Publications

Found 2559 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Asc)]
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is R  [Clear All Filters]
2013
Robinson M, Bernard A, Julius M, Marin R, Kostantinos F, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Aduda B, Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Mwabora J, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Marin R, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Materials Sciences and Applications. 2013;4,2013:718-722. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Addition- ally, studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell; Light Soaking; Conversion Efficiency; TiO2; In(OH)xSy; Pb(OH)xSy

Langat A, Benki-Nugent S, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Ngugi E, Diener L, Richardson BA, GC. J-S. "Lipid Changes in Kenyan HIV-1-Infected Infants Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy by One Year of Age." Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Feb 4. [Epub ahead of print]. 2013. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:: Early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is recommended for HIV-1 infected infants. There are limited data on lipid changes during infant HAART. METHODS:: Non-fasting total (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were measured at 0, 6 and 12 months. Correlates of lipid levels and changes post-HAART were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS:: Among 115 infants, pre-HAART median age was 3.8 months, CD4% was 19%, and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) was -2.42. Pre-HAART median lipid levels were: TC, 108.7 mg/dl, LDL, 42.5 mg/dl, HDL, 29.4 mg/dl and TG, 186.9 mg/dl. Few infants had abnormally high TC (6.2%) or LDL (5.6%), but many had low HDL (76.5%) or high TG (69.6%). Higher pre-HAART WAZ and HAZ were each associated with higher pre-HAART TC (P=0.04 and P=0.01) and LDL (P=0.02 and P=0.008). From 0-6 months post-HAART, TC (P<0.0001), LDL (P<0.0001), and HDL (P<0.0001) increased significantly, and 23.1% (P=0.002), 14.0% (P=0.2), 31.3% (P<0.0001), and 50.8% (P=0.2) of infants had abnormally high TC, high LDL, low HDL, and high TG, respectively. Changes in TC and HDL were each associated with higher gain in WAZ (P=0.03 and P=0.01) and HAZ (P=0.01 and P=0.007). Increased change in LDL was associated with higher gain in HAZ (P=0.03). Infants on protease inhibitor (PI)-HAART had smaller HDL increase (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS:: Infants had substantive increases in lipids, which correlated with growth. Increases in HDL were attenuated by PI-HAART. It is important to determine clinical implications of these changes.
PMID:
23385950
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

RA Powell, R Harding NKMBGRMEL-ALIOAJBEELL. Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda..; 2013. Abstract

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Palliative care research in Africa is in its relative infancy, with dedicated financial support extremely limited. Therefore, setting research priorities to optimize use of limited resources is imperative.

OBJECTIVES:

To develop a prioritized research agenda for palliative care in Africa.

METHODS:

We used a two-stage process involving palliative care professionals and researchers: 1) generation of an initial topic list at a consultative workshop of experts and 2) prioritization of that list using a consensus development process, the nominal group technique.

RESULTS:

Phase 1: 41 topics were generated across five groups, with several topics nominated in more than one group. Phase 2: 16 topics and three broad thematic areas were identified. The two most prioritized topics within each of the three themes were the following: Theme 1: patient, family, and volunteers-1) care outcomes and the impact of palliative care as perceived by patients and caregivers and 2) palliative care needs of children; Theme 2: health providers-1) impact of palliative care training on care and practice and 2) integration of palliative care and antiretroviral therapy services; and Theme 3: health systems-1) palliative care needs assessments at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels and 2) integration of palliative care into health systems and educational curricula.

CONCLUSION:

Consensus-based palliative care topics determined by the study can assist researchers in optimizing limited research capacities by focusing on these prioritized areas. Subsequent to the identification and publication of the research agenda, concrete steps will be undertaken by the African Palliative Care Research Network and other partners to help implement it.

Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Africa, palliative care, participatory, priorities, research agenda

Dorothy McCormick, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Risper Orero, Ommeh M. "Paratransit Business Strategies: A Bird’s Eye View of Matatus in Nairobi." Journal of Public Transportation. 2013;16(2):135-152.
MBWESA JOYCEKANINI, OCHOGO NICHOLUSKUT, Rambo C. "Perceived competence in ICT and Lecturers’ preparedness for eLearning, A case study of the University of Nairobi, Kenya." Journal Of Continuing , Open And Distance Education Issue 1 January . 2013;VOLUME 3 ( Issue 1 January).
Eldaroti HH, Gadir SA, Refat MS, Adam AM. "Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of new charge-transfer complexes of ethidium bromide with π-acceptors. In vitro biological activity studies.". 2013. Abstract

Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is a strong DNA binder and has been widely used to probe DNA structure in drug-DNA and protein-DNA interaction. Four new charge-transfer (CT) complexes consisting of EtBr as donor and quinol (QL), picric acid (PA), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) or dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) as acceptors, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic absorption, spectrophotometric titration, IR, Raman, (1)H NMR and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques. The stoichiometry of these complexes was found to be 1:2 ratio and having the formula [(EtBr)(acceptor)]. The thermal stability of the synthesized CT complexes was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, and the morphology and particle size of these complexes were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CT complexes were also tested for its antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and two Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strains by using Tetracycline as standard and antifungal property against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans by using amphotericin B as standard. The results were compared with the standard drugs and significant conclusions were obtained. The results indicated that the [(EtBr)(QL)2] complex had exerted excellent inhibitory activity against the growth of the tested bacterial strains.

Onono JO, Wieland B, Rushton J. "Productivity in different cattle production systems in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2013;45:423-430.
Sebastian W, Justus S, Robinson M, Alex O. Promoting photovoltaic energy in Kenya through training.; 2013.
Graham SM, Rajwans N, Tapia KA, Jaoko W, Estambale B, McClelland RS, Liles WC, Overbaugh J. "A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_endothelial_activation.pdf

HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12 months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. RESULTS: The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/muL). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85 ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.47--5.74 ng/mL] versus median 1.32 ng/mL [IQR 0.35--2.18 ng/mL], p = 0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA levels over 12 months of follow-up. Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels represent potential biomarkers for adverse outcomes in advanced HIV-1 infection.

raham SM, Rajwans N, Tapia KA, Jaoko W, Estambale B, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Liles WC. "A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_endothelial_activation.pdf

HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12 months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. RESULTS: The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/muL). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85 ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.47--5.74 ng/mL] versus median 1.32 ng/mL [IQR 0.35--2.18 ng/mL], p = 0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA levels over 12 months of follow-up. Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels represent potential biomarkers for adverse outcomes in advanced HIV-1 infection.

Mwangi JW, Rode C, Colditz F, Haase C, Braun HP, Winkelmann T. "Proteomic and histological analyses of endosperm development in Cyclamen persicum as a basis for optimization of somatic embryogenesis.". 2013. Abstract

The endosperm plays an important role for the development of zygotic embryos, while somatic embryos lack a seed coat and endosperm and often show physiological disorders. This study aims at elucidating the cellular and physiological processes within the endosperm of the ornamental species Cyclamen persicum Mill. Histological analyses were performed from 0 to 11 weeks after pollination (WAP). At 3WAP, a syncytium was clearly visible with a globular zygotic embryo. From 4WAP, cellularization of the endosperm, at 5WAP a small torpedo shaped embryo, and from 7WAP cell expansion was observed. By 11WAP the endosperm appeared fully differentiated. Total soluble proteins were extracted from the endosperm at 4, 5, 7, 9 and 11WAP and resolved using two dimensional isoelectric focussing/sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D IEF/SDS-PAGE). A shift from high-molecular-mass proteins to low-molecular-mass proteins during endosperm development was observed. A total of 1137proteinspots/gel were detected in the three protein fractions extracted at 7, 9 and 11WAP. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 48 predominant protein spots in endosperm at 7, 9 and 11WAP resulted in the identification of 62 proteins, ten of which were described for the first time in Cyclamen. Additionally, 186 proteins were identified using the C. persicum embryo proteome reference map. Proteins involved in abscisic acid signalling and oxidative stress responsive proteins were found to be important for seed development in Cyclamen. The new insights into endosperm physiology including storage compounds are discussed.

Rugangazi BM;, Maloiy GMO. "Salt excretion and saline drinking in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirkii).". 2013. AbstractWebsite

1.1. The ability of the dik-dik antelope to survive while drinking saline solutions was tested in controlled laboratory experiments by providing drinking water containing up to 0.5 M NaCl.2.2. Fluid intake increased from 230.5 ml/day when fresh water was offered to a maximum of 373.9 ml/day when 0.3 M NaCl solution was offered.3.3. At concentrations higher than 0.3 M animals lost weight, were anorexic and developed diarrhoea.4.4. It is concluded that the dik-dik antelope will probably tolerate drinking water containing 0.24 M NaCl.

Mark SR, Kelly MR, Gheorghe C, Raymond M, Nikolay A, Sansanee C, Navy H, Karen KA, Odada EO, Oscar P, Geoffrey P, Sergei R. "Science and Management of Transboundary Lakes: Lessons Learned from the Global Environment Facility Program.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The International Waters Science Project Lakes Working Group reviewed 58 Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects that addressed serious environmental and human development issues in transboundary lakes. The lessons learned from the review of these projects were integrated with the intention to contribute to the design and success of future projects. Issues that will continue to impact lake ecosystems and their management include changing agricultural practices, resource extraction, emerging contaminants, energy policies, and water allocation. Future lakes projects addressing these issues must also consider the potential confounding effects of changing land use and climate on watershed processes, water quality, food web structure and biodiversity. Current and future scientific challenges include developing strategies for climate adaptation, improving the capacity to detect change and enhancing the application of an ecosystem approach within lakes management. Failure to consider the unique physical and biological features and processes in lakes can be a barrier to effective remediation. The spatial and temporal variability in lakes and their often slow response to remedial actions need to be considered in the design of monitoring programs. Factors that improved the success of GEF transboundary projects included early and strong communication, engagement of stakeholders, rigorous peer review and international science teams linked to local capacity building and policy development. The application of both natural and socio-economic science based assessment, and adaptive management were essential for full project implementation and led to optimization of water resources allocation while sustaining ecosystems on which social and economic systems depend.

Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy do we need more than a symptom screen Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(4):294-298.screening_for_tuberculosis_in_pregnancy_do_we_need_more_than_a_symptom_screen_experience_from_western_kenya.pdf
Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy: do we need more than a symptom screen? Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Association. 2013;3:294-298.
Hatcher AM, Romito P, Odero M, Bukusi EA, Onono M, Turan JM. "Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: implications for the health of pregnant women.". 2013. Abstract

More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women and four with male partners, and in-depth interviews with service providers, we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence such as forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual - gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics and community norms - shape high rates of violence.

OLUOCH MF, NYAGOL MA, RABAH SA. "STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR MANUFACURING FIRMS IN WESTERN KENYA." International Journal of Research in Social Sciences. 2013;4(3):ISSN: 2249-2496.
Lily B, Portas O, William O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

William O, Portas O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

Rambo CM. "Time Required to Break-Even for Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from Kenya." International Journal of Management and Marketing Research. ISSN: 1933 – 3153 [Print], 2157 – 0205 [Online].. 2013.
Rogers JH, Odoyo-June E, Jaoko W, Bailey RC. "Time to Complete Wound Healing in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Men following Medical Male Circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: A Prospective Cohort Study.". 2013. Abstract

While voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to be protective against HIV-acquisition, the procedure may place men and their partners at risk of HIV infection in the period following circumcision if sex is resumed before the wound is healed. This prospective cohort study evaluates post-circumcision wound healing to determine whether the 42-day post-circumcision abstinence period, recommended by the World Health Organization and adopted by VMMC programs, is optimal. Methods and Findings Men were circumcised by forceps-guided method and their post-circumcision wounds examined weekly for seven weeks and at 12 weeks. Time to complete healing was recorded in completed weeks since circumcision, and its associations with baseline covariates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox Proportional Hazard Models. A total of 215 HIV-negative and 108 HIV-positive men aged 18–35 years (median 26, IQR 23–30) were enrolled. 97.1% of scheduled follow-up visits were completed. At week 4, 59.3% of HIV-positive men and 70.4% of age-matched HIV-negative men were healed. At week 6, these percentages rose to 93.4% in HIV-positive men and 92.6% in age-matched HIV-negative men. There was no difference in the hazard of healing between 108 HIV-positive and 108 age-matched HIV-negative men (HR 0.91 95% CI 0.70–1.20). Early post-operative infection was associated with delayed healing in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men (HR 0.48 95% CI 0.23–1.00). Conclusions Our results indicate that the WHO recommendation for 42-days post-circumcision sexual abstinence should be maintained for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. It is important to stress condom use upon resumption of sex in all men undergoing circumcision.

