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2011
Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Ruth Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart G. "Uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission interventions in Kenya: health systems are more influential than stigma." J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:61. Abstract

We set out to determine the relative roles of stigma versus health systems in non-uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 interventions: we conducted cross-sectional assessment of all consenting mothers accompanying infants for six-week immunizations.

John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Ruth Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart G. "Uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission interventions in Kenya: health systems are more influential than stigma." J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:61. Abstract

We set out to determine the relative roles of stigma versus health systems in non-uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 interventions: we conducted cross-sectional assessment of all consenting mothers accompanying infants for six-week immunizations.

Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Celum C, Wong KG, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Zhao H, Deng W, Kahle E, Panteleeff D, Baeten JM, McCutchan FE, Albert J, Leitner T, Wald A, Corey L, Lingappa JR. "Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e16986. Abstract

Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.

Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Paratransit Operations and Institutions in Nairobi.". In: 30th Southern African Transport. South Africa; 2011.
Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Winnie Mitullah, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "Paratransit Operations in Nairobi: Development of Their Routes and Termini, 30th Southern African Transport Conference,." Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "‘Paratransit Business Strategies: A Bird’s Eye View of Matatus in Nairobi.’ Paper presented at the Southern African Transport Conference,." Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Philipsson J, Rege JEO, Zonabend E. Animal improvement for increased productivity and food availability.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

This module discusses important factors to consider when designing sustainable genetic improvement programmes, especially under tropical conditions. Previous attempts to launch breeding programmes in developing countries have too often failed for several reasons, although there are success stories to learn from as well. Long-term and simple strategies are necessary as is the need to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds. Increased productivity per animal or area of land used also need to be considered. However, that must be achieved while also considering the variable socio-economic and cultural values of livestock in different societies or regions. Within the module there are links [blue] to web resources and [green] to case studies and other related components of this resource that help illustrate the issues presented.

Rukwaro RW, Ayonga JN, Anunda, Musungu T(2011). Development control frameworks in Kenya.. Nairobi, Kenya: Published report by (AAK/BAF); 2011.
Gloria S. Omosa-Manyonyi, Walter Jaoko OAHOSW, Roselyn Malogo, Jacqueline Nyange PNJN-A, Kirana Bhatt, Bashir Farah MOCSFPPF. ". Reasons for Ineligibility in Phase 1 and 2A HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials at Kenya Aids Vaccine Initiative (KAVI), Kenya." PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e14580.
Rabe M, Price G, Krhoda G, Goodwin R. 2. Climate Change Vulnerability and Infrastructure Investment Assessment and Analysis for Small Scale Water Utilities in the Lake Victoria Basin. Guide Book for water and wastewater utilities. .; 2011. Abstract

The effect of global climate change on the built urban environment, especially installed infrastructure for the
delivery of essential services, will be particularly severe and even more so for developing countries where
resources to deal with anticipated impacts are lacking. Because the delivery of wet services is dependent on
water resources and tends to be an energy intensive operation, water and wastewater utilities will be most
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It is therefore imperative that the providers of these services embark on a programme of proactively adapting to the impacts of climate change and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through improved pumping efficiencies. Because adaptation can take on many forms, utilities must apply logic and rational thinking to this process and prioritize interventions that are most likely to cost effectively address identified
impacts.

Mbuya TO, Sinclair I, Moffat AJ, Reed PAS. "Analysis of fatigue crack initiation and S–N response of model cast aluminium piston alloys." Materials Science and Engineering: A. 2011;528(24):7331-7340. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2011.06.007

Fatigue crack initiation and S–N fatigue behaviour of hipped model Al7Si–Sr and Al0.7Si piston alloys have been investigated after overaging at 260 °C for 100 h to provide a practical simulation of in-service conditions. The results show that hipping did not affect the S–N behaviour of Al7Si–Sr. This is attributed to the lack of significant change in porosity distribution in this alloy because of its low porosity levels even in the unhipped state. However, hipping profoundly improved the fatigue performance of alloy Al0.7Si due to the significant reduction in porosity. In this investigation, it was observed that porosity was rendered impotent as a fatigue crack initiator in both hipped alloys. Instead, fatigue cracks were observed to originate mainly from intermetallic particles (particularly the Al9FeNi phase) in both alloys and sometimes from oxide particles in Al0.7Si alloy. Fatigue cracking was also frequently observed at intermetallic clusters in hipped Al0.7Si. The observed scatter in fatigue life is discussed in terms of the size of fatigue crack initiating particles and the overall particle size distribution which follows a power law distribution function.

Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Availability and adequacy of sport facilities and equipment in selected secondary schools in Kenya." The Fountain,Journal of Education. 2011;5(1):84-96.
Kihiu J, Rading G, Mutuli S. Boiler, Piping and Pressure Vessel Cross-Bore Design Stresses. Saarbrucken: VDM Publishing; 2011.
Kiama TN, Rita Verhelst, Mbugua PM, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, Temmerman M. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora during the menstrual cycle of HIV positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya.; 2011.
H. JH, R.H. G. "Characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes into roadside safety barriers in Australia and New Zealand." Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volum. 2011;43(3):652-660.
McKinnon LR, Nyanga B CIKHGBKECAAOAKDPMS, R K. "Characterization of a human cervical CD4+ T cell subset coexpressing multiple markers of HIV susceptibility." J Immunol. . 2011;187(11):6032-42.
Rintaugu EG, Bailasha NK. "Coach-Leadership behaviour exhibited by volleyball Coaches in Africa." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(9):135-139.
RIVIELLO B, NEWTON M ACHIENGLETCHFORDLS. "CRITICAL CARE IN RESOURCE LIMITED SETTINGS: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS. CRITCAL CARE MED." Critical care medicine. 2011;39(4):860-867.riviello_b.pdf
Gakuya F, Rossi L, Ombui JN, Maingi N, Ogara WO, Soriguer RC, Samer A. "The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya." Parasites and Vectors. 2011;4:193-200.
Rao KP, Maitho T, Kamamia EK, Patil AB, Sagre P. "Design and Pre-clinical Studies of Miconazole Soap Strips for Dermal Infections." International Journal of INST Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2011;1(1):68-76.
Lenze D, Leoncini L, Hummel M, Volinia S, Liu CG, Amato T, Falco DG, Githanga J, Horn H, Nyagol J, Ott G, Palatini J, Pfreundschuh M, Rogena E, Rosenwald A, Siebert R, Croce CM, Stein H. "The different epidemiologic subtypes of Burkitt lymphoma share a homogenous micro RNA profile distinct from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma." Leukemia. 2011:1-8.
Rukwaro R. "Dissemination of Architectural Knowledge among Research, Training and Practice.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Within the field of architecture, architects and scholars appear to have difficulty making sense of one another’s experience and the relationship between practice and research is often uneven and unclear. In addition, those who identify themselves as scholars of architecture tend to be closed in their academic spheres and vice versa for those who are practitioners. The professionals and scholars seem not to have adequate interchange and reconciliation of the profession. This has not helped much in developing a unifying framework for research and practice of architecture. The scholars and the practicing architect have yet to produce a comprehensive institutional framework capable of directing the profession toward the demonstrable improvement of the architectural practice; training and research. Survey is used as the research design. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from archiects in practice and those in academia, students of architecture and educational administrators. The practicing architects were randomly sampled from the Board of Architects and Quantity Surveying (BORAQS) register. Forty practicing architects were selected. Twenty lecturers and fifty students were interviewed while four administrators were administered questionnaires. Qualitative techniques were used to analyze the responses from the field. This paper has unraveled the minimal relationship between scholars and professionals; the information flow between them and presented the way forward

