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2008
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping Machine Translation for the Language Pair English - Kiswahili." In: J. Aisbett, G. Gibbon, A.J. Rodrigues, K.K. Migga, R. Nath, G.R. Renardel, eds. Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research - Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain Publishers; 2008:. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Challenge of Global Warming and climate Change Adaptation in ACP Countries.". Paper Prepared for CTA Workshop, Ouagadougou; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "The Challenges of Climate Change on the Tourist Industry in Kenya.". Paper prepared for the Ministry of Tourism-Tourism Week; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Challenges to the Tourist Industry in Africa,." Workshop organized by the Kenya Tourist Board, Ministry of Tourism; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change." Paper Prepared for the North-South Conference; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and Human health in the 21st Century.". Commencement address delivered at Stony Brook University; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and Renewable Energy Issues in East Africa.". Paper Prepared for the North-South Conference; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change in the IGAD Sub-Region of the Horn of Africa Countries.". Paper Prepared for COF Meeting; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Risk management training. African Development Bank,." African Development Bank,; 2008. Abstract
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JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. International Journal of Climatology; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
RONO MREDWINCHERUIYOT. "Concentration - dependent parsimonious releaser roles of gregarious male pheromone of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.". In: Journal of insect physiology. Edwin Rono; 2008. Abstract
The responses of (i) groups of crowd-reared mature males of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria to a choice of two columns of air, one permeated with different concentrations of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), the major component of gregarious-phase male-produced pheromone, and the other untreated, and (ii) individual crowd-reared mature males of the insect to varying concentration gradients of PAN, were studied in two different types of arena. In the choice assay, locusts preferred to be within PAN-permeated air column at low relative doses of the pheromone, but away from PAN at high relative doses. In the second assay, individual locusts were arrested close to PAN source at low PAN concentration gradients, but away from the source at high concentration gradients. The results are consistent with two reported releaser functions of the adult male-released pheromone that are dependent on different sensory thresholds: arrestment and cohesion at lower relative concentrations and male-male homosexual avoidance at higher relative concentrations.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Contribution to the Heat Budget in Nairobi Metro-Area by the Anthropogenic Heat Component.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008. Abstract
This study quantifies the ejected waste heat from artificial supplies comprising road transport and industrial, commercial, domestic and metabolic heating activities which may enhance the urban temperatures in Nairobi metro area, taking into account the energy intensity of a given activity and the level of the activity, considering expended fossil and biofuels, electrical energy consumption and human metabolism. Translation of linear source strengths to area averages from the road transport sector yields about 4% of the total anthropogenic energy over the city. The contribution from the road sector is likely to rise to 10.8 W m-2 in 2029 as the City expands. The industrial/commercial sector contributes up to 35.5 W m-2 or 57% of the total anthropogenic energy, and could increase to 284 W m-2 by 2029 due to industrialization and economic growth. Domestic utilities account for up to 13 W m-2, which is 21% of the total anthropogenic energy. Depending on the activity engaged in, human metabolism contributes up to 11.4 W m-2, which is about 18% of the total anthropogenic energy supplies. The sum total area-averaged anthropogenic energy consumption over the city centre is currently small, constituting about 11 to 18% of the global radiation for the warmer and colder seasons, respectively. Notably, only a part of this energy is released into the atmosphere as waste heat as most is used for the intended purposes. If the current trends of rising population, increased motor vehicle density and enhanced industrialization persist, the anthropogenic waste heat ejection would be large enough to alter the heat balance of the study area appreciably in future by 2030.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Contribution to the Heat Budget in Nairobi Metro-Area by the Anthropogenic Heat Component.". In: Proceedings: 1st KenGen/IAEA geothermal Conference in Kenya. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008. Abstract
This study quantifies the ejected waste heat from artificial supplies comprising road transport and industrial, commercial, domestic and metabolic heating activities which may enhance the urban temperatures in Nairobi metro area, taking into account the energy intensity of a given activity and the level of the activity, considering expended fossil and biofuels, electrical energy consumption and human metabolism. Translation of linear source strengths to area averages from the road transport sector yields about 4% of the total anthropogenic energy over the city. The contribution from the road sector is likely to rise to 10.8 W m-2 in 2029 as the City expands. The industrial/commercial sector contributes up to 35.5 W m-2 or 57% of the total anthropogenic energy, and could increase to 284 W m-2 by 2029 due to industrialization and economic growth. Domestic utilities account for up to 13 W m-2, which is 21% of the total anthropogenic energy. Depending on the activity engaged in, human metabolism contributes up to 11.4 W m-2, which is about 18% of the total anthropogenic energy supplies. The sum total area-averaged anthropogenic energy consumption over the city centre is currently small, constituting about 11 to 18% of the global radiation for the warmer and colder seasons, respectively. Notably, only a part of this energy is released into the atmosphere as waste heat as most is used for the intended purposes. If the current trends of rising population, increased motor vehicle density and enhanced industrialization persist, the anthropogenic waste heat ejection would be large enough to alter the heat balance of the study area appreciably in future by 2030.
R.S. O. "Contributions to understanding climate Change Adaptation.". IDRC Workshop on Climate Risk management; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O, Ogallo LA. "Drought Occurrences in Eastern Africa. Sub-Region as witnessed from Paleo-and Instrumental Climate workshop,." Paper presented at the ClivarWorkshop on Drought and Climate Change; 2008. Abstract
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Bulimo W, WD B, JL G, DC S, SA B, MK N, WO O, E A, JM M, JM S, VO O, SM L, J W, RF B, SK M. "Genetic analysis of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated in 2006-2007 in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite
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De Benoist B, McLean E, Andersson M, Rogers L. "Iodine deficiency in 2007: global progress since 2003." Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29:195-202. AbstractWebsite
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JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the

catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.

Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007

Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City

Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined

(96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined

to be examined.

Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only

241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti

divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival

growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by

refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects

(0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the

subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was

0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates

that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The

main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual

impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.

Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of

blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was

refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were

cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.

Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should

focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to

address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems

encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and

hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially

in school going children.

JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2008 May; 14(1): 42-50.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the

catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.

Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007

Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City

Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined

(96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined

to be examined.

Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only

241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti

divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival

growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by

refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects

(0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the

subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was

0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates

that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The

main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual

impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.

Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of

blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was

refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were

cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.

Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should

focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to

address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems

encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and

hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially

in school going children.

R.S. O. "The Kenya Carbon Assist Project. Consultancy." Report prepared for the World Bank and Kenya Government; 2008. Abstract
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MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "AN M.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "AN M.". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "AN M.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):39-45. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2008. Abstract

Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study .

Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward.

Subjects: HIV infected children.

Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "AN M.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study .

Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward.

Subjects: HIV infected children.

Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.

Limo AK, Rugutt-Korir A, Gichana JO, Dimba EA, Chindia ML, Mutuma GZ. "Occurance of head and neck cancers at the Nairobi Cancer Registry in Kenya 2000-2002.". 2008. Abstract
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Limo AK, Rugutt-Korir A, Gichana JO, Dimba EA, Chindia ML, Mutuma GZ. "Occurance of head and neck cancers at the Nairobi Cancer Registry in Kenya 2000-2002.". 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Post-Kyoto Negotiations and African priorities on climate Change.". Meeting with African Ministers of Environment,UNEP/AMCEN; 2008. Abstract
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ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: Nairobi: ACTS Press, 2008. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: Berlin: German Council on Foreign Relations, 2008 pp. 11-22. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

R.S. O. "Quantifying Socio-economic benefits of Weather and Climate-." Presented at the IGAD-COF meeting; 2008. Abstract
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FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Response of the Moisture Budget to the Growth and Development of Nairobi City .". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Africa J. of Sc. and Tech; 2008.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH, R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Response of the Moisture Budget to the Growth and Development of Nairobi City .". In: Proceedings: 1st KenGen/IAEA geothermal Conference in Kenya. Africa J. of Sc. and Tech; 2008.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

2007
Ritman EL, Lerman A. "The {Dynamic} {Vasa} {Vasorum}." Cardiovascular research. 2007;75:649-658. AbstractWebsite

The function of vasa vasorum is both to deliver nutrients and oxygen to arterial and venous walls and to remove “waste” products, either produced by cells in the wall or introduced by diffusional transport through the endothelium of the artery or vein. Although the relationship between changes in vasa vasorum characteristics and the development of atheromatous plaques is well documented, the role of vasa vasorum, especially in terms of their appearance and disappearance in disease processes such as atherosclerosis, are still not clearly understood in terms of their being causative or merely reactive. However, even if their proliferation is merely reactive, these new microvessels may be a source of disease progression by virtue of endothelial impairment and as a pathway for monocytic cells to migrate to sites of early disease. As both these features are aspects of the vasa vasorum function, this Review focuses on the following issues: 1) acute modulation of vasa vasorum patency due to surrounding compressive forces within vessel wall and due to variable tone in the smooth muscle within proximal vasa vasorum and 2) chronic angiogenic responses due to local cytokine accumulations such as occur in the wall of arteries in the presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, accumulation of lipids, extravasated blood products (e.g., red blood cells, macrophages, inflammatory products) which attract monocytes, and response of vasa vasorum to pharmacological stimuli.