Ochwang’i D, Kimwele C, Kiama SG, Rice N. "Transcriptional regulation of Rat Endothelial Nitric Oxide Promoter in Pulmonary.". 2013. Abstract

Nitric oxide levels may exert control on the persistence of pulmonary myofibroblasts cells in pulmonary fibrosis. This study examined the regulation of NO levels by transcription factors that influence the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS3) gene expression. Using a pGL3-Basic vector plasmid DNA, rat and human eNOS3 gene promoters were inserted upstream of a luciferase reporter gene and cloned in competent E. coli cells (DH5α). Transfection assays were performed and the cells treated with potential regulators of eNOS3 gene. Promoter activity of eNOS3 gene was assayed using the Dual Luciferase reporter gene assay. The results indicated that the rat NOS3 promoter was active in the cells with the human NOS3 promoter showing little or no activity.The results demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β ,EGTA and lipopolysaccharide up regulated transcriptional activity while Phorbol 12-myristate 13- acetate, 23187 and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, suppressed eNOS3 transcriptional activity. Treatment with Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, had no effect on the gene expression. The results of this study demonstrates that high concentrations of Nitric Oxide (NO) inhibit NOS3 gene activity hence an enhanced expression of eNOS in response to pharmacological interventions using some transcriptional factors from these study could provide protection against interstitial pulmonary.

Ochwang’i D, Kimwele C, Kiama SG, Rice N. "Transcriptional regulation of Rat Endothelial Nitric Oxide Promoter in Pulmonary Myofibroblasts cells and its implications in Pulmonary Fibrosis.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) levels may exert control on the persistence of pulmonary myofibroblast cells in
pulmonary fibrosis.
Objective: This study set out to examine the regulation of NO levels by transcription factors that influence the
expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS3) gene.
Methods: Using a pGL3-Basic vector plasmid DNA, rat and human eNOS3 gene promoters were inserted upstream of a luciferase reporter gene and cloned in competent E. coli cells (DH5α). Transfection assays were performed and the cells treated with potential regulators of eNOS3 gene. Promoter activity of eNOS3 gene was assayed using the Dual Luciferase reporter gene assay.
Results: The results indicated that the rat NOS3 promoter was active in the cells, with the human NOS3 promoter showing little or no activity. The results demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β, EGTA and
lipopolysaccharide up-regulated transcriptional activity while Phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate, 23187 and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, suppressed eNOS3 transcriptional activity. Treatment with Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester had no effect on the gene expression.
Discussion: The results of this study demonstrates that high concentrations of NO inhibit NOS3 gene activity, hence an enhanced expression of eNOS in response to pharmacological interventions using some transcriptional factors from these study could provide protection against interstitial pulmonary.
Key words: Nitric oxide, transcription, NOS3 gene promoter, pulmonary fibrosis

A KeSoBAP Publication ©2013.
All rights reserved. ISSN 2303-9841

Ochwang’i D, Kimwele C, Kiama S, Rice N. "Transcriptional regulation of Rat Endothelial Nitric Oxide Promoter in Pulmonary Myofibroblasts cells and its implications in Pulmonary Fibrosis." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013;2(1):1-8.
Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Transport Mechanism in TiO2/In (OH) xSy/Pb (OH) xSy/PEDOT: PSS eta Solar Cell." Researchgate. 2013. Abstract

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In (OH) xSy/Pb (OH) xSy/PEDOT: PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K–320 K. The recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark has been found to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The illumination intensity and temperature have also been found to have a strong influence on the device conversion efficiency, with the highest efficiency being realized at 200 K

R. M, Walker R, P J. "Ugonjwa wa Parkinsons.". In: Nyenzo katika kiswahili. Hesperian.org; 2013.
B" "KA, R" "KJ, Amin" "M, E" "CJ. "Vulval- perineal giant condylomata( Buschke Lowenstein tumor) in HIV infected women: case report.". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 37th Conference. Sirikwa, Eldoret; 2013.
KYALO DN, RUTERE JW. "The attitude of Inmates and Adult Education Custodians Towards Post Literacy Programs in Government Prisons, Nairobi, Kenya’ .". In: ODL conference on Utilization of Open And Distance Learning in Addressing Educational Challenges in Kenya Towards Fulfillment of the Vision 2030. Kikuyu Campus, UoN; 2013.
Ruhiu S. "Capability Approach Based ICT-for-Poverty Reduction Framework.". In: IFIP 9.4 12 th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries. Ocho Rios, Jamaica; 2013. Abstract

In the last number of years, many have looked to ICTs to enable the reduction of poverty. A lot of resources have been expended by international organizations, donors and governments in ICT4D and ICT-for-poverty reduction initiatives. The results have been mixed with many of the initiatives having negligible or negative.
Many explanations for this have been given but some have suggested that the way that the projects are carried out is problematic. One of the approaches that have had great promise for development and poverty reduction is Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA). This paper uses the approach to define poverty, poverty reduction and specify a framework for conceptualizing, designing, developing and evaluating poverty reduction initiatives. CA is deliberately incomplete and requires a lot of information to make it operational. Alkire’s has specified a framework for operationalizing CA for poverty reduction. This paper uses that framework to specify a framework for poverty reduction using ICTs. In acknowledgement of the importance of agency in CA, the proposed framework the central role played by the poor community in the conception and design of the project. It lays out the process of the design and implementation of the project and the role the poor community plays, while specifying the roles of the different players in the project.

Lally R, Moreira AS, Germaine K, Galbally P, Culhain J, Otieno N, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. "Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species.". In: Association of Applied Biologists (AAB) Conference 2013 - Positive plant microbial interactions: their role in maintaining sustainable agricultural and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, Brigg, North Linconshire, U.K; 2013. Abstract

Endophytes are bacteria present in plants that form a symbiotic relationship with
their hosts and may promote plant growth and health (Ryan et al., 2008). We extracted
Pseudomonas endophytes from Miscanthus × giganteus; a series of strains were selected
for application to two oilseed rape (OSR) trials. Endophytes colonise plants (including
the root-surface) and allow the plant to utilise nutrients present in the rhizosphere. This
potentially provides a yield boost for colonised plants, allowing for efficient fertiliser
strategies and improved yield performance (Redondo-Nieto et al., 2013). This study has
provided evidence that the application of specialised live microbial biofertilisers can
enhance aspects of crop development when applied in the field. The results show that
there was a significant increase in crop stem and leaf of “Compass” a variety of Oilseed
rape. The results did not indicate that there was a significant increase within the overall
yield of the crop.

Otieno NA, Culhane J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling DN. "Screening of large collections of plant associated bacteria for effective plant growth promotion and colonisation.". In: Positive Plant Microbial Interactions: Their role in maintaining sustainable and natural ecosystems. Forest Pines Hotel, nr Brigg, orth Lincolnshire, UK; 2013. Abstract

The use of potent and effective live microbial biofertilisers in agricultural has significant
potential to reduce the costs of crop production and in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions
and water pollution associated with excessive fertiliser use. Many plant associated
bacteria possess plant growth promotion traits. However, when used as plant inoculants
these bacteria often do not result in statistically significant plant growth promotion. This
paper describes the screening process used to identify a number of endophytic strains
with multiple plant growth promotion traits and effective plant colonisation ability in
Brassica napus crops.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Hubacher D, Liku J, Kiarie J, Rakwar J, Muiruri P, Omwenga J, Chen P-L. "Effect of concurrent use of anti-retroviral therapy and levonorgestrel sub-dermal implant for contraception on CD4 counts: a prospective cohort study in Kenya." J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18448. Abstract

Simultaneous use of contraceptive hormones and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) may theoretically lessen the effectiveness of both. Women on ART need assurance that hormonal contraception is safe and effective. The sub-dermal implant is an ideal product to study: low and steady progestin release and no adherence uncertainties. We sought to determine if the medications' effectiveness is compromised.

Hubacher D, Liku J, Kiarie J, Rakwar J, Muiruri P, Omwenga J, Chen P-L. "Effect of concurrent use of anti-retroviral therapy and levonorgestrel sub-dermal implant for contraception on CD4 counts: a prospective cohort study in Kenya." J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18448. Abstract

Simultaneous use of contraceptive hormones and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) may theoretically lessen the effectiveness of both. Women on ART need assurance that hormonal contraception is safe and effective. The sub-dermal implant is an ideal product to study: low and steady progestin release and no adherence uncertainties. We sought to determine if the medications' effectiveness is compromised.

Nzomo M, Oketch E, Maluki P, Ramadhan S. The Gender Dimensions of International Terrorism. Nairobi: Heinroch Boll; 2013.
Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, He X, Gichangi P, Rana F, Opiyo A, Hampson IN. "HIV Infection Alters the Spectrum of HPV Subtypes Found in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from Kenyan Women." Open Virol J. 2013;7:19-27. Abstracthiv_infection_alters_the_spectrum_of_hpv_subtypes_found_in_cervical_smears_and_carcinomas_from_kenyan_women.pdf

Infection with high risk HPV is implicated in pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions and their progression to cervical cancer. In the developed countries, infection with HPV 16 and 18 accounts for ~70% of cervical cancers, but it has been established that HPV type prevalence differs according to worldwide geographical location. In sub Saharan Africa infection with HPV is known to be augmented by HIV, which is endemic in this region. It is not yet clear, however, whether this ultimately influences progression to cervical cancer. Papillocheck(TM) and multiplex PCR were used to determine the range of HPV genotypes found in cervical smears and carcinomas from HIV positive and negative Kenyan women. Smear samples from HIV-positive women had a higher prevalence of: multiple HPV infections; high-risk HPVs 52, 58, 68, potential high risk 53/70, low-risk 44/55 and abnormal cytology compared to HIV-negative women. A low overall prevalence (~8%) of types 16/18 was found in all smear samples tested (n = 224) although this increased in invasive cervical carcinoma tissues to ~80% for HIV-negative and ~46% for HIV-positive women. Furthermore, HPV45 was more common in cervical carcinoma tissues from HIV-positive women. In summary HIV infection appears to alter the spectrum of HPV types found in both cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas. It is hypothesised there could be a complex interplay between these viruses which could either positively or negatively influence the rate of progression to cervical cancer.

Mulinge M, Lemaire M, Servais J-Y, Rybicki A, Struck D, Santos da Silva E, Verhofstede C, Lie Y, Seguin-Devaux C, Schmit J-C, Perez Bercoff D. "HIV-1 tropism determination using a phenotypic Env recombinant viral assay highlights overestimation of CXCR4-usage by genotypic prediction algorithms for CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG [corrected]." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e60566. Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) entry into target cells involves binding of the viral envelope (Env) to CD4 and a coreceptor, mainly CCR5 or CXCR4. The only currently licensed HIV entry inhibitor, maraviroc, targets CCR5, and the presence of CXCX4-using strains must be excluded prior to treatment. Co-receptor usage can be assessed by phenotypic assays or through genotypic prediction. Here we compared the performance of a phenotypic Env-Recombinant Viral Assay (RVA) to the two most widely used genotypic prediction algorithms, Geno2Pheno[coreceptor] and webPSSM.

