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ZHU (Eds.)..; Submitted. Abstract
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Philipsson J, Rege JEO, Zonabend E. Animal improvement for increased productivity and food availability.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

This module discusses important factors to consider when designing sustainable genetic improvement programmes, especially under tropical conditions. Previous attempts to launch breeding programmes in developing countries have too often failed for several reasons, although there are success stories to learn from as well. Long-term and simple strategies are necessary as is the need to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds. Increased productivity per animal or area of land used also need to be considered. However, that must be achieved while also considering the variable socio-economic and cultural values of livestock in different societies or regions. Within the module there are links [blue] to web resources and [green] to case studies and other related components of this resource that help illustrate the issues presented.

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Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Waters CN, Barnosky AD, et al. " Scale and diversity of the physical technosphere: A geological perspective." The Anthropocene Review. 2017;4(1):9-22. AbstractFull Text

We assess the scale and extent of the physical technosphere, defined here as the summed material output of the contemporary human enterprise. It includes active urban, agricultural and marine components, used to sustain energy and material flow for current human life, and a growing residue layer, currently only in small part recycled back into the active component. Preliminary estimates suggest a technosphere mass of approximately 30 trillion tonnes (Tt), which helps support a human biomass that, despite recent growth, is ~5 orders of magnitude smaller. The physical technosphere includes a large, rapidly growing diversity of complex objects that are potential trace fossils or ‘technofossils’. If assessed on palaeontological criteria, technofossil diversity already exceeds known estimates of biological diversity as measured by richness, far exceeds recognized fossil diversity, and may exceed total biological diversity through Earth’s history. The rapid transformation of much of Earth’s surface mass into the technosphere and its myriad components underscores the novelty of the current planetary transformation.

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Bichang’a G, Lage J-LD, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Zivy M, Balliau T, Sambai K, Ru BL, Kaiser L, Juma G, Maina ENM, others. "$\alpha$-Amylase mediates host acceptance in the braconid parasitoid Cotesia flavipes." Journal of chemical ecology. 2018;44:1030-1039. Abstract
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Debrah I, Afrane YA, Amoah LE, Ochwedo KO, Mukabana WR, Zhong D, Zhou G, Lee M, Onyango SA, Magomere EO, Atieli HE, Githeko AK, Yan G. ", Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;16(10):e0255321.
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D Nanostructures: 1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr With High Stability and Novel Properties for Microelectronic, Optoelectronic, and Thermoelectric Applications (Adv. Theory Simul. 1/2018)." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1870001. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1700005. Abstract
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Zaja JO. 2012 Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Meya, Longhorn Publishing Ltd, Nairobi Kenya. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers Kenya Ltd; 2012.
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Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Williams M, Summerhayes CP, Odada E, Wagreich M, Draganits E, Edgewor M. "7 The Stratigraphic Boundary of the Anthropocene.". In: The Anthropocene as a Geological Time Unit: A Guide to the Scientific Evidence and Current Debate. Cambridge University Press; 2019. Abstract

Here we outline the basis on which a formal proposal should be made for potential inclusion of the Anthropocene in the Geological Time Scale, examining the scale and rate of human change to the Earth System to help recognise the point at which anthropogenic impacts became of sufficient scale to allow discrimination of the Anthropocene as a geological unit. This examination covers such factors as impacts from early hominin species, the first human artefacts, early ecosystem modification through agriculture, deforestation, the domestication of animals, urbanisation, metal mining and smelting and early globalisation. The Industrial Revolution, starting in the UK in the 18th century, and the global Great Acceleration of the mid-20th century, are investigated, as both provide popular narratives that explain the Earth System changes indicative of the Anthropocene, with the latter producing the near-synchronous stratigraphic signals most consistent with an effective geological time boundary. We assess which hierarchical level–age, epoch, period, era or eon–seems most suitable for the Anthropocene, and suggest that epoch (= series) level is conservative and appropriate. The Anthropocene might be defined via a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age or a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point, with the latter being most appropriate. Finally, we assess the kinds of geological environments, including anoxic marine basins, annually banded coral and bivalve skeletons, estuaries and deltas, lake floors, peat mires, anthropogenic deposits, polar ice, speleothems and tree rings, in which such a physical reference level might be placed.

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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Zhu H. "Ab initio study of phonon-transport properties of two-dimensional group-IV materials." Preprint at http://arxiv. org/abs/1602.02266 v1. 2016. Abstract
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Ismail LW, ZP Q, SB O. "The acceptability of HIV testing among women receiving post abortion care." South Sudan Medical Journal. 2019;12(3):101-105. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: In South Sudan few women have heard about the HIV. The prevalence of HIV infection in the country is 2.6%. Post abortion care (PAC) accounts for over 50% of all gynaecological admissions at the Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH). HIV testing is not routinely offered as part of PAC services.

Objective: To determine factors associated with acceptability of HIV testing among women receiving PAC at JTH.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted at the Gynaecological Unit of JTH. Three hundred and forty patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 24.7 years with 50.5% aged <25years, 31.5% were employed, and 31.8% had no formal education. Acceptability of HIV testing was 70.9% and the prevalence of HIV was 2.7%. The most common reason for not accepting, was the belief, based on previous results, that they were HIV negative. Patients aged ≥25 years and those with primary and secondary education were twice as likely to accept HIV testing than those <25 years and those with no formal education, respectively. Employment status, religion and marital status were not statistically associated with acceptability of HIV testing. Patients previously tested for HIV were more likely to accept testing.

Conclusion: Routine HIV testing should be integrated into PAC services with efforts to increase awareness of HIV and importance of testing

Key words: HIV, abortion, post-abortion care, South Sudan

Zheng Y, Yang X-W, Schols D, Mori M, Botta B, Chevigné A, Mulinge M, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Seguin-Devaux C. "Active Components from Prevent HIV-1 Entry by Distinct Mechanisms of Action." Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9). Abstract

is widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa for treating many diseases, including HIV-1 infection. We have recently described the chemical structures of 28 compounds isolated from an alcoholic crude extract of barks and roots of , and showed that six bioactive compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that the six compounds block HIV-1 entry into cells: oleanolic acid, palmitic acid, taxifolin, piceatannol, guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin, and a novel compound named as cassiabrevone. We report, for the first time, that guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone inhibit HIV-1 entry (IC of 42.47 µM and 30.96 µM, respectively), as well as that piceatannol interacts with cellular membranes. Piceatannol inhibits HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber assay mimicking the female genital tract, as well as HSV infection, emphasizing its potential as a microbicide. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) showed that pharmacophoric groups of piceatannol are strictly required to inhibit HIV-1 entry. By a ligand-based in silico study, we speculated that piceatannol and norartocarpetin may have a very similar mechanism of action and efficacy because of the highly comparable pharmacophoric and 3D space, while guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin and cassiabrevone may display a different mechanism. We finally show that cassiabrevone plays a major role of the crude extract of by blocking the binding activity of HIV-1 gp120 and CD4.

Lowther K, Harding R, Victoria Simms, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Nancy Gikaara, Lorraine Sherr, Hellen Kariuki, and Selman IHLEJ. "Active ingredients of a person-centred intervention for people on HIV treatment: analysis of mixed methods trial data ." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18:27(1):27.
A.M G, P. L, S. L, M. W, H. A-A, M. F, G. C, Z. Q, JP. S. "Active management of the third stage of labour with and without controlled cord traction: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial." Lancet. 2012;379(9827):1721-7. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Active management of the third stage of labour reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether controlled cord traction can be omitted from active management of this stage without increasing the risk of severe haemorrhage.

METHODS:

We did a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in 16 hospitals and two primary health-care centres in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda. Women expecting to deliver singleton babies vaginally (ie, not planned caesarean section) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) with a centrally generated allocation sequence, stratified by country, to placental delivery with gravity and maternal effort (simplified package) or controlled cord traction applied immediately after uterine contraction and cord clamping (full package). After randomisation, allocation could not be concealed from investigators, participants, or assessors. Oxytocin 10 IU was administered immediately after birth with cord clamping after 1-3 min. Uterine massage was done after placental delivery according to local policy. The primary (non-inferiority) outcome was blood loss of 1000 mL or more (severe haemorrhage). The non-inferiority margin for the risk ratio was 1·3. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat, excluding women who had emergency caesarean sections. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12608000434392.

FINDINGS:

Between June 1, 2009, and Oct 30, 2010, 12,227 women were randomly assigned to the simplified package group and 12,163 to the full package group. After exclusion of women who had emergency caesarean sections, 11,861 were in the simplified package group and 11,820 were in the full package group. The primary outcome of blood loss of 1000 mL or more had a risk ratio of 1·09 (95% CI 0·91-1·31) and the upper 95% CI limit crossed the pre-stated non-inferiority margin. One case of uterine inversion occurred in the full package group. Other adverse events were haemorrhage-related.

INTERPRETATION:

Although the hypothesis of non-inferiority was not met, omission of controlled cord traction has very little effect on the risk of severe haemorrhage. Scaling up of haemorrhage prevention programmes for non-hospital settings can safely focus on use of oxytocin.

FUNDING:
United States Agency for International Development and UN Development Programme/UN Population Fund/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research

AM G, M W, M M, Z Q, G P. "Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial." Reprod Health. 2009;6(2). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60-70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care.

OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package.

METHODS:
A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM) injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM), controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome measure is blood loss of 1000 ml or more at one hour and up to two hours for women who continue to bleed after one hour. The secondary outcomes are blood transfusion, the use of additional uterotonics and measure of severe morbidity and maternal death.We aim to recruit 25,000 women delivering vaginally in health facilities in eight countries within a 12 month recruitment period.