Subramanian S, H.R P, Birithia, R. S, Muthomi O, P JS, R.D N. "Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions ." Narla, R.D. 2011;101(S172).
R.O N, Kiplagat KW, Kiplagat KW, R.D N, S.J S, J.N K, J.A L. "Early and late harvest agronomic performance and stability of R-free late blight potato genotypes." Crop Improvement. 2011.
R.D N, Muthomi JW, Gachu SM, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping bulb onion and vegetables on purple blotch and downy mildew." Journal of Biological Sciences . 2011;11(1):52-57.effect_of_intercropping_bulb_onion_and_vegetables.pdf
Munoru P, Rintaugu EG. "Effects of yoga training on bilateral strength and Shoulder and hip range motion." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(11):467-470.
Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Estimation of Climatic Parameters from Solar Indices Using Ground based Data from Kenya, East Africa." Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). 2011;31(1):131-139. Abstractestimation_of_climatic_parameters_from_solar_indices_using_ground_based_data_from_kenya_east_africa.pdfAfrican Journals Online

The daily meteorological data of relative humidity, maximum, minimum, and average temperatures obtained from five stations of the Kenya Meteorological Department over the period 1986 to 2005 were filtered and reduced to monthly means. Monthly data of solar indices: Sunspot number, F10.7 cm solar radio flux and Mg II core-to-wing ratio covering the same period were employed to model the meteorological variables using the linear multivariate model and applying least square fittings. Validity of the models was tested using Mean Bias Error (MBE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) statistical indicators. The correlations between the observed and predicted values from the models were significant at above 95% level of confidence. The models show the effect of solar forcing on the climatic parameters at different locations in Kenya. Solar forcing of climate is evident in Kenya.
Keywords: modeling, climatic parameters, solar indices, statistical indicators.

S BRS, Pappu HR, Sseruwagi, P. M, R.D N. "First Report of Iris yellow spot virus in Onion in Kenya and Uganda." Plant Disease . 2011;95(1195).
Ouma C, Roca AL, were T, Raballah EO, Oguge NO, Jura WGZO, Ochieng JW, Hanotte O, Georgiadis N. "Genetic structure of hartebeest populations Straddling a transition zone between Morphotypes." J. Basic & Appl. Sci. Res. 2011;1(3):131-149.2011_ouma_et_al_jbasr.pdf
Rintaugu EG, Munayi S, Mwangi I, Ngetich EDK. "The Grand coalition Government in Kenya: A recipe for sports Development." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;1(18):305-311.
Niels O Verhulst, Phoebe A Mbadi, Gabriella Bukovinszkine Kiss, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W, Renate C Smallegange. "Improvement of a synthetic lure for Anopheles gambiae using compounds produced by human skin microbiota." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:28.
Inyama HK, Revathi G, Musandu J, Odero T. "The Incidence of Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections: Kenyatta National Hospital – Intensive Care Unit." Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal . 2011;1(2):12-21. Abstractfull_publication_.pdf

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections in both acute care settings and long-term care facilities. Each year millions of urethral catheters are put in place in these facilities across the United States. In the acute care settings a vast majority of UTIs occur in patients with temporary urinary catheters. Nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infections (NCAUTIs) have been one of the major problems in the Intensive care unit (ICU) and have contributed to the mortality and morbidity of the patients. Efforts to contain the problem have resulted in the introduction of guidelines to reduce the incidence and prevalence of the nosocomial UTI. Such measures have been implemented in the developed world; unfortunately the developing countries have not duplicated the same. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Urine samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for growth of microorganisms to determine the incidence of NCAUTIs. The findings of the study indicate that the Incidence of NCAUTI was determined to be 18% with the common isolated microorganism being Escherichia coli. It recommended that there was need for judicious use of antibiotics to prevent drug resistance and that a procedure and policy on the management of a patient with a urinary catheter should be developed and made available for in the ICU.

De Falco G;, Leoncini L;, Rogena EA. "Infectious agents and lymphoma.". 2011. Abstract

In the past 25 years revelations on the genesis of human cancer have come at an increasing pace. Research on oncogenic infectious agents, especially viruses, has helped us to understand the process of malignant transformation of cells because the cellular events in viral-driven transformation mirror, often brilliantly, basic cellular processes that culminate in cancer, even those not associated with viruses. Infectious agents, especially viruses, account for several of the most common malignancies-up to 20% of all cancers. Some of these cancers are endemic, with a high incidence in certain geographic locations, but sporadic/lower incidence in other parts of the world. Lymphomas arise frequently in association with infectious agents such as Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, Helicobacter pylori, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we will focus on the association between infectious agents and lymphomas, with a look at the molecular mechanisms they use to disturb cell regulation and eventually result in cancer.

Rintaugu EG, Mwangi PW, Mwisukha A. "The influence of mass media in Socialization into sports of Kenyan secondary school athletes." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(11):471-475.
Dambolenaa JS;, Zuninoa MP;, Lópezb AG;, Rubinsteinc HR;, Zygadloa JA;, Mwangi JW;, Thoithi GN;, Kibwage IO;, Mwalukumbi JM;, Kariuki ST. "Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies.". 2011. Abstract

This work investigated the constituents and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from different locations in Kenya.The oil of leaves and flowering tops of O. basilicum from Sagana contained mainly linalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 31.0%, respectively) and linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yatta (70.1%). The oil of the flowering tops had significantly less eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yatta was Z-β-ocimene (34.1%). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum from different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.Industrial relevanceThis manuscript gives the chemical composition and some biological effects of essential oil of two Ocimum species in Kenya namely Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. The work reveals that there are chemovarieties of these plants in different locations in the country. Of significance is the presence of very high amounts of linalool in one chemovariety of O. basilicum while geranial and neral are major in another. The third variety contains almost equal amounts of camphor and linalool. The first two containing high quantities of linalool, geranial and neral could be cultivated after agronomic studies to provide essential oils useful in perfumery, soap or food industry while that containing camphor and linalool may find use in medicine.Proper seed selection and good agricultural practice for O. gratissimum containing high amount of eugenol could serve as good substitute for cloves which grows best only in a few islands in East Africa. Clove oil due to its high eugenol content has many biological activities including those demonstrated in the present work, and many applications in medicine and commercial world.There is need for more research on these plants especially on cultivation and commercial exploitation of the herbs.

