fu D, Song P, Wang H, Deng L, Pennycook SJ, others. "An anomalous magneto-optic effect in epitaxial indium selenide layers." Nano Letters. 2020;20:5330-5338. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Junior PFE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Bright excitons with negative-mass electrons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.14705. 2020. Abstract
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Wang C, Jiang X, Zhao G, Zhang M, Hsu CW, Peng B, Stone DA, Jiang L, Yang L. "Electromagnetically induced transparency at a chiral exceptional point." Nature Physics. 2020;16:334-340. Abstract
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Li Q, Zhao X, Deng L, Shi Z, Liu S, Wei Q, Zhang L, Cheng Y, Zhang L, Lu H, others. "Enhanced valley Zeeman splitting in Fe-doped monolayer MoS2." ACS nano. 2020;14:4636-4645. Abstract
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Xie Y, Peng B, Bravić I, Yu Y, Dong Y, Liang R, Ou Q, Monserrat B, Zhang S. "Highly efficient blue-emitting CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals through neodymium doping." Advanced Science. 2020;7:2001698. Abstract
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Fei Y, Wu J, An H-W, Zhu K, Peng B, Cai J, Zhang Y, Li L-L, Wang H, Huang Z. "Identification of new nitric oxide-donating peptides with dual biofilm eradication and antibacterial activities for intervention of device-related infections." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2020;63:9127-9135. Abstract
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Guo K, Deng B, Liu Z, Gao C, Shi Z, Bi L, Zhang L, Lu H, Zhou P, Zhang L, others. "Layer dependence of stacking order in nonencapsulated few-layer CrI3." Science China Materials. 2020;63:413-420. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang Y, Lü Z, Cheng TCE, Glover F. "A learning-based memetic algorithm for the multiple vehicle pickup and delivery problem with LIFO loading." Computers & Industrial Engineering. 2020;142:106241. Abstract
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Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Light-driven bandgap renormalization and terahertz atomic oscillations in few-layer PdSe2." arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.02034. 2020. Abstract
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Shi Z, Muhammad S, Deng L, Liu Z, Bi L, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhou P, Chen H, Lu H, others. "Magnetic-brightening and control of dark exciton in CsPbBr3 perovskite." Science China Materials. 2020;63:1503-1509. Abstract
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Zhou S, Peng B. "Non-volatile optical memory in vertical van der Waals heterostructures." Journal of Semiconductors. 2020;41:072906. Abstract
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Liu Z, Guo K, Hu G, Shi Z, Li Y, Zhang L, Chen H, Zhang L, Zhou P, Lu H, others. "Observation of nonreciprocal magneto-optical scattering in nonencapsulated few-layered CrI3." arXiv preprint arXiv:2008.12896. 2020. Abstract
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Liu Z, Guo K, Hu G, Shi Z, Li Y, Zhang L, Chen H, Zhang L, Zhou P, Lu H, others. "Observation of nonreciprocal magnetophonon effect in nonencapsulated few-layered CrI3." Science advances. 2020;6:eabc7628. Abstract
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Xie Y, Peng B, Bravić I, Yu Y, Dong Y, Liang R, Ou Q, Monserrat B, Zhang S. "Perovskite Nanocrystals: Highly Efficient Blue-Emitting CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Neodymium Doping (Adv. Sci. 20/2020)." Advanced Science. 2020;7:2070112. Abstract
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Shang B, Zhang X, Ji R, Wang Y, Hu H, Peng B, Deng Z. "Preparation of colloidal polydopamine/Au hollow spheres for enhanced ultrasound contrast imaging and photothermal therapy." Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2020;106:110174. Abstract
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Ma Y, Zhu X, Wang B, Liu S, Meng T, Chen H, Peng B, Deng Z. "Sacrificial template synthesis of hierarchical nickel hydroxidenitrate hollow colloidal particles for electrochemical energy storage." Chemical Engineering Science. 2020;217:115548. Abstract
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Wang Y, Deng L, Wei Q, Wan Y, Liu Z, Lu X, Li Y, Bi L, Zhang L, Lu H, others. "Spin-valley locking effect in defect states of monolayer MoS2." Nano Letters. 2020;20:2129-2136. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Chen W, Hou B, Qiu Z-J, Shao H, Zhu H, Monserrat B, Fu D, Weng H, others. "Sub-picosecond photo-induced displacive phase transition in two-dimensional MoTe2." npj 2D Materials and Applications. 2020;4:1-8. Abstract
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Shang B, Xu M, Zhi Z, Xi Y, Wang Y, Peng B, Li P, Deng Z. "Synthesis of sandwich-structured silver@ polydopamine@ silver shells with enhanced antibacterial activities." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2020;558:47-54. Abstract
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Peng B, Hu Y, Murakami S, Zhang T, Monserrat B. "Topological phonons in oxide perovskites controlled by light." Science advances. 2020;6:eabd1618. Abstract
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Al-Azawi A, Cenev Z, Tupasela T, Peng B, Ikkala O, Zhou Q, Jokinen V, Franssila S, Ras RHA. "Tunable and Magnetic Thiol–ene Micropillar Arrays." Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 2020;41:1900522. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang Y, Cheng TCE, Lü Z, Punnen AP. "A two-individual based path-relinking algorithm for the satellite broadcast scheduling problem." Knowledge-Based Systems. 2020;196:105774. Abstract
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Yebouet M-FA, Diby AK, Kaduki KA, Zoueu JT. "Unstained blood smear contrast enhancement using spectral time multiplexing super resolution." Journal of Spectral Imaging. 2020;9. Abstract
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2019
Marangu D, Zar HJ. "Childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries: An update." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019;32:3-9. Abstract

To review epidemiology, aetiology and management of childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Marangu D, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: A systematic review." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019. Abstract

To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP).