MANAGEMENT:
Overall trial management will be from HRP/RHR in Geneva. There will be eight centres located in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda. There will be an online data entry system managed from HRP/RHR. The trial protocol was developed following a technical consultation with international organizations and leading researchers in the field. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main objective of this trial is to investigate whether a simplified package of third stage management can be recommended without increasing the risk of PPH. By avoiding the need for a manual procedure that requires training, the third stage management can be implemented in a more widespread and cost-effective way around the world even at the most peripheral levels of the health care system. This trial forms part of the programme of work to reduce maternal deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage within the RHR department in collaboration with other research groups and organizations active in the field.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12608000434392

Zhao M, Zhang J, Gao N, Song P, Bosman M, Peng B, Sun B, Qiu C-W, Xu Q-H, Bao Q, others. "Actively Tunable Visible Surface Plasmons in Bi2Te3 and their Energy-Harvesting Applications." Advanced materials. 2016;28:3138-3144. Abstract
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Zhao S, Tian H, Ma L, Yuan Y, Yu RC, Ma M. "Activity-{Dependent} {Modulation} of {Odorant} {Receptor} {Gene} {Expression} in the {Mouse} {Olfactory} {Epithelium}." PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69862. AbstractWebsite

Activity plays critical roles in development and maintenance of the olfactory system, which undergoes considerable neurogenesis throughout life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) stably expresses a single odorant receptor (OR) type out of a repertoire of ∼1200 and the OSNs with the same OR identity are distributed within one of the few broadly-defined zones. However, it remains elusive whether and how activity modulates such OR expression patterns. Here we addressed this question by investigating OR gene expression via in situ hybridization when sensory experience or neuronal excitability is manipulated. We first examined the expression patterns of fifteen OR genes in mice which underwent neonatal, unilateral naris closure. After four-week occlusion, the cell density in the closed (sensory-deprived) side was significantly lower (for four ORs), similar (for three ORs), or significantly higher (for eight ORs) as compared to that in the open (over-stimulated) side, suggesting that sensory inputs have differential effects on OSNs expressing different OR genes. We next examined the expression patterns of seven OR genes in transgenic mice in which mature OSNs had reduced neuronal excitability. Neuronal silencing led to a significant reduction in the cell density for most OR genes tested and thinner olfactory epithelium with an increased density of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that sensory experience plays important roles in shaping OR gene expression patterns and the neuronal activity is critical for survival of OSNs.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madadi VO, Zeranyika M, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,4,5,6-Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (Chlorothalonil) by Nairobi River Sediments: Adsorption characteristics and Related Thermodynamic Data." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Michira IN, Kagwanja SM, Madandi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of 2,4,5,6-tetra chloroisophthalonitrile by Nairobi river sediments: Adsorption characteristics and related thermodynamic data." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2012;20:25-37.
Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira IN, Madadi VO, Zaranyika MF, Kamau GN. "Adsorption of Atrazine pesticide by sediment and soil samples: Effect of Equilibration Time on the Freundlich Parameter (n)." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2014;22:31-41.
Mbugua JK, Kemboi A, Michira I, Madadi V, Zaranyika M, Kamau G. "Adsorption of Atrazine Pesticide by sediments and soil samples: Apparent thermodynamic properties." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2013;07(10).
Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

Zablon O. Ochomo, Elisha Opiyo WO-O(E) KLNJMKR, J. A. "Agent Based Model For Localized Secure Payment Systems Integration.". 2010. Abstract
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Mutua FM, Zaki AF. "Analyses of Annual Droughts in Kenya Using an Objective Annual Rainfall Drought Index." Journal of Met and Related Sciences. 2010;4:21-23.
Wanzala W, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang’ethe EK, Zessin KH, N.M. K, Baumann MPO, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle. ." Online Journal of Veterinary Research . 2002;1:1-9.
Bulsara KR, Zomorodi A, Provenzale JM. "Anatomic variant of the posterior cerebral artery." American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007;188:W395. AbstractWebsite
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Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "The anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in strain-engineering two-dimensional penta-SiC $ \_2$." arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.03715. 2017. Abstract
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Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in two-dimensional penta-SiC 2 by strain-engineering: electronic structure and chemical bonding analysis." RSC advances. 2017;7:45705-45713. Abstract
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Fu W, Zhao X, Wang K, Chen Z, Leng K, Fu D, Song P, Wang H, Deng L, Pennycook SJ, others. "An anomalous magneto-optic effect in epitaxial indium selenide layers." Nano Letters. 2020;20:5330-5338. Abstract
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G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;1(25):15-21. Abstractantenatal_corticosteroid_use_in_preterm_birth_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background:Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;25(1):15-21. Abstractfull_article.pdf

AbstractBackground: Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Odada E, Waters CN, Zalasiewicz J, Summerhayes C, Barnosky AD, et al. "The Anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene." Science. 2016;351(6269):aad2622. AbstractFull Text

BACKGROUND

Humans are altering the planet, including long-term global geologic processes, at an increasing rate. Any formal recognition of an Anthropocene epoch in the geological time scale hinges on whether humans have changed the Earth system sufficiently to produce a stratigraphic signature in sediments and ice that is distinct from that of the Holocene epoch. Proposals for marking the start of the Anthropocene include an “early Anthropocene” beginning with the spread of agriculture and deforestation; the Columbian Exchange of Old World and New World species; the Industrial Revolution at ~1800 CE; and the mid-20th century “Great Acceleration” of population growth and industrialization.
ADVANCES

Recent anthropogenic deposits contain new minerals and rock types, reflecting rapid global dissemination of novel materials including elemental aluminum, concrete, and plastics that form abundant, rapidly evolving “technofossils.” Fossil fuel combustion has disseminated black carbon, inorganic ash spheres, and spherical carbonaceous particles worldwide, with a near-synchronous global increase around 1950. Anthropogenic sedimentary fluxes have intensified, including enhanced erosion caused by deforestation and road construction. Widespread sediment retention behind dams has amplified delta subsidence.

Geochemical signatures include elevated levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticide residues, as well as increased 207/206Pb ratios from leaded gasoline, starting between ~1945 and 1950. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus inventories have doubled in the past century because of increased fertilizer use, generating widespread signatures in lake strata and nitrate levels in Greenland ice that are higher than at any time during the previous 100,000 years.

Detonation of the Trinity atomic device at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945 initiated local nuclear fallout from 1945 to 1951, whereas thermonuclear weapons tests generated a clear global signal from 1952 to 1980, the so-called “bomb spike” of excess 14C, 239Pu, and other artificial radionuclides that peaks in 1964.

Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations depart from Holocene and even Quaternary patterns starting at ~1850, and more markedly at ~1950, with an associated steep fall in δ13C that is captured by tree rings and calcareous fossils. An average global temperature increase of 0.6o to 0.9oC from 1900 to the present, occurring predominantly in the past 50 years, is now rising beyond the Holocene variation of the past 1400 years, accompanied by a modest enrichment of δ18O in Greenland ice starting at ~1900. Global sea levels increased at 3.2 ± 0.4 mm/year from 1993 to 2010 and are now rising above Late Holocene rates. Depending on the trajectory of future anthropogenic forcing, these trends may reach or exceed the envelope of Quaternary interglacial conditions.

Biologic changes also have been pronounced. Extinction rates have been far above background rates since 1500 and increased further in the 19th century and later; in addition, species assemblages have been altered worldwide by geologically unprecedented transglobal species invasions and changes associated with farming and fishing, permanently reconfiguring Earth’s biological trajectory.
OUTLOOK

These novel stratigraphic signatures support the formalization of the Anthropocene at the epoch level, with a lower boundary (still to be formally identified) suitably placed in the mid-20th century. Formalization is a complex question because, unlike with prior subdivisions of geological time, the potential utility of a formal Anthropocene reaches well beyond the geological community. It also expresses the extent to which humanity is driving rapid and widespread changes to the Earth system that will variously persist and potentially intensify into the future.

Odada E, Williams M, Zalasiewicz JA, Waters CN, Edgeworth M, Bennett CE, Barnosky AD, et al. "The Anthropocene: a conspicuous stratigraphical signal of anthropogenic changes in production and consumption across the biosphere.". 2015. AbstractFull Text

Biospheric relationships between production and consumption of biomass have been
resilient to changes in the Earth system over billions of years. This relationship has increased in its com-
plexity, from localized ecosystems predicated on anaerobic microbial production and consumption
to a global biosphere founded on primary production from oxygenic photoautotrophs, through the
evolution of Eukarya, metazoans, and the complexly networked ecosystems of microbes, animals, fungi,
and plants that characterize the Phanerozoic Eon (the last∼541 million years of Earth history). At present,
one species,
Homo sapiens, is refashioning this relationship between consumption and production in the
biosphere with unknown consequences. This has left a distinctive stratigraphy of the production and
consumption of biomass, of natural resources, and of produced goods. This can be traced through stone
tool technologies and geochemical signals, later unfolding into a diachronous signal of technofossils and
human bioturbation across the planet, leading to stratigraphically almost isochronous signals developing
by the mid-20th century. These latter signals may provide an invaluable resource for informing and
constraining a formal Anthropocene chronostratigraphy, but are perhaps yet more important as tracers
of a biosphere state that is characterized by a geologically unprecedented pattern of global energy flow
that is now pervasively influenced and mediated by humans, and which is necessary for maintaining the
complexity of modern human societies.

Zheng Y, Mulinge M, Counson M, Yang X, Steinmetz A, Schmit J-C, Devaux C. "Anti-HIV activities in an African plant extract." Planta Medica. 2014;80(10).
Owor RO, Bedane KG, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo GO, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory Flavanones and Flavones from Tephrosia linearis." Journal of Natural Products. 2020;83(4):996-1004. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Phytochemical analysis of a methanol–dichloromethane (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosialinearis led to the isolation of 18 compounds. Seven of these, namely, lineaflavones A–D (1–4), 6-methoxygeraldone (5), 8″-acetylobovatin (6), and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxysaniculamin A (7) are new compounds. The compounds were characterized based on their NMR and HRMSn data. The anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract and isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The crude extract inhibited the release of all cytokines except IL-1β, which slightly increased in comparison to the LPS control. All the tested compounds suppressed the production of IL-2, GM-CSF, and …

D.D. K, Z.I. O, P.K. N. "Application of GIS to Water Quality Management for the City of Nairobi Water Supply." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1):5-23.oonge.docx
D.D. K, Z.I. O, P.K. N. "Application of GIS to Water Quality Management for the City of Nairobi Water Supply." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1):5-23.oonge.docx
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Multispectral Imaging Microscopy for Malaria Diagnosis.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Muchai K, Gathuma J, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 1970.
Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Zahida Q. "Assessment of characteristics of patients with pregnancy related acute kidney injury in Kenyatta National hospital.". 2019. Abstract

Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) remains a grave complication of pregnancy. Studies on patient characteristics are few and demonstrate diverse patient features. Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with PRAKI at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H) Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with gestation age equal to or above 28 weeks and on women in postpartum, within six weeks after delivery. The principal investigator or study assistant introduced study requirements to patients with diagnosis of PRAKI. After consent, clinical and demographic information was obtained from participants through verbal interviews and from medical records using a data capture form. Follow up was until discharge or maximum of two weeks which ever came first. Management of patients was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Results Out of 2068 admissions, 66 participants were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. The mean age was 28 years with peak age between 26-30 years. Forty-two (63.6%) were referred from other health facilities, of whom, 24(57.1%) were from rural areas. Nineteen (27.8%) had pre-pregnancy medical conditions, predominantly cardiovascular. All participants developed one or more obstetric complication: -preeclampsia 28(42.4%), eclampsia eight (9.1%) and hemolysis with elevated liver enzyme low platelet (HELLP) syndrome 17(25.8%). Sixty (91%) pregnancies were delivered. Average gestation age at delivery was 35 weeks, with 33(55%) preterm births, of whom, 10 (30.3%) were fresh still births. Severity of PRAKI at presentation was evenly distributed across stages 1 to 111. Forty-one (62.1%) participants improved on conservative management and 25(37.9%) worsened, of whom, 19 (76.0%) were dialyzed. No maternal mortality was reported during the study. Conclusion: We demonstrate a prevalence of PRAKI of 3.2% in K.N.H. Hypertensive disorders were the main associated factors. There was high rate of premature births and a six-fold increase in fresh still births among participants.