P.W M, J.M M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Strategies for maintaining sweet potato nurseries free from insect vectors that spread Sweet potato Virus Disease.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference (ACSS).; 2007.
Mallika V, Goswami B, Rajappa M. "Atherosclerosis pathophysiology and the role of novel risk factors: a clinicobiochemical perspective." Angiology. 2007;58:513-522. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is the root cause of the biggest killer of the 21st century. Mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. A number of theories-including the role of dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation and infection by certain pathogens-have been propounded from time to time explain this complex phenomenon. Recently it has been suggested that atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, multistep disease that involves chronic inflammation at every step, from initiation to progression, and that all the risk factors contribute to pathogenesis by aggravating the underlying inflammatory process. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis will aid in devising pharmaceutical and lifestyle modifications for reducing mortality resulting from coronary artery disease (CAD).A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the Web sites of the National Library of Medicine (http:// www.ncbl.nlm.nih.gov/) and PubMed Central, the US National Library of Medicine's digital archive of life sciences literature (http:// www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/). The data were accessed from books and journals in which relevant articles in this field were published. The whole spectrum of coronary artery disease evolves through various events that lead to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaque and finally its complications. Atherosclerosis is the culprit behind coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The pathogenic mechanisms are varied and complex. Of late, the role of lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, and inflammation and infection as prime culprits in pathogenesis of CAD is the subject of intense research and debate. The appreciation of the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis provides a mechanistic framework to understand the clinical benefits of newer therapeutic strategies, and a better understanding of pathogenesis aids in formulating preventive and therapeutic strategies in reducing mortality resulting from CAD.An in-depth knowledge of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis can help in substantiating the current existing knowledge about the CAD epidemic. This knowledge will help clinicians to better manage the disease, which affects Indians in its most severe form.

Gessaghi VC, Raschi MA, Larreteguy AE, y Perazzo CA. "Influence of arterial geometry on a model for growth rate of atheromas." Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2007;90:012046. AbstractWebsite

Atherosclerosis is a disease that affects medium and large size arteries and it can partially or totally obstruct blood flow through them. The lack of blood supply to the heart or the brain can cause an infarct or a stroke with fatal consequences or permanent effects. This disease involves the proliferation of cells and the accumulation of fat, cholesterol, cell debris, calcium and other substances in the artery wall. Such accumulation results in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques called atheromas, which may cause the obstruction of the blood flow. Cardiovascular diseases, among which atherosclerosis is the most frequent, are the first cause of death in developed countries. The published works in the subject suggest that hemodynamic forces on arterial walls have influence on the localization, initial development and growth rate of atheromas. This paper presents a model for this growth rate, and explores the influence of the bifurcation angle on the blood flow patterns and on the predictions of the model in a simplified carotid artery. The choice of the carotid bifurcation as the subject for this study obeys the fact that atheromas in this artery are often responsible for strokes. Our model predicts a larger initial growth rate in the external walls of the bifurcation and smaller growth area and lower growth rates as the bifurcation angle is increased. The reason for this seems to be the appearance of helical flow patterns as the angle is increased.

Pai BS, Varma RG, Kulkarni RN, Nirmala S, Manjunath LC, Rakshith S. "Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation." Neurology India. 2007;55:31-41. Abstract

CONTEXT: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. AIMS: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. RESULTS: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm). The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm). The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm) from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., CONCLUSIONS: The authors have documented the various anomalies as well as the differences of the anatomy in this area in the Indian population as compared to the Western literature.

J.K M, P.W M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Participatory evaluation of sweet potato production in Kirinyaga and Kwale districts in Kenya.". In: Regional Universities Forum Biennial Meeting. Mangochi, Malawi; 2007.
P.W M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Screening for tolerance in selected sweet potato germplasm to Sweet-potato Virus Disease in Kenya.". In: Regional Universities Forum Biennial Meeting. Mangochi, Malawi; 2007.
Ruhiu S, Anthony Rodrigues, Audenhove LV. "Utilization of ICTs for Poverty Reduction: Towards a Poverty Reduction Framework. .". In: 1 st International Conference in Computer Science and Informatics. Mbagathi, Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) mean different things to different people; there is little informed discussion on what ICTs actually are; how they are evolving and converging, where they might be going and what the implications are for their further use in poverty reduction. This paper explores the various definitions and conceptualizations of ICTs with a view to arriving at a working definition and conceptualization of ICTs in our attempt to suggest the requirements of a framework for the utilization of ICTs for poverty reduction. To work towards the framework, various definitions and dimensions of poverty are explored and poverty reduction efforts using the capability approach are considered. Lastly, a framework for the utilization of ICTs for poverty reduction is suggested.

Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Latif F, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL targets that are associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma." Oncogene. 2007;26(11):1661-72. Abstract

von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a dominantly inherited family cancer syndrome characterized by the development of retinal and central nervous system haemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and phaeochromocytoma. Specific germline VHL mutations may predispose to haemangioblastomas, RCC and phaeochromocytoma to a varying extent. Although dysregulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 and JunB have been linked to the development of RCC and phaeochromocytoma, respectively, the precise basis for genotype-phenotype correlations in VHL disease have not been defined. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of RCC in VHL disease we compared gene expression microarray profiles in a RCC cell line expressing a Type 1 or Type 2B mutant pVHL (RCC-associated) to those of a Type 2A or 2C mutant (not associated with RCC). We identified 19 differentially expressed novel VHL target genes linked to RCC development. Eight targets were studied in detail by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (three downregulated and five upregulated by wild-type VHL) and for six genes the effect of VHL inactivation was mimicked by hypoxia (but hypoxic-induction of smooth muscle alpha-actin 2 was specific for a RCC cell line). The potential role of four RCC-associated VHL target genes was assessed in vitro. NB thymosin beta (TMSNB) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) (both downregulated by wt pVHL) increased cell growth and motility in a RCC cell line, but aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)1 and ALDH7 had no effect. These findings implicate TMSNB and PAR2 candidate oncogenes in the pathogenesis of VHL-associated RCC.

Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Wariua G, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Bosire R, John-Stewart G. "Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;45(3):311-7. Abstract

To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine.

Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, Njiri F, John-Stewart GC. "Independent effects of nevirapine prophylaxis and HIV-1 RNA suppression in breast milk on early perinatal HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;46(4):472-8. Abstract

The mechanism of action of single-dose nevirapine on reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 may involve reduction of maternal HIV-1 or prophylaxis of infants.

Aduda B. O., S.M W, Ogacho A. A., J.M. M, R.J. M, Simiyu J. "Columnar and passivated nanoporous TiO2 based excitonic solar cell.". In: Paper presented at the US/Africa workshop on frontiers in Material Science. Abuja, Nigeria; 2007. Abstract

Excitonic solar cells which include organic, hybrid organic–inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSSCs) promise inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion devices. We report on the charge transport (electron drift mobility) sputter deposited TiO2 and surface photovoltage and photocurrent transients of alumina-passivated TiO2, and on the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized cells whose photoelectrodes are sputtered.

Bailasha NK, Rintaugu EG. "Etiological factors, pattern and time of injury during inter-collegiate soccer competition.". In: joint congress 2007 seagames and ASEAN paragames scientific congress and the 5th Bangkok ASPASP international congress on sports psychology. Bangkok, Thailand ; 2007.
Harrison, L.J.S, Obiero, G.O, Gumede, SP, Highes, A, McMahon, A.R, Rawatlal, R, MS S. Activation of Linear Alkanes to Oxygenated Intermediates and Products using Genetically Engineered Yeast streams. Richards Bay, South Africa; 2007.
Leucci E, Cocco M, Cleef PV, Bellan C, Rijik AV, Falco GD, Onnis A, Joshua Nyagol, Byakika B, Lazzi S, Tosi P, Kricken HV, Leoncini L. "Altered expression of mirnas in c-MYC negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Virchows Archives. 2007;451(2):119.
M. DRGICHUHICHRISTINE, Bosire R, Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wariua G, JM M, G W, C G, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, J R, R G, B L, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Farquhar C. "Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract

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Alpha-defensins are proteins exhibiting in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity that may protect against mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast milk. Correlates of alpha-defensins in breast milk and transmission risk were determined in a cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi followed for 12 months postpartum with their infants. Maternal blood was collected antenatally and at delivery for HIV-1 viral load and infant HIV-1 infection status was determined < 48 h after birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Breast milk specimens collected at month 1 were assayed for alpha-defensins, HIV-1 RNA, subclinical mastitis, and CC and CXC chemokines. We detected alpha-defensins in breast milk specimens from 108 (42%) of 260 HIV-1-infected women. Women with detectable alpha-defensins (> or =50 pg/ml) had a median concentration of 320 pg/ml and significantly higher mean breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels than women with undetectable alpha-defensins (2.9 log(10) copies/ml versus 2.5 log(10) copies/ml