Newton MW;, Achieng L;, Letchford S;, Riviello ED. "Intensive care in poor-resource settings: Solutions are in the hands at home Reply.". 2011.
Refat MS;, Saad HA;, Adam AM. "Intermolecular hydrogen bond complexes by in situ charge transfer complexation of o-tolidine with picric and chloranilic acids.". 2011. Abstract

A two new charge transfer complexes formed from the interactions between o-tolidine (o-TOL) and picric (PA) or chloranilic (CA) acids, with the compositions, [(o-TOL)(PA)(2)] and [(o-TOL)(CA)(2)] have been prepared. The (13)C NMR, (1)H NMR, (1)H-Cosy, and IR show that the charge-transfer chelation occurs via the formation of chain structures O-H⋯N intermolecular hydrogen bond between 2NH(2) groups of o-TOL molecule and OH group in each PA or CA units. Photometric titration measurements concerning the two reactions in methanol were performed and the measurements show that the donor-acceptor molar ratio was found to be 1:2 using the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The spectroscopic data were discussed in terms of formation constant, molar extinction coefficient, oscillator strength, dipole moment, standard free energy, and ionization potential. Thermal behavior of both charge transfer complexes showed that the complexes were more stable than their parents. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the differential thermogravimetric curves. The results indicated that the formation of molecular charge transfer complexes is spontaneous and endothermic.

Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Mundia F. "International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;1(17):162-167.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Soboyejo WO, Obwoya SK, Rahbar N, Zimba J. "An Investigation of Thermal Shock in Porous Clay Ceramics." ISRN Mechanical Engineering. 2011;DOI 10.5402/2011/816853(816853).thermal_shock_in_porous_clay_ceramics_2011.pdf
F.W. Nyongesa, Rahbar N, Obwoya SK, Zimba J, Aduda BO, Soboyejo WO. "An Investigation of Thermal Shock in Porous Clay Ceramics." International Scholarly Research Network. 2011:9. Abstract

The thermal shock resistance of porous ceramic materials is often characterized by the Hasselman parameters. However, in other
scenarios, the room-temperature residual strengths after thermal shock are also used to quantify the damage due to thermal shock.
This paper attempts to link the measured residual strengths to the dominant crack features that are introduced due to thermalshock in porous clay ceramics produced by the sintering of clay powders with well-controlled size ranges. Residual strength estimates from bend tests are compared with fracture mechanics predictions. The implications of the residual strength results are then discussed for the characterization of damage due to thermal shock.

Ujiji OA;, Rubenson B;, Ilako F;, Marrone G;, Wamalwa D;, Wangalwa G;, Ekström AM. "Is 'Opt-Out HIV Testing' a real option among pregnant women in rural districts in Kenya?". 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND: An 'opt-out' policy of routine HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa to expand prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Although the underlying assumption is that pregnant women in rural Africa are able to voluntarily consent to HIV testing, little is known about the reality and whether 'opt-out' HCT leads to higher completion rates of PMTCT. Factors associated with consent to HIV testing under the 'opt-out' approach were investigated through a large cross-sectional study in Kenya. METHODS: Observations during HIV pre-test information sessions were followed by a cross-sectional survey of 900 pregnant women in three public district hospitals carrying out PMTCT in the Busia district. Women on their first antenatal care (ANC) visit during the current pregnancy were interviewed after giving blood for HIV testing but before learning their test results. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Of the 900 women participating, 97% tested for HIV. Lack of testing kits was the only reason for women not being tested, i.e. nobody declined HIV testing. Despite the fact that 96% had more than four earlier pregnancies and 37% had been tested for HIV at ANC previously, only 17% of the women surveyed knew that testing was optional. Only 20% of those surveyed felt they could make an informed decision to decline HIV testing. Making an informed decision to decline HIV testing was associated with knowing that testing was optional (OR = 5.44, 95%CI 3.44-8.59), not having a stable relationship with the child's father (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.02-3.03), and not having discussed HIV testing with a partner before the ANC visit (OR = 2.64 95%CI 1.79-3.86). CONCLUSION: High coverage of HIV testing appears to be achieved at the cost of pregnant women not understanding that testing is optional. Good quality HIV pre-test information is central to ensure that pregnant women understand and accept the reasons for testing and will thus come back to collect their test results, an important prerequisite for completing PMTCT for those who test HIV-positive.

MOULTON, J.E., Movassaghi, M., Jamison, J.L., Lobo, C., Lobo, C., Witbeck, W., Gikonyo, K., Gaynor, J., Rothschild, L.J., Mwaura F, and Duboise SM. "Isolation and Initial Study of Ø1M3-16, a Bacteriophage Infecting an Alkaliphilic Nitrincola sp Isolate from Lake Magadi, a Soda Lake in Kenya’s Great Rift Valley." Microscopy & Microanalysis,. 2011;17, S2, :350-351b.
Susan S Imbahale, Krijn P Paaijmans, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Ron van Lammeren, Githeko AK, Takken W. "A longitudinal study on Anopheles mosquito larval abundance in distinct geographical and environmental settings in western Kenya. ." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:81.
Rayya. "Mama Mkwe.". In: Kopo la Uji na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011.
Mutebi MC, Saidi H, Raja AJ. "Mentoring the modern African Surgeon- a call to arms!" Annals of African Surgery.. 2011;7.Website
K MJ, M.W.K M, Muturi PW, R.W N, Kiarie N, E.M A, J.K M. "Morphological differences among susceptible and resistant sweet potato varieties.". In: aGRO 2011 Biennial Conference.; 2011.
Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Motivational orientations in sport: A study of college athletes in Kenya." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(8):168-171.
C.K. M, R.W M. "New use of Indomethacin." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(1):13-15.
Kwaako OA, Kimani K, Ilako DR, Akafo S, Ekem I, Rodrigues O, Laryea CE, Nentwich MM. "Ocular Manifestations of Sickle Cell Disease at Korle bu Hospital, Accra, Ghana." European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011;21(4):484-489.
Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC, Dong T, Lohman-Payne B, Reilly M, Atzberger A, Taylor S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Rowland-J. "Phenotypic Characterization of HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells during Early and Chronic Infant HIV-1 Infection." BMC Infect Dis. 2011; 11: 259. Published online 2011 September 30. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-259. 2011. Abstractphenotypic_characterization_of_hiv-specific_cd8.pdf

Abstract
Although CD8+ T cells play an important role in the containment of adult HIV-1 replication, their role in infant HIV-1
infection is not as well understood. Impaired HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses may underlie the persistently high viral loads
observed in infants. We examined the frequency and phenotype of infant HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in 7 HIV-infected
antiretroviral therapy-naı¨ve infants during the first 2 years of life, using class I HLA tetramers and IFN-c-ELISPOT. The
frequency (0.088–3.9% of CD3+CD8+ cells) and phenotype (CD27+CD282, CD45RA+/2, CD57+/2, HLA-DR+, CD95+) of infant
HIV-specific CD8+ T cells were similar to reports in adults undergoing early infection. Unlike adults, at 23–24 months postinfection
a high frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells expressed HLA-DR (mean 80%, range 68–85%) and CD95 (mean 88%,
range 79–96%), suggesting sustained activation and vulnerability to apoptosis. Despite comparable expansion of HIVspecific
CD8+ T cells of a similar phenotype to adults during early infection, infant T cells failed to contain HIV-1 replication,
and remained persistently activated and vulnerable to apoptosis during chronic infection.