Mercy BJ, Zakayo T. "Assessment of Nutritional Status and Biomarkers among Chronic Haemodialysis Patients." International Journal of Professional Practice. 2013;4(2):132-138.
Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Atomically sharp 1D SbSeI, SbSI and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.05732. 2017. Abstract
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B
Peng B, Zhu R, Li M, Tang Z. "Bending vibration suppression of a flexible multispan shaft using smart spring support." Shock and Vibration. 2017;2017. Abstract
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Peng B, Ning Z, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Ni G, Zhu H. "Beyond perturbation: role of vacancy-induced localized phonon states in thermal transport of monolayer MoS2." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2016;120:29324-29331. Abstract
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Wu C, Zhang G, Xia T, Li Z, Zhao K, Deng Z, Guo D, Peng B. "Bioinspired synthesis of polydopamine/Ag nanocomposite particles with antibacterial activities." Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2015;55:155-165. Abstract
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S.M M, Z. Q, J. K. "Birth preparedness among antenatal clients." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(6):275-83. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate birth preparedness and complication readiness among antenatal care clients.

DESIGN:
A descriptive cross- sectional study.

SETTING:
Antenatal care clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

SUBJECTS:
Three hundred and ninety four women attending antenatal care at Kenyatta National hospital were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire between May 2006 and August 2006. Clients who were above 32 weeks gestation and had attended the clinic more than twice were recruited. Systematic sampling was used to select the study participants with every third client being interviewed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Health education on birth preparedness, knowledge of danger signs, preparations for delivery and emergencies.

RESULTS:
Over 60% of the respondents were counselled by health workers on various elements of birth preparedness. Eighty seven point three per cent of the respondents were aware of their expected date of delivery, 84.3% had set aside funds for transport to hospital during labour while 62.9% had funds for emergencies. Sixty seven per cent of the respondents knew at least one danger sign in pregnancy while only 6.9% knew of three or more danger signs. One hundred and nine per cent of the respondents did not have a clear plan of what to do in case of an obstetric emergency. Level of education positively influenced birth preparedness.

CONCLUSIONS:
Education and counselling on different aspects of birth preparedness was not provided to all clients. Respondents knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy was low. Many respondents did not know about birth preparedness and had no plans for emergencies.

Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
Peng B, Li J, Li Q, Li Y, Zhu H, Zhang L, Wang X, Bi L, Lu H, Xie J, others. "Bose–Einstein oscillators and the excitation mechanism of free excitons in 2D layered organic–inorganic perovskites." RSC advances. 2017;7:18366-18373. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Junior PFE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Bright excitons with negative-mass electrons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.14705. 2020. Abstract
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Z.B A. "Business Strategy, Internal Resources, National Culture And Competitive Advantage: A Critical Review ." 1st DBA Africa Management Review International conference ( 2015). 2015;1(1).
C
Magoha GAO, Z.W.Ngumi. "Cancer of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." East Afr Med J.. 2000;77(10):526-30. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine how common cancer of penis is in this locality compared to all other malignant tumours and urological malignancies, and to determine and comment on the various methods of treatment available at KNH.
DESIGN: A retrospective case study.
SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Nairobi.
SUBJECTS: All patients with histologically confirmed cancer of penis at the Kenyatta National hospital between January 1970 and December 1999.
RESULTS: There were 55 patients with penile cancer representing 0.1% of all malignancies during the study period. The mean age was 47.9 years with a peak incidence between 40-61 year age groups. Penile cancer was the most rare urological tumour representing 5.1%. The most common was prostate cancer (56.0%), followed by bladder cancer (25.0%), kidney cancer (7.9%), and testicular cancer (6.1%). Thirty eight patients (69.1%) presented with advanced disease, Jacksons stages III and IV. The majority (96.4%) of the patients had glandular and preputial involvement. Histologically, 56.4% had well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, (23.6%) had moderately differentiated and (20.0%) had undifferentiated carcinoma. Forty patients (72.7%) were circumcised, nine patients (16.4%) were circumcised as adolescents and three patients (5.5%) circumcised as adults. Twenty five patients had partial penectomy with radiotherapy and or chemotherapy. Eight patients had total penectomy and radiotherapy while four patients had local excision and radiotherapy. Eleven other patients had radiotherapy either alone or combined with chemotherapy. Two patients had circumcision only and inguinal lymphadenectomy was effected on five patients after penectomy and radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is rare and the least common urological malignancy in this locality. It occurs in younger men with a mean age of 47.9 years, and presents as advanced Jackson's stages III and IV disease. The majority of patients had penectomy and local excision followed by radiotherapy.

Zhang X, Wallace OL, Domi A, Wright KJ, Driscoll J, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Allen S, Fast P, Gilmour J, Price MA, Parks CL. "Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein." Virology. 2015;482:218-24. Abstract

Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies.

Zanchetti A, Mancia G. "Cardiovascular reflexes and hypertension." Hypertension. 1991;18:III13-21. Abstract

Both arterial baroreceptor reflexes and cardiopulmonary reflexes are modified in human hypertension. The arterial baroreceptor reflex regulation of heart rate, when tested by both vasoactive drug injection and the neck chamber technique, has been shown to be reset and blunted. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of blood pressure, studied by the neck chamber technique, has been found to be reset to more effectively buffer increases in blood pressure than blood pressure falls, but without any loss of overall reflex sensitivity. Cardiopulmonary reflexes, tested by passive leg raising and by application of lower body negative pressure, are also blunted, and their dysfunction involves not only control of peripheral vasoconstriction but also that of renin release. These readjustments of arterial and cardiopulmonary reflexes make buffering of blood pressure falls or of blood volume changes less effective in hypertension. These readjustments appear to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of hypertension. In particular, the blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes is induced more by left ventricular hypertrophy than by hypertension. It is very marked in hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and very significantly improves when left ventricular hypertrophy is made to regress by prolonged antihypertensive therapy; significant blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes has also been found in young athletes with marked left ventricular hypertrophy but normal blood pressure. Whether structural changes in the carotid and aortic wall and possibly in the heart are equally important in the readjustment of arterial baroreceptor reflexes is incompletely clarified at the moment, although there are indications that functional and structural modifications may both be involved.

Zuriel D, Fink-Puches R, Cerroni L. "A case of primary cutaneous extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with a 22-year indolent clinical course.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare type of cytotoxic lymphoma involving mainly the upper aerodigestive tract and associated with Epstein-Barr virus. The disease has usually a poor prognosis related to several factors. The skin is the second most common affected organ, and cases may be localized to the skin only without any other extracutaneous manifestations. Although primary cutaneous cases may have a better prognosis, survival usually is still poor. We report a case of primary cutaneous extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in a 77-year-old woman with an indolent course for more than 22 years and still limited to the skin.

and Zubeda Mucheke DNBS. "Challenges to electronic conveyancing in Kenya." Open University of Tanzania Law Journal. 2018.
J. S, Z. Q, C S-K, B. G, T N. "Checklist for ruling out pregnancy among family-planning clients in primary care." Lancet. 1999;354(9178):566. Abstract

Abstract

Where pregnancy tests are unavailable, health providers, fearing possible harm to fetuses, often deny contraception to nonmenstruating clients. In Kenya, a trial of a simple checklist to exclude pregnancy showed a good negative predictive value, which could improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae.

PIP:
This report presents Kenya's checklist (consisting of six simple questions) for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients; the questions are intended to improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae. The checklist includes questions on most recent birth, duration and frequency of breast-feeding, duration since last menstrual period, duration since last abortion or miscarriage, abstinence from sexual relations, and current contraceptive practices. The checklist was administered and followed by dipstick pregnancy tests at seven family planning clinics in order to test its validity. The checklist ruled out pregnancy for 88% of women. The checklist¿s high negative predictive value (99%) should be regarded as the relevant statistic. Widespread use of this checklist could lessen restriction to contraceptives in many countries.

Yang X, He Z, Zheng Y, Wang N, Mulinge M, Schmit J-C, Steinmetz A, Seguin-Devaux C. "Chemical Constituents of and Their Anti-HIV-1 Activity." Molecules. 2021;26(9). Abstract

Three new (-) and 25 known compounds were isolated from the crude extract of . The chemical structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Cassiabrevone () is the first heterodimer of guibourtinidol and planchol A. Compound was a new chalcane, while was a new naphthalene. Cassiabrevone (), guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin (), taxifolin (), oleanolic acid (), piceatannol (), and palmitic acid (), exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with IC values of 11.89 µM, 15.39 µM, 49.04 µM, 7.95 µM, 3.58 µM, and 15.97 µM, respectively.

Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Li J, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, $\alpha$-arsenene and aW-antimonene." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2018;6. Abstract
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Soukoulis CM, Zhu H, Li J, Ni G, Xu K, Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, others. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, alpha-arsenene and aW-antimonene.". 2018. Abstract
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Marangu D, Zar HJ. "Childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries: An update." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019;32:3-9. Abstract

To review epidemiology, aetiology and management of childhood pneumonia in low-and-middle-income countries.

Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wanyonyi L, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Clinical Presentation of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya." JAMA Ophthalmology. 2015;133(11):1305-1313. AbstractWebsite

IMPORTANCE:
There is a trend toward treating conjunctival lesions suspected to be ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) based on the clinical impression.

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the presentation of OSSN and identify clinical features that distinguish it from benign lesions and subsequently evaluate their recognizability.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
Prospective multicenter study in Kenya from July 2012 through July 2014 of 496 adults presenting with conjunctival lesions. One histopathologist examined all specimens. Six additional masked ophthalmologists independently examined photographs from 100 participants and assessed clinical features.

EXPOSURES:

Comprehensive history, slit lamp examination, and photography before excision biopsy.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
Frequency of clinical features in OSSN and benign lesions were recorded. Proportions and means were compared using χ2, Fisher exact test, or t test as appropriate. Interobserver agreement was estimated using the κ statistic. Examiners' assessments were compared with a reference.