Attardo GM, Abd-Alla AMM, Acosta-Serrano A, Allen JE, Bateta R, Benoit JB, Bourtzis K, Caers J, Caljon G, Christensen MB, Farrow DW, Friedrich M, Hua-Van A, Jennings EC, Larkin DM, Lawson D, Lehane MJ, Lenis VP, Lowy-Gallego E, Macharia RW, Malacrida AR, Marco HG, Masiga D, Maslen GL, Matetovici I, Meisel RP, Meki I, Michalkova V, Miller WJ, Minx P, Mireji PO, Ometto L, Parker AG, Rio R, Rose C, Rosendale AJ, Rota-Stabelli O, Savini G, Schoofs L, Scolari F, Swain MT, Takáč P, Tomlinson C, Tsiamis G, Van Den Abbeele J, Vigneron A, Wang J, Warren WC, Waterhouse RM, Weirauch MT, Weiss BL, Wilson RK, Zhao X, Aksoy S. "Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes." Genome Biol. 2019;20(1):187. Abstract

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. austeni), Palpalis (G. palpalis, G. fuscipes), and Fusca (G. brevipalpis) which represent different habitats, host preferences, and vectorial capacity.

Hammadi R, Kúsz N, Mwangi PW, Kulmány Á, Zupkó I, Orvos P, Tálosi L, Hohmann J, Vasas A. "Isolation and Pharmacological Investigation of Compounds From Euphorbia matabelensis." Natural Product CommunicationsNatural Product Communications. 2019;14(7):1934578X19863509. AbstractWebsite

This work deals with the isolation and pharmacological investigations of compounds of Euphorbia matabelensis. After multiple separation process, including thin layer chromatography (TLC), vacuum liquid chromatography, preparative TLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography, 1 diterpene (ingenol) and 2 flavonoids (naringenin and eriodictyol) were obtained from the methanol extracts prepared from the stems and roots of the plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS measurements and comparison with literature data. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the plant. Eriodictyol was detected for the first time from a Euphorbia species. The compounds were tested for their antiproliferative (on HeLa, C33a, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and GIRK channel blocking activities. None of the compounds proved to be active in these test systems.

Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Williams M, Summerhayes CP, Odada E, Wagreich M, Draganits E, Edgewor M. "7 The Stratigraphic Boundary of the Anthropocene.". In: The Anthropocene as a Geological Time Unit: A Guide to the Scientific Evidence and Current Debate. Cambridge University Press; 2019. Abstract

Here we outline the basis on which a formal proposal should be made for potential inclusion of the Anthropocene in the Geological Time Scale, examining the scale and rate of human change to the Earth System to help recognise the point at which anthropogenic impacts became of sufficient scale to allow discrimination of the Anthropocene as a geological unit. This examination covers such factors as impacts from early hominin species, the first human artefacts, early ecosystem modification through agriculture, deforestation, the domestication of animals, urbanisation, metal mining and smelting and early globalisation. The Industrial Revolution, starting in the UK in the 18th century, and the global Great Acceleration of the mid-20th century, are investigated, as both provide popular narratives that explain the Earth System changes indicative of the Anthropocene, with the latter producing the near-synchronous stratigraphic signals most consistent with an effective geological time boundary. We assess which hierarchical level–age, epoch, period, era or eon–seems most suitable for the Anthropocene, and suggest that epoch (= series) level is conservative and appropriate. The Anthropocene might be defined via a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age or a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point, with the latter being most appropriate. Finally, we assess the kinds of geological environments, including anoxic marine basins, annually banded coral and bivalve skeletons, estuaries and deltas, lake floors, peat mires, anthropogenic deposits, polar ice, speleothems and tree rings, in which such a physical reference level might be placed.

Ismail LW, ZP Q, SB O. "The acceptability of HIV testing among women receiving post abortion care." South Sudan Medical Journal. 2019;12(3):101-105. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: In South Sudan few women have heard about the HIV. The prevalence of HIV infection in the country is 2.6%. Post abortion care (PAC) accounts for over 50% of all gynaecological admissions at the Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH). HIV testing is not routinely offered as part of PAC services.

Objective: To determine factors associated with acceptability of HIV testing among women receiving PAC at JTH.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted at the Gynaecological Unit of JTH. Three hundred and forty patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 24.7 years with 50.5% aged <25years, 31.5% were employed, and 31.8% had no formal education. Acceptability of HIV testing was 70.9% and the prevalence of HIV was 2.7%. The most common reason for not accepting, was the belief, based on previous results, that they were HIV negative. Patients aged ≥25 years and those with primary and secondary education were twice as likely to accept HIV testing than those <25 years and those with no formal education, respectively. Employment status, religion and marital status were not statistically associated with acceptability of HIV testing. Patients previously tested for HIV were more likely to accept testing.

Conclusion: Routine HIV testing should be integrated into PAC services with efforts to increase awareness of HIV and importance of testing

Key words: HIV, abortion, post-abortion care, South Sudan

Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Zahida Q. "Assessment of characteristics of patients with pregnancy related acute kidney injury in Kenyatta National hospital.". 2019. Abstract

Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) remains a grave complication of pregnancy. Studies on patient characteristics are few and demonstrate diverse patient features. Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with PRAKI at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H) Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with gestation age equal to or above 28 weeks and on women in postpartum, within six weeks after delivery. The principal investigator or study assistant introduced study requirements to patients with diagnosis of PRAKI. After consent, clinical and demographic information was obtained from participants through verbal interviews and from medical records using a data capture form. Follow up was until discharge or maximum of two weeks which ever came first. Management of patients was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Results Out of 2068 admissions, 66 participants were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. The mean age was 28 years with peak age between 26-30 years. Forty-two (63.6%) were referred from other health facilities, of whom, 24(57.1%) were from rural areas. Nineteen (27.8%) had pre-pregnancy medical conditions, predominantly cardiovascular. All participants developed one or more obstetric complication: -preeclampsia 28(42.4%), eclampsia eight (9.1%) and hemolysis with elevated liver enzyme low platelet (HELLP) syndrome 17(25.8%). Sixty (91%) pregnancies were delivered. Average gestation age at delivery was 35 weeks, with 33(55%) preterm births, of whom, 10 (30.3%) were fresh still births. Severity of PRAKI at presentation was evenly distributed across stages 1 to 111. Forty-one (62.1%) participants improved on conservative management and 25(37.9%) worsened, of whom, 19 (76.0%) were dialyzed. No maternal mortality was reported during the study. Conclusion: We demonstrate a prevalence of PRAKI of 3.2% in K.N.H. Hypertensive disorders were the main associated factors. There was high rate of premature births and a six-fold increase in fresh still births among participants.

Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
Kawakyu N, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Munguambe K, Coutinho J, Mburu N, DeCastro G, Inguane C, Zunt A, Abburi N, Sherr K, S. G. "Development and Implementation of a Mobile Phone-Based Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Cascade Analysis Tool: Usability and Feasibility Testing in Kenya and Mozambique." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019;13;7(5):( doi: 10.2196/13963.):e13963.
Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Early Neonatal Outcomes among Mothers receiving variable doeses of Dexamethasone for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital: A restrospective Cohort Study ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):54-61.Website
P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

Opiyo RO, Nyasulu PS, Olenja J, Zunza M, Nguyen KA, Bukania Z, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Were AO. "Factors associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis in national referral hospitals in Kenya: a mixed-methods survey." Renal Replacement Therapy Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adherence to dietary prescriptions among patients with chronic kidney disease is known to prevent
deterioration of kidney functions and slow down the risk for morbidity and mortality. This study determined factors
associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
Methods: A mixed-methods study, using parallel mixed design, was conducted at the renal clinics and dialysis units at
the national teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya from September 2018 to January 2019. The study followed a
QUAN + qual paradigm, with quantitative survey as the primary method. Adult patients with chronic kidney disease on
hemodialysis without kidney transplant were purposively sampled for the quantitative survey. A sub-sample of
adult patients and their caregivers were purposively sampled for the qualitative survey. Numeric data were collected
using a structured, self-reported questionnaire using Open Data Kit “Collect software” while qualitative data were
collected using in-depth interview guides and voice recording. Analysis on STATA software for quantitative and
NVIV0 12 for qualitative data was conducted. The dependent variable, “adherence to diet prescription” was analyzed as a
binary variable. P values < 0.1 and < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant in univariate and multivariate logistic
regression models respectively. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed.
Results: Only 36.3% of the study population adhered to their dietary prescriptions. Factors that were independently
associated with adherence to diet prescriptions were “flexibility in the diets” (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.11–6.30, P
0.028), “difficulties in following diet recommendations” (AOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13–0.46, P < 001), and “adherence
to limiting fluid intake” (AOR 9.74, 95% CI 4.90–19.38, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: For patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis, diet prescriptions with less restrictions
and requiring minimal extra efforts and resources are more likely to be adhered to than the restrictive ones.
Patients who adhere to their fluid intake restrictions easily follow their diet prescriptions. Prescribed diets should be based
on the individual patient’s usual dietary habits and assessed levels of challenges in using such diets. Additionally, diet
adherence messages should be integrated with fluid limitation messages. Further research on understanding patients’
adherence to fluid restriction is also suggested.

Thanh BY, P L, Pattanittum P, Laopaiboon M, JP V, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Mori R, Jayaratne K, Z Q, J S. "Mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in preterm birth: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global and Multi-country Surveys." Scientific reports. 2019;9(15556):1-8. AbstractWebsite

Many studies have been conducted to examine whether Caesarean Section (CS) or vaginal birth (VB) was optimal for better maternal and neonatal outcomes in preterm births. However, findings remain unclear. Therefore, this secondary analysis of World Health Organization Global Survey (GS) and Multi-country Survey (MCS) databases was conducted to investigate outcomes of preterm birth by mode of delivery. Our sample were women with singleton neonates (15,471 of 237 facilities from 21 countries in GS; and 15,053 of 239 facilities from 21 countries in MCS) delivered between 22 and <37 weeks of gestation. We assessed association between mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes in singleton preterm births by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for hierarchical data. The prevalences of women with preterm birth delivered by CS were 31.0% and 36.7% in GS and MCS, respectively. Compared with VB, CS was associated with significantly increased odds of maternal intensive care unit admission, maternal near miss, and neonatal intensive care unit admission but significantly decreased odds of fresh stillbirth, and perinatal death. However, since the information on justification for mode of delivery (MOD) were not available, our results of the potential benefits and harms of CS should be carefully considered when deciding MOD in preterm births.

Subject terms: Epidemiology, Outcomes research

Ma L, Li Z, Birech Z, Li S, Yang Y, Zhang W, Hu J. "Multi-Channel Optoelectronic Measurement System for Soil Nutrients Analysis." Electronics. 2019;8(4):451.
Ogeng’o JA, Obimbo MM, Zhou Y, McMaster MT, Cohen CR, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Ong’ech J, Fisher SJ. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2019;80(1):94-102. Abstractplacental_structure_in_preterm_birth_among_hiv-positive.pdfWolters Kluwer Health, Inc

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant
morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest
that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection,
use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the
mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to
determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental
changes that could contribute to PTB.
Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIVpositive
women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had
preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at
gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational
age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal
HIV serostatus.
Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly
associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032),
anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane
infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010).
Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with
immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of
HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant
fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast
delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction
in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.
Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART
are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that
contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests
that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia.
Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate
the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for
decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.
Key Words: preterm birth, term birth, placenta, HIV, ART

Obimbo MM, Y Z, MT MM, CR C, Z Q, J O’ech, JA O’o, SJ F. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2019;80(1):94-102. AbstractWebsite

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental changes that could contribute to PTB.

Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIV-positive women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal HIV serostatus.

Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032), anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010). Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.

Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia. Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.

D P, ZP Q, K L, MK K, GN G, Odawa FX, A O, O K, PK K, Kosgei RJ, AB K, PM N, O O. "Policy Brief - Increasing Caesarean Section rates among low risk women after introduction of free maternity services in a Kenyan National Referral Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):52-53.Website
Osoti AO, JP V, Oladapo OT, ZP Q, AM G. "Tranexamic acid for treatment of postpartum haemorrhage." Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine. 2019;29(5):146-147. AbstractWebsite

Postpartum haemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. Mortality and severe morbidity due to postpartum haemorrhage is highest in lower-resource settings. Tranexamic acid is an anti-fibrinolytic drug that has been in use in humans for nearly five decades. It is a structural analogue of lysine that binds irreversibly to plasminogen, thereby inhibiting the binding of plasmin to fibrin. This in turn inhibits fibrinolysis, thus stabilizing blood clots. Tranexamic acid has been shown to improve outcomes in trauma-related bleeding. New research has shown that early use of tranexamic acid (within 3 hours of birth), in addition to standard care, safely reduces deaths due to bleeding in women with clinically diagnosed postpartum haemorrhage, regardless of the mode of birth.

Keywords: anti-fibrinolysis,maternal mortality,postpartum haemorrhage,tranexamic acid

D P, ZP Q, K L, MK K, GN G, Odawa FX, A O, O K, PK K, Kosgei RJ, AB K, PM N, O O. "Use of the Robson Classification to compare Caesarean Section patterns at the Kenyatta National Hospital after and before free Maternity Services in Kenya." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):46-51.Website
Zephania B, Mwangi PW, Sehmi PK, Chege BM, Nyaga NM. Utility of Raman Spectroscopy in obesity detection with bands associated with fructose and branched chain amino acids as biomarkers. Washington, DC United States; 2019.
Peng B, Mei H, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Jin Q, Soukoulis CM, Zhu H. "High thermoelectric efficiency in monolayer PbI 2 from 300 K to 900 K." Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers. 2019;6:920-928. Abstract
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Nijimbere D, Zhao S, Liu H, Peng B, Zhang A. "A hybrid metaheuristic of integrating estimation of distribution algorithm with tabu search for the max-mean dispersion problem." Mathematical Problems in Engineering. 2019;2019. Abstract
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Zhao X-X, Li L-L, Zhao Y, An H-W, Cai Q, Lang J-Y, Han X-X, Peng B, Fei Y, Liu H, others. "In Situ Self-Assembled Nanofibers Precisely Target Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts for Improved Tumor Imaging." Angewandte Chemie. 2019;131:15431-15438. Abstract
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Chen Y, Peng B, Cong C, Shang J, Wu L, Yang W, Zhou J, Yu P, Zhang H, Wang Y, others. "In-Plane Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Few-Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Td-WTe2." Advanced Materials. 2019;31:1804979. Abstract
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Peng B, Iwnicki S, Shackleton P, Crosbee D, Zhao Y. "The influence of wheelset flexibility on polygonal wear of locomotive wheels." Wear. 2019;432:102917. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhao X, Yang M-S, Li L-L. "Intracellular transglutaminase-catalyzed polymerization and assembly for bioimaging of hypoxic neuroblastoma cells." Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 2019;7:5626-5632. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang Y, Gajpal Y, Chen X. "A memetic algorithm for the green vehicle routing problem." Sustainability. 2019;11:6055. Abstract
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Chen J, Zhang Q, Shi J, Zhang S, Du W, Mi Y, Shang Q, Liu P, Sui X, Wu X, others. "Room temperature continuous-wave excited biexciton emission in perovskite nanoplatelets via plasmonic nonlinear fano resonance." Communications Physics. 2019;2:1-8. Abstract
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Zhu K, Hou D, Fei Y, Peng B, Wang Z, Xu W, Zhu B, Li L-L, Wang H. "Thermosensitive Hydrogel Interface Switching from Hydrophilic Lubrication to Infection Defense." ACS Applied Bio Materials. 2019;2:3582-3590. Abstract
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2018
Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9840. Abstract

Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is a complementary method to sprouting angiogenesis (SA). The hallmark of IA is formation of trans-capillary tissue pillars, their fusion and remodeling of the vascular plexus. In this study, we investigate the formation of the zebrafish caudal vein plexus (CVP) in Tg(fli1a:eGFP) and the synergistic interaction of IA and SA in crafting the archetypical angio-architecture of the CVP. Dynamic in vivo observations and quantitative analyses revealed that the primitive CVP during development was initiated through SA. Further vascular growth and remodeling occurred by IA. Intussusception contributed to the expansion of the CVP by formation of new pillars. Those pillars arose in front of the already existing ones; and in a subsequent step the serried pillars elongated and fused together. This resulted in segregation of larger vascular segments and remodelling of the disorganized vascular meshwork into hierarchical tree-like arrangement. Blood flow was the main driving force for IA, particularly shear stress geometry at the site of pillar formation and fusion. Computational simulations based on hemodynamics showed drop in shear stress levels at locations of new pillar formation, pillar elongation and fusion. Correlative 3D serial block face scanning electron microscopy confirmed the morphological substrate of the phenomena of the pillar formation observed in vivo. The data obtained demonstrates that after the sprouting phase and formation of the primitive capillary meshwork, the hemodynamic conditions enhance intussusceptive segregation of hierarchical vascular tree i.e. intussusceptive arborization resulting in complex vascular structures with specific angio-architecture.