Rayya. "Picha ya Hadaa.". In: Sina Zaidi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers; 2011.
Rege JEO, Marshall K, Notenbaert A;, Ojango JMK, Okeyo AM. "Pro-poor animal improvement and breeding — What can science do?". 2011. Abstract

Livestock provide a wide variety of goods and services that generate income and support the livelihoods of millions of poor people in the developing world. Natural and human selections have shaped existing livestock genotypes throughout the estimated 12,000 year history since the first animal domestication. The result, in many production systems in the developing world, is a livestock genotype adapted to its environment and capable of meeting the needs of smallholder farmers. However, this adaptation is unlikely to be optimal and the rapid changes currently affecting the livestock sector, including policy and market changes, movements of germplasm frequently involving the importation of exotic breeds, and the increasing impacts of climate change are affecting the livestock genotype-environment optimum. This is challenging livestock production systems of smallholder farmers. Current challenges include: high rates of loss of the diversity in livestock populations, rapid transformation in smallholder production systems requiring significant changes in genotypes and their management; increased demand for quality and safe foods; increased market competition in a globalizing economy; increased need for complex partnership arrangements in the ever-changing livestock commodity chain; and lack of adaptive capacity to respond to the rapid system changes. Underlying all these is the general lack of strategies for genetic improvement of livestock in smallholder systems and poor livestock infrastructure in developing countries. Opportunities include increased demand for livestock products — and hence potential market opportunities, and new technologies with potential to leap-frog breeding progress in developing countries. This paper analyses options for pro-poor livestock improvement in developing countries, with particular emphasis on the potential role that science – both old and new – will have, from understanding the social underpinnings to innovative technical solutions. It concludes that one of the highest priority interventions for the smallholder systems is the development of innovative approaches for the strategic use of appropriate genotypes from the available range of global breed resources. The analysis strongly suggests that the highest priority ‘breeding intervention’ should be the provision of appropriate genotypes in a sustainable manner, underpinned by a good understanding of what breed resources exist that have demonstrated potential, where else they could be used, and how they would be delivered to smallholders. Efforts to improve/refine breeding skills of smallholders should proceed in parallel. Institutional arrangements and enabling policies are critical for the success in identifying and applying appropriate genetic technologies, improving access to input services and facilitating access to markets in order to translate productivity gains into incomes

Masese LN, Graham SM, Gitau R, Peshu N, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mandaliya K, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "A prospective study of vaginal trichomoniasis and HIV-1 shedding in women on antiretroviral therapy.". 2011. Abstract

Trichomonas vaginalis has been associated with increased vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve women. The effect of trichomoniasis on vaginal HIV-1 shedding in ART-treated women has not been characterized. We tested the hypothesis that T. vaginalis infection would increase vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in women on ART, and that successful treatment would reduce vaginal HIV-1 RNA level

Bailasha NK, Rintaugu EG, Toriola AL. "Psycho-social attribute of elite African Women Volleyball players." African journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation, sports andDance(AJPHERD). 2011;17(3):535-546.
Chung MH, Richardson BA, Tapia K, Benki-Nugent S, Kiarie JN, Simoni JM, Overbaugh J, Attwa M, John-Stewart GC. "A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Effects of Counseling and Alarm Device on HAART Adherence and Virologic Outcomes.". 2011. Abstract

Behavioral interventions that promote adherence to antiretroviral medications may decrease HIV treatment failure. Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa confront increasing financial constraints to provide comprehensive HIV care, which include adherence interventions. This study compared the impact of counseling and use of an alarm device on adherence and biological outcomes in a resource-limited setting. Methods and Findings A randomized controlled, factorial designed trial was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Antiretroviral-naïve individuals initiating free highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the form of fixed-dose combination pills (d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine) were randomized to one of four arms: counseling (three counseling sessions around HAART initiation), alarm (pocket electronic pill reminder carried for 6 months), counseling plus alarm, and neither counseling nor alarm. Participants were followed for 18 months after HAART initiation. Primary study endpoints included plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count every 6 months, mortality, and adherence measured by monthly pill count. Between May 2006 and September 2008, 400 individuals were enrolled, 362 initiated HAART, and 310 completed follow-up. Participants who received counseling were 29% less likely to have monthly adherence <80% (hazard ratio [HR]=0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–1.01; p=0.055) and 59% less likely to experience viral failure (HIV-1 RNA ≥5,000 copies/ml) (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21–0.81; p=0.01) compared to those who received no counseling. There was no significant impact of using an alarm on poor adherence (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65–1.32; p=0.7) or viral failure (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.53–1.84; p=1.0) compared to those who did not use an alarm. Neither counseling nor alarm was significantly associated with mortality or rate of immune reconstitution. Conclusions Intensive early adherence counseling at HAART initiation resulted in sustained, significant impact on adherence and virologic treatment failure during 18-month follow-up, while use of an alarm device had no effect. As antiretroviral treatment clinics expand to meet an increasing demand for HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, adherence counseling should be implemented to decrease the development of treatment failure and spread of resistant HIV.

Plummer FA, Moses S, Willbond B, Rao PJVR, Ngugi EN, Nagelkerke NJD, Jha P. "Reducing HIV Transmission in Developing Countries.". 2011. Abstract

Although the global response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the developing world has, in general, been inadequate, there are key interventions which have been proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of HIV and relevant risky behaviors. We review and analyze these interventions according to three criteria: importance to HIV transmission, amenability to change, and cost-effectiveness.

Chiao C, Morisky DE, Rosenberg R, Ksobiech K, Malow R, Ngugi EN. "The relationship between HIV/Sexuaily Transmitted Infection risk and alcohol use during commercial sex episodes: results from the study of female commercial sex workers in the Philippines.". 2011. Abstract

The results of this study will be particularly important in designing more responsive interventions for alcohol-related behaviour towards better control of HIV and sexually transmitted infections. This interesting finding involved a large sample size (1114 female commercial sex workers). geographical distribution (four provinces in the Philippines) and duration which were large enough for generalization. The authors re-demonstrate the association between alcohol use amongst female sex-workers and clients and HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk.