RESULTS:
Among 496 participants, OSSN was the most common (38%) histological diagnosis, followed by pterygium (36%) and actinic keratosis (19%). Patients with OSSN were slightly older (mean [SD] age, 41 [11.6] vs 38 [10.9] years; P = .002) and tended to have lower levels of education than patients with benign lesions (P = .001). Females predominated (67% of OSSN vs 64% of benign lesions; P = .65). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was common among patients with OSSN (74%). The most common location was the nasal limbus (61% OSSN vs 78% benign lesions; P < .001). Signs more frequent in OSSN included feeder vessels (odds ratio [OR], 5.8 [95% CI, 3.2-10.5]), moderate inflammation (OR, 3.5 [95% CI, 1.8-6.8]), corneal involvement (OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.8-4.0]), leukoplakia (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.9]), papilliform surface (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.5]), pigmentation (OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0-2.2]), temporal location (OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.2-3.2]), circumlimbal location (6.7% vs 0.3%; P < .001), severe inflammation (6.7% vs 0.3%; P < .001), and larger mean (SD) diameter (6.8 [3.2] vs 4.8 [2.8] mm; P < .001). All OSSN signs were also observed in benign lesions. There was slight to fair inter-observer agreement in assessment of most signs and diagnosis (κ, 0.1-0.4). The positive predictive value of clinical appearance in identifying OSSN was 54% (interquartile range, 51%-56%) from photographs in which prevalence was 32%.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
With overlapping phenotypes and modest inter-observer agreement, OSSN and benign conjunctival lesions are not reliably distinguished clinically. Point-of-care diagnostic tools may help.

Lin J, Xia Y-J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Hou X-Y, Gan F-X, Huang W. "The colour-tuning effect of 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline in blue–red organic light-emitting devices." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2007;40:4442. Abstract
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Ouko C, Mulwa R, Kibugi R, Owuor M, Zaehringer J, Oguge N. "Community Perceptions of Ecosystem Services and the Management of Mt. Marsabit Forest in Northern Kenya." Environments. 2018;5(11):121. Abstract
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Attardo GM, Abd-Alla AMM, Acosta-Serrano A, Allen JE, Bateta R, Benoit JB, Bourtzis K, Caers J, Caljon G, Christensen MB, Farrow DW, Friedrich M, Hua-Van A, Jennings EC, Larkin DM, Lawson D, Lehane MJ, Lenis VP, Lowy-Gallego E, Macharia RW, Malacrida AR, Marco HG, Masiga D, Maslen GL, Matetovici I, Meisel RP, Meki I, Michalkova V, Miller WJ, Minx P, Mireji PO, Ometto L, Parker AG, Rio R, Rose C, Rosendale AJ, Rota-Stabelli O, Savini G, Schoofs L, Scolari F, Swain MT, Takáč P, Tomlinson C, Tsiamis G, Van Den Abbeele J, Vigneron A, Wang J, Warren WC, Waterhouse RM, Weirauch MT, Weiss BL, Wilson RK, Zhao X, Aksoy S. "Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes." Genome Biol. 2019;20(1):187. Abstract

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. austeni), Palpalis (G. palpalis, G. fuscipes), and Fusca (G. brevipalpis) which represent different habitats, host preferences, and vectorial capacity.

Fu P, Hughes J, Zeng G, Hanook S, Orem J, Mwanda OW, Remick SC. "A comparative investigation of methods for longitudinal data with limits of detection through a case study." Stat Methods Med Res. 2016;25(1):153-66. Abstract

The statistical analysis of continuous longitudinal data may be complicated since quantitative levels of bioassay cannot always be determined. Values beyond the limits of detection (LOD) in the assays may not be observed and thus censored, rendering complexity to the analysis of such data. This article examines how both left-censoring and right censoring of HIV-1 plasma RNA measurements, collected for the study on AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) in East Africa, affects the quantification of viral load and explores the natural history of viral load measurements over time in AR-NHL patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. Data analyses using Monte Carlo EM algorithm (MCEM) are compared to analyses where the LOD or LOD/2 (left censoring) value is substituted for the censored observations, and also to other methods such as multiple imputation, and maximum likelihood estimation for censored data (generalized Tobit regression). Simulations are used to explore the sensitivity of the results to changes in the model parameters. In conclusion, the antiretroviral treatment was associated with a significant decrease in viral load after controlling the effects of other covariates. A simulation study with finite sample size shows MCEM is the least biased method and the estimates are least sensitive to the censoring mechanism.

Mukherjee N, Zabala A, Huge J, Nyumba TO, Esmail BA, Sutherland WJ. "Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9:54-63. Abstract
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Mukherjee N, Zabala A, Huge J, Nyumba TO, Esmail BA, Sutherland WJ. "Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision‐making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9(1):54-63. AbstractComparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-makingdio.org

Decision‐making is a complex process that typically includes a series of stages: identifying the issue, considering possible options, making judgements and then making a decision by combining information and values. The current status quo relies heavily on the informational aspect of decision‐making with little or no emphasis on the value positions that affect decisions.

There is increasing realization of the importance of adopting rigorous methods for each stage such that the information, views and judgements of stakeholders and experts are used in a systematic and repeatable manner. Though there are several methodological textbooks which discuss a plethora of social science techniques, it is hard to judge the suitability of any given technique for a given decision problem.
In decision‐making, the three critical aspects are “what” decision is to be made, “who” makes the decisions and “how” the decisions are made. The methods covered in this paper focus on “how” decisions can be made. We compare six techniques: Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Interviews, Q methodology, Multi‐criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Nominal Group Technique and the Delphi technique specifically in the context of biodiversity conservation. All of these techniques (with the exception of MCDA) help in understanding human values and the underlying perspectives which shape decisions.
Based on structured reviews of 423 papers covering all six methods, we compare the conceptual and logistical characteristics of the methods, and map their suitability for the different stages of the decision‐making process. While interviews and FGD are well‐known, techniques such the Nominal Group technique and Q methodology are relatively under‐used. In situations where conflict is high, we recommend using the Q methodology and Delphi technique to elicit judgments. Where conflict is low, and a consensus is needed urgently, the Nominal Group technique may be more suitable.
We present a nuanced synthesis of methods aimed at users. The comparison of the different techniques might be useful for project managers, academics or practitioners in the planning phases of their projects and help in making better informed methodological choices.

Zander, Kerstin; Mburu J. Compensating Pastoralists for Conserving Animal Genetic Resources: The Case of Borana Cattle in Ethiopia.; 2013. Abstract

The Borana cattle in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia have unique traits that make them suitable for the harsh environment in the lowlands and have ever been part of the pastoralists’ identity. Almost all the traditional and cultural rites of the pastoralists in these areas revolve around the Borana cattle, which are also the main source of their income. However, genetic erosion of this cattle breed has been occurring at unabated rate due to lack of incentives for conservation and driving factors such as population pressure, ecological changes, natural catastrophes and adverse economic conditions. This depletion contributes immense threats to the livelihoods of the local pastoral communities. Thus conservation efforts of these important animal genetic resources (AnGRs) by governments and other stakeholders would ensure not only the well-being of the pastoralists but also prevent losses in genetic materials for future use. At the moment, there are no compensatory mechanisms targeting pastoralists although exports of Borana cattle genetic materials to developed countries such as USA and Australia has been growing. There is also no documentary evidence that pastoralists do share benefits from such exports. Thus, this paper addresses the following questions: what kinds of pastoralists, due to their involvement in conservation, deserve compensation and how much should be the level of compensation? The empirical data analysed in this paper was collected from Borana pastoralists in Ethiopia. The magnitude of compensation payments is derived from the costs that pastoralists incur for maintaining only Borana cattle in their herds. These costs include costs for not keeping other breeds which are probably more economically attractive (opportunity costs), as well as transaction costs. Finally, several policy implications for community-based conservation of Borana cattle are derived.

Wang N, Zhang H, Liu S, Peng B, Deng Z. "Composite polydopamine-based TiO2 coated mesh with restorable superhydrophobic surfaces for wastewater treatment." Journal of Materials Science. 2021;56:7321-7333. Abstract
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Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Juliani HR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of microglossa pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) agnew var. pyrrhopappa from Kenya composition of the essential oil of microglossa pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) Agnew var. pyrrhopappa from Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) Agnew (Compositae) from Kenya has been studied for the first time. Analysis of the oil by GC and GC/MS reveals that the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (20.3%), γ-gurjunene (11.5%), limonene (8.5%) and δ-cadinene (6.1%)

Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN,(Jr.) JHR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa." J. Essential Oil Research. 2001;13:228-330.
J.W. M, Thoithi, G.N.,(Jr.) JHR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa. ." J. Essent. Oil Res.. 2001;13:229-230.
Pan J, Utama MIB, Zhang Q, Liu X, Peng B, Wong LM, Sum TC, Wang S, Xiong Q. "Composition-Tunable Vertically Aligned CdSxSe1-x Nanowire Arrays via van der Waals Epitaxy: Investigation of Optical Properties and Photocatalytic Behavior." Advanced Materials. 2012;24:4151-4156. Abstract
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Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Zygadlo JA, Lopez ML, Olivia MM, Demo MS, and TM, Chalchat J-C. "Constituents of the essential oil of Cymbopogon afronardus Stapf." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2001;4:43-47.
S.M M, J. K, Z. Q. "Contraceptive use among HIV infected women attending Comprehensive Care Centre." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(4):171-7. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine contraceptive use among HIV infected women attending Comprehensive Care Centre at Kenyatta National Hospital.

DESIGN:
Hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study.

SETTING:
Comprehensive Care Centre (CCC), Kenyatta National Hospital.

SUBJECTS:
The study group was non-pregnant HIV positive women on follow up at the CCC. A total of 94 HIV infected women were interviewed between May 2006 and August 2006 through a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. Consecutive women willing to participate in the study were interviewed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Current contraceptive use, contraceptive methods, source of contraception, reproductive intention and unmet need of family planning.

RESULTS:
The mean age of the respondents was 34 years, 47.9% were married, all had formal education and 74.6% were employed. Eighty six percent of the respondents did not have reproduction intentions in the next two years; however, only 44.2% of the respondents were using contraception. Condoms were the most popular (81.5%) contraceptive method. Female condom was used by 10.5% of the respondents. Norplant was the only long-term contraceptive method and was used by only 2.6%. Dual method of contraception was practiced by 13.5% of the respondents. Majority of the respondents obtained contraceptives from private sector (42.9%) with less than 10% getting them from CCC. The unmet need for family planning among the study group was 30%. Marital status and regular sexual partner were significantly associated with contraceptive use.