Lowther K, Harding R, Victoria Simms, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Nancy Gikaara, Lorraine Sherr, Hellen Kariuki, and Selman IHLEJ. "Active ingredients of a person-centred intervention for people on HIV treatment: analysis of mixed methods trial data ." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18:27(1):27.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
and Zubeda Mucheke DNBS. "Challenges to electronic conveyancing in Kenya." Open University of Tanzania Law Journal. 2018.
Mukherjee N, Zabala A, Huge J, Nyumba TO, Esmail BA, Sutherland WJ. "Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision‐making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9(1):54-63. AbstractComparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-makingdio.org

Decision‐making is a complex process that typically includes a series of stages: identifying the issue, considering possible options, making judgements and then making a decision by combining information and values. The current status quo relies heavily on the informational aspect of decision‐making with little or no emphasis on the value positions that affect decisions.

There is increasing realization of the importance of adopting rigorous methods for each stage such that the information, views and judgements of stakeholders and experts are used in a systematic and repeatable manner. Though there are several methodological textbooks which discuss a plethora of social science techniques, it is hard to judge the suitability of any given technique for a given decision problem.
In decision‐making, the three critical aspects are “what” decision is to be made, “who” makes the decisions and “how” the decisions are made. The methods covered in this paper focus on “how” decisions can be made. We compare six techniques: Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Interviews, Q methodology, Multi‐criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Nominal Group Technique and the Delphi technique specifically in the context of biodiversity conservation. All of these techniques (with the exception of MCDA) help in understanding human values and the underlying perspectives which shape decisions.
Based on structured reviews of 423 papers covering all six methods, we compare the conceptual and logistical characteristics of the methods, and map their suitability for the different stages of the decision‐making process. While interviews and FGD are well‐known, techniques such the Nominal Group technique and Q methodology are relatively under‐used. In situations where conflict is high, we recommend using the Q methodology and Delphi technique to elicit judgments. Where conflict is low, and a consensus is needed urgently, the Nominal Group technique may be more suitable.
We present a nuanced synthesis of methods aimed at users. The comparison of the different techniques might be useful for project managers, academics or practitioners in the planning phases of their projects and help in making better informed methodological choices.

Lowther K, Harding R, Victoria Simms, Nancy Gikaara, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr, Selman IHLJ &. "Effect of participation in a randomised controlled trial of an integrated palliative care intervention on HIV-associated stigma." AIDS Care . 2018;30(9):1180-1188.
AJ O’o, Z Q, M O. "Infection in pregnancy; understanding impact on placental microenvironment and preterm birth: a review." JOGECA . 2018;29(1). Abstract

Background: Pregnancy increases susceptibility to and severity of infections caused by certain microbes and
parasites. The presence of these infectious agents at the maternofetal interface may lead to adverse pregnancy
outcomes including preterm birth either via direct action of the microbes or indirectly via alteration of the placental
microenvironment.
Objective: To summarize the literature regarding the role of various infectious agents in alteration of placental
microenvironment and predisposition to preterm birth.
Method: A review search using Google scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip database was conducted at the
University of California San Francisco. A total of 880 abstracts were reviewed and a total of 95 studies were included.
Studies were included if they reported any information on infection during pregnancy, effect on placenta or fetal
membranes or risk of preterm birth.
Results: The current evidence indicates that various infectious agents affect pregnancy and alter placental
microenvironment at the maternofetal interface. Severity of these infections increases with gestation. Additionally,
these infections are associated with the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes including preterm birth.
Conclusion: Prevention, early detection and treatment of these infections including those that are asymptomatic is
important in maintaining integrity of the placenta and in reducing the burden of preterm births.

Santis VD, Mwinami T, Chesire D, Musina J, Zaccara S, Kioko E, Owino JJ, Oduma JA, Ayiemba W, Harper DM, Crosa G. "Molecular pilot study on peripheral populations of Kenyan greenbul in an afromontane fragmented forest." African Journal of Ecology. 2018;56(3):610-619.
Kitonyo OM, Sadras VO, Zhou Y, Denton MD. "Nitrogen supply and sink demand modulate the patterns of leaf senescence in maize." Field Crops Research. 2018;225:92-103.
Odongo DO, Tiampati CM, Mulinge E, Mbae CK, Bishop RP, Zeyhle E, Magambo J, Wasserman M, Kern P, Romig T. "Prevalence and genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep in Narok County, Kenya." Parasitology research. 2018;117(7):2065-2073.
Cheruiyot EK, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Zhang Y, Mrode R, Mujibi FDN. "Signatures of selection in admixed dairy cattle in Tanzania." Frontiers in genetics. 2018;9:607.
Bichang’a G, Lage J-LD, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Zivy M, Balliau T, Sambai K, Ru BL, Kaiser L, Juma G, Maina ENM, others. "$\alpha$-Amylase mediates host acceptance in the braconid parasitoid Cotesia flavipes." Journal of chemical ecology. 2018;44:1030-1039. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D Nanostructures: 1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr With High Stability and Novel Properties for Microelectronic, Optoelectronic, and Thermoelectric Applications (Adv. Theory Simul. 1/2018)." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1870001. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1700005. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Li J, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, $\alpha$-arsenene and aW-antimonene." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2018;6. Abstract
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Soukoulis CM, Zhu H, Li J, Ni G, Xu K, Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, others. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, alpha-arsenene and aW-antimonene.". 2018. Abstract
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Ouko C, Mulwa R, Kibugi R, Owuor M, Zaehringer J, Oguge N. "Community Perceptions of Ecosystem Services and the Management of Mt. Marsabit Forest in Northern Kenya." Environments. 2018;5(11):121. Abstract
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Mukherjee N, Zabala A, Huge J, Nyumba TO, Esmail BA, Sutherland WJ. "Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9:54-63. Abstract
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Peng B, Yue C, Zhang H, Fang Z, Weng H. "Dirac semimetals in Sodium Ternary Compounds from Material Design on Na3Bi." arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.01434. 2018. Abstract
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Xu K, Xu Y, Zhang H, Peng B, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Yao M, Lu H, Zhu H, others. "Electronic, optical and transport properties of van der Waals Transition-metal Dichalcogenides Heterostructures: A First-principle Study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.02518. 2018. Abstract
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Shao H, Jin M, Peng B, Zhang H, Tan X, Liu G-Q, Jiang H, Jiang J. "First-principles study of manipulating the phonon transport of molybdenum disulfide by sodium intercalating." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2018;122:2632-2640. Abstract
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Zhao L, Shang Q, Gao Y, Shi J, Liu Z, Chen J, Mi Y, Yang P, Zhang Z, Du W, others. "High-temperature continuous-wave pumped lasing from large-area monolayer semiconductors grown by chemical vapor deposition." ACS nano. 2018;12:9390-9396. Abstract
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Peng B, Iwnicki S, Shackleton P, Crosbee D, Zhao Y. "The influence of wheelset flexibility on the development of railway wheel polygonalization.". In: 11th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems.; 2018:. Abstract
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Chen W, Zhang J, Peng B, Özdemir ŞK, Fan X, Yang L. "Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery mode nanoparticle sensor." Photonics Research. 2018;6:A23-A30. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Peng B, Yue C, Zhang H, Fang Z, Weng H. "Predicting Dirac semimetals based on sodium ternary compounds." npj Computational Materials. 2018;4:1-6. Abstract
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Wen P, Wang Y, Wang N, Zhang S, Peng B, Deng Z. "Preparation and characterization of melamine-formaldehyde/Ag composite microspheres with surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2018;531:544-554. Abstract
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Xu K, Xu Y, Zhang H, Peng B, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Yao M, Lu H, Zhu H, others. "The role of Anderson’s rule in determining electronic, optical and transport properties of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2018;20:30351-30364. Abstract
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Chen J, Zhang Q, Du W, Mi Y, Shang Q, Shi J, Liu P, Sui X, Wu X, Wang R, others. "Room Temperature Continuous-wave Excited Biexciton Emission in CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals." arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.09782. 2018. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Wu L, Li J, Lu H, Jin Q, Zhu H. "Room-temperature bound exciton with long lifetime in monolayer gan." ACS Photonics. 2018;5:4081-4088. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Wu L, Lu H, Jin Q, Zhu H. "Theoretical investigation of novel electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of metallic hydrogen at 495 GPa." arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.10920. 2018. Abstract
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Peng B, Mortazavi B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Li J, Ni G, Rabczuk T, Zhu H. "Tuning thermal transport in C 3 N monolayers by adding and removing carbon atoms." Physical Review Applied. 2018;10:034046. Abstract
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2017
Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