Ngugi RW, Mohapatra S, Ratha D. "Remittances market in Kenya.". In: Remittance Markets in Africa. The World Bank; 2011.
Ngugi RW, Sennoga E, Mohapatra S, Ratha D. "Remittances market in Uganda.". In: Remittance Markets in Africa. The World Bank; 2011.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A. "Retirement from competitive sport: The experiences of Kenyan soccer players." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2011;3(6):477-482.
Verhulst N., Mukabana W.R., Takken W, R.mallegange. "Skin microbiota volatiles as odour baits for the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae." Entomologia Experimentalis et applicata. 2011;139:170-179.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Solidification projection of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner."; 2011.
phillip mwachaka, Ranketi S, G O, kasyoka B, J.G KIBOI. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a Kenyan tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." THE SPINE JOURNAL. 2011;4(APRIL11):265-269.
Addis Teshome, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, Nguku EK. "Study on Weight Loss and moisture Regain of Silk Cocoon Shells and Degummed Fibers from African Wild Silkmoths." Journal of Entomology. 2011;8(5):450-458. AbstractWebsite

Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A study was conducted to determine weight loss and moisture regain properties of silk cocoon shells, shell layers and degummed fibers of the four African wild silkmoths Anaphe panda, Argema mimosae, Epiphora bauhiniae and Gonometa postica and compare "with the industry standard mulberry silkmoth, Bombyx mori. No. significant difference was observed between the moisture regain of the wild silk fibers after degumming. However, there were significant differences in weight loss and moisture regain between cocoon shells as well as shell layers. E. bauhiniae had the lowest weight loss and moisture regain of 23.19 and 5.64%, respectively while G. postica had the highest weight loss and moisture regain, 56.84 and 9.05%, respectively. The SEM micrographs also showed the presence of remnant sericin gum on the fibers surface. In both A. panda and E. bauhiniae, the outer shell layers had the lowest moisture regain and highest weight loss while the inner layer of E. bauhiniae and middle layer of A. panda lost the least weight. The physical structure and chemical composition ofthe cocoon shells and fibers contribute towards the variation in the moisture regain and weight loss and these features may have commercial implications due to their direct effect on the resulting fabric

Teshome A, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, EK N, Nguku. "Study on weight loss and moisture regain of Silk Cocoon shells and Degummed Fibers from African Wild Silkmoths." Journal of Entomology . 2011;8(5):450-458.
Teshome A, Raina SK, Vollrath F, Kabaru JM, Onyari J, Nguku EK. "Study on weight loss and moisture regain of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers from African wild silks." Journal of Entomology. 2011;8(5):450-458.
Kosgei RJ, Ndavi MP, Ong’ech JO, Abuya JM, Siika AM, Wools-Kaloustian K, Mabeya H, Fojo T, Mwangi A, Reid T, Edginton ME, Carter JE. "Symptom screening: diagnostic usefulness to detect pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected pregnant women in Kenya." Public Health Action . 2011;1(2):30-33.symptom_screening_diagnostic_usefulness_to_detect_pulmonary_tuberculosis_in_hiv-infected_pregnant_women_in_kenya.pdf
Michira IN, Richard A, Priscilla B, Immanuel I. "Synthesis, characterization and Application of Sulfonated polyaniline in Construction of a biosensor for Diazinon." International Journal of Polymeric Materials. 2011;60:469-489. AbstractWebsite

A series of sulfonated polyaniline=derivatized polyaniline nanocomposites was chemically synthesized in the presence of anthracene and naphthalene sulfonic acids. UV-vis and FTIR results indicated the emergence of new bands at 420 and 700nm and1100cm-1 in their spectra, respectively, meaning the dopant/polymer intercalations involved electronic interactions between dopant/polymer sub-lattices. The electroactive
composites displayed moderately fast electrode kinetics. A composite-based biosensor for hydrogen peroxide reached a steady state current of 9.2 and 5.3 mA, and when fine-tuned for diazinon detection gave % inhibitions to be 41 and 81% for thepolyaniline and poly-o-methoxyaniline biosensors, respectively.

Otieno, David J, Hubbard L, Ruto E. "Technical efficiency and technology gaps in beef cattle production systems in Kenya:A stochastic metafrontier analysis.". 2011. Abstract

In this study the stochastic metafrontier method is used to investigate technical efficiency and technology gaps across three main beef cattle production systems in Kenya. Results show that there is significant inefficiency in nomadic and agro-pastoral systems. Further, in contrast with ranches,these two systems were found to have lower technology gap ratios. The average pooled technical efficiency was estimated to be 0.69, which suggests that there is considerable scope to improve beef production in Kenya.

John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Farquhar C, Ruth Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha D, and John-Stewart G. "Uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission interventions in Kenya: health systems are more influential than stigma." Journal of the International AIDS Society 2011, 14:61. 2011. Abstract

Abstract
Background: We set out to determine the relative roles of stigma versus health systems in non-uptake of
prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 interventions: we conducted cross-sectional
assessment of all consenting mothers accompanying infants for six-week immunizations.
Methods: Between September 2008 and March 2009, mothers at six maternal and child health clinics in Kenya’s
Nairobi and Nyanza provinces were interviewed regarding PMTCT intervention uptake during recent pregnancy.
Stigma was ascertained using a previously published standardized questionnaire and infant HIV-1 status
determined by HIV-1 polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Among 2663 mothers, 2453 (92.1%) reported antenatal HIV-1 testing. Untested mothers were more likely
to have less than secondary education (85.2% vs. 74.9%, p = 0.001), be from Nyanza (47.1% vs. 32.2%, p < 0.001)
and have lower socio-economic status. Among 318 HIV-1-infected mothers, 90% reported use of maternal or infant
antiretrovirals. Facility delivery was less common among HIV-1-infected mothers (69% vs. 76%, p = 0.009) and was
associated with antiretroviral use (p < 0.001). Although internal or external stigma indicators were reported by
between 12% and 59% of women, stigma was not associated with lower HIV-1 testing or infant HIV-1 infection
rates; internal stigma was associated with modestly decreased antiretroviral uptake. Health system factors
contributed to about 60% of non-testing among mothers who attended antenatal clinics and to missed
opportunities in offering antiretrovirals and utilization of facility delivery. Eight percent of six-week-old HIV-1-
exposed infants were HIV-1 infected.
Conclusions: Antenatal HIV-1 testing and antiretroviral uptake was high (both more than 90%) and infant HIV-1
infection risk was low, reflecting high PMTCT coverage. Investment in health systems to deliver HIV-1 testing and
antiretrovirals can effectively prevent infant HIV-1 infection despite substantial HIV-1 stigma.
Keywords: mother-to-child HIV transmission, HIV/AIDS, Health system, testing, antiretrovirals, facility delivery

Faria PJ, Kavembe GD, Jung'a JO, Kimwele CN, Estes LD, Reilo PR, Mwangi AG, Bruford MW. "The use of non-invasive molecular techniques to confirm the presence of mountain bongo Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci populations in Kenya and preliminary inference of their mitochondrial genetic variation." Conserv Genet. 2011;10. AbstractWebsite