CONCLUSION:
Although majority of respondents did not have reproduction intentions in the next two years, use of contraception was low with only 44% being on a method. Use of long-term contraceptive methods was low among respondents. Majority of the respondents obtained contraceptives away from CCC. The unmet need for family planning was high at 30%.

Deng Z, Zhu H, Peng B, Chen H, Sun Y, Gang X, Jin P, Wang J. "Correction to synthesis of PS/Ag nanocomposite spheres with catalytic and antibacterial activities." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2013;5:6774. Abstract
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Zaloga GP, Marik PE, Bhatt B. "Critical illness and systemic inflammation.". 2001.Website
Z.P. Q. "Current management of hypertensive disease in pregnancy." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(4):169-71. Abstract

Hypertensive disorders occur in 6-8% of all pregnancies with the incidence varying with geographic location. Studies conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital have noted a prevalence of 5.4% of hypertensive disease and 0.56% for eclampsia. Pregnant mothers with hypertension are predisposed towards the development of potentially lethal complications, notably abruption placentae, disseminated vascular coagulation, cerebral haemorrhage, hepatic failure and acute renal failure. The baby many have intra-uterine growth retardation, suffer the consequences of being born to early, or die in utero. Causes of hypertensive disease especially pre-eclampia remain unknown.

D
Biermann O, Mwoka M, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Shawky S, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Mberu B, others. "Data, Social Determinants, and Better Decision-making for Health: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:4-14. Abstract
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Loiselle S, zar A´s C´, Adgo E, Ballatore T, Chavula G, Descy JP, Harper DM, Kansiime F, Kimirei I, Langenberg V, Ma R, Sarmento12 H, Odada E. "Decadal Trends and Common Dynamics of the Bio- Optical and Thermal Characteristics of the African Great Lakes." PLOS ONE. 2014;9(4):1-6. Abstract

The Great Lakes of East Africa are among the world’s most important freshwater ecosystems. Despite their importance in providing vital resources and ecosystem services, the impact of regional and global environmental drivers on this lacustrine system remains only partially understood. We make a systematic comparison of the dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal properties of thirteen of the largest African lakes between 2002 and 2011. Lake surface temperatures had a positive trend in all Great Lakes outside the latitude of 0u to 8u south, while the dynamics of those lakes within this latitude range were highly sensitive to global inter-annual climate drivers (i.e. El Nin˜o Southern Oscillation). Lake surface temperature dynamics in nearly all lakes were found to be sensitive to the latitudinal position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Phytoplankton dynamics varied considerably between lakes, with increasing and decreasing trends. Intra-lake differences in both surface temperature and phytoplankton dynamics occurred for many of the larger lakes. This inter-comparison of bio-optical and thermal dynamics provides new insights into the response of these ecosystems to global and regional drivers.

Peng B, Murakami S, Monserrat B, Zhang T. "Degenerate topological line surface phonons in quasi-1D double helix crystal SnIP." npj Computational Materials. 2021;7:1-8. Abstract
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Gichuhi S, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM'bongo, Rono H, Ollando E, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Macleod D, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Delay along the care-seeking journey of patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Kenya." BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):485. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

In Africa, accessing eye health services is a major challenge. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a substantial ocular health problem in Africa related to solar UV light exposure and HIV infection among other risk factors. The disease causes visual loss and even death in advanced cases. This study was conducted to assess referral pathway and treatment delay for patients with OSSN in Kenya.
METHODS:

Adults with conjunctival lesions presenting to four eye centres were asked about their occupations, when they noticed the growth, health facilities visited in seeking care, cost of consultation, surgery, medicines and histopathology and dates at each step. The time-to-presentation was divided into quartiles and correlates analysed using ordinal logistic regression.
RESULTS:

We evaluated 158 first-time presenters with OSSN. Most were women (102 [65%]), living with HIV (78/110 tested [71%]), with low to medium income (127 [80%]). Most of the HIV patients (49/78 [63%]) were in antiretroviral care programs. About half (88/158, [56%]) presented directly to the study centres while the rest were referred. Indirect presenters sought care earlier than direct presenters (median 2.0 months vs 5.5 months) and travelled a shorter distance to the first health facility (median 20 km vs 30 km) but had surgery later (median 12.5 months vs 5.5 months). Visits beyond the first health facility for indirect presenters markedly increased delay (median 7.3, 29.0, 37.9, and 32.0 months for 1-4 facilities, respectively). Delay was associated with number of health facilities visited (adjusted ordered OR = 9.12; 95%CI 2.83-29.4, p < 0.001) and being female (adjusted ordered OR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.32-4.44, p = 0.004). At the time of presentation at the study centres for surgery the median tumour diameter in both directly and indirectly presenting patients was 6 mm (p = 0.52) and the histological spectrum of OSSN was similar between the groups (p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS:

Referral delays definitive treatment for OSSN. Women were more likely to experience delay. Despite regular contact with the health system for those with known HIV infection, delays occurred. Early detection and referral of OSSN in the HIV service might reduce delays, but reassuringly delay did not give rise to a larger proportion with more advanced grade of OSSN.

K. W, S. M, J.W. M, Z. Q, J. B, P. V. "Depression among women with obstetric fistula in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115(1):31-3. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To establish the prevalence of depression and describe associated factors among fistula patients attending an obstetric fistula surgical camp in Kenya.

METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted focusing on obstetric fistula patients attending a national fistula camp held in August 2008 at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and medical histories for all consenting patients before surgery. Depression measures were obtained using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

RESULTS:
Of the 70 women interviewed, 2 (2.9%) and 12 (17.1%) reported a history of psychiatric illness and suicidal ideations, respectively. Depression was present in 51 (72.9%) patients, with 18 (25.7%) meeting criteria for severe depression. Depression was significantly associated with women older than 20 years of age (P=0.01), unemployment (P=0.03), lack of social support following fistula (P=0.04), and living with fistula for over 3 months (P=0.01).

CONCLUSION:
Women with obstetric fistula are predisposed to high levels of depression. A holistic management approach, including mental health care and family support, is recommended

Sanes JR, Zipursky LS. "Design principles of insect and vertebrate visual systems." Neuron. 2010;66:15-36. Abstract

A century ago, Cajal noted striking similarities between the neural circuits that underlie vision in vertebrates and flies. Over the past few decades, structural and functional studies have provided strong support for Cajal's view. In parallel, genetic studies have revealed some common molecular mechanisms controlling development of vertebrate and fly visual systems and suggested that they share a common evolutionary origin. Here, we review these shared features, focusing on the first several layers-retina, optic tectum (superior colliculus), and lateral geniculate nucleus in vertebrates; and retina, lamina, and medulla in fly. We argue that vertebrate and fly visual circuits utilize common design principles and that taking advantage of this phylogenetic conservation will speed progress in elucidating both functional strategies and developmental mechanisms, as has already occurred in other areas of neurobiology ranging from electrical signaling and synaptic plasticity to neurogenesis and axon guidance.

Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

Chirwa TF, Zingoni ZM, Munyewende P, Manda SO, Mwambi H, Kandala N-B, Kinyanjui S, Young T, Musenge E, Simbeye J, Musonda P, Mahande MJ, Weke P, Onyango NO, Kazembe L. "Developing excellence in biostatistics leadership, training and science in Africa: How the Sub-Saharan Africa Consortium for Advanced Biostatistics (SSACAB) training unites …." AAS Open Research. 2020;3(51). AbstractWebsite

The increase in health research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has led to a high demand for biostatisticians to develop study designs, contribute and apply statistical methods in data analyses. Initiatives exist to address the dearth in statistical capacity and lack of local biostatisticians in SSA health projects. The Sub-Saharan African Consortium for Advanced Biostatistics (SSACAB) led by African institutions was initiated to improve biostatistical capacity according to the needs identified by African institutions, through collaborative masters and doctoral training in biostatistics. SACCAB has created a critical mass of biostatisticians and a network of institutions over the last five years and has strengthened biostatistics resources and capacity for health research studies in SSA. SSACAB comprises 11 universities and four research institutions which are supported by four European universities. In 2015, only four universities …

Kawakyu N, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Munguambe K, Coutinho J, Mburu N, DeCastro G, Inguane C, Zunt A, Abburi N, Sherr K, S. G. "Development and Implementation of a Mobile Phone-Based Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Cascade Analysis Tool: Usability and Feasibility Testing in Kenya and Mozambique." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019;13;7(5):( doi: 10.2196/13963.):e13963.
Z Q, A M. "Development of Basic Obstetric Theater Facility in a Low-resource Setting.". In: Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery Challenges and Management Options.; 2016.
Reichenbach A, Schnitzer J, Friedrich A, Ziegert W, Brückner G, Schober W. "Development of the rabbit retina. {I}. {Size} of eye and retina, and postnatal cell proliferation." Anatomy and Embryology. 1991;183:287-297. Abstract

Measures of rabbit eyes and retinal wholemounts were used to evaluate the development of retinal area and shape. The retina is shown to have a horizontal axis about a third longer than the vertical axis just before birth, and to adopt an almost symmetrical shape during postnatal development to adulthood. In general, retinal thickness is shown to decrease after birth, but differently in particular retinal regions: the reduction is marked in the periphery, and less pronounced in the visual streak. As an exception, the myelinated region–after it becomes really myelinated, from 9 days p.p.–even increases in thickness. In all regions of the retina, the absolute and relative thickness of the nuclear layers decreases, whereas the relative thickness of plexiform and fibrous layers increases. Proliferation of cells within the rabbit retina was studied during the first three postnatal weeks. 3H-thymidine incorporation was used to demonstrate DNA synthesis autoradiographically in histological sections as well as in enzymatically isolated retinal cells. A first proliferation phase occurs in the neuroblastic cell layer and ceases shortly after birth in the retinal center, but lasts for about one week in the retinal periphery. We found, however, a few 3H-thymidine-labeled cells as late as in the third postnatal week. These late-labeled cells were found within the nerve fiber layer and in the inner plexiform layer. The latter cells were shown to express antigens detected by antibodies directed to the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin, which are known to label Müller cells and neuroepithelial stem cells. This was confirmed in our preparation of enzymatically isolated cells; all cells with autoradiographically labeled nuclei revealed a characteristic elongated morphology typical for Müller radial glia (and also for early neuroepithelial stem cells). 3H-thymidine-labeled cells in the nerve fiber layer were most probably astrocytic. In analogy to the brain, we conclude that the mammalian retina undergoes a series of proliferation phases: first an early phase producing both neurons and glial cells, and then a late phase producing glial cells, e.g., in the nerve fiber layer. Most probably, the late phase within the inner nuclear layer is glial as well, i.e., consists of dividing Müller cells; it cannot be excluded, however, that there may remain some mitotically active stem cells.

Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

Peng B, Yue C, Zhang H, Fang Z, Weng H. "Dirac semimetals in Sodium Ternary Compounds from Material Design on Na3Bi." arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.01434. 2018. Abstract
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Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Omucheni DL, Wabwile R, Abramczyk H, Zoueu JT. "Disease diagnostics by chemometrics-assisted spectroanalytical and imaging techniques.". In: LAM9 International Workshop on Optics and Lasers in Science and Technology. Dakar, Senegal; 2010.
Wanzala WS, Onyango-Abuje JA, Kang'ethe EK, Kang'ethe EK, Zessin KH, Kyule MN, Ochanda H, Harrison LJS. "Distribution of Taenia saginata cysts in carcases and implications for meat inspection.". 2005.Website
Wagacha JM, Steiner U, Dehne H-W, Zuehlke S, Spiteller M, Muthomi J, Oerke E-C. "Diversity in Mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya." Journal of Phytopathology. 2010;157:527-535.Website
Maina J, Steiner U, H.DEHNE, Zuehlke S, M.SPITELLER, Muthomi J, OERKE E. "Diversity in mycotoxins and fungal spp infecting wheat in Nakuru." INSTITUTE OF SCINCE AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION. 2010;158(1439):527-537.diversity_in_mycotoxins_and_fungal_spp_infecting_wheat_in_nakuru.pdf
Mulinge E, Odongo D, Magambo J, Njenga SM, Zeyhle E, Mbae C, Kagendo D, Addy F, Ebi D, Wassermann M, Kern P, Romig T. "Diversity of Taenia and Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in domestic dogs in Kenya." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(9):2863-2875. Abstract

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.

J. S, N. N, Z. Q, M. N. "Does assessment of signs and symptoms add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy?" J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2006;32(1):27-9. Abstract

BACKGROUND:
A World Health Organization-endorsed algorithm, widely published in international guidance documents and distributed in the form of a 'pregnancy checklist', has become a popular tool for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients in developing countries. The algorithm consists of six criteria excluding pregnancy, all conditional upon a seventh 'master criterion' relating to signs or symptoms of pregnancy. Few data exist on the specificity to pregnancy among family planning clients of long-accepted signs and symptoms of pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to assess whether reported signs and symptoms of pregnancy add to the predictive value of an algorithm to rule out pregnancy.

METHODS:
Data from a previous observational study were used to assess the performance of the algorithm with and without the 'signs and symptoms' criterion. The study group comprised 1852 new, non-menstruating family planning clients from seven clinics in Kenya.

RESULTS:
Signs and symptoms of pregnancy were rare (1.5%) as was pregnancy (1%). Signs and symptoms were more common (18.2%) among the 22 clients who tested positive for pregnancy than among the 1830 clients (1.3%) who tested negative, but did not add significantly to the predictive value of the algorithm. Most women with signs or symptoms were not pregnant and would have been unnecessarily denied a contraceptive method using the current criteria.

CONCLUSIONS:
The 'signs and symptoms' criterion did not substantially improve the ability of the algorithm to exclude pregnant clients, but several reasons (including use of the algorithm for intrauterine device clients) render it unlikely that the algorithm will be changed.

Viallon A, Zeni F, Lafond P, Venet C, Tardy B, Page Y, Bertrand JC. "Does bicarbonate therapy improve the management of severe diabetic ketoacidosis?" Critical Care Medicine. 1999;27:2690-2693. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The use of bicarbonates in the treatment of severe diabetic ketoacidosis remains controversial, especially regarding the benefit/risk ratio. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy during severe diabetic ketoacidosis (pH {\textless}7.10). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The emergency unit of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: The records of 39 patients consecutively admitted for severe diabetic ketoacidosis were analyzed (pH {\textless}7.10). The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 24; patients with bicarbonate treatment) and group 2 (n = 15; patients without bicarbonate treatment). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We compared two groups of patients presenting with severe diabetic ketoacidosis (pH values between 6.83 and 7.08) treated with or without bicarbonate. A group of 24 patients received 120+/-40 mmol sodium bicarbonate. The two groups were similar at admission with regard to clinical and biological parameters. No difference could be demonstrated between the two groups concerning the clinical parameters or the normalization time of biochemical parameters. If the number of patients with hypokalemia was comparable between the two groups, the potassium supply was significantly more important in group 1 compared with group 2 (366+/-74 mmol/L vs. 188+/-109 mmol/L, respectively; p {\textless} .001). CONCLUSIONS: Data from the literature and this study are not in favor of the use of bicarbonate in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with pH values between 6.90 and 7.10.

Anne Fischer, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Wambua L, Cassandra Olds, Charles Midega, Matthew Dickinson, Praphat Kawicha, Zeyaur Khan, Masiga D, Joerg Jores, Bernd Schneider. "Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1, the causative agent of Napier grass stunt disease in Kenya." Genome announcements. 2016;4(2):e00297-16.
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Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Early Neonatal Outcomes among Mothers receiving variable doeses of Dexamethasone for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital: A restrospective Cohort Study ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):54-61.Website
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle, E; Romig T,; Mwangi, M.; Rees P,; McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle E;, Mwangi M;, Rees P;, McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Romig T;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
Z. Q. "Editorial Maternal Health." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr . 2010;22(2):i-iii. Abstract

As we approach 2015 the time for achieving the MDG’s let us take stock of the progress made towards MDG 5 whose targets and indicators are as listed:-
Goal 5: improve maternal health
• Target 5A: reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
o Indicator 5.1: maternal mortality ratio
o Indicator 5.2: proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
• Target 5B: achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
o Indicator 5.3: contraceptive prevalence rate
o Indicator 5.4: adolescent birth rate
o Indicator 5.5: antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits) one visit
o Indicator 5.6: unmet need for family planning.
Most of the statistics for the above indicators have not changed much between the KDHS of 2003 and 2008/9. The maternal mortality has increased from 414 in 203 to 488 in 2008 and the target of reduction three quarters from 1990 to 2015 seems more of a dream considering we need a figure of 170 by 2015.

ZAHIDA DRQURESHI. "Editorial Safe motherhood in Africa: Achievable Goal or a Dream?" East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(1):1. AbstractWebsite

Safe motherhood refers to a woman's ability to have a safe and healthy pregnancy and delivery. The goal of safe motherhood is to ensure that every woman has access to a full range of high-quality affordable sexual and reproductive health services especially maternal care and treatment of obstetric emergencies to reduce deaths and disabilities

M O'onge, Z.B A. "The effect of autonomy on financial performance of the Kenyan owned commercial state corporations ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2015;5(6):1868-1880.
Awuor OB, Zipporah O, Ooko J. "The Effect of Managerial Ownership on Stock Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4:279-290. Abstract
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Zhang J, Pazoki M, Simiyu J, Johansson MB, Cheung O, Häggman L, Johansson EMJ, Vlachopoulos N, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "The effect of mesoporous TiO2 pore size on the performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells based on photoelectrochemically polymerized Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole conductor." Electrochimica Acta. 2016;210:23-31.
Zhao Z, Jiang C. "Effect of myopia on ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer measurements: a {Fourier}-domain optical coherence tomography study of young {Chinese} persons." Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. 2013;41:561-566. AbstractWebsite

Background To investigate the change of the ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer under different refractive conditions, as measured by optical coherence tomography. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Participants A total of 107 eyes from 107 subjects were studied. Methods Ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer were studied by a spectral-domain system. Their relationship against spherical equivalents and axial length was studied. Main Outcome Measures The thickness of ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer at different area and under different refractive conditions as measurements by optical coherence tomography. Results The average, superior and inferior macular ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly associated with both spherical equivalents (all P {\textless} 0.05) and axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05). Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thicknesses from the superior, inferior and temporal quadrants were associated with both spherical equivalents (all P {\textless} 0.01), axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05) and ganglion cell complex thickness (all P {\textless} 0.001), except for the nasal part. However, if the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness was studied in sections, then some parts of the upper and lower temporal part showed no correlation with either spherical equivalents or axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05). Conclusions The thicknesses of the ganglion cell complex and most of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer were correlated with refraction and axial length. Therefore, when using these for clinical purposes, attention must be paid to the refractive state of the patient.

Lowther K, Harding R, Victoria Simms, Nancy Gikaara, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr, Selman IHLJ &. "Effect of participation in a randomised controlled trial of an integrated palliative care intervention on HIV-associated stigma." AIDS Care . 2018;30(9):1180-1188.
Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Zanol G, Gemma H. "Effect of postharvest hot air treatments on ripening and soluble sugars in banana fruits, Musa spp.'Williams'.". In: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 934.; 2010:. Abstract
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Zemek J, Bílik V, Zákutná L. "Effect of some aldoses on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibited with molybdenum." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(6):467-9. Abstract

The inhibitory effect of molybdenum ions on growth of yeasts at pH 5.5 was found to be decreased by aldoses in the following order: D-talose greater than L-mannose greater than L-ribose greater than D-lyxose greater than L-galactose greater than L-arabinose greater than L-glucose greater than L-xylose. Increased concentrations of molybdenum brought about morphological changes of yeast cells. Cells grown under these conditions were smaller, had thicker walls and formed clusters.

D.D.Keruyu, Z.I.Oonge, P.K.Ndiba. "The Effect of Surface Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1).
P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

Stringer JSA, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Bolu O, Anekthananon T, Jariyasethpong T, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Borkowf CB, Mbori-Ngacha D, Muiruri P, Ong'ech JO, Zulu I, Njobvu L, Jetsawang B, Pathak S, Bulterys M, Shaffer N, Weidle PJ. "Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: a multi-country, prospective cohort study." PLoS Med.. 2010;7(2):e1000233. Abstract

Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10% higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the first 48 wk of therapy than would women without a prior exposure.