Marson KG, Tapia K, Kohler P, McGrath CJ, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, Njoroge JW, Kiarie JN, Sakr SR, Chung MH. "Male, mobile, and moneyed: loss to follow-up vs. transfer of care in an urban African antiretroviral treatment clinic." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(10):e78900. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics, reasons for transferring, and reasons for discontinuing care among patients defined as lost to follow-up (LTFU) from an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.

John-Stewart GC, Wariua G, Beima-Sofie KM, Richardson BA, Farquhar C, Maleche-Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Dalton Wamalwa. "Prevalence, perceptions, and correlates of pediatric HIV disclosure in an HIV treatment program in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(9):1067-76. Abstract

Disclosure to HIV-infected children regarding their diagnosis is important as expanding numbers of HIV-infected children attain adolescence and may become sexually active. In order to define correlates of pediatric disclosure and facilitate development of models for disclosure, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of primary caregivers of HIV-1 infected children aged 6-16 years attending a pediatric HIV treatment program in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted focus group discussions with a subset of caregivers to further refine perceptions of disclosure. Among 271 caregiver/child dyads in the cross-sectional survey, median child age was 9 years (interquartile range: 7-12 years). Although 79% of caregivers believed children should know their HIV status, the prevalence of disclosure to the child was only 19%. Disclosure had been done primarily by health workers (52%) and caregivers (33%). Caregivers reported that 5 of the 52 (10%) who knew their status were accidentally disclosed to. Caregivers of older children (13 vs. 8 years; p<0.001), who were HIV-infected and had disclosed their own HIV status to the child (36% vs. 4%; p=0.003), or who traveled frequently (29% vs. 16%, p=0.03) were more likely to have disclosed. Children who had been recently hospitalized (25% vs. 44%, p=0.03) were less likely to know their status, and caregivers with HIV were less likely to have disclosed (p=0.03). Reasons for disclosure included medication adherence, curiosity or illness while reasons for nondisclosure included age and fear of inadvertent disclosure. Our study found that disclosure rates in this Kenyan setting are lower than observed rates in the USA and Europe but consistent with rates from other resource-limited settings. Given these low rates of disclosure and the potential benefits of disclosure, strategies promoting health worker trainings and caregiver support systems for disclosure may benefit children with HIV.

Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
Roxby AC, Matemo D, Drake AL, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, John-Stewart GC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Pregnant women and disclosure to sexual partners after testing HIV-1-seropositive during antenatal care." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(1):33-7.
Roxby AC, Matemo D, Drake AL, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, John-Stewart GC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Pregnant women and disclosure to sexual partners after testing HIV-1-seropositive during antenatal care." AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(1):33-7.
Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Roxby AC, Liu AY, Drake AL, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, De Rosa S, Farquhar C. "Short communication: T cell activation in HIV-1/herpes simplex virus-2-coinfected Kenyan women receiving valacyclovir." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):94-8. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) suppression with acyclovir or valacyclovir reduces HIV-1 viral RNA levels; one hypothesis is that HSV-2 suppression reduces immune activation. We measured T cell immune activation markers among women participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir to reduce HIV-1 RNA levels among pregnant women. Although valacyclovir was associated with lower HIV-1 RNA levels, the distribution of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) T cells was not different among women taking valacyclovir when compared to women taking placebo. Further study is needed to understand the mechanism of HIV-1 RNA reduction following herpes suppression among those coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.

Bork K, Cames C, Cournil A, Musyoka F, Ayassou K, Naidu K, Mepham S, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Read JS, Gaillard P, de Vincenzi I. "Infant feeding modes and determinants among HIV-1-infected African Women in the Kesho Bora Study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(1):109-18. Abstract

To assess breastfeeding modes and determinants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission study.

Bork K, Cames C, Cournil A, Musyoka F, Ayassou K, Naidu K, Mepham S, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Read JS, Gaillard P, de Vincenzi I. "Infant feeding modes and determinants among HIV-1-infected African Women in the Kesho Bora Study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(1):109-18. Abstract

To assess breastfeeding modes and determinants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission study.

Heffron R, Mugo N, Ngure K, Celum C, Donnell D, Were E, Rees H, Kiarie J, Baeten JM. "Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 disease progression." AIDS. 2013;27(2):261-7. Abstract

For HIV-1-infected women, hormonal contraception prevents unintended pregnancy, excess maternal morbidity, and vertical HIV-1 transmission. Hormonal contraceptives are widely used but their effects on HIV-1 disease progression are unclear.

Heffron R, Mugo N, Ngure K, Celum C, Donnell D, Were E, Rees H, Kiarie J, Baeten JM. "Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 disease progression." AIDS. 2013;27(2):261-7. Abstract

For HIV-1-infected women, hormonal contraception prevents unintended pregnancy, excess maternal morbidity, and vertical HIV-1 transmission. Hormonal contraceptives are widely used but their effects on HIV-1 disease progression are unclear.

Kiarie E, Romero LF, Nyachoti CM. "The role of added feed enzymes in promoting gut health in swine and poultry." Nutr Res Rev. 2013;26(1):71-88. Abstract

The value of added feed enzymes (FE) in promoting growth and efficiency of nutrient utilisation is well recognised in single-stomached animal production. However, the effects of FE on the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are largely unrecognised. A critical role in host nutrition, health, performance and quality of the products produced is played by the intestinal microbiota. FE can make an impact on GIT microbial ecology by reducing undigested substrates and anti-nutritive factors and producing oligosaccharides in situ from dietary NSP with potential prebiotic effects. Investigations with molecular microbiology techniques have demonstrated FE-mediated responses on energy utilisation in broiler chickens that were associated with certain clusters of GIT bacteria. Furthermore, investigations using specific enteric pathogen challenge models have demonstrated the efficacy of FE in modulating gut health. Because FE probably change the substrate characteristics along the GIT, subsequent microbiota responses will vary according to the populations present at the time of administration and their reaction to such changes. Therefore, the microbiota responses to FE administration, rather than being absolute, are a continuum or a population of responses. However, recognition that FE can make an impact on the gut microbiota and thus gut health will probably stimulate development of FE capable of modulating gut microbiota to the benefit of host health under specific production conditions. The present review brings to light opportunities and challenges for the role of major FE (carbohydrases and phytase) on the gut health of poultry and swine species with a specific focus on the impact on GIT microbiota.

Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Mabuka J, Goo L, Omenda MM, Ruth Nduati, Overbaugh J. "HIV-1 maternal and infant variants show similar sensitivity to broadly neutralizing antibodies, but sensitivity varies by subtype." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1535-44. Abstract

To protect against HIV infection, passively transferred and/or vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) need to effectively target diverse subtypes that are transmitted globally. These variants are a limited subset of those present during chronic infection and display some unique features. In the case of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), transmitted variants tend to be resistant to neutralization by maternal autologous NAbs.

Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Cames C, Fao P, Luchters S, Rollins N, Newell M-L, Bork K, Read JS. "Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting: the Kesho Bora study." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1621-30. Abstract

To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).

Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Cames C, Fao P, Luchters S, Rollins N, Newell M-L, Bork K, Read JS. "Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting: the Kesho Bora study." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1621-30. Abstract

To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).

Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Costa MJ, Fawole B, Mugerwa Y, Nafiou I, Neves I, Wolomby-Molondo J-J, Bang HT, Cheang K, Chuyun K, Jayaratne K, Jayathilaka CA, Mazhar SB, Mori R, Mustafa ML, Pathak LR, Perera D, Rathavy T, Recidoro Z, Roy M, Ruyan P, Shrestha N, Taneepanichsku S, Tien NV, Ganchimeg T, Wehbe M, Yadamsuren B, Yan W, Yunis K, Bataglia V, Cecatti JG, Hernandez-Prado B, Nardin JM, Narváez A, Ortiz-Panozo E, Pérez-Cuevas R, Valladares E, Zavaleta N, Armson A, Crowther C, Hogue C, Lindmark G, Mittal S, Pattinson R, Stanton ME, Campodonico L, Cuesta C, Giordano D, Intarut N, Laopaiboon M, Bahl R, Martines J, Mathai M, Merialdi M, Say L. "Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study." Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1747-55. Abstract

We report the main findings of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which aimed to assess the burden of complications related to pregnancy, the coverage of key maternal health interventions, and use of the maternal severity index (MSI) in a global network of health facilities.

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Kenyan women medical doctors and their motivations to pursue international research training." Educ Health (Abingdon). 2013;26(2):89-97. Abstract

There is a need to understand the factors that influence African women medical doctors to pursue international health research training because they remain under-represented in research fields but increasingly represented in medicine.

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Kenyan women medical doctors and their motivations to pursue international research training." Educ Health (Abingdon). 2013;26(2):89-97. Abstract

There is a need to understand the factors that influence African women medical doctors to pursue international health research training because they remain under-represented in research fields but increasingly represented in medicine.

Mudany MA, Ruth Nduati, Mboori-Ngacha D, Rutherford GW. "Perceptions of child discipline and its contributions to child abuse in a low-income community in Nairobi, Kenya." Paediatr Int Child Health. 2013;33(4):228-32. Abstract

There is a fine line between child discipline and maltreatment. Perceptions of child discipline in three tribal groups living in an informal community in Kenya are reported.

Amornkul PN, Karita E, Kamali A, Rida WN, Sanders EJ, Lakhi S, Price MA, Kilembe W, Cormier E, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Allen SA, Gilmour J, Fast PE. "Disease progression by infecting HIV-1 subtype in a seroconverter cohort in sub-Saharan Africa." AIDS. 2013;27(17):2775-86. Abstract

To describe immunologic, virologic, and clinical HIV disease progression by HIV-1 subtype among Africans with well documented estimated dates of HIV infection (EDIs).

Omenda MM, Milligan C, Odem-Davis K, Ruth Nduati, Richardson BA, Lynch J, John-Stewart G, Overbaugh J. "Evidence for efficient vertical transfer of maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific neutralizing antibodies but no association of such antibodies with reduced infant infection." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;64(2):163-6. Abstract

: Little is known about the efficiency of vertical transfer of HIV-1-specific antibodies. Antibody levels in plasma from 60 mother-infant pairs near the time of birth, including 14 breast-feeding transmission pairs, were compared. The envelope-binding titers were strongly correlated (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001) and similar (1.4-fold greater in maternal plasma) between a mother and her corresponding infant as were the neutralizing antibody (Nab) levels (r = 0.80, P < 0.0001; 1.3-fold higher), suggesting efficient transfer. There was no significant difference in Nab responses between transmitting and nontransmitting mothers, although there was a trend for transmitting mothers to have higher HIV-1-specific Nabs.

Beima-Sofie KM, Bigham AW, Lingappa JR, Dalton Wamalwa, Mackelprang RD, Bamshad MJ, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Toll-like receptor variants are associated with infant HIV-1 acquisition and peak plasma HIV-1 RNA level." AIDS. 2013;27(15):2431-9. Abstract

We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs with infant HIV-1 acquisition and viral control.

Beima-Sofie KM, Bigham AW, Lingappa JR, Dalton Wamalwa, Mackelprang RD, Bamshad MJ, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Toll-like receptor variants are associated with infant HIV-1 acquisition and peak plasma HIV-1 RNA level." AIDS. 2013;27(15):2431-9. Abstract

We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs with infant HIV-1 acquisition and viral control.