Rading GO. Concise Notes on Materials Science and Engineering. Victoria BC: Trafford Publishing; 2007.
Rading GO. Concise Notes on Materials Science and Engineering. Victoria: Trafford Publishing; 2007.
Rinkanya AN. "Conservation of Wildlife As Presented in Kenyan Fiction // To Save Wild Animals." Kwani Trust, The Society of Korea Literary Creative Writing. 2007:43-44.
M.N M, R.D N, R.K M, F.W M. "Effect of plant extracts on growth of Alernaria porri (Ellis) Cif and other fungal pathogens of onion." Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007;3(1):7-11.
and R. S. Malele, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, López ML, Zunino MP, López AG, Zygadlo JA, Oliva MM, Demo MS. "Essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and antimicrobial activity." J. Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2007;10:83-87.
Irene W. Inwani, Ruth W. Nduati, Rachel M. Musoke. "Feasibility of infant cord blood HIV testing for anti-retroviral post-exposure prophylaxis." J Infect Developing Countries 2007; 1(3):308-314.. 2007. Abstract

Abstract
Background: Many maternity hospitals in developing country settings deliver women who are of unknown HIV status. The main
objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of post-partum infant cord blood HIV testing and the subsequent
uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study among infants delivered to women of unknown HIV status at the maternity ward
of the Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya. At the time of delivery, five milliliters of cord blood was collected from consecutive
singleton-birth infants born to women with unknown HIV status. After delivery, the women were counseled and consent was
sought for HIV antibody testing of the cord blood. Anti-retroviral post-exposure prophylaxis was provided for HIV exposed infants
and their mothers counseled on infant feeding.
Results: Overall 220 (87%) of the 253 mothers gave consent for HIV testing. This included 35 (90%) of 40 mothers of babies
with HIV positive cord blood and 184 (86.4%) of 213 with HIV negative cord blood. Seventeen (48.6%) of the 35 women who
knew their status accepted to administer anti-retroviral prophylaxis to their infants, and 28 (80%) chose to breast-feed their
infants.
Conclusions: Infant cord blood testing is highly acceptable among women who deliver with an unknown HIV status and provides
an additional entry point for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

Dorothy McCormick, Raphael Kaplinsky, Morris M. "The Impact of China on Sub Saharan Africa.". In: Global Markets and Local Responses: The Changing Institutions in the Lake Victoria Fish Cluster"Clusters in Africa: Pattern, Practice and Policy for Innovation. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Tokyo: United Nations University Press; 2007. Abstract

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Gathirwa JW;, Rukunga GM;, Njagi ENM;, Omar SA;, Guantai AN;, Muthaura CN;, Mwitari PG;, Kimani CW;, Kirira PG;, Tolo FM;, Ndunda TN;, Ndiege IO. "In vitro anti-plasmodial and in vivo anti-malarial activity of some plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria by the Meru community in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Extracts of seven medicinal plant species used for treatment of malaria in traditional/cultural health systems of the Ameru people in Kenya were tested in vitro and in vivo against Plasmodium falciparum (D6 and W2 strains) and P. berghei, respectively. Of the plants tested, 28.57% were highly active (IC50 <10 μg/ml) and 42.86% moderately active (IC50 10–50 μg/ml), while 28.57% had weak activity of 50–125 μg/ml in vitro. The water and methanol extracts of Boscia salicifolia Oliv. and Artemisia afra Jacq. (ex-Willd.) were the most active against both the chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (D6) and the CQ-resistant (W2) P. falciparum strains. Artemisia afra and Rhus natalensis Bernh. (ex-Krauss) exhibited the highest parasite clearance and chemo-suppression (>70%) in vivo (in mice). The plants with high in vitro anti-plasmodial (low IC50 values) and high anti-malarial activity (high chemo-suppression) in vivo are potential sources of novel anti-malarial drugs.

Simon E. Bull 1 4, Rob W. Briddon 1, 1 William S. Sserubombwe, 1 3 Kahiu Ngugi, and PM12 G, Stanley1 J. "Infectivity, pseudorecombination and mutagenesis of Kenyan cassava mosaic begomoviruses." Journal of General Virology . 2007;88, :1624-1633.infectivity_pseudorecombination_and_mutagenesis.pdf
Okello JJ;, Narrod C;, Roy D. "Institutional Innovations for Smallholder Compliance with International Food Safety Standards: Experiences from Kenya, Ethiopian and Zambian Green Bean Growers."; 2007. Abstract

Many African countries have moved into the production of non-traditional agricultural products to diversify their exports and increase foreign currency earnings. Accessing developed country markets requires meeting food safety standards brought about by several demand and supply side factors. Food retailers in the EU, the major destination market, have developed protocols relating to pesticide residue limits, field and packinghouse hygiene, and traceability. In this changing scenario where food safety requirements are getting increasingly stringent, there are worries that companies that establish production centers in LDCs might exclude smallholder farmers. In this paper, we study the cases of green beans production in Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia for export to high value European markets. Though the immediate effect of the imposition of stringent food safety standards has been to screen away smallholders, there has been continued participation of smallholders in some cases. This paper finds that emergence of new institutional arrangements have enabled the smallholders to maintain their participation in high value European markets. In particular, public-private partnerships have played a key role in helping smallholder farmers acquire training on and certification against European food safety standards. Collective action in form of producer organizations has enabled smallholders to jointly invest in costly facilities and take advantage of economies of scale to remain competitive. Producer organizations also allow for cheaper means for buyers to ensure traceability and are critical in reducing transaction costs of linking up with smallholders. Key words: international food safety standards, compliance, smallholder farmers, institutional arrangements, collective action, producer organizations, public-private partnerships.

Rinkanya AN. "Is There Literature for Adolescents in Kenya? ." The Journal of Children's Literature Studies, Staffordshire. 2007;4(3):1-19.
Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Universal SCFs and Optimal Chamfering in Cross Bored Cylinders." International Journal of Pressure Vessels & Piping. 2007;84:396-404.
Okoth SA, Roimen H, Mutsotso B, Muya E, Okoth P. "Land use systems and distribution of Trichoderma species in Embu region, Kenya." Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007;(7):105-122.
Rummel-Bulska I. "The Montreal Protocol – 20 years ed. by Cameron May Ltd.". In: The Story of the Ozone Layer.; 2007.
Rummel-Bulska I. The negotiating process leading to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Finland: International Environmental Law-making and Diplomacy Review, Joensuu; 2007.
Njenga M, Kimani S, Romney D, Karanja N. "Nutrient recovery from solid waste and linkage to urban and peri-urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Community based composting practices were studied in Nairobi using a questionnaire, and the quality of composts produced characterised for nutrient and heavy metal contents. An inventory of the composting groups was made using existing databases. The quality of different manure types and their sources were also noted. The movement of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) for composting and its outlets, as well as manures, were investigated through mapping of market and ecological chains. The study objectives aimed at documenting group dynamics in community based composting activities, quality of composts as influenced by different composting techniques and mapping of the movement of organic resources for soil fertility improvement. It was established that composting practices used by the community-based organisations (CBO’s), had an impact on the quality of the composts, which was found to be lower than the recommended international standards. The CBO’s involved regard composting activities as a business enterprise from where their livelihood comes. Low market opportunities (low demand) for their product have hampered their growth and development.. It was also observed that there is an inflow of organic nutrients in the form of animal manure imported into the city from the arid and semi arid livestock producing areas, some of which are as far as 300 km from Nairobi. In contrast, there is a big challenge in the disposal of the same product within the informal settlement areas of the city

Muthomi JW;, Riungu GM;, Ndung'u JK;, Narla RD. "Occurrence of wheat head blight and fusarium species infecting wheat."; 2007.
Muthomi JW;, Riungu GM;, Ndung'u JK;, Narla RD. "Occurrence of wheat head blight and fusarium species infecting wheat."; 2007.
Kremmer E, Krämer PM, Weber CM, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Krämer PM, Weber CM, Kremmer E, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli AM. "Orthodontic treatment needs amongst 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania." E Afr Med J. 2007;84:226-232. Abstract

Objective: To assess malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15-year-olds in Moshi municipality, Tanzania.
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: Moshi municipality, Tanzania.
Subjects: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children in Moshi municipality in the year 2003.
Results: Maxillary median diastema occurred in 20.1% of the children. Crowding and spacing in the incisor segments occurred in 41.2% and 28.4% respectively with significantly more crowding in males than in females (p = 0.009). Anterior irregularities occurred in 46% of the sample in the maxilla and 51.6% in the mandible. These irregularities were significantly more common in the females than in males in the maxilla and mandible (p=0.014, p=0.037 respectively). Reverse overjet was extremely rare (0.3%). Anterior openbite and antero-posterior molar relation discrepancies
occurred in 6.2% and 32.5% of the sample, respectively. Crowding, irregularities in the incisor segments and antero-posterior molar relation discrepancies were dominant malocclusion traits in this population. The sample mean DAI score was 24.6 points (CI 95% 23.86–25.36). There was no statistically significant gender difference of DAI scores (p = 0.473). About 65% of the subjects had either no need or had slight need for treatment whereas 35.3% were found with orthodontic treatment needs ranging from elective (21.5%), highly desirable (6.9%) to mandatory (6.9%). There was no significant gender difference in the categories of treatment need (p = 0.942). Unmet orthodontic treatment needs were present in this population with a very small proportion of
subjects exhibiting handicapping malocclusion.
Conclusion: The information from this study forms part of the basis not only for further research, but also for planning orthodontic care in this community where unmet orthodontic treatment needs are present.