The mountain bongo antelope Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci has rapidly declined in recent decades, due to a combination of hunting, habitat degradation and disease. Endemic to Kenya, mountain bongo populations have shrunk to approximately 100 individuals now mainly confined to the Aberdares mountain ranges. Indirect observation of bongo signs (e.g. tracks, dung) can be misleading, thus methods to ensure reliable species identification, such as DNA-based techniques, are necessary to effectively study and monitor this species. We assessed bongo presence in four mountain habitats in Kenya (Mount Kenya National Park, Aberdare National Park, Eburu and Mau forests) and carried out a preliminary analysis of genetic variation by examining 466 bp of the first domain of the mtDNA control region using DNA extracted from faecal samples. Of the 201 dung samples collected in the field, 102 samples were molecularly identified as bongo, 97 as waterbuck, one as African buffalo and one as Aders’ duiker. Overall species-identification accuracy by experienced trackers was 64%, with very high error of commission when identifying bongo sign (37%), and high error of omission for waterbuck sign (82%), suggesting that the two species’ signs are easily confused. Despite high variation in the mtDNA control region in most antelope species, our results suggest low genetic variation in mountain bongo as only two haplotypes were detected in 102 samples analyzed. In contrast, the analysis of 63 waterbuck samples from the same sites revealed 21 haplotypes. Nevertheless, further examination using nuclear DNA markers (e.g. microsatellites) in a multi-locus approach is still required, especially because the use of mitochondrial DNA can result in population overestimation as distinct dung samples can potentially be originated from the same individual.

Karimurio J, Rono H, Richard L, Mutuku M, Keeffe J. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?" Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95:1058-1060. Abstract

Introduction: A survey to determine the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) requires a large sample size and the recommended participant age is >15 years. This study sought to establish the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in TT surveys.
Methods: Data from six previous surveys of adults >15 years old were reanalysed.
Results: Reanalysis indicated that 69.6-93.3% (average
87.0%) of untreated TT occurred in those aged 40+ years and 52.2e86.7% (average 73.1%) in those aged 50+ years (age >50 years is used in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness). Age >40 years was adopted in a TT survey conducted in Turkana district because it allowed a smaller sample size than age >15 years.
Conclusions: The estimated backlog of untreated TT in people aged >40 years old in Turkana was 5932 and the overall TT backlog was likely to be 6358-8523. These findings cannot be generalised because all surveys were carried out in the same country.

Reuben M. “Fani katika Utenzi wa Ayubu” . Mbuthia DE, Amiri DS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
R.S. O. "Africa."; 2011. Abstract
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Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda MM, Yoon IK, Lon C, Quintana M, Schnabel DC, Pimentel G, Mansour M, Tobias S, Montgomery JM, Gray GC, Saylors K, Ndip LM, Lewis S, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Kuschner RA, Russell KL, Blazes DL, Witt CJ, Money NN, Gaydos JC, Pavlin JA, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Stoner M, Shrestha SK, Owens AB, Iioshi N, Osuna MA, Martin SK, Gordon SW, Bulimo WD, Waitumbi DJ, Assefa B, Tjaden JA, Earhart KC, Kasper MR, Brice GT, Rogers WO, Kochel T, Laguna-Torres VA, Garcia J, Baker W, Wolfe N, Tamoufe U, Djoko CF, Fair JN, Akoachere JF, Feighner B, Hawksworth A, Myers CA, Courtney WG, Macintosh VA, Gibbons T, Macias EA, Grogl M, O'Neil MT, Lyons AG, Houng HS, Rueda L, Mattero A, Sekonde E, Sang R, Sang W, Palys TJ, Jerke KH, Millard M, Erima B, Mimbe D, Byarugaba D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Shiau D, Wells N, Bacon D, Misinzo G, Kulanga C, Haverkamp G, Kohi YM, Brown ML, Klein TA, Meyers M, Schoepp RJ, Norwood DA, Cooper MJ, Maza JP, Reeves WE, Guan J. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S4. AbstractWebsite

Capacity-building initiatives related to public health are defined as developing laboratory infrastructure, strengthening host-country disease surveillance initiatives, transferring technical expertise and training personnel. These initiatives represented a major piece of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) contributions to worldwide emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and response. Capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with over 80 local and regional Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Defense, as well as other government entities and institutions worldwide. The efforts supported at least 52 national influenza centers and other country-specific influenza, regional and U.S.-based EID reference laboratories (44 civilian, eight military) in 46 countries worldwide. Equally important, reference testing, laboratory infrastructure and equipment support was provided to over 500 field sites in 74 countries worldwide from October 2008 to September 2009. These activities allowed countries to better meet the milestones of implementation of the 2005 International Health Regulations and complemented many initiatives undertaken by other U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of State.

Bulimo W, JL S, MC J, RL B, KG V, MM F, IK Y, C L, M Q, DC S, G P, M M, S T, JM M, GC G, K S, LM N, S L, PJ B, PA S, RA K, KL R, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISCBW, CJ W, NN M, JC G, JA P, RV G, RG J, M S, SK S, AB O, N I, MA O, SK M, SW G, WD B, DJ W, B A, JA T, KC E, MR K, GT B, WO R, T K, VA L-T, J G, W B, N W, U T, CF D, JN F, JF A, B F, A H, CA M, WG C, VA M, T G, EA M, M G, ' O, AG L, HS H, L R, A M, E S, R S, W S, TJ P, KH J, M M, B E, D M, D B, F W-M, D S, N W, D B, G M, C K, G H, YM K, ML B, TA K, M M, RJ S, DA N, MJ C, JP M, WE R, J G. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Criminal Liability of Company Directors under the Companies Act in Kenya, 2(5).". In: The Advocate, Journal of the Law Society of Kenya, Nairobi, 20-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Criminal Liability of Corporations in Malaysia, Current L.J., Kuala Lumpur, 225-31.". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur.". In: Conference on Materials for Dams.; 2011. Abstract
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Hutchinson MJ, Ambuko J, Nyikal R, Ruto G. Essential Services Package of Support to Improve Productivity of Women Smallholder Farmers in Kenya. University of Nairobi,; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Executive Liability for Company Offenses".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Freedom of the Press and the Anti-Monopoly Law: Problems of Striking a Proper Balance. 10(1).". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda M, Pavlin JA, Shrestha SK, Schnabel DC, Tobias S, Tjaden JA, Montgomery JM, Faix DJ, Duffy MR, Cooper MJ, Sanchez JL, Blazes DL, Wangchuk S, Dorji T, Gibbons R, Iamsirithaworn S, Richardson J, Buathong R, Jarman R, Yoon IK, Shakya G, Ofula V, Coldren R, Bulimo W, Sang R, Omariba D, Obura B, Mwala D, Kasper M, Brice G, Williams M, Yasuda C, Barthel RV, Pimentel G, Meyers C, Kammerer P, Baynes DE, Metzgar D, Hawksworth A, Blair P, Ellorin M, Coon R, Macintosh V, Burwell K, Macias E, Palys T, Jerke K. "A growing global network's role in outbreak response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S3. AbstractWebsite

A cornerstone of effective disease surveillance programs comprises the early identification of infectious threats and the subsequent rapid response to prevent further spread. Effectively identifying, tracking and responding to these threats is often difficult and requires international cooperation due to the rapidity with which diseases cross national borders and spread throughout the global community as a result of travel and migration by humans and animals. From Oct.1, 2008 to Sept. 30, 2009, the United States Department of Defense's (DoD) Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) identified 76 outbreaks in 53 countries. Emerging infectious disease outbreaks were identified by the global network and included a wide spectrum of support activities in collaboration with host country partners, several of which were in direct support of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The network also supported military forces around the world affected by the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009. With IHR (2005) as the guiding framework for action, the AFHSC-GEIS network of international partners and overseas research laboratories continues to develop into a far-reaching system for identifying, analyzing and responding to emerging disease threats.