Jeremy G, R.M. O. "Decentralized Management of Wastewater as a Renewable Resource: A Multi - Disciplinary Approach to Sanitation T echnology Development.". In: the Safe Global Water & Sanitation Summit. Mt. Meru Hotel, Arusha. ; 2013.
Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya Using Fecal Sampling." Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.). 2013. Abstractofula_et_al._2103.pdf

Abstract Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 has been reported in 11 African countries. Migratory waterbirds have the potential of introducing A/H5N1 into east Africa through the Rift Valley of Kenya. We present the results of a wild bird surveillance system for A/H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses based on avian fecal sampling in Kenya. We collected 2630 fecal samples in 2008. Viral RNA was extracted from pools of 3-5 fecal samples and analyzed for presence of avian influenza virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. Twelve (2.3%) of the 516 sample pools were positive for avian influenza virus RNA, 2 of which were subtyped as H4N6 viruses. This is the first report of avian influenza virus in wild birds in Kenya. This study demonstrates the success of this approach in detecting avian influenza virus in wild birds and represents an efficient surveillance system for avian influenza virus in regions with limited resources.

Richu SW. "Analysis of Challenges in the Implementation of Operations Research Techniques for Value Addition in the Logistics Industry in Kenya: A Survey of selected Nakuru County-Based Logistics Firms.". In: ORSEA. Uganda; 2013. Abstractanalysis_of_challenges_in_the_implementation_of_operations_r.pdf

In National and International Supply Chain Management Systems, developing ideas that add value and solve logistics problems successfully when implemented is an important determinant of economic growth and competitiveness of business organizations. The development and the deployment of scientific yet business techniques in the field of Management Science that simplify processes will enhance the expansion of markets through the efficiency and effectiveness realized in the costs involved. This study sought to analyze challenges in the implementation of Operations Research techniques on value addition in the logistics industry in Kenya; A survey of Nakuru County-Based logistics Service providers. The study covered 92 respondents drawn from a population of 100 (staff and customers). Questionnaire was used to collect data after which descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data.. The study concluded that the use of Operations Research techniques have been used but yet to be fully utilized by business firms involved in the logistics service provision in order to bring about value addition in their course of delivery of goods works and services. Inadequate Human Capital in Operations Research, absence of qualified Human Capital in Operations Research, lack of professional input, insufficient platform to develop and train professionals in the field of Operations Research and absence of motivation and recognition were some of the key challenges that deterred the implementation of operations research techniques as well as the absence of integration between the use of Operations Research techniques and organization's in value addition. The study recommends that organizations engaged in the logistics service provision should invest in the qualified and competent human capital in the area of management science (operations research) in order to attain optimization and meet customer requirements by way of value addition.
Keywords: Operations Research, Supply Chain Network, Supply Chain Management, Logistics, Value Addition, Human Capital, Organization Policy, Information Technology.

ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Papo MJ, Rading GO. "A preliminary study of higher order platinum-based alloys for high temperature applications.". In: Proceedings of Precious Metals 2013 Conference, the Precious Metals Development Network, Advanced Metals Initiative. Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy; 2013.
Huart C, Rombaux P, Hummel T. "Plasticity of the {Human} {Olfactory} {System}: {The} {Olfactory} {Bulb}." Molecules. 2013;18:11586-11600. AbstractWebsite

In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, particularly to its abilities of plasticity and its potential continuous neurogenesis throughout adult life. Although mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis have been largely investigated in animals, to some degree they remain unclear in humans. Based on human research findings, the present review will focus on the olfactory bulb as an evidence of the astonishing plasticity of the human olfactory system.

Huart C, Rombaux P, Hummel T. "Plasticity of the {Human} {Olfactory} {System}: {The} {Olfactory} {Bulb}." Molecules. 2013;18:11586-11600. AbstractWebsite

In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, particularly to its abilities of plasticity and its potential continuous neurogenesis throughout adult life. Although mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis have been largely investigated in animals, to some degree they remain unclear in humans. Based on human research findings, the present review will focus on the olfactory bulb as an evidence of the astonishing plasticity of the human olfactory system.

2014
Alemayehu F, Richard O, James KM, Wasonga OV. "Assessment of mangrove covers change and biomass in mida creek, Kenya." Open Journal of Forestry. 2014;2014. Abstract
n/a
Silvestri DM, Blevins M, Afzal AR, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony CA, Mwachaka PM, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014;92:750-759. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Silvestri DM, Blevins M, Afzal AR, Andrews B, Derbew M, Kaur S, Mipando M, Mkony CA, Mwachaka PM, Ranjit N, others. "Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in {Asia} and {Africa}." Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2014;92:750-759. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Njoroge(5) KD, Rading GO, Kihiu JM, Witcomb MJ, Cornish LA. ") The Impact of Interstitial Carbon on Dislocation Motion in the Alpha-Fe Lattice." , Int J Computational Engineering Research, 4 (12), . 2014:5-9.
Mindila A, Rodrigues A, McCormick D, Mwangi RW. "An Adaptive ICT-Enabled Model for Knowledge Identification and Management for Enterprise Development." International Journal of International Journal of System Dynamics Applications. 2014;3(3):19 pp.
Ross N, Iwuoha EI, Ikpo CO, Baker P, Njomo N, Mailu SN, Masikini M, Matinise N, Tsegaye A, Mayedwa N, Waryo T, Ozoemena KI, Williams A. "Amplification of the discharge current density of lithium-ion batteries with spinel phase Li (PtAu) 0.02 Mn1. 98O4 nano-materials." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:178-183. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
In this study the synergistic and catalytic properties of a novel nano-composite cathode material of nominal composition Li(M)xMn2-xO4 (M = Pt-Au; x # 0.2) has been explored. Li(PtAu)xMn2-xO4 nanomaterial for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) was synthesized by incorporation of the Pt-Au (1:1) nanoparticles onto the spinel phase LiMn2O4. Ultra-low scan rate (0.01 mV s−1) cyclic voltammetry of the cathode material in 1 M LiPF6 (in 1:1 EC:DMC), showed four sets of redox peaks, which reflect the typical redox process of the active material in the spinel structure due to lithium intercalation and deintercalation. The Li/Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cell had less polarization as it effectively accommodates the structural transformation during Li+ ion charge and discharge. The Li(PtAu)0.02Mn1.98O4 cathode showed an increase in discharge currents densities with an exchange current density, i0, value of 2.8 × 10−4 A cm−2 …

Onzago RO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, D.W Gakuya, C.G. Githiji, Rukenya ZM. "Analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Vernonia hymenolepis (A. Rich) a traditional medicine plant used in Kenya for toothache." The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2013; 2(6): 41-45. 2014. Abstractanalgesic_activity_of_aqueous_extract_of_vernonia_hymenolepis.pdf

The main aim of the study was to ascertain the analgesic properties of Vernonia hymenolepis leaves to validate its use for the treatment of toothache. The plant is widely used as a traditional herb by communities in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya for treatment of various infections including toothache. However its efficacy has not been established. Leaves of the plant were collected from Trans Nzoia County, Kenya and identified at University of Nairobi Herbarium. An aqueous extraction of leaves was prepared. Formalin test was carried out using 30 male albino wister mice to determine antinociceptive effect and the painful response at 0 – 10 min (Early) and 15 – 60 min (late phase). Acetylsalicylate at dose of 100 mg/Kg was used as a positive control. The dose significantly (p<0.05) reduced the time spent in pain behavior in both phases hence indicating that the plant posses antinociceptive activity. It’s concluded that Vernonia hymenolepis possesses analgesic property.

Keywords: Vernonia hymenolepis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive.

Rukenya Zachary Muthii, Mbaria James Mucunu, Mbaabu Mathiu Peter, Gitahi KS, Onzago OR. "Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extract of naturally growing and cultivated Aloe turkanensis. .". 2014;3(5):243-347.
Ruugia SK, Moturi CA. Application of GIS Spatial Interpolation Methods in Auto Insurance Risk Territory Segmentation and Rating. School of Business, University of Nairobi: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa; 2014. Abstract

Evolution in the field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has given rise to sophisticated scientific techniques for collection, analysis and visualization of location based data. These GIS analysis processes are used to reveal some critical patterns of occurrences. Due to inaccurate analysis and covering of insurance risks in Kenya, several companies have closed down prompting the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) and Association of Kenyan Insurers (AKI) set up maximum and minimum premium rates on insurance risks. The set premiums discounts are given to the insured based on records of their annual claims. The main problem here is that the rates cover the entire nation without considering the distribution of risk in various regions. The objective of the paper is to show that GIS can be used to analyse and generate auto insurance risk territories for insurance companies from which an insurance rating model can be developed. We used GIS analysis methods such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation, data smoothing and clustering techniques and data on auto insurance accidents and crime, geo-coded police stations, roads, socio-economic, aerial and satellite imagery for Nairobi County. A risk territory map showing the distribution of auto insurance risk and other related maps were generated. A prescriptive insurance rating model was then developed that uses generated risk territories to calculate varying rates for auto insurance premiums rates for the respective regions. This research shows that GIS techniques can be used for better visualization of risk at a given location for accurate risk analysis and uptake.

Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, J NM, Wairire G.G, Maingi N, R.G W. "Appraisal of Peste des petits ruminants disease by Turkana pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya. ." American Journal of Research Communication . 2014;2(10):186.abstract.pdf
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
wa Mungai N, Wairire GG, Rush E. "The challenge of maintaining Social Work Ethics in Kenya." Journal of Ethics and Social Welfare. 2014;8(2):170-186.
Teresa N. Kiama, Rita Verhelst, Paul M. Mbugua, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, and Temmerman M. "Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2014;13(9):1075-1085.
L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
M KS, Bebora LC NMJ, Wairire GG MN, RG, Karanja D.N OJO, Lut W. "Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya." British Journal of Virology – Open access. 2014;1(3):98-102.
C.J Nganga, D.W Gakuya, R.O Otieno, Githinji. RW. "Co-administration of Albendazole and Levamisole to control multiple anthelmintic resistant nematodes in a sheep farm in Kabete Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 2014;62(3):275-278.abstract.pdf
CORNEJO JAF, MAGAS LE, GARCÍA EMDP, LARRIBA CH, RUIZ CÁCERESJI, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kinuthia BK, EYDAL BJÖRKG, Bjarnason T, HRAFNSDÓTTIR S, JEANS CL. "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL AND FAMILY ASPIRATIONS OF FEMALE AND MALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FROM KENYA, SPAIN AND ICELAND." Fundación de las Cajas de Ahorros (FUNCAS). 2014.
Mwololo A, oshua Nyagol, Rogena E, Leoncini L, Mwanda W. "Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16 INK4 expressions and high risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva." Infectious Agents and Cancer. 2014;9(7):1-8. Abstractcorrelation_of_egfr_pegfr_and_p16.pdf