Mberu EK, Nzila AM, Nduati E, Ross A, Monks SM, Kokwaro GO, Watkins WM, Hopkins SC. "Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro activity of sulfadoxine and dapsone in field isolates from Kenya: point mutations in dihydropteroate synthase may not be the only determinants in sulfa resistance.". 2007. Abstract

We have determined the relationship between point mutations in the gene that encodes the sulfa target, dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and the chemosensitivity profile to sulfadoxine and dapsone in 67 isolates from Kilifi, Kenya. We assessed the presence of mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613 of dhps. The results showed that the dhps genotype had a strong influence on the sensitivity to sulfadoxine and dapsone, but that the correlation was far from perfect. Eleven isolates carried a wild-type dhps allele, but were resistant to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values >10 microg/ml), and 4/28 isolates were classed as sensitive to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values <10 microg/ml), but carried a triple mutant (436/437/613) allele of dhps. These data show that in low folate medium in vitro, the dhps genotype alone did not account completely for sulfadoxine or dapsone resistance; other factors such as the utilisation of exogenous folate must also be considered

Mberu EK, Nzila AM, Nduati E, Ross A, Monks SM, Kokwaro GO, Watkins WM, Hopkins SC. "Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro activity of sulfadoxine and dapsone in field isolates from Kenya: point mutations in dihydropteroate synthase may not be the only determinants in sulfa resistance.". 2007. Abstract

We have determined the relationship between point mutations in the gene that encodes the sulfa target, dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and the chemosensitivity profile to sulfadoxine and dapsone in 67 isolates from Kilifi, Kenya. We assessed the presence of mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613 of dhps. The results showed that the dhps genotype had a strong influence on the sensitivity to sulfadoxine and dapsone, but that the correlation was far from perfect. Eleven isolates carried a wild-type dhps allele, but were resistant to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values >10 microg/ml), and 4/28 isolates were classed as sensitive to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values <10 microg/ml), but carried a triple mutant (436/437/613) allele of dhps. These data show that in low folate medium in vitro, the dhps genotype alone did not account completely for sulfadoxine or dapsone resistance; other factors such as the utilisation of exogenous folate must also be considered

Kiriti-Nganga TW, Roy KC. "Poverty Alleviation Programs For Women’s Empowerment in Kenya Through State and Private Sector Governance.". In: Governance and Development in Developing Countries, Editors: K.C. Roy (Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia) and Biman Prasad (Univ. of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji Islands). NOVA Science Publishers.; 2007.
Randolph TF, M'Ibui GM, Kang'ethe EK, Lang'at AK. "Prevalence of aflatoxin M1 and B1 in milk and animal feeds from urban smallholder dairy production in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence of Aflatoxin M1 and Total Aflatoxin B1 in milk and animal feeds. Cross sectional household study. Urban and peri-urban area of Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred fifty seven dairy farming households and 134 non-dairy neighbouring households. The prevalence of AFM1 in milk was found to be 45.5% (178/391). The farmer prevalence was 43.5% (112/257), while that of non-farmer was 49.2% (66/ 134). There was however no statistical significant difference between the two categories. Of the 178 positive milk samples, 49% had aflatoxin levels exceeding 0.05 microg Kg(-1). The prevalence of AFB1 in the feed was found to be 98.6% (69/70) with 83% of the samples having aflatoxin B1 levels exceeding 10 microg Kg(-1). Only one feed sample had no traces of AFB1. This study points to an underlying problem that requires the action by policy makers, considering the number of samples with aflatoxin M1 [49%] and aflatoxin B1 [83%] exceeding the WHO/FAO tolerance limits for milk and feeds destined for dairy animals.

English M, Mohammed S, Ross A, Ndirangu S, Kokwaro G, Shann F, Marsh K. "A randomised, controlled trial of once daily and multi-dose daily gentamicin in young Kenyan infants.". 2007. Abstracta_randomised_controlled_trial_of_once_daily_and_multi-dose.pdf

To test the suitability of a simple once daily (OD) gentamicin regimen for use in young infants where routine therapeutic drug monitoring is not possible. METHODS: In an open, randomised, controlled trial, infants with suspected severe sepsis admitted to a Kenyan, rural district hospital received a novel, OD gentamicin regimen or routine multi-dose (MD) regimens. RESULTS: A total of 297 infants (over 40% < or =7 days) were randomised per protocol; 292 contributed at least some data for analysis of pharmacological endpoints. One hour after the first dose, 5% (7/136) and 28% (35/123) of infants in OD and MD arms respectively had plasma gentamicin concentrations <4 microg/ml (a surrogate of treatment inadequacy). Geometric mean gentamicin concentrations at this time were 9.0 microg/ml (95% CI 8.3 to 9.9) and 4.7 microg/ml (95% CI 4.2 to 5.3) respectively. By the fourth day, pre-dose concentrations > or =2 microg/ml (a surrogate of potential treatment toxicity) were found in 6% (5/89) and 24% (21/86) of infants respectively. Mortality was similar in both groups and clinically insignificant, although potential gentamicin induced renal toxicity was observed in <2% infants. CONCLUSIONS: A "two, four, six, eight" OD gentamicin regime, appropriate for premature infants and those in the first days and weeks of life, seems a suitable, safe prescribing guide in resource poor settings.

Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Panteleeff DD, R W Nduati, Steele M, John-Stewart G. "Short-term effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and viral turnover in these compartments.". 2007. Abstractshort-term_effect_of_zidovudine_on_plasma_and_genital_human.pdf

The effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was determined in 42 antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi. After 7 days of zidovudine treatment, HIV-1 RNA levels decreased by 0.5 to 1.1 log(10) in plasma and genital secretions. HIV-1 RNA half-life following zidovudine treatment was 4.7, 1.3, and 0.9 days in plasma, cervix, and vagina, respectively, and significantly shorter in genital secretions than in plasma (P < 0.001). Defining the short-term effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital HIV-1 is important for improving perinatal HIV-1 interventions

Rainey JJ, Mwanda WO WMAMWMLRPR. "Spartial distribution of Burkitt’s." Trop Med Int Health. 2007;8(12):936-43.spatial_distribution_of_burkitts_lymphoma_in_kenya_and.pdf
Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E;, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Knols, B.G.J., Bossin, H.C., Mukabana, W.R., Robinson AS. "Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2007;77(6):232-242.
Thornton PK, Herrero M, Freeman HA, Mwai AO, Rege E, Jones PG, McDermott J. "Vulnerability, climate change and livestock–opportunities and challenges for the poor.". 2007.
Ko HS, Schenk JP, Tröger J, Rohrschneider WK. "Current radiological management of intussusception in children." European radiology. 2007;17:2411-2421. AbstractWebsite
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MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "G Nyaga, KHM Kollmann, K Kimani, DR Ilako: Magnitude and pattern of eye diseases in Korogocho slum, Nairobi; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "G Nyaga, KHM Kollmann, K Kimani, DR Ilako: Magnitude and pattern of eye diseases in Korogocho slum, Nairobi; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "G Nyaga, KHM Kollmann, K Kimani, DR Ilako: Magnitude and pattern of eye diseases in Korogocho slum, Nairobi; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

Universit

Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Latif F, others. "Identification of novel VHL targets that are associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma." Oncogene. 2007;26:1661-1672. Abstract
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Maher ER, Latif F, Johnson CM, Richards FM, Wiesener MS, Banks RE, Raval RR, Zatyka M, Morris MR, Maina EN, others. "Identification Of Novel VHL Targets That Are Associated With The Development Of Renal Cell Carcinoma.". 2007. Abstract
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Riechi A, Otieno M. The impact of HIV and AIDS on teachers in Kenya: A pilot study in Nairobi, Machakos and Siaya districts. Nairobi: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research; 2007. Abstract
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Bülow Pedersen I, Laurberg P, Knudsen N, Jørgensen T, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Rasmussen LB. "An increased incidence of overt hypothyroidism after iodine fortification of salt in {Denmark}: a prospective population study." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2007;92:3122-3127. AbstractWebsite
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Riechi A, Rasugu GK. "Increasing access to free primary education in Kenya for children in especially difficult circumstances." Perspectives (Nairobi, Kenya). 2007;1:122-137. Abstract
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R. MRMUINAMIAKENNEDY. "A Latex Agglutination Test for Capripoxvirus K Muinamia, Y S Binepal, J Machuka, J Makumi, R Soi.". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology. ISSN: 1607-4106. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2007. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
CHRISTOPH DRSCHALLERULRICH, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Microbial contamination of multi-use ophthalmic solutions in Kenya. Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. PMID: 17475714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nentwich MM, Kollmann KH, Meshack J, Ilako DR, Schaller UC.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
CHRISTOPH DRSCHALLERULRICH, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Microbial contamination of multi-use ophthalmic solutions in Kenya. Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. PMID: 17475714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nentwich MM, Kollmann KH, Meshack J, Ilako DR, Schaller UC.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
CHRISTOPH DRSCHALLERULRICH, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Microbial contamination of multi-use ophthalmic solutions in Kenya. Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. PMID: 17475714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nentwich MM, Kollmann KH, Meshack J, Ilako DR, Schaller UC.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

Universit

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: book entitled Rethinking Ecology and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, ACTS Press, 2007, forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN, FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Rainfall Distribution over Nairobi Area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2007.
R DRMUKABANAJOSEPH, K PROFNGANGAJOHN, FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Rainfall Distribution over Nairobi Area.". In: Journal of KMS VOL 2,NO.2,Pg 85-91. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