R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, Z.M.Rukenya, D.W. Gakuya. "Efficacy and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis a medicinal plant used in Kenya for oral health.". In: 48th KVA Annual scientific conference. Boma Inn,Eldoret,Uasin Gishu county,Kenya; 2014.
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, Mbaria JM, Z.M.Rukenya, Gakuya DW. "Efficacy and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis a medicinal plant used in Kenya for oral health,.". In: . Published in the Proceeding of the 48th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference . Boma Inn,Eldoret,Uasin Gishu county, Kenya; 2014.
Li D, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang H, Wang S, Birech Z, Hu J. "An efficient LSPR method to quantitatively detect dimethoate: Development, characterization and evaluation. ." Plos one. 2020;15(9):e0239632.
Z.N. N, G.N. K, G.N. K, C.N. M. "Electrochemical Studies of Potassium Ferricyanide in Acetonitrile-Water Media (1:1) using Cyclic Voltammetry Method." The International Journal of Science Research and Innovative Technology . 2017;4(5):2313-3759 .abstract.pdf
Wang C, Jiang X, Zhao G, Zhang M, Hsu CW, Peng B, Stone DA, Jiang L, Yang L. "Electromagnetically induced transparency at a chiral exceptional point." Nature Physics. 2020;16:334-340. Abstract
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Xu K, Xu Y, Zhang H, Peng B, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Yao M, Lu H, Zhu H, others. "Electronic, optical and transport properties of van der Waals Transition-metal Dichalcogenides Heterostructures: A First-principle Study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.02518. 2018. Abstract
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Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Electronic, transport and optical properties of monolayer $$\backslash$alpha $ and $$\backslash$beta-$ GeSe: A first-principles study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.03336. 2017. Abstract
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S.M. M, Z.P. Q, J. K. "Emergency preparedness among antenatal clients at Kenyatta National Hospital." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr.. 2008;20(1):4-12 . Abstract

Background
All women are at risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery. Most complications cannot be predicted and therefore all pregnant women should be prepared to respond appropriately when complications arise. Such advance preparations can help prevent life threatening delays in recognizing and responding to complications.
According to Kenya Demographic Health Survey (KDHS) 2003, majority of women (60%) still deliver at home where skilled care is not available and if a complication arise it may be disastrous.
Emphasis on emergency preparedness during antenatal care is a cost effective intervention, which can thus reduce maternal deaths and morbidity by avoiding delays at decision making and transport to health facilities in the event of obstetric emergencies.

Objective: To evaluate emergency preparedness among antenatal care clients at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study done at the antenatal care clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 394 women attending antenatal care at Kenyatta National hospital were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire between May 2006 and August 2006. Clients who were above 32 weeks gestation and had attended the clinic more than twice were recruited. Systematic sampling was used to select the study participants with every third client being interviewed.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 28.4 years with a range of 18-42 years. All the respondents had formal education, 91.7% were married and 41.1% were employed. Over 60% of the respondents were informed by health workers about danger signs in pregnancy. A third of the respondents knew at least one danger sign in pregnancy while only 6.9% knew of three or more danger signs. Only 62.9% of the respondents had funds set aside for emergency purposes. 10.9& of the respondents did not have a clear plan of what to do incase of an obstetric emergency. Level of education positively influenced knowledge of danger signs.

Conclusion
Education and counseling on danger signs was not provided to all clients. Respondents’ knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy was low. Most respondents did not have plans for emergencies.

Pennise DM, Smith KR, Kithinji JP, Rezende ME, Raad TJ, Zhang J, Fan C. "Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil.". 2001.Website
Li Q, Zhao X, Deng L, Shi Z, Liu S, Wei Q, Zhang L, Cheng Y, Zhang L, Lu H, others. "Enhanced valley Zeeman splitting in Fe-doped monolayer MoS2." ACS nano. 2020;14:4636-4645. Abstract
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Muthoka, M. Rego A.B., Z.K R. "Environmental Education. Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Development." Environmental Education. Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Development. 2005.
M. M. Oliva, Demo MS, Malele RS, Mutayabarwa CK, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Faillaci SM, Scrivanti RL, Lopez AG, Zygadlo JA. "Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Composition and Antimicrobial Activity and composition." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2003;6:61-63.
and R. S. Malele, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, López ML, Zunino MP, López AG, Zygadlo JA, Oliva MM, Demo MS. "Essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and antimicrobial activity." J. Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2007;10:83-87.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Demo MS, Oliva MM, Zunino MP, Zygadlo JA. "Essential oil of Rhynchosia minima from Kenya: Composition and antibacterial properties." J. Essential Oil Research. 2005;17:230-231.
Dambolena JS, Zunino MP, Lopez AG, Rubinstein HR, Zygadlo JA, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JM, Mwalukumbi JM, Kariuki ST. "Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. From Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2010;11:410-414.
P.K. T, Z. Q, G. N. "Estimation of blood loss after vaginal delivery." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr.. 2011;23(2):55-60. Abstract

Background: Thirty to thirty nine percent of maternal mortality is attributed to excess bleeding after childbirth. Amount of blood loss after childbirth is generally estimated visually though it is known that such estimates are grossly inaccurate. Locally, no studies had been done to assess the performance of visual estimation and direct measurement methods of estimating blood loss after delivery. This study aimed at estimating the amount of blood loss after childbirth using three different quantitative methods (visual estimation, direct measurement and laboratory determination). The study also aimed at establishing the incidence of Postpartum Hemorrhage (PPH) in a setting where Active Management of Third Stage of Labor (AMSTL) is practiced.

Objectives: To determine the amount of blood loss and the prevalence of PPH after vaginal delivery.

Design: Analytic cross-sectional study.

Setting: Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects and methods: One hundred thirty four pregnant women delivering vaginally at PMH were recruited and studied. Sampled pregnant women were interviewed using a structured data collection form, pre- and post delivery venous blood samples were taken for determination of hematocrit and blood loss after delivery estimated visually by the primary clinician conducting the delivery and directly measured by the researchers.

Main outcome measures: Visually estimated blood loss, directly measured blood loss and pre-and post-delivery hematocrit values.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 24.7 ± 4.8 years. The mean visually estimated, directly measured and laboratory determined blood loss was 121.1 ml, 300.2 ml and 257.0 ml respectively. Prevalence of PPH (blood loss ≥ 500 ml) by visual estimation was zero percent and 13.4% (95% Cl 5.3 - 21.5) and 11.2% (95% Cl 4.0 - 18.8) by direct measurement and laboratory determination respectively. Visual estimation consistently underreported the most significant risk factor for PPH was performance of an episiotomy.

Conclusion: Visual estimation is not sensitive and grossly underestimates the amount of blood loss after delivery, magnitude of underestimation increases with increasing amount of blood loss. Direct measurement of blood loss is both highly sensitive and specific in the detection of PPH.

Marangu D, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: A systematic review." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019. Abstract

To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP).

Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

F
Peng B, Chen M, Zhou S, Wu L, Ma X. "Fabrication of hollow silica spheres using droplet templates derived from a miniemulsion technique." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2008;321:67-73. Abstract
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Zhao K, Zhao J, Wu C, Zhang S, Deng Z, Hu X, Chen M, Peng B. "Fabrication of silver-decorated sulfonated polystyrene microspheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial applications." RSC Advances. 2015;5:69543-69554. Abstract
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Opiyo RO, Nyasulu PS, Olenja J, Zunza M, Nguyen KA, Bukania Z, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Were AO. "Factors associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis in national referral hospitals in Kenya: a mixed-methods survey." Renal Replacement Therapy Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adherence to dietary prescriptions among patients with chronic kidney disease is known to prevent
deterioration of kidney functions and slow down the risk for morbidity and mortality. This study determined factors
associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
Methods: A mixed-methods study, using parallel mixed design, was conducted at the renal clinics and dialysis units at
the national teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya from September 2018 to January 2019. The study followed a
QUAN + qual paradigm, with quantitative survey as the primary method. Adult patients with chronic kidney disease on
hemodialysis without kidney transplant were purposively sampled for the quantitative survey. A sub-sample of
adult patients and their caregivers were purposively sampled for the qualitative survey. Numeric data were collected
using a structured, self-reported questionnaire using Open Data Kit “Collect software” while qualitative data were
collected using in-depth interview guides and voice recording. Analysis on STATA software for quantitative and
NVIV0 12 for qualitative data was conducted. The dependent variable, “adherence to diet prescription” was analyzed as a
binary variable. P values < 0.1 and < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant in univariate and multivariate logistic
regression models respectively. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed.
Results: Only 36.3% of the study population adhered to their dietary prescriptions. Factors that were independently
associated with adherence to diet prescriptions were “flexibility in the diets” (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.11–6.30, P
0.028), “difficulties in following diet recommendations” (AOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13–0.46, P < 001), and “adherence
to limiting fluid intake” (AOR 9.74, 95% CI 4.90–19.38, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: For patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis, diet prescriptions with less restrictions
and requiring minimal extra efforts and resources are more likely to be adhered to than the restrictive ones.
Patients who adhere to their fluid intake restrictions easily follow their diet prescriptions. Prescribed diets should be based
on the individual patient’s usual dietary habits and assessed levels of challenges in using such diets. Additionally, diet
adherence messages should be integrated with fluid limitation messages. Further research on understanding patients’
adherence to fluid restriction is also suggested.

GW DRJALDESA, ZP DRQURESHI, SMH DRWANJALA, C PROFSEKKADE-KIGONDU. "Factors Enhancing the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation among the Kenyan Somalis. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of East and Central Africa 14 (2), 110, 1998. 1998;14(2):110-114. AbstractWebsite

This is a descriptive cross sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 300 respondents who had infibulation as a form of female genital circumcision.The interviews were conducted at Garissa General Hosptial Gynaecology out-patient clinic. The objective of this study was to establish the factors that enhance the practice of female circumcision.
Female circumcision was performed between 3 to 14 years of age with the peak age of 7 years. In 83% of the respondents the event was arranged by the mother of the respondents. The three leading reasons why the practice was carried out in the community were, religious demand(66.3%), prevention of enlargement of clitoris(51%), and protection of virginity (48.3%).
In conclusion FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is traditionally justified but has no medical support.

mugerwa S, Nyangito M, Nderitu J, and Chris Bkuneta DME, Mpaire D, Zziwa E. "Farmers ethno- ecological knowledge of the termite problem in semi-arid Nakasongola." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2011;6(13):3183-3191.farmers-_ethno-ecological_knowledge_of_the_termite.pdf
Mugerwa S, Nyangito M, Nderitu J, Bakuneta C, Mpairwe D, Zziwa E. "Farmers’ ethno-ecological knowledge of the termite problem in semi-arid Nakasongola." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2011;6 (13):3183-3191. Abstract

nfestation and destruction of rangeland vegetation by subterranean termites is a major constraint to livestock production in the rangelands of Uganda, particularly, in semi-arid Nakasongola. Ethno-ecological studies on termite dynamics are central to formulation of sustainable termite management strategies in such ecosystems. This study was thus conducted to investigate farmers’ traditional ecological knowledge of the termite problem with the intent to build more coherent principles required in the development of appropriate termite management strategies. Focus group discussions and individual interviews were conducted to capture information on farmers’ ethno-ecological knowledge of the factors enhancing termite damage on vegetation, temporal and spatial variability of damage and diversity of termite species in the Nakasongola ecosystem. Kruskal–Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference (X2=451.5, P>0.0001) among farmers’ ranking of factors responsible for the destructive behavior of termites on rangeland vegetation. Overgrazing and deforestation ware ranked significantly higher (X2=156, P>0.0001) than other factors. Eight species were identified and the species belonged to one family (Termitidae) and two sub-families (Macrotermitinae and Termitinae). The study provided basic information about farmers’ knowledge of the biology and ecology that could aid the development of sustainable and socially acceptable termite control strategies.