Background:
Squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva has increased tenfold in the era of HIV/AIDS. The disease
pattern has also changed in Africa, affecting young persons, with peak age-specific incidence of 30-39 years, similar to that of Kaposi sarcoma, a well known HIV/AIDS defining neoplasm. In addition, the disease has assumed more aggressive clinical course. The contributing role of exposure to high risk HPV in the development of SCCC is still emerging.
Objective:
The present study aimed to investigate if immunohistochemical expressions of EGFR, pEGFR and p16,
could predict infection with high risk HPV in HIV-related SCCC.
Methods:
FFPE tissue blocks of fifty-eight cases diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin with SCCC between 2005-2011,
and subsequently confirmed from medical records to be HIV positive at the department of human pathology,
UoN/KNH, were used for the study. Immunohistochemistry was performed to
assess the expressions of p16INK4A, EGFR and pEGFR. This was followed with semi-nested PCR based detection and sequencing of HPV genotypes. The sequences were compared with the GenBank database, and data analyzed for significant statistical correlations using SPSS 16.0. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from KNH-ERC.
Results:
Out of the fifty-eight cases of SCCC analyzed, twenty-nine (50%) had well differentiated (grade 1), twenty
one (36.2%) moderately differentiated (grade 2) while eight (13.8%) had poorly differentiated (grade 3) tumours.Immunohistochemistry assay was done in all the fifty eight studied cases, of which thirty nine cases (67.2%) were positive for p16INK4A staining, forty eight cases (82.8%) for EGFR and fifty one cases (87.9%) showed positivity for p-EGFR. HPV DNA was detected in 4 out of 40 SCCC cases (10%) in which PCR was performed, with HPV16 being the only HPV sub-type detected. Significant statistica
l association was found between HPV detection and p16INK4 (p=0.000, at 99% C.I) and EGFR (p=0.028, at 95% C.I) expressions, but not pEGFR. In addition, the expressions of
these biomarkers did not show any significant association with tumor grades.
Conclusion:
This study points to an association of high risk HPV with over expressions of p16INK4A and EGFR
proteins in AIDS-associated SCCC.
Keywords:
SCCC, Biomarkers, HPV, HIV/AIDS

A M, J N, Rogena E, W O, Kimani M, N O, L P, R S, Leoncini L, W M. "Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16INK4 expressions and high-risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva." Infect Agent Cancer. . 2014;9(1):7.
Matthew 3H, Rubene D, Mweresa CK, Ajamma YUO, Owino EA, Matthew L. "Crop damage by granivorous birds despite protection efforts by human bird scarers in a sorghum field in western Kenya." Ostrich; Journal of African Ornithology . 2014;85(2):153-159.
He LQ, Njambi L, Nyamori JM, Nyenze EM, Kimani K, Matende I, Rono H, Njom V, Bett J, Mukuria M, Gachago M, Roberts H, Dimaras H. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services in Resource-Limited Countries: The Case of Retinblastoma in Kenya." Public Health Genomics. 2014;17(4):221-227.
A Kibet, Rose A, P Omusula, Takken W, M Geier, Mweresa CK, B Otieno, Mukabana WR. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control.". 2014.
Rees H, Baeten J, Baron D, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, S C, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Palanee T, Steyn P, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90:354-356.
Rees H, Baeten BCCCCJDW, Baeten, J, Baron, D, Cates, W, Celum, C, Chipato T, Chombes, S, Donnell, D, Gichangi, Hofmeyr, J, Morrison, C, Mugo, N, Nanda, K, Palanee, T, Steyn, P, Taylor, D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90(2014):354-356.
Mwero(8) JN, Abuodha SO, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability Characteristics of Concrete Containing Sugar Cane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA)." ICASTOR J. of Eng. 7 (2), . 2014:95-114.
Mwero, J.N, Abuodha SO, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability characteristics of concrete containing sugarcane waste fiber ash (SWFA)." INCASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(2):95-114.
Mwero JN, O. AS, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability Characteristics of Concrete Containing Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA) ." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;Vol. 7(2):95-114.
OK K, RN K, SM M, GN K, K WR. "Effect of Different Soil Water Content and Seed Storage on Quality of Six Range Grasses in the Semi-Arid Ecosystems of Kenya." Environment and Ecology Research . 2014;2(2):261-271.
Munguti LK, Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Ntilakigwa AA, Nguu J, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "EFFECT OF PROCESS-RELATED PARAMETERS ON BAND GAP OF ELECTROPHORETICALLY DEPOSITED TIO2NB2O5 COMPOSITE THIN FILMS." Science Publishing Group. 2014;1. AbstractJournal Article Website

Pd-F:SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H20), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters has been done in order to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the fluorine content on the optical properties of Pd-F:SnO2 thin films were studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was measured using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. The calculated optical band gap of the as prepared thin films has been found to range from 3.8eV to 4.11eV. Fluorine incorporation for Pd-F:SnO2 has been found to have a narrowing effect on the band gap, but at its higher concentration the band gap has been seen to increase. The band gap narrowing is due to the incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice therefore giving rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap which is an essential characteristic for the gas sensor applications. Both annealing and passivation have been found to have very insignificant change in optical band gap of Pd-F:SnO2.

Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Ong'amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir IC, Kroschel J, Ru LB. "Effect of temperature on the life history parameters of noctuid lepidopteran stem borers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis." Annals of Applied Biology. 2014;165(3):373-386.
Abakiri D, Rose O, Anthony M. "Effects of Domestic Gender Roles on Pupils’ Performance in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Public Primary Schools in Garba Tula District, Kenya ." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5( 2222-1735 (Paper) 2222-288X (Online)).
Nguu JN, Robinson Musembi, Nyongesa F, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic deposition of Ti02/Nb20S composite electrode thin films for photovoltaic application." Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. 2014;8(2014):757-764.epd_of_titanium_and_niobium_for_photovoltaics.pdf
Nguu JN, Robinson Musembi, Nyongesa F, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic deposition of Ti02/Nb20S composite electrode thin films for photovoltaic application." Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. 2014. Abstract

Nano-sized powders of titanium dioxide (TI02) and niobium (v) oxide (Nb2O5) were used to fabricate
Ti02/Nb205 composites thin films by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique In EPD technique
(hinged particles suspended in a liquid are forced to move towards and deposit on an oppositely charged
electrode upon application of electric field. The Ti02 and Nb205 powders, together with magnesium
nitrate hexahydrate pellets, were suspended in propan-2-ol inside an EPD cell. The electrodes, placed
1.2cm apart, were immersed in the suspension and a DC potential applied across them Kelt EPD
process parameters, which Include applied DC electric field, deposition time, and solid concentration
in suspension, were optimized through visual inspection and from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer
spectra. The deposited o thin film with highest transmittance were obtained using deposition time of 90s, powder concentration of 001g/40ml, and applied DC voltage of 35V This combination
(90s, 0.01g/40mL, & 35V) became the optimum EPD values for fabricating Ti02/Nb205 composite thin
films. The XRD micrographs confirmed that Ti02 and l\lb205 particles were present in the composite
film Visual inspection of and SEM images of the composite electrode thin films showed that porous
films of high quality with well controlled morphology can he deposited using the EPD technique.

Clet Wandui Masiga, Abdalla Mohamed, Sarah Osama, Abigail Ngugi, Dan Kiambi, Santie de Villiers, Ngugi K, Mugoya C, Rasha Ali. "Enhanced Utilization of Biotechnology Research and Development Innovations in Eastern and Central Africa for Agro-ecological Intensification.". In: Enhanced Utilization of BiotechnologyResearch and Development Innovationsin Eastern and Central Africafor Agro-ecological Intensification. Entebe: Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA); 2014.masiga_et_al_2014_enhanced_use_of_biotechnology_in_eca.pdf
Onono JO, Wieland B, Rushton J. "Estimation of economic impact of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia on pastoralist in Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014;115:122-129.
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, J.G.Nduhiu. "Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxicity of Vernonia hymenolepis(A.Rich) traditionally used for toothache in Kenya." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2014;3(1):22-28.the_journal_of_phytopharmacology.pdf
Rinkanya AN. "Evolution of female identity in Moyez Vassanji’s novel The In-Between World of Vikram Lall //Awaaz Voices." . Institute for Kenyan South Asian History and Culture. 2014;11(2):28-30.
Odera(7) BO, Papo MJ, Rading GO, Cornish LA. "Experimental Solidification Projection, Liquidus Surface Projection and Isothermal Section at 1000oC for Pt-Cr-V System." J Phase Equilibria and Diffusion, 35 (4). 2014:476-489.
ODERA BO, Papo MJ, Rading GO, Cornish LA. "Experimental solidification projection, liquidus surface projection and isothermal section at 1000°C for the Pt-Cr-V system." Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion. 2014;DOI: 10.1007/s11669-014-0321-y.
Mecca LW, Riungu J, Guantai EM. "Financing and Availability of Essential Medicines Before and After Introduction of the National Hospital Insurance Fund Civil Servants and Disciplined Services Medical Scheme At Webuye District Hospital, Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(4):128-133. Abstract

Background:
Financing is an important determinant of access to essential medicines. In Kenya, the National Hospital Insurance Fund Civil Servants and Disciplined Services Medical Scheme is a key contributor to financing the
procurement of essential medicines.

Main Objective:
To compare availability and funding of essential medicines at Webuye District Hospital, Kenya before and after implementation of the new National Hospital Insurance Fund Medical Scheme.

Methods:
This was a longitudinal before-after study of four years (January 2010-December 2013); the latter two of which the scheme was in operation.

Results:
After introduction of the scheme, there was a higher allocation for the medicines budget from the Facility Improvement Fund, which hosts finances from the National Hospital Insurance Fund (p=0.008). The actual expenditure on essential medicines was also higher. Expenditure on essential medicines by the government, reduced (p<0.0001). The stock out rate decreased by 2.28% though this change was not statistically significant (p=0.099). The Facility Improvement Fund expenditure on essential medicines was a significant negative predictor of stock out rate.

Conclusion:
Although financing of medicines through the facility improvement fund increased after introduction of the new scheme, there was no change in the stock-out rate.

Key words: financing, availability, essential medicines, insurance

W.G.Dundon, S. M Kihu, T.B. Settypalli, G.C.Gitao, L.C. Bebora, N.M. John, J.O.Oyugi, R.Silber, A. Loitsch,. DA. "First Complete Genome Sequence of a Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus." Genome Announc.. 2014;61(14):25,33.aphs_iaea_newsletter-61_1.pdf
Njomo N, Waryo T, Masikini M, Ikpo CO, Mailu S, Tovide O, Ross N, Williams A, Matinise N, Sunday CE, Mayedwa N, Baker PGL, Ozoemena KI, Iwuoha EI. "Graphenated tantalum (IV) oxide and poly (4-styrene sulphonic acid)-doped polyaniline nanocomposite as cathode material in an electrochemical capacitor." Electrochimica Acta. 2014;128:226-237. AbstractElectrochimica Acta

Description
Nanostructured poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid) and tantalum (IV) oxide-doped polyaniline nanocomposite were synthesised and their electro-conductive properties were determined. The oxide was synthesized using a modified sol-gel method and then dispersed in acidic media through sonication and entrapped in-situ into the polymeric matrix during the oxidative chemical polymerization of aniline doped with poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid). The oxides and novel polymeric nanocomposite were characterised with TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, UV-visible to ascertain elemental and phase composition, successful polymerization, doping, morphology and entrapment of the metal oxide nanoparticles. The electro-conductivity of the nanomaterial was interrogated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The material was then anchored on activated graphitic carbon and used in the …

Luzzi A, Morettini F, Gazaneo S, Rogena EA, Bellan C, Leoncini L. "HIV-1 Tat induces DNMT over-expression through microRNA dysregulation in HIV-related non Hodgkin lymphomas." Luzzi et al. Infectious Agents and Cancer. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Background:
A close association between HIV infection and the development of cancer exists. Although the
advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the epidemiology of AIDS-associated malignancies, a better understanding on how HIV can induce malignant transformation will help the development of novel
therapeutic agents.
Methods:
HIV has been reported to induce the expression of DNMT1
in vitro, but still no information is available about the mechanisms regulating DNMT expression in HIV-related B-cell lymphomas. In this paper, we investigated the expression of DNMT family members (DNMT1, DNMT3a/b) in primary cases of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of HIV-positive subjects.
Results:
Our results confirmed the activation of DNMT1 by HIV in vivo, and reported for the first time a marked up-regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b in HIV-positive aggressive B-cell lymphomas. DNMT up-regulation in
HIV-positive tumors correlated with down-regulation of specific microRNAs, as the miR29 family, the miR148-152 cluster, known to regulate their expression. Literature reports the activation of DNMTs by the human polyomavirus BKV large T-antigen and adenovirus E1a, through the pRb/E2F pathway. We have previously demonstrated that the HIV Tat protein is able to bind to the pocket proteins and to inactivate their oncosuppressive properties, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation. Therefore, we focused on the role of Tat, due to its capability to be released from infected cells and to dysregulate uninfected ones, using an
in vitro model in which Tat was ectopically expressed in B-cells.
Conclusions:
Our findings demonstrated that the ectopic expression of Tat was per sesufficient to determine
DNMT up-regulation, based on microRNA down-regulation, and that this results in aberrant hypermethylation of target genes and microRNAs. These results point at a direct role for Tat in participating in uninfected B-cell lymphomagenesis, through dysregulation of the epigenetical control of gene expression.
Keywords:
HIV, Aggressive B-cell lymphomas, microRNAs, DNMTs, Tat