Universit

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

Universit

2006
I.O JUMBA, P.W WANGUI, R MADAD, G.A WAFULA, TONGA, C MIRIKAU, R SHIKUKU. KENYA NATIONAL INVENTORY OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPs) UNDER THE STOCKHOLM CONVENTION. GEF/UNEP/GoK - PART IV: Identification And Quantification of dioxins and Furans releases in Kenya.. NAIROBI: United Nation Enviroment programme (UNEP),Nairobi; 2006. Abstracttable_tl.docfor_ferrous_and_non_ferrous_category.doc

SUMMARY
The total Dioxins (PCDD) and Furans (PCDF) release in Kenya is estimated to be 4,740 g TEQ per annum. The Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category generates 4,304 g TEQ which is the highest of all the categories that were identified, amounting to 91% of the total national release. Waste Incineration generated 249.4 g TEQ equivalent to 5% of the total national release, while Disposal/Landfilhng category has a notable contribution of 106 g TEQ which amounts to 2% of the total national release. Ferrous and non ferrous metal production contributes 12.8 g TEQ which is equivalent to 0.3% of the total national release. Releases from the remaining categories are not significant when compared to the ones already mentioned. However, this does not in anyway underrate their importance, especially in instances where total elimination by application of Best Available Technologies (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP) can be achieved. These results are summarised in Table Tl and Figures Fl and F2.
Uncontrolled domestic waste burning, a subcategory under the Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category, is the single most significant source of PCDD/PCDF. It generates 2168 g TEQ, which is equivalent to 45.7% of the total national releases. Landfill fires sub category is the second significant source of release, contributing 2126.3g TEQ which is equivalent to 44.8% of the total national release.
With regards to vectors, air receives the bulk of the PCDD/PCDF amounting to 3,103 g TEQ which is equivalent to 66% of the total national release. The bulk of this release comes from the Uncontrolled Combustion Processes, amounting to 2854g TEQ, which is equivalent to 92% of the total national release to air. Release to residues amounts to 1,614 g TEQ which is approximately 34% of the total national release, with the main contributor to this being Uncontrolled Combustion Processes, These results are summarised in Figure F2.
Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category therefore requires significant attention because of the great impact it may have in the country. Policies to govern the management of solid waste are necessary and would go along way in minimizing this impact. Similar efforts to address medical waste would also have a significant impact on the releases in the country. The release of PCDD/PCDF to water also needs to be addressed seriously considering the fact that a significant percentage of the country's population relies on surface water for domestic use.
There are no municipal waste incinerators in Kenya but there are isolated hazardous waste incinerators. However, the inventory has established that the medical waste accounts for the bulk of releases for this category. This is because majority of the government district hospitals and institutions operate the De Mont fort type incinerators. Only two major hospitals operate commercially acquired incinerators. However, most of the incinerators do not have effective air pollution control systems (APCs). To a large extent many of The medical facilities either openly bum their waste or have installations called incinerators which in effect are open burners. The total release from this category averages 249.4 g TEQ.
Hazardous wastes or waste oil are not currently used as fuel for firing cement kilns for fear of compromising on cement quality.

Middleton P, Kelly A-M, Brown J, Robertson M. "Agreement between arterial and central venous values for {pH}, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate." Emergency medicine journal: EMJ. 2006;23:622-624. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the extent of agreement between central venous and arterial values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate in a group of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A prospective study of a convenience sample of patients deemed by their treating doctor to require blood gas analysis as part of their clinical care in ICU. It compared pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate on arterial and central venous samples taken within five minutes of each other. Data were analysed using bias (Bland-Altman) methods. RESULTS: A total of 168 matched sample pairs from 110 patients were entered into the study. All variables showed close agreement. The mean difference between arterial and venous values of pH was 0.03 pH units, for bicarbonate 0.52 mmol/l, for lactate 0.08 mmol/l, and for base excess 0.19 mmol/l. All showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSION: Central venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate values showed a high level of agreement with the respective arterial values, with narrow 95% limits of agreement. These results suggest that venous values may be an acceptable substitute for arterial measurement in this clinical setting.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2006;16(2):681-5. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Gichangi P, Job Bwayo, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, Estambale B, Rogo K, Njuguna E, Ojwang S, Temmerman M. "HIV impact on acute morbidity and pelvic tumor control following radiotherapy for cervical cancer." Gynecol. Oncol.. 2006;100(2):405-11. Abstract

To determine the impact of HIV infection on acute morbidity and pelvic tumor control following external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for cervical cancer.

Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, John-Stewart GC. "Domestic violence and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1." AIDS. 2006;20(13):1763-9. Abstract

To determine the prevalence of life-time domestic violence by the current partner before HIV-1 testing, its impact on the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and frequency after testing.

Otieno-Omutoko L, Rugut I. "The Role of African Universities in Promotion of Gender Equality and Empowering Women pp. 95-107.". In: In The Role of African Universities in the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. Kenyatta University; 2006.
Hassan M, Agaba M, Bulimo W, Noyes, Brass A, Hinsley T, Iraqi F, Kemp S. "Role of plasma lipids in the susceptibility of laboratory mice to trypanosomosis." In: Rege JEO, Nyamu AM, Sendalo D, eds. The role of biotechnology in animal agriculture to address poverty in Africa: Opportunities and challenges. Proceedings of the 4th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture and the 31st annual meeting of Tanzania Society for Animal Production, Arusha, . Arusha, Tanzania: TSAP (Tanzania Society for Animal Production), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya.; 2006:. Abstract

The current debate on agricultural biotechnology is, at best, confusing—even to the better informedsections of the public. A complex set of issues, all intertwined, combine to complicate the debate.These include, ethical, moral, socio-economic, political, philosophical and scientific points ofview being expressed. While champions provide fascinating arguments illuminating howbiotechnology could save the world from poverty and hunger, opponents deride it as the doomsdaydevil of agriculture. The rest of the public remain sandwiched between the two camps eitherengaged enough to take a semi-informed stand or indifferent to the discussions.Africa is emerging as one of the frontlines in the battle for acceptance (or otherwise) of agriculturalbiotechnology. For Africa, the debate is occurring at a crucial time. The local policy makers whowill ultimately decide on the future of biotechnology, including genetically modified foods, arebeing pushed and pulled in both directions. Only a few countries, namely Burkina Faso, Egypt,Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe are involved in some form of biotechnology researchor (at least for South Africa) commercial use, especially in crop agriculture. A few of thesecountries have introduced regulations to govern transgenic agriculture.Clearly, biotechnology issues specific to Africa must include crop and animal productivity, foodsecurity, alleviation of poverty and gender equity, and discussions must not be allowed todegenerate into political and philosophical battles, usually led by those who are least affected bythe plight of the poor in the continent. Like any new technology, the risks and benefits ofbiotechnology should be assessed in a cost–benefit analysis framework. The final verdict on awell-tested technology should be untainted by views of zealots on either side of the debate,driven by the needs of the people and supported by solid scientific facts taking into considerationsocial and monetary costs and benefits. In all the debate to date, the application of biotechnologyin animal agriculture has received much less consideration than that for crops. With a focus onthe animal sector of agriculture, this conference was designed to provide opportunity for expertsand policy makers to examine the potential role of the public sector (notably national governmentsin developing countries and development partners), the private sector and public–privatepartnerships that could facilitate North–South transfer of relevant biotechnology.The overall objective of the conference was to provide an opportunity for African scientists andthe broader stakeholder groups of the livestock sector to discuss the potential role of biotechnologyin animal agriculture to improve the livelihoods of African people. The conference aimed toattempt, through discussions of a series of papers, to answer the questions: Is biotechnology amenace or an opportunity to address the pressing needs for sustainable livelihoods of poor people?What are the potentials and limitations/threats of biotechnology? The conference organisersenvisioned that at the end of the conference some of the following questions would have beenaddressed, at least in part: Are there proven technologies currently available which Africa canimmediately take up to address the known constraints? What are the current technical andinstitutional constraints to livestock biotechnology research and development in Africa? Howcan Africa organise itself to take full advantage of available opportunities and to minimise possiblethreats?The conference was organised by the All Africa Society for Animal Production (AASAP) inassociation with the Tanzania Society for Animal Production (TSAP). We would like to expressour gratitude to the sponsors of the conference. Special thanks are due to the Government of theUnited Republic of Tanzania which was a major sponsor and also host of the conference, presentersand authors of papers and posters, our colleagues on the organising committee, institutions,groups and individuals who assisted in one way or the other, and everyone who attended theconference.While the following pages provide a good coverage of the proceedings of the conference, theydo not, indeed could not, cover the sense of enthusiasm and commitment that characterised theconference itself. Contributions were critical, open and frank, but also constructive and objectivein content. The conference atmosphere was truly that of a sense of purpose by a people united toaccomplish a task, i.e. to translate the potential of biotechnology for Africa into improvedlivelihoods for Africa’s people. The collegial atmosphere also provided opportunity for networkingby participants from across the continent and with colleagues from other corners of the globe.Many new friendships were made, old ones strengthened/renewed, and collaborations born. Wehave made no attempt to summarise the outcomes of the wide array of discussions on the manypapers presented in the six sessions of the conference. After the conference, presenters wereasked to submit or revise their papers, taking into account the issues raised during the conferencediscussions. The papers were then subjected to light technical reviews and language editing, thusensuring that the intellectual content remains that of the authors.It is our hope that these proceedings will provide useful reference material for those interested inbiotech applications in animal agriculture in developing countries generally and Africa inparticular.