Dziuban EJ, DeVos J, Ngeno B, Ngugi E, Zhang G, Sabatier J, Wagar N, Diallo K, Nganga L, Katana A, Yang C, Rivadeneira ED, Mukui I, Odhiambo F, Redfield R, Raizes E. "High Prevalence of Abacavir-associated L74V/I Mutations in Kenyan Children Failing Antiretroviral Therapy." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017;36(8):758-760. Abstract

A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Waters CN, Barnosky AD, et al. " Scale and diversity of the physical technosphere: A geological perspective." The Anthropocene Review. 2017;4(1):9-22. AbstractFull Text

We assess the scale and extent of the physical technosphere, defined here as the summed material output of the contemporary human enterprise. It includes active urban, agricultural and marine components, used to sustain energy and material flow for current human life, and a growing residue layer, currently only in small part recycled back into the active component. Preliminary estimates suggest a technosphere mass of approximately 30 trillion tonnes (Tt), which helps support a human biomass that, despite recent growth, is ~5 orders of magnitude smaller. The physical technosphere includes a large, rapidly growing diversity of complex objects that are potential trace fossils or ‘technofossils’. If assessed on palaeontological criteria, technofossil diversity already exceeds known estimates of biological diversity as measured by richness, far exceeds recognized fossil diversity, and may exceed total biological diversity through Earth’s history. The rapid transformation of much of Earth’s surface mass into the technosphere and its myriad components underscores the novelty of the current planetary transformation.

Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
Z.N. N, G.N. K, G.N. K, C.N. M. "Electrochemical Studies of Potassium Ferricyanide in Acetonitrile-Water Media (1:1) using Cyclic Voltammetry Method." The International Journal of Science Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(5):2313-3759 .abstract.pdf
Zipporah M, Rohit P, Robinson M, Ralph S. "First-principle investigation of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Co2VIn and CoVIn Heusler compounds." AIP Advances. 2017;7. Abstract

Investigation of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of full-Heusler Co2VIn as well as half-Heusler CoVIn Cobalt based Heusler compounds using density functional theory (DFT) leads to the general conclusion that Co2VIn and CoVIn are half-metallic materials with a gap at the Fermi level in the minority states and majority states respectively. A Hubbard-like Coulomb correlation term U has been included in the DFT (DFT+U) for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties of the compounds. The structural properties have been calculated for the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, and both Co2VIn and CoVIn are found to be stable in the ferromagnetic phase. The calculated magnetic moments are 2 μB2 μB and 0.9 μB0.9 μB per formula unit for Co2VIn and CoVIn respectively.

Rehani B, Brown I, Dandekar S, Sarkodie B, Mwango GM, Rehani M, Lau L, Zhang Y, Dillon W. "Radiology education in Africa: Analysis of results from 13 African countries." Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2017;14(2):247-252.
Scott AA, Misiani H, Okoth J, Jordan A, Gohlke J, Ouma G, Arrighi J, Zaitchik BF, Jjemba E, Verjee S, Waugh DW. "Temperature and Heat in Informal Settlements in Nairobi." PloS one. 2017;12(11). AbstractPLOS One

Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or “slums” are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity. We show how temperature, humidity and heat index differ in several informal settlements, including in Kibera, the largest slum neighborhood in Africa, and find that temperature and a thermal comfort index known colloquially as the heat index regularly exceed measurements at the Dagoretti observation station by several degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of temperatures previously associated with mortality increases of several percent in youth and elderly populations in informal settlements. We relate these changes to surface properties
such as satellite-derived albedo, vegetation indices, and elevation.

Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Summerhayes CP, Wolfe AP, et al. "The Working Group on the Anthropocene: Summary of evidence and interim recommendations." Anthropocene. 2017;19:55-60. AbstractFull Text

Since 2009, the Working Group on the ‘Anthropocene’ (or, commonly, AWG for Anthropocene Working Group), has been critically analysing the case for formalization of this proposed but still informal geological time unit. The study to date has mainly involved establishing the overall nature of the Anthropocene as a potential chronostratigraphic/geochronologic unit, and exploring the stratigraphic proxies, including several that are novel in geology, that might be applied to its characterization and definition. A preliminary summary of evidence and interim recommendations was presented by the Working Group at the 35th International Geological Congress in Cape Town, South Africa, in August 2016, together with results of voting by members of the AWG indicating the current balance of opinion on major questions surrounding the Anthropocene. The majority opinion within the AWG holds the Anthropocene to be stratigraphically real, and recommends formalization at epoch/series rank based on a mid-20th century boundary. Work is proceeding towards a formal proposal based upon selection of an appropriate Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), as well as auxiliary stratotypes. Among the array of proxies that might be used as a primary marker, anthropogenic radionuclides associated with nuclear arms testing are the most promising; potential secondary markers include plastic, carbon isotope patterns and industrial fly ash. All these proxies have excellent global or near-global correlation potential in a wide variety of sedimentary bodies, both marine and non-marine.

Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "The anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in strain-engineering two-dimensional penta-SiC $ \_2$." arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.03715. 2017. Abstract
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Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in two-dimensional penta-SiC 2 by strain-engineering: electronic structure and chemical bonding analysis." RSC advances. 2017;7:45705-45713. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Atomically sharp 1D SbSeI, SbSI and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.05732. 2017. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhu R, Li M, Tang Z. "Bending vibration suppression of a flexible multispan shaft using smart spring support." Shock and Vibration. 2017;2017. Abstract
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Peng B, Li J, Li Q, Li Y, Zhu H, Zhang L, Wang X, Bi L, Lu H, Xie J, others. "Bose–Einstein oscillators and the excitation mechanism of free excitons in 2D layered organic–inorganic perovskites." RSC advances. 2017;7:18366-18373. Abstract
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Awuor OB, Zipporah O, Ooko J. "The Effect of Managerial Ownership on Stock Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4:279-290. Abstract
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Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Electronic, transport and optical properties of monolayer $$\backslash$alpha $ and $$\backslash$beta-$ GeSe: A first-principles study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.03336. 2017. Abstract
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Zhang L, Peng B, Zhang F, Wang L, Zhang H, Zhang P, Tong Q. "Fast real-time causal linewise progressive hyperspectral anomaly detection via cholesky decomposition." IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 2017;10:4614-4629. Abstract
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Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H, others. "First-principles study on the electronic, optical, and transport properties of monolayer $\alpha$-and $\beta$-GeSe." Physical Review B. 2017;96:245421. Abstract
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Huang F, Wang Y, Liang X, Qin J, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Wang Z, Peng B, Deng L, Liu Q, others. "HfO 2-based highly stable radiation-immune ferroelectric memory." IEEE Electron Device Letters. 2017;38:330-333. Abstract
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Liang X, Deng L, Huang F, Tang T, Wang C, Zhu Y, Qin J, Zhang Y, Peng B, Bi L. "The magnetic proximity effect and electrical field tunable valley degeneracy in MoS 2/EuS van der Waals heterojunctions." Nanoscale. 2017;9:9502-9509. Abstract
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Peng B, Iwnicki S, Shackleton P, Zhao Y, Cui D. "A practical method for simulating the evolution of railway wheel polygonalization.". In: Proceedings of the 25th international symposium on dynamics of vehicles on roads and tracks (IAVSD 2017).; 2017:. Abstract
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Chen W, Zhu J, Ozdemir SK, Peng B, Yang L. "A simple method to characterize thermal relaxation of an optical microresonator (Conference Presentation).". In: Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XIX. Vol. 10090. International Society for Optics and Photonics; 2017:. Abstract
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Bichang’a G, Lage J-LD, Mailhan C-M, Marion-Poll F, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Zivy M, Balliau T, Ru BL, Kaiser-Arnauld L, Juma G, others. "The use of salivary $\alpha$-amylase as an evolutionary solution to host selection in parasitoids." bioRxiv. 2017:227173. Abstract
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Liu F, Gu F, Ball AD, Zhao Y, Peng B. "The validation of an ACS-SSI based online condition monitoring for railway vehicle suspension systems using a SIMPACK model.". In: 2017 23rd International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC). IEEE; 2017:. Abstract
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2016
Fu P, Hughes J, Zeng G, Hanook S, Orem J, Mwanda OW, Remick SC. "A comparative investigation of methods for longitudinal data with limits of detection through a case study." Stat Methods Med Res. 2016;25(1):153-66. Abstract

The statistical analysis of continuous longitudinal data may be complicated since quantitative levels of bioassay cannot always be determined. Values beyond the limits of detection (LOD) in the assays may not be observed and thus censored, rendering complexity to the analysis of such data. This article examines how both left-censoring and right censoring of HIV-1 plasma RNA measurements, collected for the study on AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) in East Africa, affects the quantification of viral load and explores the natural history of viral load measurements over time in AR-NHL patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. Data analyses using Monte Carlo EM algorithm (MCEM) are compared to analyses where the LOD or LOD/2 (left censoring) value is substituted for the censored observations, and also to other methods such as multiple imputation, and maximum likelihood estimation for censored data (generalized Tobit regression). Simulations are used to explore the sensitivity of the results to changes in the model parameters. In conclusion, the antiretroviral treatment was associated with a significant decrease in viral load after controlling the effects of other covariates. A simulation study with finite sample size shows MCEM is the least biased method and the estimates are least sensitive to the censoring mechanism.

Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Jaoko WG, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Risk factors for ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya: a case-control study." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2016;21(12):1522-1530. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE:
To determine modifiable risk factors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Kenya using disease-free controls.

METHODS:
Adults with conjunctival lesions were recruited at four eye care centres in Kenya and underwent excision biopsy. An equal number of controls having surgery for conditions not affecting the conjunctiva and unrelated to ultraviolet light were group-matched to cases by age group, sex and eye care centre. Associations of risk factors with OSSN were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Continuous variables were compared using the t-test or the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test depending on their distribution.

RESULTS:
A total of 131 cases and 131 controls were recruited. About two-thirds of participants were female, and the mean age of cases and controls was 42.1 years and 43.3 years, respectively. Risk factors for OSSN were HIV infection without antiretroviral therapy (ART) use (OR = 48.42; 95% CI: 7.73-303.31) and with ART use (OR = 19.16; 95% CI: 6.60-55.57), longer duration of exposure to the sun in the main occupation (6.9 h/day vs. 4.6 h/day, OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10-1.40) and a history of allergic conjunctivitis (OR = 74.61; 95% CI: 8.08-688.91). Wearing hats was protective (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.63).

CONCLUSION:
Measures to prevent and control HIV, reduce sun exposure such as wearing hats and control allergic conjunctivitis are recommended.

Yarmoshuk AN, Gauntai A, Mwangu M, Cole D, Zarowsky C. "Resilient and responsive Global Health partnerships of East African universities in a changing world.". In: Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research.; 2016.resilient_and_responsive_global_health_partnerships_of_east_african.pdf
Odada E, Waters CN, Zalasiewicz J, Summerhayes C, Barnosky AD, et al. "The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene." Science. 2016;351(6269):aad2622. AbstractFull Text

BACKGROUND

Humans are altering the planet, including long-term global geologic processes, at an increasing rate. Any formal recognition of an Anthropocene epoch in the geological time scale hinges on whether humans have changed the Earth system sufficiently to produce a stratigraphic signature in sediments and ice that is distinct from that of the Holocene epoch. Proposals for marking the start of the Anthropocene include an “early Anthropocene” beginning with the spread of agriculture and deforestation; the Columbian Exchange of Old World and New World species; the Industrial Revolution at ~1800 CE; and the mid-20th century “Great Acceleration” of population growth and industrialization.
ADVANCES

Recent anthropogenic deposits contain new minerals and rock types, reflecting rapid global dissemination of novel materials including elemental aluminum, concrete, and plastics that form abundant, rapidly evolving “technofossils.” Fossil fuel combustion has disseminated black carbon, inorganic ash spheres, and spherical carbonaceous particles worldwide, with a near-synchronous global increase around 1950. Anthropogenic sedimentary fluxes have intensified, including enhanced erosion caused by deforestation and road construction. Widespread sediment retention behind dams has amplified delta subsidence.

Geochemical signatures include elevated levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticide residues, as well as increased 207/206Pb ratios from leaded gasoline, starting between ~1945 and 1950. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus inventories have doubled in the past century because of increased fertilizer use, generating widespread signatures in lake strata and nitrate levels in Greenland ice that are higher than at any time during the previous 100,000 years.

Detonation of the Trinity atomic device at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945 initiated local nuclear fallout from 1945 to 1951, whereas thermonuclear weapons tests generated a clear global signal from 1952 to 1980, the so-called “bomb spike” of excess 14C, 239Pu, and other artificial radionuclides that peaks in 1964.

Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations depart from Holocene and even Quaternary patterns starting at ~1850, and more markedly at ~1950, with an associated steep fall in δ13C that is captured by tree rings and calcareous fossils. An average global temperature increase of 0.6o to 0.9oC from 1900 to the present, occurring predominantly in the past 50 years, is now rising beyond the Holocene variation of the past 1400 years, accompanied by a modest enrichment of δ18O in Greenland ice starting at ~1900. Global sea levels increased at 3.2 ± 0.4 mm/year from 1993 to 2010 and are now rising above Late Holocene rates. Depending on the trajectory of future anthropogenic forcing, these trends may reach or exceed the envelope of Quaternary interglacial conditions.

Biologic changes also have been pronounced. Extinction rates have been far above background rates since 1500 and increased further in the 19th century and later; in addition, species assemblages have been altered worldwide by geologically unprecedented transglobal species invasions and changes associated with farming and fishing, permanently reconfiguring Earth’s biological trajectory.
OUTLOOK

These novel stratigraphic signatures support the formalization of the Anthropocene at the epoch level, with a lower boundary (still to be formally identified) suitably placed in the mid-20th century. Formalization is a complex question because, unlike with prior subdivisions of geological time, the potential utility of a formal Anthropocene reaches well beyond the geological community. It also expresses the extent to which humanity is driving rapid and widespread changes to the Earth system that will variously persist and potentially intensify into the future.

Z Q, A M. "Development of Basic Obstetric Theater Facility in a Low-resource Setting.". In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery Challenges and Management Options.; 2016.
Anne Fischer, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Wambua L, Cassandra Olds, Charles Midega, Matthew Dickinson, Praphat Kawicha, Zeyaur Khan, Masiga D, Joerg Jores, Bernd Schneider. "Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1, the causative agent of Napier grass stunt disease in Kenya." Genome announcements. 2016;4(2):e00297-16.
Zhang J, Pazoki M, Simiyu J, Johansson MB, Cheung O, Häggman L, Johansson EMJ, Vlachopoulos N, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "The effect of mesoporous TiO2 pore size on the performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells based on photoelectrochemically polymerized Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole conductor." Electrochimica Acta. 2016;210:23-31.
Takken W, Loon JJAV, Zwiebel LJ, Pask GM, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Insect repellent compositions and methods of use.". 2016.

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