Campisano CJ, Cohen A, Asrat A, Feibel C, Kingston J, Lamb H, Olago D, Owen R, Renaut R, Schabitz F. "The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) drilling campaigns: the trials and triumphs of trying the unique and new." 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. 2014. AbstractFull Text Link

Between the summers of 2013 and 2014, the HSPDP successfully completed 4 of its 5 drilling campaigns. To date, >1,200m of core has been collected with the final site at Chew Bahir, Ethiopia scheduled for the end of 2014. The initial core description and sampling have been completed on all but the Magadi cores. Despite the challenges associated with a large-scale multinational project, we have accomplished our goal of collecting lacustrine dominated cores proximate to key paleoanthropological sites. Challenges included the availability/import of suitable drill rigs and equipment in country, long supply lines in remote areas, challenging lithologies for coring and recovery, and interpretation of geophysical data. At our oldest site, 600m of Pliocene-age core was collected from 3 boreholes at 2 sites in the northern Awash, Ethiopia. This resulted in a composite depth of ~285m with significant overlap between cores and >96% core recovery. Several unexpectedly thick basalts not originally identified in seismic surveys were interbedded with lake sediments. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target of 500m when rehydrated clays made advancing impractical and work in progress will determine how much of the 2.9-3.8Ma target interval was recovered. A single 228m borehole with ~95% core recovery was drilled at the Plio-Pleistocene Tugen Hills, Kenya location. Just shy of our 250m target depth, preliminary comparisons with outcrop records suggest that this core may cover a time interval of ~2.5-3.45Ma, longer than our original target of 2.5-3.1Ma. A single 216m borehole with ~93% core recovery was drilled at the early Pleistocene West Turkana, Kenya location. Drilling ceased prior to reaching our original target depth of 350m due to complications likely associated with penetrating a hydrothermal fracture system. Nonetheless, tephrostratigraphic data indicates that the core covers our original target interval of ~1.45-2.0Ma. Recently, 202m of modern to Middle Pleistocene core was collected from 4 boreholes at 2 sites at Lake Magadi, Kenya. Challenging lithologies to core/collect (e.g., trona, chert) resulted in core recovery of 55-60%. Contact with the basement trachyte (~800 ka) at each site occurred at 137m and 197m, respectively, shallower than original estimates from low-resolution geophysical surveys.

Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Gachene CKK, Warinwa F, Ranst EV. "Impact of Community Conservation Management on Herbaceous Layer and Soil Nutrients in a Kenyan Semi‐Arid Savannah." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Warinwa F, Ranst EV. "Impact of Community Conservation Management on Herbaceous Layer and Soil Nutrients in a Kenyan Semi‐Arid Savannah." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Warinwa F, Ranst EV. "Impact of Community Conservation Management on Herbaceous Layer and Soil Nutrients in a Kenyan Semi‐Arid Savannah." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Omosa-Manyonyi, G. LMPBFOOOIREHP, and R. Ndambuki, P. Fast LPADFO. "Implementation of a Training Program to Standardize Mucosal Sample Collection and Processing at Multiple Laboratories in Eastern Africa." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 130 Suppl 1:A236-7.
S. M. Githigia, C. Odhong, R.G. Wahome, Kiggundu. M, Helberg. N. "In Vitro Anthelminthic Effects of Crude Aqueous Extracts of Tephrosia Vogelii, Tephrosia Villosa and Carica Papaya Leaves and Seeds." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2014;13(52).
Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Nguu J, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Influence of surface passivation on optical properties of spray pyrolysis deposited Pd-F:SnO2." International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. 2014;2014; 3(5):137-142. Abstract

Pd-F:SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution
consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H20), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters has been done in order to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the fluorine content on the optical properties of Pd-F:SnO2 thin films were studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was measured using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. The calculated optical band gap of the as prepared thin films has been found to range from 3.8eV to 4.11eV. Fluorine incorporation for Pd-F:SnO2 has been found to have a narrowing effect on the band gap, but at its higher concentration the band gap has been seen to increase. The
band gap narrowing is due to the incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice therefore giving rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap which is an essential characteristic for the gas sensor applications. Both annealing and passivation have been found to have very insignificant change in optical band gap of Pd-F:SnO2.

Keywords: Spray Pyrolysis, Fluorine Doping, Palladium Doping, Co-Doping, Palladium and Fluorine Co-Doping, Annealing, Passivation, Pd and F Co-Doped SnO2 (Pd-F:SnO2)

Kergoat GJ, Cuda JP, Overholt WA, Molo R, Chipabika G, Ong’amo G, Pallangyo B, Berg JV, Conlong D, Toussaint EFA, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Ru BLP. "Integrative taxonomy of Acrapex stem borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Apameini): combining morphology and Poisson Tree Process analyses.". 2014.
Rodriguez JC, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "JC, R, CK O, AA A. 2014. A Rare Case of Crossed Renal Ectopia without Fusion. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 19(3):112-115.AJO." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(3):112-115.
Maina WK, Kim AA, Rutherford GW, Harper M, K'Oyugi BO, et al. "Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: Implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment." Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2014;Volume 66 (, Supplement 1):S130-S137.kais__.16.pdf
Nambafu GN, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Ariga ES, Vanlauwe B, R K. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Used in the Control of Striga in Maize by Smallholder Farmers of Western Kenya. ." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology.. 2014;3:pp 237-248.
Nguu J, Ndivo S, Aduda B, Nyongesa F, Robinson Musembi. "Livestock Farmers’ Perception on Generation of Cattle Wastebased Biogas Methane: the Case of Embu West District, Kenya." Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy. 2014; No.8(Vol.4). Abstract

Abstract
Perception of livestock farmers on the generation of cattle waste-based biogas methane was evaluated in this
study. The study was carried out in Embu West district in Kenya. A random sampling technique was used to
gather information related to farmers’ perception and the data collected with the help of self designed
questionnaires and face to face interviews. In the study, 92.9% of the one hundred and fifty six (156) livestock
farmers practiced zero-grazing and only fourteen (9%) of them had installed biogas digesters in their farms. Chi square tests yielded a value of χ = 0.591, p >0.05 which indicated that there was no significant relationship between uptake of cattle waste-based biogas and farmer’s perception. The hypothesis that low uptake of cattle waste-based biogas technology was due to negative perception of the farmers was found not to hold. Further Chi square tests indicated significant relationship (χ=23.56, p< 0.05) between farmers’ perception and knowledge of cattle waste-based biogas methane. Thus livestock farmers in Embu district had a very positive perception and were quite knowledgeable about biogas technology despite the minimal installation of the cattle waste-based biogas digesters. The research findings indicated that other factors like installation cost contribute to the low uptake of biogas technology. These research findings should assist government and industry understand the reason behind public ‘reservations’ in the adoption of biogas technology as well as develop strategies for enhanced promotion of renewable energy technologies.

Keywords: Biogas methane, perception, renewable energy, Embu west

L. G, Vanreusel A, Koedam N, Reubens J, Muthumbi AW. "The mangrove forests as nursery habitats for the ichthyofauna of Mida Creek (Kenya, East Africa)." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 2014;94(5):865-877.
MBUYA TO, Reed PAS. "Micromechanisms of short fatigue crack growth in an Al–Si piston alloy." Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2014;612:302-309. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2014.06.046

The short fatigue crack growth behaviour of a model cast aluminium piston alloy has been investigated. This has been achieved using a combination of fatigue crack replication methods at various intervals during fatigue testing and post-mortem analysis of the crack profiles. Crack-microstructure interactions have been clearly delineated using a combination of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that intermetallic particles and eutectic Al–Si regions play a significant role in determining the crack path and growth rate of short fatigue cracks. It is observed that the growth of short cracks is often retarded or even arrested at intermetallic particles and Al–Si eutectic regions. Crack deflection at intermetallics and eutectic Si is also frequently observed. These results have been compared with the long crack growth behaviour of the alloy.

Zachariah R, Kumar AMV, Reid AJ, den Bergh VR, Isaakidis P, Draguez B, Delaunois P, Nagaraja SB, Ramsay A, Reeder JC, Denisiuk O, Ali E, Khogali M, Hinderaker SG, Kosgei RJ, van Griensven J, Quaglio GL, Maher D, Billo NE, Terry RF, Harries AD. "Open access for operational research publications from low and middle-income countries: who pays?" Public Health Action . 2014;4(3):141-144.open_acess_for_operations_research_who_pays.pdf
Barasa AK, Kitonyi GW, Rajab JA, Muturi C, Kebaya L. "Orbital myeloid sarcoma preceding acute myeloid leukemia: a case report." East African Journal of Pathology. 2014;1:41-44.
Bryja J, Ondřej Mikula, Radim sumbera, Meheretu Y, Aghova T, Lavrenchenko LA, Mazoch V, Oguge N, Mbau JS, Welegerima K, Amundala N, Colyn1 M, Leirs H, Verheyen11 E. "Pan-African phylogeny of Mus (subgenus Nannomys) reveals one of the most successful mammal radiations in Africa." BMC Evolutionary Biology . 2014;14:256.nannomys_dec_2014.pdf
Field CB, Aalst MV, Aalst MV, Opondo M, Poloczanska E, Pörtner H-O, Redsteer MH. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects: Volume 1, Global and Sectoral Aspects: Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. USA: IPCC; 2014. Abstractresearch-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications

Human interference with the climate system is occurring. [WGI AR5 2.2, 6.3, 10.3-6, 10.9] Climate change poses risks for human and natural systems (Figure TS.1). The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change and how risks can be reduced through mitigation and adaptation. It recognizes that risks of climate change will vary across regions and populations, through space and time, dependent on myriad factors including the extent of mitigation and adaptation. [INSERT FIGURE TS.1 HERE Figure TS.1: Climate-related hazards, exposure, and vulnerability interact to produce risk. Changes in both the climate system (left) and development processes including adaptation and mitigation (right) are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability. [19.2, Figure 19-1]] Section A of this summary characterizes observed impacts, vulnerability and exposure, and responses to date. Section B examines the range of future risks and potential benefits across sectors and regions, highlighting where choices matter for reducing risks through mitigation and adaptation. Section C considers principles for effective adaptation and the broader interactions among adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable development. Box TS.1 introduces the context of the WGII AR5, and Box TS.2 defines central concepts. To accurately convey the degree of certainty in key findings, the report relies on the consistent use of calibrated uncertainty language, introduced in Box TS.3. Chapter references in square brackets indicate support for findings, paragraphs of findings, figures, and tables in this summary.