Obel OA, d'Avila A, Neuzil P, Saad EB, Ruskin JN, Reddy VY. "Ablation of left ventricular epicardial outflow tract tachycardia from the distal great cardiac vein.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of ablation of idiopathic outflow tract ventricular tachycardia (OTVT) from the distal ramifications of the coronary sinus (CS).
A significant minority of patients presenting with idiopathic OTVT have an epicardial focus, the standard approach to which involves ablation from within one of the aortic valve cusps (AVCs). We describe the successful ablation of idiopathic epicardial OTVT from within the CS in the distal great cardiac vein (GCV).

Ablation from the distal GCV was performed in 5 patients with idiopathic OTVT who had unfavorable mapping, in some cases unsuccessful ablation from various endocardial and epicardial sites including the AVCs, and in 1 patient via the direct epicardial approach. An electroanatomic mapping system (Carto) was used in 3 patients, and conventional mapping was performed in 2 patients, and in 3 patients cryothermal ablation was performed.
In all patients, the first ablation lesion in the GCV successfully eliminated the arrhythmia. All patients have remained free of VT after a mean follow-up of 24 (7 to 44) months. There were no immediate or long-term complications.
Idiopathic epicardial OTVT can be successfully ablated from the distal GCV, and should be seen as an alternative to ablation from the aortic valve cusps.

Rodenburg, J; Diagne OFKPM; SKSOA; S; K;. Achievements and impact of NERICA on sustainable rice production in sub - Saharan Africa..; 2006. Abstract

In terms of production, rice is the fourth most important cereal (after sorghum, maize and millet) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It occupies 10 percent of the total land under cereal production and accounts for 15 percent of total cereal production (FAOSTAT, 2006). Approximately 20 million farmers in SSA grow rice and about 100 million people depend on it for their livelihoods (Nwanze et al., 2006). Rice is the staple food of a growing number of people in SSA: from 1961 to 2003 consumption increased at a rate of 4.4 percent per year (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). Among the major cereals cultivated, rice is the most rapidly growing food source in Africa: between 1985 and 2003, the annual increase in rice production was 4 percent, while production growth for maize and sorghum was only about 2.4 and 2.5 percent, respectively (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). The most widely grown rice species, Oryza sativa, is originally from Asia and was introduced into Africa only about 450 years ago. Another less well-known rice species, O. glaberrima (Steud), is originally from Africa and was domesticated in the Niger River Delta over 3 500 years ago (Viguier, 1939; Carpenter, 1978). As a result of their evolution, domestication and breeding history, both species have distinct and complementary advantages and disadvantages for use in African farming systems. The Asian rice (O. sativa) is characterized by good yields, absence of lodging and grain shattering, and high fertilizer returns – unlike its African counterpart (O. glaberrima). However, in contrast to Asian rice types, landraces of O. glaberrima often have good weed competitiveness and resilience against major African biotic and abiotic stresses (Koffi, 1980; Jones et al., 1997a). Dalton and Guei (2003) concluded that research into genetic enhancement of rice generated approximately US$360 million in 1998, compared with a total investment of just US$5.6 million. This is evidence that rice variety improvement has a potentially enormous impact on the economic development of SSA. Numerous conventional breeding efforts have been made to improve the performance of upland rice (O. sativa) for use in African farming systems. These efforts have had only limited success, partly because the Asian rice, O. sativa, lacks resistance or tolerance to many of the typical African stresses (Jones et al., 1997a).

E.Odada, H.A.Bootsma, R.Hecky. "African lake management initiatives: The global connection." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2006;Volume 11(Issues 4):203-213. AbstractWebsite

There is a global dimension to lake management in Africa and elsewhere that will require a concerted action not only from individual riparian states, but also from regional, continental and global communities. The current global lake threats arise from climate change, regional land degradation and semivolatile contaminants, and share the common feature that the atmosphere is the vector that spreads their impacts over large areas and to many lakes. The Great Lakes of Africa (Malawi, Victoria and Tanganyika) are particularly sensitive to these problems because of their enormous surface areas, slow water flushing rates, and the importance of direct rainfall in their water budgets. Their response times might be slow to yield a detectable change and, unfortunately, their recovery times might also be slow. It is possible for atmospheric effects to act antagonistically to the impacts of catchment change, but antagonistic effects could become synergistic in the future. Improved understanding of the physical dynamics of these lakes, and development of models linking their physical and biogeochemical behaviour to regional, mesoscale climate models, will be necessary to guide lake managers.

Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli AM. "Awareness and concerns about malocclusion amongst 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania." E Afr Med J. 2006;83:92-97.
Thenya T, Rego AB. "Biogeography II. Department of Geography & Environmental Studies." Biogeography II. Department of Geography & Environmental Studies. 2006.
Mrumbi K, Rono R, Ngare D, Obondo A, Oladimeji BY, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)."; 2006.
Mrumbi K, Obondo A, Rono R, Ngare D, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Counselling."; 2006.
editor Ndetei, D.M., Ongecha-Owuor FA, Bekry AA, Rono R. "Crisis and Crisis Management."; 2006.
Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Determination of the Coefficient of Correlation Between Radiation and Relative Humidity, and Determining Equation of the Line of Best Fit Using Statistical Methods." 2nd UN/NASA Workshop on International Heliophysical Year and Basic Space Science. 2006:81. AbstractSAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System

This paper investigates the inter-relationship between solar radiation intensity RD and relative humidity RH in Kenya using daily data obtained at five meteorological stations; Nairobi (1.3°S, 36.75°E), Kericho (0.37˚S, 35.72˚E), Kisumu (0.10˚S, 34.75˚E), Mombasa (4.03˚S, 39.65˚E) and Garissa (0.48˚S, 39.63˚E) during the solar minimum year 1986. Statistical methods were employed and the coefficients of correlation, r obtained range from 0.16094 to -0.6758618 between the two variables for the five stations. The linear equation relating the solar radiation intensity RD to relative humidity RH is obtained using linear regression analysis as RH = 109.1091-1.5997RD for the Nairobi station. Jandel scientific and Megastat software analyses gave fairly similar trends of results for Nairobi and other stations, and for all the seasons except for those of Garissa station. Obviously there exists a negative interdependence between solar radiation intensity and relative humidity such that the relative humidity decreases as solar radiation increases and vice versa. This observation is explicable in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric heating and advection traceable to solar activity.

LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Ngala L, Musyoka B, Abdullah Z, Cugala D, Defabachew B, Hailei TA, Kauma TM, Lada VY, Negassi B, Ravolonandrianina KJ, Sidumo A, Omwega C, Schulthess F, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity of lepidopteran stem borers in eastern Africa revisited." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2006;96:555-563.
9. Thenya T, Wassmann, R. M, Verchot L. "Dynamics of resource utilization in a tropical wetland." Indigenous strategies of wetland utilization. 2006.
Ramisch J;, Nyikal RA;, Kimenye LN;, Kimani SK;, Macharia JM. "Economic Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Resources for Recapitalizing Soil Fertility in Smallholder Maize-based Cropping Systems of Central Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Structural adjustments programs (SAPs) in the last two decades have eliminated all farm-support programs leading to low usage of fertilizers by Kenyan smallholders. One way of addressing this problem is use of organic nutrient resources. This paper examines their cost-effectiveness as capital investments in replenishment of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) and soil organic matter (SOM) in smallholder, Maize-based cropping systems. On-farm trials were established in Maragwa and Kirinyaga Districts in 2003/04. Maize was planted in 3 replicates in randomised complete block design (RCBD) using different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizer resources. A blanket rate of 40kg P/ha was applied in all treatment except the control to increase organic N-utilization efficiency. The test crop was harvested, oven-dried and weighed. Net Present Values (NPV) were computed using Partial Budgeting Analysis Model. Increasing levels of inorganic N increased maize yields significantly (P<0.05). However, higher yields were necessary but not sufficient criteria to determine profitability of different treatments. Manure + 60 kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 564), Manure + 40kg N/ha gave second highest NPV (USD 511) in Maragwa District while Manure + 60kg N/ha gave highest NPV (USD 633) and Manure + 40kg N/ha second highest NPV (USD 618) in Kirinyaga District. These results suggested that higher N-levels were not necessarily the most economical. Use of organic resources with modest amounts of mineral fertilizers seemed more profitable and held the key to enhancement of nutrient budgets, food security and rural livelihoods.

MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of runner design on mechanical properties of permanent mould aluminium castings.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

A comparison of the influence of different runner designs on the mechanical properties of aluminium castings has shown that filtered rectangular runners (FRRs) yield aluminium castings with higher and more reliable mechanical properties than the conventional unfiltered rectangular runners. Unfiltered vortex flow runners have also been shown to improve the reliability of the modulus of rupture of cast aluminium alloys over unfiltered rectangular runners. In the present paper, experimental results of a comparative study on the effect of the unfiltered vortex flow and FRR designs on the tensile strength of permanent mould aluminium castings are reported. The results show that an FRR yields castings with higher and more reliable tensile strengths than the unfiltered vortex flow runner. Castings poured into a mould with an FRR had strengths between 269 and 291 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 50·2 while castings poured into the vortex flow runner had strengths between 255 and 280 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 40·3.

MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of runner design on mechanical properties of permanent mould aluminium castings.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

A comparison of the influence of different runner designs on the mechanical properties of aluminium castings has shown that filtered rectangular runners (FRRs) yield aluminium castings with higher and more reliable mechanical properties than the conventional unfiltered rectangular runners. Unfiltered vortex flow runners have also been shown to improve the reliability of the modulus of rupture of cast aluminium alloys over unfiltered rectangular runners. In the present paper, experimental results of a comparative study on the effect of the unfiltered vortex flow and FRR designs on the tensile strength of permanent mould aluminium castings are reported. The results show that an FRR yields castings with higher and more reliable tensile strengths than the unfiltered vortex flow runner. Castings poured into a mould with an FRR had strengths between 269 and 291 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 50·2 while castings poured into the vortex flow runner had strengths between 255 and 280 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 40·3.

MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of Runner System Design on the Mechanical Properties of Permanent Mould Aluminium Castings." International Journal of Cast Metals Research. 2006;19(6):357-360. AbstractWebsite

Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated.
PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

S S, P D, J.M K,.P G, E G, R.O MMN, Chemining’wa GN, Narla RD. "Effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) on sprouting and quality of potato seed tubers in diffused light and pit storage conditions." Biological Sciences . 2006;6(4):723-733.
J N, E L, A O, G DF, C T, F S, M T, N P, L P, R S, D S, P G, L M, S L, F P, Leoncini L, A G. "The Effects of HIV-1 Tat Protein on Cell Cycle during Cervical Carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol Ther. . 2006;5(6):684-90.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C, Roy CK. "Globalisation and Institutional Deterrents to the Empowerment of Women: Kenya’s Experience.". In: Institutions, Globalisation and Empowerment. Chapter 9, pp 199 - 222. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.; 2006.
Knols, B.G.J., Hood-Nowotny, R.C., Bossin, H. FG, Robinson, A., Mukabana, W.R., Kemboi, D.C. "GM sterile mosquitoes: a cautionary note." Nature Biotechnology. 2006;24(9):1067-1068.
Mrumbi K, Obondo A, Rono R, Ngare D, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Group, Marital and Family Therapies."; 2006.
W. H, T. K, A.S. M, R. B, R. N, N. M, C.R. C. "Harrison W.,Kinyari T.,Meier A.S., Brunham R., Nguti R.,Mugo N.,Cohen C.R. Risk factors for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a prospective cohort of Kenyan female sex workers. The International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006 Volume 5 Number 2." The International Journal of Infectious Diseases . 2006;5(2). AbstractWebsite

Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.

Obondo A, Ngare D, Ndetei DM, Mbewe E, Morakinyo O, Rono R, Addo AS. "Human Development and Life Cycle."; 2006.
Othieno C, Rono R, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Human Learning."; 2006.
Othieno C, Rono R, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Human Motivation and Emotions."; 2006.
Oketch GBA, Irungu LW, Anjili CO, Munyua J, Njagi ENM, Rukunja G. "In vitro activity of the total aqueous ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis ( on Leishmania major promastigotes." Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series A& B .Special Edition . 2006;1(1):1-4.
Sigana DA, Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK. The influence of environmental parameters on fish fauna of the Bahari ya Wali, Kilifi creek, Kenya.. AVU Hall Kenyatta University: Kenyatta University Department of Biological Sciences; 2006. Abstract

isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died.

Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;

Okudan Gül E, Ogot M, Rao G. "An Investigation On Design Effectiveness And Efficiency Of Teams Equipped With Design Information Support Tool (Dist)." age. 2006;11:1. Abstract

Design ideation continues to be one of the mysterious and yet a very important part of the design process. In the past, there have been studies related to how people generate ideas, why some are more productive in idea generation than others, etc. However, the mystery remains because not being able to directly reach designer’s mind limits our comprehension of the process. Despite this fact however, by studying the use of various idea generation methods, we can better support the idea generation process. As such, this paper presents a study on the effectiveness of TRIZ, a systematic ideation technique, in comparison to most widely used brainstorming. Results indicate that design teams that apply TRIZ during the idea generation are more productive.

Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Overstrain in Flush Optimum Chamfered Cross Bored Cylinders." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 2006;220:15-25.
Rinkanya AN. "Kenyan Women’s Literature in the Last Two Decades of the Twentieth Century ." Egerton Journal, Njoro, Kenya. 2006;VI(2 & 3):17-34.
Knols BGJ, Hood-Nowotny RC, Bossin H, Franz G, Robinson A, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Kemboi SK. "Knols, B.G.J., Hood-Nowotny, R.C., Bossin, H., Franz, G., Robinson, A., Mukabana, W.R., & Kemboi, S.K. GM sterile mosquitoes: a cautionary note. Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068." Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068.. 2006. AbstractWebsite

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Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of
practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots
level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

Thenya, Wassmann T, R., Braun M. "Land cover change analysis in a tropical wetland." Journal of Land Use Science.. 2006.
Riha SJ;, Blume LE;, Barret CB;, Kinyangi JM;, Lehmann CJ;, Marenya PP;, Mbugua DM;, Nicholson CF;, Ngoze SO;, Parsons D;, Verchot LV;, Pell AN. "Long-Term Human and Biophysical Dynamics of Soil Degradation in the Kenyan Highlands.".; 2006. Abstract

Agroecosystems are among the most tightly coupled of human and natural systems, as farmers make conscious decisions regarding land use and improvement, cropping systems, livestock management and labor allocation. These decisions can profoundly impact the natural resource base, which can then lead to changes in farmers' behaviors. The focus of this study is to understand the long term human and biophysical dynamics of soil degradation. We are especially interested in the role that soil degradation plays in creating poverty traps and in interventions that will strongly impact the dynamics of these systems. We have developed an integrated economic and biophysical systems dynamic model to understand and predict the long term behavior of farms in the Kenyan highlands. Additionally, we have established a chronosequence in western Kenya of farms converted from primary forest to agriculture 100, 70, 50, 30, 15, 5, and < 3 years ago. This chronosequence includes three blocks that contain all time conversions, with 3 farms per conversion. Soil chemistry and soil organic matter fractions have been measured from fields that have never received fertilizer additions. An extensive set of fertility experiments to examine the response of maize to amendment with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, manure and green manure have been established on these soils. Socioeconomic data for these farms has been collected. The chronosequence data is being used to both parameterize and evaluate the model. Preliminary findings indicate that both soil organic matter and maize yields decline after conversion from primary forest, but not at the same rates. As the soil degrades and maize yields decrease, farms become more diversified by shifting some land into perennials. This change in land use is associated with a stable, though decreased, soil fertility level. The relationship of these changes in cropping systems and soil fertility to off farm activities and income will be discussed, as well as the implications of these dynamics for preventing soil degradation and restoring fertility.

Obondo A, editor Ndetei, D.M., Rono R, Ngare D. "Loss and Bereavement Therapies."; 2006.
and Rogo, K.O. OMJOP. "Maternal Mortality.". In: Disease and Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: The World Bank; 2006.
Othieno C, Rono R, Sebit MB, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Memory and Forgetting."; 2006.
Ndetei DM, Ongecha FA, Malow RM, Onyancha J, Mutiso V, Kokonya D, Khasakhala L, Odhiambo G, Rosenberg R. "Next Priorities for International in Kenya: Results from Cohort study of Drug Use, HIV and HCV Patterns in Five Urban Areas.". 2006.
Ndetei DM, Ongecha FA, Malow RM, Onyancha J, Mutiso V, Kokonya D, Khasakhala L, Odhiambo G, Rosenberg R. "Next Priorities for Intervention in Kenya: Results from a Cohort Study of Drug Use, HIV and HCV Patterns in Five Urban Areas.". 2006.next_priorities_for_intervention_in_kenya.pdf
Rono R, Khasakhala L, editor Ndetei D.M. "Personality and Personality Traits."; 2006.
Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli A. "Prevalence of malocclusion amongst 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania, using Bjök’s criteria." E Afr Med J. 2006;83:372-379. Abstract

Objective: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion in 12-15 - year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: Moshi Municipality, Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania.
Subjects: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children (153 males and 136 females) had a clinical examination for malocclusion traits done.
Results: The overall prevalence of malocclusion was 97.6%. Angle’s Class II and III malocclusion occurred in 6.9% and 11% of the sample respectively. Crowding was encountered very frequently in both jaws, especially in the lower anterior segments. Anterior open bite occurred in 6.2% and the deep bite in 10.7% of the sample. There was no significant gender difference in either the overall prevalence of malocclusion or in the occurrence of the different occlusal traits.
Conclusion: It was noteworthy that some of the malocclusion traits recorded were relatively minor deviations from the normal occlusion. Hence the high prevalence of malocclusion did not necessarily imply a heavy burden of need and demand for orthodontic treatment.