Bulimo W, MC J, RL B, KG V, M F, JA P, SK S, DC S, S T, JA T, JM M, DJ F, MR D, MJ C, JL S, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISORW, S W, T D, R G, S I, J R, R B, R J, IK Y, G S, V O, R C, W B, R S, D O, B O, D M, M K, G B, M W, C Y, RV B, G P, C M, P K, DE B, D M, A H, P B, M E, R C, V M, K B, E M, T P, K J. "A growing global network{'}s role in outbreak response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Landlords, Tenants and the Law: There is Recourse to the Law".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 19-20.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Of Association and Collusion".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Prosecution of Corporations: Procedure in Malaysia and Singapore, Malayan L.J., Singapore, xcii-ci.". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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Osoro MK, Rathore IV, MANGALA MJ, Mustapha AO. Radioactivity in surface soils around the proposed sites for Titanium Mining Project in Kenya. Citeseer; 2011. AbstractWebsite

Radioactivity measurements were carried out around Maumba and Nguluku villages, two of the proposed sites for titanium mining in the coastal area of Kenya. Samples of surface soils were analyzed using a HPGe gamma spectrometer. The average activity concentrations for …

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Restraint of Trade - Types of Contract".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a Kenyan tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

{BACKGROUND} {CONTEXT} Spinal tuberculosis ({TB)} accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal {TB.} Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of {TB}, data on spinal {TB} in this country remain scarce. {PURPOSE} To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. {STUDY} {DESIGN} Retrospective study. {SETTING} Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. {PATIENT} {SAMPLE} One hundred twenty-nine patients. {OUTCOME} {MEASURES} Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. {METHODS} This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal {TB.} {RESULTS} The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association ({ASIA)} A or {ASIA} B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-{TB} drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. {CONCLUSION} Patients with spinal {TB} in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a {Kenyan} tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Spinal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal TB. Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of TB, data on spinal TB in this country remain scarce. PURPOSE To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty-nine patients. OUTCOME MEASURES Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. METHODS This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal TB. RESULTS The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A or ASIA B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-TB drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. CONCLUSION Patients with spinal TB in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

Padmavathi G, Rajeshwari T, Niranjana Murthy KV. "Study of the variations in the origin & termination of basilar artery." Anatomica Karnataka. 2011;5:54-59. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Company as Criminal" (Executive, Nairobi, 6-8).". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Honourable Company Esq.".". In: Executive,Nairobi 29-30, 32.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Limits of Contractual Restraint".". In: Executive Nairobi, 20-21, 26.; 2011. Abstract
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Njoka E, Riechi A, Obero C, Kemunto W, Muraya D. "Towards Inclusive and Equitable Basic Education System: Kenya’s experience." ADEA Working Document. 2011. Abstract
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Bulimo W, P V, ' N{'}ang, W B, R B, J O, de EP V. "TparvaDB: a database to support Theileria parva vaccine development.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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Otto JL, Baliga P, Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Gray GC, Grieco J, Lescano AG, Mothershead JL, Wagar EJ, Blazes DL, Achila R, Baker W, Blair P, Brown M, Bulimo W, Byarugaba D, Coldren R, Cooper M, Ducatez M, Espinosa B, Ewings P, Guerrero A, Hawksworth T, Jackson C, Klena JD, Kraus S, Macintosh V, Mansour M, Maupin G, Maza J, Montgomery J, Ndip L, Pavlin J, Quintana M, Richard W, Rosenau D, Saeed T, Sinclair L, Smith I, Smith J, Styles T, Talaat M, Tobias S, Vettori J, Villinski J, Wabwire-Mangen F. "Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for IHR (2005)." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S5. AbstractWebsite

Training is a key component of building capacity for public health surveillance and response, but has often been difficult to quantify. During fiscal 2009, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supported 18 partner organizations in conducting 123 training initiatives in 40 countries for 3,130 U.S. military, civilian and host-country personnel. The training assisted with supporting compliance with International Health Regulations, IHR (2005). Training activities in pandemic preparedness, outbreak investigation and response, emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and pathogen diagnostic techniques were expanded significantly. By engaging local health and other government officials and civilian institutions, the U.S. military's role as a key stakeholder in global public health has been strengthened and has contributed to EID-related surveillance, research and capacity-building initiatives specified elsewhere in this issue. Public health and emerging infections surveillance training accomplished by AFHSC-GEIS and its Department of Defense (DoD) partners during fiscal 2009 will be tabulated and described.

Bulimo W, JL O, P B, JL S, MC J, GC G, J G, AG L, JL M, EJ W, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISTW, R A, W B, P B, M B, W B, D B, R C, M C, M D, B E, P E, A G, T H, C J, JD K, S K, V M, M M, G M, J M, J M, L N, J P, M Q, W R, D R, T S, L S, I S, J S, T S, M T, S T, J V, J V, F W-M. "Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for IHR (2005).". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
n/a
2010
E.E.; E, N.; M, P.; K, Githigia S.M., R. O. "Prevalence of Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in Homa Bay District, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi Biennial Scientific Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 2010.2010-prevalence_of_porcine_cysticercosis_and_risk_factors_in_homa_bay_kenya.pdf
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Suss R, Rading GO. "A study of as-cast alloys of the Pt-Cr-V system.". In: Proceedings of the Microscopic Society of Southern Africa Conference. Warmbaths Forever Resorts, South Africa; 2010.
Revay T, Bodzsar N, Mobegi VE, Hanotte O, Hidas A. "Origin of Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds inferred from mitochondrial {DNA} D-loop sequences." Anim. Genet.. 2010;41:548-550. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the maternal origin of six Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds using mitochondrial DNA information. Sequences of Hungarian chickens were compared with the D-loop chicken sequences annotated in the GenBank and to nine previously described reference haplotypes representing the main haplogroups of chicken. The first 530 bases of the D-loop region were sequenced in 74 chickens of nine populations. Eleven haplotypes (HIC1-HIC11) were observed from 17 variable sites. Three sequences (HIC3,HIC8 and HIC9) of our chickens were found as unique to Hungary when searched against the NCBI GenBank database. Hungarian domestic chicken mtDNA sequences could be assigned into three clades and probably two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 86%of the Hungarian haplotypes are related to the reference sequence that likely originated from the Indian subcontinent, while the minor part of our sequences presumably derive from South East Asia, China and Japan.