SD G, D P, Linden A AG, E B, J.F C, SR F, P J, M K, M L, F L, MA M, E O'F, S O, R R, F A. "A pilot comparison of standardized online surgical curricula for use in low- and middle-income countries." JAMA Surg. 2014;149(4):341-316.
Oyoo.G.O, Wanjohi.W, H.M K, Ogutu.E, Radia.K, Mutei.T.M. "Prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: ISSN.; 2014. Abstractprevalence_of_gastroduodenal2.pdf

Non-Steroidal Anti-
Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are
among the most widely prescribed and
used classes of drugs worldwide. They
are known to cause gastroduodenal
mucosal damage and can result in
ulcerations, upper gastrointestinal
bleeding, perforation and even death.
However, no local data exist to show the
prevalence.
Objectives: The main objective
was to determine the prevalence
of gastroduodenal lesions seen at
endoscopy and histopathology in
chronic NSAID users presenting with
dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National
Hospital.
Design: This was a hospital-based crosssectional
study.
Methods: Seventy patients aged
13 years and above, on NSAIDs for 4
weeks or more, and presenting with
dyspepsia were recruited and done
for endoscopies. Six biopsy specimens
were taken from each patient (2 from
each of the following sites: - corpus,
antrum and duodenum). One specimen
from each site was subjected to the
rapid urease test for H. pylori detection.
The remaining three were subjected to
histopathological evaluation.
Results: Forty male and 25 female
patients aged between 16-77 years, with
a mean age of 43.4 years were studied.
At endoscopy, only 10 (13.9%) patients
had normal gastroduodenal mucosa.
Gastritis was the most prevalent lesion
occurring in 50% of the patients. Peptic
ulcer disease had a point prevalence
of 30.5% (duodenal ulcers 22.2%, and
gastric ulcers 8.3%). Other lesions at
endoscopy were duodenitis 16.7%,
gastric erosions 5.6%, duodenal erosions
1.4% and hemorrhagic gastritis 1.4%.
At histopathology, only 5 (6.9%)
patients had normal gastroduodenal
mucosa. Chronic active gastritis was the
most prevalent lesion at 77.8%. Other
lesions were chronic gastritis 12.5%,
chemical gastritis 6.9%, duodenitis
41.7% and intestinal metaplasia 4.2%.
Prevalence of H. pylori in our study
population was 50%. There was no
association between the gastroduodenal
lesions and H. pylori infection.
Conclusions: There was a high
prevalence of gastroduodenal mucosal
lesions both at histopathology (93.1%)
and endoscopy (86.1%) in the chronic
NSAID users.

Edwards JK, Thiongó A, den Bergh VR, Kizito W, Kosgei RJ, Sobry A, Vandenbulcke A, Zuniga I, Reid AJ. "Preventable but neglected: rickets in an informal settlement, Nairobi, Kenya." Public Health Action. 2014;4(2):122-127.preventable_but_neglected-_rickets_in_an_informal_settlement__nairobi_kenya.pdf
Rose N. Obae, Kanori EN, Cheloti SK. "PRINCIPALS' MANAGEMENT STYLES AND STUDENTS' UNREST IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI COUNTY,KENYA." Education and Practice. 2014;5(2222-288x):29-37.
Twikirize JM, Spitzer H, Wairire GG, Maboyo ZM, Rutikanga C. "Professional Social Work in East Africa: Towards Social Development, Poverty Reduction and Gender Equality.". In: Professional Social Work in East Africa: Empirical Evidence. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2014.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia . 2014;57 :817-825.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia. 2014;7:817-825.
Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Robinson Musembi, Ogacho A, Aduda B. "Promotion of PV Uptake and Sector Growth in Kenya through Value Added Training in PV Sizing, Installation and Maintenance." Energy Procedia. 2014;57:817-825. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa, and more specifically the East African region, has the lowest rates of access to electricity in the world. On average, at most 15% of the rural population has access to electricity. Rural households and remote institutions use traditional energy sources such as charcoal, firewood, kerosene and diesel for generator sets, batteries and dry cell batteries. On the other hand, the region is one of the most promising in the world in economic development with growth levels being high and market saturation is a far away future problem. This growth has
however been hampered by several factors with lack of energy being one of them. Kenya being one of the countries
in the region faces a similar problem with the traditional sources of hydro facing weather related challenges. The
situation is more wanting in the rural setting having only achieved electrification rates of between 5 and 10%. The rural being where the majority of low-income earning groups reside is further compounded with large geographical imbalance in electricity demand and supply. The main challenge to adopting pv utilization however, is lack of local capacity to handle the uptake all the way from solar home systems to grid connected and hybrid systems. According to Kenya Renewable Energy Association (KEREA), it is estimated that between 800 and 1000 pv technicians have been in practice since this sector started in Kenya in the late eighties, majority of them having the basic skills but no formal training to provide the service. They however have been offering necessary service to end-users and are hence an important aspect in the pv sector as a whole. Currently the pv (mainly SHS) comprise an over the counter trade system which provides loopholes when it comes to quality of products and installation. To safeguard the quality and safety of installations, formal training has to be incorporated in the system.

CT O, RR V. "Re-tooling of regression kriging in R for improved digital mapping of soil properties." Geosciences Journal. 2014:DOI 10.1007/s12303-014-0023-9.
Rachel Sarguta, Ottieno JAM. "Recursive Route to Mixed Poisson Distributions using Integration by parts." " Mathematics Theory and Modeling,. 2014;4(14):144-152. AbstractFull text link

Abstract

Mixed Poisson distributions are very significant in modeling non-homogeneous populations; for instance in Actuarial applications for modeling total claims in insurance. However, the setback is in their use since the probability mass functions are difficult to evaluate, except for a few mixing distributions. One way of dealing with this problem is to express Mixed Poisson distributions in terms of recursive relations.

In this paper, recursive relations of some mixed Poisson distributions are obtained by use of integration by parts technique.

Keywords: mixtures; recursive relation; generating functions; moments

E M, B B, J C, J E, C H-F, M K, A M, D M, I S, G S, M S, B M, R R, N M, S O, AO M, C H-H, O O, A ES, C M, J M, M E, J DV, M L, G S, H C, G P, B K, A M, E S, JC M, B H, N B, M N, C A, N L, M M, S K, P K, M S, L S, M MC, C R. "Research capacity. Enabling the genomic revolution in Africa." Science. 2014;344(6190):1346-1348.
Baeten J, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, Combes S, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Phillips S, Rees H, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "Research on hormonal contraception and HIV." Lancet . 2014;383:303-304.
J. B, O. M, H. P, N.O. O, R. Š, E. V. "The role of dispersal and vicariance in the Pleistocene history of an East African mountain rodent,
 Praomys delectorum. ." Journal of Biogeography . 2014;41:196-208.
R. K. Ngugi, J. M. Kilonzo, Kimeu JM, Mureithi SM. "Seasonal botanical characteristics of the diets of Grant’s (Gazella granti Brooke) and Thompson’s (Gazella ThompsoniGuenther) in the dry land habitats of south-central Kenya." R. K. Ngugi1, J. M. Kilonzo , J. M. Kimeu1 and S. M. Mureithi. 2014;6(8)(1):581-588.
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Corné Vreugdenhil, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Ron van Lammeren, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "Spatial heterogeneity of malaria vectors and malaria transmission risk estimated using odour-baited mosquito traps." Malaria journal. 2014;13(S1):P41.
Kankonda OM, Dudu A, Walangululu M, Ong’amo GO, Ru B-PL. "Stem borer species composition on maize and two non-cereal hosts in the forest zone of Kisangani, DRC." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A. 2014;(4):822-829.
Jerome K, James M, Vigheri N, Johnson K, Rockefeller E, Ivan R, Wilberforce T, Fina O. "Strategies for rehabilitation of banana fields infested with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacrearum." Journal of Crop Protection. 2014;3(1):21-29.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, R W Nduati, Mwanda W, M'imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening Health Systems by Integrating Health Care, Medical Education and Research: University of Nairobi Experience." Academic Medicine . 2014;89 (8)(August Supplement.):109-110.abstract.pdf
Kebede A, Raina SK, Kabaru JM. "Structure, Composition and Properties of silk from the African Wild Silkmoth, Anaphe panda (Boisduva) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae)." International Journal of Insect Science . 2014;6(doi:10.4137/IJIS.S13338):9-14.
Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Mwabora J, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Surface passivation effect on CO2 sensitivity of spray pyrolysis deposited Pd-F: SnO2 thin film gas sensor.". 2014;2014; 3(5):38-44. Abstract

Abstract: Different thin films samples made of SnO2, F:SnO2, Pd: SnO2 and and co-doped Pd-F: SnO2 were deposited at a substrate temperature of 450oC using optimized doping concentrations of F and Pd, thereafter the samples were annealed and passivated in a tube furnace at 450oC. Optical and electrical methods were used in characterizing the thin film samples: The band gap energy for all samples was extracted from optical data using a proprietary software, Scout™ 98. The calculated band gap energy were found to be 4.1135eV for Pd:SnO2 and 3.8014eV for F:SnO2 being the highest and the lowest calculated band gap energies, respectively. The wide band gap energy has been attributed to the incorporation of Pd ions in crystal lattice of SnO2 thin film for Pd:SnO2 while for F:SnO2 has been due to incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice of SnO2 which gives rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap. This causes the conduction band to lengthen resulting to a reduction in the band gap energy value. The electrical resistivity was done by measuring the sheet resistance of the SnO2, Pd:SnO2, F:SnO2 and Pd-F:SnO2 thin films. The undoped SnO2 thin film had the highest sheet resistivity of 0.5992 Ωcm while F:SnO2 had the lowest sheet resistivity of 0.0075 Ωcm. The low resistivity of F:SnO2 results from substitution incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice of SnO2 thin
films, instead of O- ions which lead to an increase in free carrier concentration. The Pd-F:SnO2 gas sensor device was tested for CO2 gas sensing ability using a lab assembled gas sensing unit. The performance of the gas sensor device was observed that: the as prepared device was more sensitive to CO2 gas than those subjected to annealing and passivation. The decrease in the sensitivity of the annealed Pd-F: SnO2 gas sensor is attributed to decrease in grain boundary potential resulting from grain growth. This causes a decrement in adsorption properties of CO- and O- species by the annealed Pd-F: SnO2 thin film. The sensitivity of passivated Pd-F: SnO2 gas sensor was found to be the lowest. The low sensitivity is due to the effects of nitration and decrement in grain boundary potential resulting from grain growth, nevertheless, the sensitivity of the passivated Pd-F: SnO2 thin film was found to be within the range for gas sensing applications.