Huong LQ, Reinhard F, Padungtod P, Hanh TT, Kyule MN, Baumann MPO, Zessin KH. "Prevalence of Salmonella in Retail Chicken Meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.". 2006. Abstract

Infection with Salmonella (S.) is the most frequently reported cause of bacterial food-borne illness worldwide. Poultry are a common source and, in recent years, much attention has been focused in determining the prevalence of Salmonella during the different stages in the poultry production chain. This article was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella serovars in retail chicken meat sold in Hanoi. A total of 262 samples were randomly collected from retail markets and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Of these samples, 48.9% were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. Predominant serotypes were S. Agona, S. Emek, S. London. The prevalence of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium was considered. These findings have highlighted the magnitude of Salmonella contamination in retail chicken meat in Hanoi. On the basis of these preliminary survey results, it is recommended that a cost-effective monitoring and surveillance system for Salmonella should be established in Hanoi. This system should be augmented by good agricultural and hygienic practices and well-designed longitudinal research activities on the whole poultry production chain.

L N, J K, R O, H A. "Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in a Nairobi urban population." East Afr Med J. 2006;83:69-72. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among Kibera slum dwellers.
Design: Population based Survey.
Setting: Kibera Slums, Kibera Division, Nairobi, Kenya.
Subjects: One thousand four hundred and thirty eight randomly selected slum dwellers.
Results: The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.21 to 1.0), and 6.2% (95% CI: 4.95 to 7.15) respectively. 37.5% of those found blind were due to cataract followed by refractive errors 25.0%. 58.1% of those with visual impairment had refractive errors while 35.5% had cataracts. Females had a higher prevalence of visual impairment compared to males but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.104).
Conclusions: Prevalence of blindness in Kibera slums is slightly lower than the estimated national average (0.7%) while that of visual impairment is almost three times higher. The leading causes of blindness are cataract followed by refractive errors. For visual impairment, refractive error was the leading cause followed by cataract.
Recommendation: Kibera slum dwellers are in need of comprehensive eye care services offering cataract surgery and low cost spectacles.

Rono R, Onene T, Kilonzo G, editor Ndetei, D.M., Obondo A. "Psychotherapy."; 2006.
Hogan NM, editor Ndetei, D.M., Kilonzo G, Ndegwa JM, Rotich J, Too R, Ruttoh J. "Research and Bio Statistics in Mental Health."; 2006.
Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Karugia JT, Drucker A;, Rege E. "Risk Management in Smallholder Cattle Farming: A Hypothetical Insurance Approach in Western Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Smallholder cattle farming is an important livelihood strategy in most developing countries like Kenya. However, tropical diseases in Africa often wipe out these valuable assets. This paper focuses on mitigation of cattle disease risks through a hypothetical insurance scheme. The study is based on data from a survey conducted on a purposive sample of 300 smallholder cattle farmers in Kakamega and Siaya districts of Western Kenya. Descriptive measures and a regression model were used in the analysis. Results of the study showed that most farmers (91.3%) were willing to participate in the cattle insurance scheme. Also, the farmers observed that the scheme would enable them to increase their herd sizes and change their breed composition. The farmer’s mean Willingness To Pay (WTP) for the scheme would be determined by their gender, income, cultural norms, cattle breed and economic value/price of the animal kept. This paper recommends establishment of a formal cattle insurance scheme; and economic empowerment of both male and female farmers to encourage adoption of the scheme, as well as educating the farmers on how to integrate the scheme within their cultural norms to ensure it’s sustainability.

Roth EA, Ngugi EN, Masako F. "Self-deception does not explain high-risk sexual behavior in the face of HIV/AIDS: A test from northern Kenya.". 2006. Abstract

Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, there is resistance to changing sexual behavior despite survey data indicating high levels of knowledge about HIV transmission patterns and high-risk behavior. Previous explanations for this paradox emphasize indigenous cultural models. An alternative explanation is that, due to a strong natural selection for sexual gratification, individuals evoke the evolved trait of selfdeception to continue practicing high-risk sexual behavior. This alternative is tested using survey data from an Ariaal community in Marsabit District, northern Kenya. Results indicate that respondents make highly accurate self-assessments of HIV risk, negating the concept of self-deception in this study. These results are discussed within the larger context of the applicability of evolutionary theory to the AIDS pandemic.

Bouwer LM, Odada E, de Moel H, Ward PJ, Renssen H, Aerts JCJH. "Sensitivity of global river discharges under Holocene and future climate conditions.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

A comparative analysis of global river basins shows that some river discharges are more sensitive to future climate change for the coming century than to natural cliniate variability over the last 9000 years. In these basins (Ganges, Mekong, Volta, Congo, Amazon, Murray-Darling, Rhine, Oder, Yukon) future discharges increase by 6-61 %. These changes are of similar magnitude to changes over the last 9000 years. Some rivers (Nile, Syr Darya) experienced strong reductions in discharge over the last 9000 years (17- 56%), but show much smaller responses to future warming, The simulation results for the last 9000 years are validated with independent proxy data. Citation: Aerts, J. C. J. H., H. Renssen, P. J. Ward, H. de Moel, E. Odada, L. M. Bouwer, and H. Goosse (2006), Sensitivity of global river discharges unde~ Holocene and future climate conditions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19401, doi:10.1029/2006GL027493.

RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. ""Siri ya mama" .". In: Mimba ingali Mimba na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2006.
Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Rotich E, Karani A, Omuga B, Odawa O, Oyieke J. "Socio-economic and cultural factors influencing women's reproductive health decision making among mothers delivered in Pumwani Maternity And Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2006. Abstract

The study was conducted from 30th May 2006 - July 3rd 2006 at Kenyatta and Pumwani hospitals in Kenya. The aim was to determine the socio-economic and cultural factors that influence women's reproductive health decision making. It was cross-sectional and descriptive study on a sample size of 384 subjects. A semi structured questionnaire and focus group discussion on 3 groups of eight mothers each was used. The study revealed that age, marital status, level of education and employment status influences women's reproductive health decision making. The main cultural factors found to influence women's reproductive health decision making were; FGM, wife inheritance, sex of baby (preference for boys) and dowry. The conclusions arrived at was that majority of women are participating in their own reproductive health decision making though many need to be given education on different areas of reproductive health to encourage informed decision making. It was recommended that education opportunities for women on reproductive health issues be given more emphasis.

Maecker HT, Rinfret A, D'Souza P, Darden J, Roig E, Landry C, Hayes P, Birungi J, Anzala O, Garcia M, Harari A, Frank I, Baydo R, Baker M, Holbrook J, Ottinger J, Lamoreaux L, Epling LC, Sinclair E, Suni MA, Punt K, Calarota S, El-Bahi S. "Standardization of cytokine flow cytometry assays.". 2006. Abstract

Cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) or intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) can quantitate antigen-specific T cell responses in settings such as experimental vaccination. Standardization of ICS among laboratories performing vaccine studies would provide a common platform by which to compare the immunogenicity of different vaccine candidates across multiple international organizations conducting clinical trials. As such, a study was carried out among several laboratories involved in HIV clinical trials, to define the inter-lab precision of ICS using various sample types, and using a common protocol for each experiment (see additional files online). Results: Three sample types (activated, fixed, and frozen whole blood; fresh whole blood; and cryopreserved PBMC) were shipped to various sites, where ICS assays using cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 peptide mix or control antigens were performed in parallel in 96-well plates. For one experiment, antigens and antibody cocktails were lyophilised into 96-well plates to simplify and standardize the assay setup. Results (CD4+cytokine+ cells and CD8+cytokine+ cells) were determined by each site. Raw data were also sent to a central site for batch analysis with a dynamic gating template. Mean inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (C.V.) ranged from 17–44% depending upon the sample type and analysis method. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yielded lower inter-lab C.V.'s than whole blood. Centralized analysis (using a dynamic gating template) reduced the inter-lab C.V. by 5–20%, depending upon the experiment. The inter-lab C.V. was lowest (18–24%) for samples with a mean of >0.5% IFNγ + T cells, and highest (57–82%) for samples with a mean of <0.1% IFNγ + cells. Conclusion: ICS assays can be performed by multiple laboratories using a common protocol with good inter-laboratory precision, which improves as the frequency of responding cells increases. Cryopreserved PBMC may yield slightly more consistent results than shipped whole blood. Analysis, particularly gating, is a significant source of variability, and can be reduced by centralized analysis and/or use of a standardized dynamic gating template. Use of pre-aliquoted lyophilized reagents for stimulation and staining can provide further standardization to these assays.

Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Muriuki G, Guantai, A N, Chepkwony H, Hoogmartens J, Roets E, Busson R. "Steroidal Indoxyls: Evaluation of Pk, values and anti-inflammatory activity.". 2006. Abstract

Three steroidal indoxyls, 3-oxo-16,17-seco-16;.nor-l,4-androstadien-15-(7'-methoxy-2-indoxyliden)17-oic acid, 1-(2'-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3~ oic acid and 1-(5'- chloro-2-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic acid were synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. Their pK. values were also determined using a solubility method. The first compound, 3-oxo-16,17- seco-16-nor-l ,4-androstadien-15-(7' -methoxy-2-indoxyliden) 17 -oic acid, had an EDso value of 15.3 mg/kg and a pK. of 7.09. The cholestane derivative, 1-(2'-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic acid, and its chloro analogue 1-(5'-chloro-2-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic acid had EDso values of 16.2 and 22.8 mg/kg, while their pK. values were 6.56 and 7.07, respectively, suggesting that these compounds are relatively weak acids.

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