Key words: Grazing-lands, diversity, termite-damage.

Zhang L, Peng B, Zhang F, Wang L, Zhang H, Zhang P, Tong Q. "Fast real-time causal linewise progressive hyperspectral anomaly detection via cholesky decomposition." IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 2017;10:4614-4629. Abstract
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Zhou Z, Ogot M, Schwartz L. "A finite element analysis of the effects of an increasing angle on the tower of Pisa." Finite elements in analysis and design. 2001;37:901-911. Abstract

The Leaning Tower of Pisa has aroused admiration and curiosity throughout the
world for its beauty and unusual lean. This study investigates the effects of increasing lean
on the structural integrity of the tower. Employing a three dimensional finite element model,
two failure modes are investigated and discussed.

Zipporah M, Rohit P, Robinson M, Ralph S. "First-principle investigation of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Co2VIn and CoVIn Heusler compounds." AIP Advances. 2017;7. Abstract

Investigation of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of full-Heusler Co2VIn as well as half-Heusler CoVIn Cobalt based Heusler compounds using density functional theory (DFT) leads to the general conclusion that Co2VIn and CoVIn are half-metallic materials with a gap at the Fermi level in the minority states and majority states respectively. A Hubbard-like Coulomb correlation term U has been included in the DFT (DFT+U) for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties of the compounds. The structural properties have been calculated for the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, and both Co2VIn and CoVIn are found to be stable in the ferromagnetic phase. The calculated magnetic moments are 2 μB2 μB and 0.9 μB0.9 μB per formula unit for Co2VIn and CoVIn respectively.

Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Zhang R, Lu H, Zhang DW, Zhu H. "First-principles prediction of ultralow lattice thermal conductivity of dumbbell silicene: a comparison with low-buckled silicene." ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2016;8:20977-20985. Abstract
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Shao H, Jin M, Peng B, Zhang H, Tan X, Liu G-Q, Jiang H, Jiang J. "First-principles study of manipulating the phonon transport of molybdenum disulfide by sodium intercalating." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2018;122:2632-2640. Abstract
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Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H, others. "First-principles study on the electronic, optical, and transport properties of monolayer $\alpha$-and $\beta$-GeSe." Physical Review B. 2017;96:245421. Abstract
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Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, Tan X, Liu G-Q, Jiang J, Jiang H. "A first-principles study on the intrinsic phonon transport of Cu2GeSe3." EPL (Europhysics Letters). 2016;115:26002. Abstract
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Wen X, Li G, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Peng B, Wong LM, Wang S, Xiong Q. "Flexible and tunable metamaterials and their applications in sensing.". In: APS March Meeting Abstracts. Vol. 2014.; 2014:. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang Q, Liu X, Ji Y, Demir HV, Huan CHA, Sum TC, Xiong Q. "Fluorophore-doped core–multishell spherical plasmonic nanocavities: resonant energy transfer toward a loss compensation." ACS nano. 2012;6:6250-6259. Abstract
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Pan J, Utama MIB, Zhang Q, Liu X, Peng B, Wong LM, Sum TC, Wang S, Xiong Q. "for Adv. Mater., DOI: 10.1002/adma. 201104996.". Submitted. Abstract
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Zaccara S, Mavuti KM, Crosa G, Vanetti I, Binelli G, Harper DM, Balarin JD, Britton RJ. "Genetic and morphological analyses indicate high population mixing in the endangered cichlid Alcolapia flock of East Africa." Conservation Genetics. 2013. Abstract

Alcolapia is a minor genus of small-bodied, polymorphic cichlids inhabiting the lagoons and hot
springs surrounding the soda lakes Natron (largely in Tanzania) and Magadi (Kenya). Three
Alcolapia species are present at Natron (Alcolapia alcalicus, Alcolapia ndalalani and Alcolapia
latilabris) and one at Magadi (Alcolapia grahami). All are IUCN Red Listed as either vulnerable
or endangered. We performed analyses of morphometric and genetic structure on 13 populations
of the Natron Alcolapia flock, and one A. grahami population of Lake Magadi as an out-group.
Morphometric analyses revealed significant differentiation in the head and mouth shape of the
species at Natron. From a genetic perspective, among 70 mtDNA control region sequences 17
haplotypes were found, showing in the minimum spanning network a star-like pattern around the
widespread haplotype 2lat. At Natron, there was limited genetic differentiation between the
different populations of A. alcalicus and A. latilabris, despite apparent ecological barriers of
extreme alkalinity that suggested their populations were isolated. Instead, there appeared to be
some population connectivity, with a rate of 0.5–2.3 migrants per generation suggesting that
natural factors, such as intense rains or transmission by large piscivorous birds, facilitate
population connectivity and maintain genetic similarity. The outputs of high population
connectivity and one genetic unit at the basin level (despite morphological divergence) suggest
that any human activities that disrupt the connectivity of the freshwater resources of the Natron
catchment could further threaten the integrity and current status of these already threatened fish
populations.

Zaccara S, Crosa G, Vanetti I, Binelli G, Harper DM, Mavuti KM, Balarin JD, Britton RJ. "Genetic and morphological analyses indicate high population mixing in the endangered cichlid Alcolapia flock of East Africa." Conservation genetics. 2014;15(2):429-440.
J.R. N, A. A, Z.P. Q, C.S. K. "Gestational thyrotoxicosis associated with emesis in early pregnancy." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(2):55-8. Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
To determine the thyroid profile and the prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis among women with emesis during early pregnancy.

DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.

SETTING:
Kenyatta National Hospital acute gynaecology ward and the ante-natal clinic.

SUBJECTS:
Seventy two women presenting with emesis up to 16 weeks gestation.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The levels of FT3, FT4, TSH and beta-hCG during the first 16 weeks of gestation. Correlation between the thyroid hormones and beta-hCG as well as the severity of vomiting was also done.

RESULTS:
The point prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis was 8.3%. There was a significant positive correlation between beta-hCG levels and FT3 and FT4 (P-values < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between beta-hCG and TSH (P < 0.05). Correlation between the severity of vomiting and the thyroid hormones as well as beta-hCG was not statistically significant. Patients' age ranged from 14-38 years (median 26). Majority of the women studied were at a gestation of 8 to 11 weeks (38.9%). Most patients (84.7%) had one to five episodes of vomiting per day. Peak beta-hCG was at 12-15 weeks gestation.

CONCLUSIONS:
Thyrotoxicosis does occur among women with emesis in pregnancy in this set-up. Screening for it may be beneficial to such women and also those with high serum beta-hCG levels above the median for the gestational age.

J.R DRNDUNGU, A DRAMAYO, Z.P DRQURESHI, C PROFSEKKADE-KIGONDU. "Gestational thyrotoxicosis associated with emesis in early pregnancy." E.A.M.J. 2009;86(2):55-58. Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
To determine the thyroid profile and the prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis among women with emesis during early pregnancy.
DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Kenyatta National Hospital acute gynaecology ward and the ante-natal clinic.
SUBJECTS:
Seventy two women presenting with emesis up to 16 weeks gestation.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The levels of FT3, FT4, TSH and beta-hCG during the first 16 weeks of gestation. Correlation between the thyroid hormones and beta-hCG as well as the severity of vomiting was also done.
RESULTS:
The point prevalence of gestational thyrotoxicosis was 8.3%. There was a significant positive correlation between beta-hCG levels and FT3 and FT4 (P-values < 0.05), and a significant negative correlation between beta-hCG and TSH (P < 0.05). Correlation between the severity of vomiting and the thyroid hormones as well as beta-hCG was not statistically significant. Patients' age ranged from 14-38 years (median 26). Majority of the women studied were at a gestation of 8 to 11 weeks (38.9%). Most patients (84.7%) had one to five episodes of vomiting per day. Peak beta-hCG was at 12-15 weeks gestation.
CONCLUSIONS:
Thyrotoxicosis does occur among women with emesis in pregnancy in this set-up. Screening for it may be beneficial to such women and also those with high serum beta-hCG levels above the median for the gestational age.

Wall DH, Bradford MA, John MGST, Trofymows JA, Behan-Pelletier V, Bignell DE, Dangerfield JM, Parton WM, Rusek, J. FOI, Voight, W., Wolters V, Gardel HZ, Ayuke FO, Bashford R, Beljakova OI, Bohlen PJ, Brauman A, Flemming S, Henschel JR, Johnson DL, Jones TF, Kovarova, M., Kranabetter JM, Kutny L, Kuo-Chuan L, Maryati M, Masse D, Pokarzhevskii A, Rahman H, Sabara MG, Joerg-Alfred S, Swift MJ, Varela A, Vasconcelos HL, White D, Zou X. "Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate- dependent." Global Change Biology. 2008;14:2661-2677. Abstract

Climate and litter quality are primary drivers of terrestrial decomposition and, based on evidence from multisite experiments at regional and global scales, are universally factored into global decomposition models. In contrast, soil animals are considered key regulators of decomposition at local scales but their role at larger scales is unresolved. Soil animals are consequently excluded from global models of organic
mineralization processes. Incomplete assessment of the roles of soil animals stems from the difficulties of manipulating invertebrate animals experimentally across large geographic gradients. This is compounded by deficient or inconsistent taxonomy. We report a global decomposition experiment to assess the importance of soil animals in C mineralization, in which a common grass litter substrate was exposed to natural decomposition in either control or reduced animal treatments across 30 sites distributed from 431S to 681N on six continents. Animals in the mesofaunal size range were recovered from the litter by Tullgren extraction and identified to common specifications, mostly at the ordinal level. The design of the trials enabled faunal contribution to be evaluated against abiotic parameters between sites. Soil animals increase decomposition rates in temperate and wet tropical climates, but have neutral effects where temperature or moisture constrain biological activity. Our findings highlight that faunal influences on
decomposition are dependent on prevailing climatic conditions. We conclude that (1) inclusion of soil animals will improve the predictive capabilities of region- or biomescale decomposition models, (2) soil animal influences on decomposition are important at the regional scale when attempting to predict global change scenarios, and (3) the statistical relationship between decomposition rates and climate, at the global scale, is robust against changes in soil faunal abundance and diversity.

Keywords: climate decomposition index, decomposition, litter, mesofauna, soil biodiversity, soil
carbon, soil fauna

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A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

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