Keywords: Spray Pyrolysis, Fluorine doping, Palladium doping, co-doping, Palladium and Fluorine co-doping, Annealing, Passivation, F -co- doped Pd:SnO2 (Pd-F: SnO2)

Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Mwabora JM, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Surface Passivation effect on CO2 sensitivity of Spray Pyrolysis deposited Pd-F:SnO2 thin films." Advances in Materials. 2014;3(5):38-44.paper_patrick_musembi_2014__advances_in_materials_10.10.2014.pdf
Takken W, AF Hiscox, R Smallegange, Mukabana WR, Collins Mweresa. "Synthetic odour blends for sampling of malaria mosquitoes." Antenna: Bulletin of the Royal Entomological Society. 2014;(Special Edition 2014):92-93.
F Okumu, L Biswaro, E Mbeleyela, Killeen GF, R Mukabana, Moore SJ. "Using Nylon Strips to Dispense Mosquito Attractants for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae s.s." Journal of medical entomology. 2014;47(2):274-282.
Rinkanya AN. "• Woman for president? ‘Alternative’ future in the works of Kenyan women writers // Tydskrif vir Letterkunde." Pretoria: University of Pretoria Press. 2014;51(2):144-155.
Opanda S, Wamunyokoli F, Khamadi S, Rodney C, Bulimo W. Molecular typing of respiratory human enteroviruses isolated in Kenya between 2008 -2011 using the VP1 gene. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: Human enteroviruses (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae) are common infectious agents grouped into HEV-A, HEV-B, HEV-C and HEV-D species. They comprise >100 serotypes and are responsible for a wide range of human pathologies including upper and lower respiratory tract infections. There’s scanty information about serotype diversity of HEV circulating in Kenya.Objective: To molecularly type human enteroviruses isolated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011 using hypervariable 3’-end of the VP1 gene. Methods: A total of 200 HEV isolates obtained in the country from nasopharyngeal specimens were analyzed. Viral RNA was extracted and partial VP1 gene amplified using RT-PCR followed by sequencing. The resulting VP1 sequences were evaluated by sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis relative to those of prototypes retrieved from GenBank. Results: Overall, 22 different enteroviral serotypes were detected. The majority (72%) of the serotypes were from HEV-B species (72%) followed by HEV-D (21.3%) and HEV-A (6.5%). None of the identified serotypes belonged to HEV-C species. The most frequently detected serotypes we enterovirus-68 (EV68), Coxsackie-virus types –B2, -B1, -B4 and B3. The most prevalent serotypes were enterovirus-68 (EV68), Coxsackievirus types -B2, -B1, -B4 and -B3. Conclusions: Findings from this study demonstrate the existence of high serotype diversity among HEVs that circulated in Kenya between 2008 and 2011. The viruses belonging to HEV-A, HEV-B and HEV-D species played a key role in enteroviral infections in the country during this period. The absence of HEV-C known to frequently recombine with poliovirus vaccine strains indicates a low risk of emergence of vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) in Kenya. Typing of HEV is important in determining temporal and spatial patterns of the circulating serotypes. This information is necessary for healthcare planning and outbreak investigation studies.

Monroe-Wise A, Kibore M, Kiarie J, Ruth Nduati, Mburu J, Drake FT, Bremner W, Holmes K, Farquhar C. "The Clinical Education Partnership Initiative: an innovative approach to global health education." BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:1043. Abstract

Despite evidence that international clinical electives can be educationally and professionally beneficial to both visiting and in-country trainees, these opportunities remain challenging for American residents to participate in abroad. Additionally, even when logistically possible, they are often poorly structured. The Universities of Washington (UW) and Nairobi (UoN) have enjoyed a long-standing research collaboration, which recently expanded into the UoN Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). Based on MEPI in Kenya, the Clinical Education Partnership Initiative (CEPI) is a new educational exchange program between UoN and UW. CEPI allows UW residents to partner with Kenyan trainees in clinical care and teaching activities at Naivasha District Hospital (NDH), one of UoN's MEPI training sites in Kenya.

Slyker JA, Patterson J, Ambler G, Richardson BA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Bosire R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G. "Correlates and outcomes of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in HIV-exposed uninfected infants." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:7. Abstract

Preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) contribute to neonatal mortality. Maternal HIV-1 infection has been associated with an increased risk of PTB, but mechanisms underlying this association are undefined. We describe correlates and outcomes of PTB, LBW, and SGA in HIV-exposed uninfected infants.

Korir A, Mauti N, Moats P, Gurka MJ, Mutuma G, Metheny C, Mwamba PM, Oyiro PO, Fisher M, Ayers LW, Rochford R, Mwanda WO, Remick SC. "Developing clinical strength-of-evidence approach to define HIV-associated malignancies for cancer registration in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85881. Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa cancer registries are beset by an increasing cancer burden further exacerbated by the AIDS epidemic where there are limited capabilities for cancer-AIDS match co-registration. We undertook a pilot study based on a "strength-of-evidence" approach using clinical data that is abstracted at the time of cancer registration for purposes of linking cancer diagnosis to AIDS diagnosis.

Roxby AC, Atkinson C, Asbjörnsdóttir K, Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Drake AL, Wald A, Boeckh M, Richardson B, Emery V, John-Stewart G, Slyker JA. "Maternal valacyclovir and infant cytomegalovirus acquisition: a randomized controlled trial among HIV-infected women." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(2):e87855. Abstract

Studies in HIV-1-infected infants and HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants link early cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquisition with growth delay and cognitive impairment. We investigated maternal valacyclovir to delay infant acquisition of CMV.

Sherr K, Gimbel S, Rustagi A, Ruth Nduati, Cuembelo F, Farquhar C, Wasserheit J, Gloyd S. "Systems analysis and improvement to optimize pMTCT (SAIA): a cluster randomized trial." Implement Sci. 2014;9:55. Abstract

Despite significant increases in global health investment and the availability of low-cost, efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden, the translation of scientific advances into effective delivery strategies has been slow, uneven and incomplete. As a result, pediatric HIV infection remains largely uncontrolled. A five-step, facility-level systems analysis and improvement intervention (SAIA) was designed to maximize effectiveness of pMTCT service provision by improving understanding of inefficiencies (step one: cascade analysis), guiding identification and prioritization of low-cost workflow modifications (step two: value stream mapping), and iteratively testing and redesigning these modifications (steps three through five). This protocol describes the SAIA intervention and methods to evaluate the intervention's impact on reducing drop-offs along the pMTCT cascade.

Njaanake KH, Simonsen PE, Vennervald BJ, Mukoko DA, Reimert CM, Gachuhi K, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Urinary cytokines in Schistosoma haematobium-infected schoolchildren from Tana Delta District of Kenya." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2014;14:501. Abstract

Pathological changes due to infection with Schistosoma haematobium include cytokine-mediated urinary tract inflammation. The involved cytokines may be excreted in urine and their presence in urine may therefore reflect S. haematobium-related urinary tract pathology. The present study, for the first time, reports on the relationship between selected cytokines in urine and infection with S. haematobium in children from an area highly affected by this parasite.

Afran L, Garcia Knight M, Nduati E, Urban BC, Heyderman RS, Rowland-Jones SL. "HIV-exposed uninfected children: a growing population with a vulnerable immune system?" Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2014;176(1):11-22. Abstract

Through the successful implementation of policies to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 infection, children born to HIV-1-infected mothers are now much less likely to acquire HIV-1 infection than previously. Nevertheless, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU) children have substantially increased morbidity and mortality compared with children born to uninfected mothers (unexposed uninfected, UU), predominantly from infectious causes. Moreover, a range of phenotypical and functional immunological differences between HEU and UU children has been reported. As the number of HEU children continues to increase worldwide, two questions with clear public health importance need to be addressed: first, does exposure to HIV-1 and/or ART in utero or during infancy have direct immunological consequences, or are these poor outcomes simply attributable to the obvious disadvantages of being born into an HIV-affected household? Secondly, can we expect improved maternal care and ART regimens during and after pregnancy, together with optimized infant immunization schedules, to reduce the excess morbidity and mortality of HEU children?

Soh J, Rositch AF, Koutsky L, Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Bosire RK, Gatuguta A, Smith JS, Kiarie J, Lohman-Payne B, Farquhar C. "Individual and partner risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology among women in HIV-discordant relationships." Int J STD AIDS. 2014;25(5):315-24. Abstract

Individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase the risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant relationships. Papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of Kenyan HIV-discordant couples. Of 441 women, 283 (64%) were HIV-infected and 158 (36%) were HIV-uninfected with HIV-infected partners. Overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. Male herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and lower couple socioeconomic status were associated with cervical abnormalities (p < 0.05). HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected male sex partners (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) had the lowest prevalence of high-grade cervical lesions. HIV-infected women (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected partners (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) were at similar intermediate risk (p > 0.05), and HIV-infected women (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) had significantly higher risk of high-grade cervical abnormalities (p = 0.05). Women in HIV-discordant relationships have high rates of cervical lesions and this may be influenced by couple-level factors, including HIV status and CD4 count of the infected partner.

Masese L, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Bukusi E, John-Stewart G, Jaoko W, Shafi J, Kiarie J, McClelland SR. "Incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases the risk of subsequent episodes of bacterial vaginosis." J. Infect. Dis.. 2014;209(7):1023-7. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected women have a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) compared to HSV-2-seronegative women. To explore the temporal association between these conditions, we evaluated the frequency of BV episodes before and after HSV-2 acquisition in a prospective study of 406 HSV-2/HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan women, of whom 164 acquired HSV-2. Incident HSV-2 was associated with increased likelihood of BV (adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56; P = .01). Our findings strengthen the evidence for a causal link between genital HSV-2 infection and disruption of the vaginal microbiota.

Murnane PM, Heffron R, Ronald A, Bukusi EA, Donnell D, Mugo NR, Were E, Mujugira A, Kiarie J, Celum C, Baeten JM. "Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention does not diminish the pregnancy prevention effectiveness of hormonal contraception." AIDS. 2014. Abstract

For women at risk of HIV-1, effective contraception and effective HIV-1 prevention are global priorities.

Child MJ, Kiarie JN, Allen SM, Ruth Nduati, Wasserheit JN, Kibore MW, John-Stewart G, Njiri FJ, O'Malley G, Kinuthia R, Norris TE, Farquhar C. "Expanding clinical medical training opportunities at the University of Nairobi: adapting a regional medical education model from the WWAMI program at the University of Washington." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S35-9. Abstract

A major medical education need in Sub-Saharan Africa includes expanding clinical training opportunities to develop health professionals. Medical education expansion is a complicated process that requires significant investment of financial and human resources, but it can also provide opportunities for innovative approaches and partnerships. In 2010, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief launched the Medical Education Partnership Initiative to invest in medical education and health system strengthening in Africa. Building on a 30-year collaborative clinical and research training partnership, the University of Nairobi in Kenya developed a pilot regional medical education program modeled on the WWAMI (Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho) medical education program at the University of Washington in the United States. The University of Nairobi adapted key elements of the WWAMI model to expand clinical training opportunities without requiring major capital construction of new buildings or campuses. The pilot program provides short-term clinical training opportunities for undergraduate students and recruits and trains clinical faculty at 14 decentralized training sites. The adaptation of a model from the Northwestern United States to address medical education needs in Kenya is a successful transfer of knowledge and practices that can be scaled up and replicated across Sub-Saharan Africa.

Marangu D, Jowi C, Aswani J, Wambani S, Ruth Nduati. "Prevalence and associated factors of pulmonary hypertension in Kenyan children with adenoid or adenotonsillar hypertrophy." Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.. 2014;78(8):1381-6. Abstract

Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is a common condition in childhood, whose serious complications of pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are devastating but local prevalence is unknown. This study determined the prevalence and associated factors of pulmonary hypertension in children with adenoid or adenotonsillar hypertrophy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.

Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Day S, Graham SM, Masese LN, Richardson BA, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Chohan V, Overbaugh J, Scott McClelland R. "A Prospective Cohort Study of the Effect of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Detection of Plasma and Cervical HIV-1 in Women Initiating and Continuing Antiretroviral Therapy." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014;66(4):452-6. Abstract

: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use among HIV-1-infected women may increase transmission by increasing plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA shedding. We investigated associations between DMPA use and HIV-1 RNA in plasma and cervical secretions. One hundred two women initiated antiretroviral therapy, contributing 925 follow-up visits over a median of 34 months. Compared with visits with no hormonal contraception exposure, DMPA exposure did not increase detection of plasma (adjusted odds ratio: 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.47 to 1.39) or cervical HIV-1 RNA (adjusted odds ratio: 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.54 to 3.67). Our results suggest that DMPA is unlikely to increase infectivity in HIV-positive women who are adherent to effective antiretroviral therapy.

Bork KA, Cournil A, Read JS, Newell M-L, Cames C, Meda N, Luchters S, Mbatia G, Naidu K, Gaillard P, de Vincenzi I. "Morbidity in relation to feeding mode in African HIV-exposed, uninfected infants during the first 6 mo of life: the Kesho Bora study." Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2014;100(6):1559-68. Abstract

Refraining from breastfeeding to prevent HIV transmission has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in HIV-exposed African infants.

UoN Websites Search