Sueker J, Blazes DL, Johns MC, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Tjaden JA, Montgomery JM, Pavlin JA, Schnabel DC, Eick AA, Tobias S, Quintana M, Vest KG, Burke RL, Lindler LE, Mansfield JL, Erickson RL, Russell KL, Sanchez JL. "Influenza and respiratory disease surveillance: the US military's global laboratory-based network." Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2010;4:155-61. Abstract

The US Department of Defense influenza surveillance system now spans nearly 500 sites in 75 countries, including active duty US military and dependent populations as well as host-country civilian and military personnel. This system represents a major part of the US Government's contributions to the World Health Organization's Global Influenza Surveillance Network and addresses Presidential Directive NSTC-7 to expand global surveillance, training, research and response to emerging infectious disease threats. Since 2006, the system has expanded significantly in response to rising pandemic influenza concerns. The expanded system has played a critical role in the detection and monitoring of ongoing H5N1 outbreaks worldwide as well as in the initial detection of, and response to, the current (H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic. This article describes the system, details its contributions and the critical gaps that it is filling, and discusses future plans.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Wambui P, Rodrigues A, Opiyo E. "Licence Plate Recognition System: Localization for Kenya.". In: ICCIR. Kampala Uganda; 2010.
Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Chege F, Day R, T R, A S, Muthomi J, W O, E K, R N, J.G M’E, J J, F O, Mohamed R. "A new partnership in phytosanitary capacity development for protecting agriculture and supporting trade in Africa: The Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
PW K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, Njagi L W. "Some pathological changes in Nile Tilapia and Nile Perch from Lake Victoria.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2010.2010-some_pathological_changes_in_nile_tilapia.pdf
PW K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, Njagi L W. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2010.2010-trypanosoma_infection_in_fish.pdf
Graham BJ, RG T, Mulwa JK. "Comparison of Electrical Resistivity 2D Tomography and 1D Profiling to characterize erosion and deposition in the Katonga Valley of SW Uganda.". In: British Society for Geomorphology/British Geomorphological Research Group.; 2010.
John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson B, Ruth Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart G. "Cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum period." Curr. HIV Res.. 2010;8(7):510-4. Abstract

to estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum.

Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

Peters PJ, Stringer J, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Ratanasuwan W, Intalapaporn P, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Zulu I, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Brooks JT, Weidle PJ. "Nevirapine-associated hepatotoxicity was not predicted by CD4 count ≥250 cells/μL among women in Zambia, Thailand and Kenya." HIV Med.. 2010;11(10):650-60. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for developing severe hepatotoxicity (grade 3 or 4 hepatotoxicity) and rash-associated hepatotoxicity (rash with ≥ grade 2 hepatotoxicity) among women initiating nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, Hughes JP, Thomas KK, Mujugira A, Mugo N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Kidoguchi L, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L, Celum C. "Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2010;375(9717):824-33. Abstract

Most people infected with HIV-1 are dually infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. Daily suppression of this herpes virus reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but whether it delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. We investigated the effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 progression.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Kapiga SH, Ronald A, John-Stewart G, Inambao M, Manongi R, Vwalika B, Celum C. "Male circumcision and risk of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission: a multinational prospective study in African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." AIDS. 2010;24(5):737-44. Abstract

Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV-1 transmission risk by approximately 60%. Data assessing the effect of circumcision on male-to-female HIV-1 transmission are conflicting, with one observational study among HIV-1-serodiscordant couples showing reduced transmission but a randomized trial suggesting no short-term benefit of circumcision.

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

Rouet F, Foulongne V, Viljoen J, Steegen K, Becquart P, Valéa D, Danaviah S, Segondy M, Verhofstede C, Van de Perre P. "Comparison of the Generic HIV Viral Load assay with the Amplicor HIV-1 monitor v1.5 and Nuclisens HIV-1 EasyQ v1.2 techniques for plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation of non-B subtypes: the Kesho Bora preparatory study." J. Virol. Methods. 2010;163(2):253-7. Abstract

The implementation of cost effective HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays in resource-poor settings is of paramount importance for monitoring HV-1 infection. A study comparing the analytical performance of three HIV-1 RNA assays (Generic HIV Viral Load, Amplicor v1.5 and Nuclisens EasyQ v1.2) was performed on 160 plasma samples from 160 consecutive antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women assessed for eligibility in the Kesho Bora trial aimed at prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in three African countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya and South Africa). Correlation and agreement of results of the three assays were assessed for plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation in specimens harbouring mainly sub-subtype A1, subtype C, and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 02_AG and CRF06_cpx. Good degrees of correlation and agreement were observed between these HIV-1 RNA assays. However, nine (9/160, 5.6%) strains detectable with the Generic HIV Viral Load assay were not detected by either the Amplicor (n=7) or EasyQ (n=2) test. One strain (0.6%) was missed with the Generic HIV Viral Load assay. Further, concordantly positive plasma samples harbouring CRF02_AG and CRF06_cpx yielded significantly higher HIV-1 RNA concentrations when tested by Generic HIV Viral Load, as compared to Amplicor v1.5 (mean differences, +0.33 and +0.67 log(10) copies/ml; P=0.0004 and P=0.002, respectively). The Generic HIV Viral Load assay accurately quantified the majority of the non-B HIV-1 subtypes assessed in this study. Due to its low cost (approximately 10 US $/test), this assay performed with open real-time PCR instruments is now used routinely in the Kesho Bora trial and may be recommended in other African settings.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng'o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(3):160-3. Abstract

With the emerging utilisation of ansa cervicalis in nerve reconstructive surgery, it is important for surgeons to be conversant with the anatomy of these nerves. This descriptive cross sectional study aimed at describing the morphology and topographic anatomy of ansa cervicalis. We examined 38 adult human formalin-fixed cadavers. The superior root was present in 38 (100%) cases and 37 (97%) cases, on the right and left sides, respectively. More than half (56%) of these roots were located superior to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. The inferior root, on the other hand, was present in 34 (89.5%) cases on the right side and 31 (81.6%) cases on the left side. Of all the inferior roots, 81.5% were located lateral to the internal jugular vein. The loop was seen in all the cases that had the inferior root, and was mostly (64.6%) located above the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle. Knowledge of the anatomy of ansa cervicalis is not only important for nerve reconstruction surgeries, but also for operations in the neck, so as to avoid injuring the great vessels that are closely related to it.

Lingappa JR, Hughes JP, Wang RS, Baeten JM, Celum C, Gray GE, Stevens WS, Donnell D, Campbell MS, Farquhar C, Essex M, Mullins JI, Coombs RW, Rees H, Corey L, Wald A. "Estimating the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission risk." PLoS ONE. 2010;5(9):e12598. Abstract

The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART), therapeutic vaccines, and other non-ART interventions.

Waris A, Kohonen M, Ranguma J, Mosioma A. Taxation and State Building in Kenya: Using Human Rights to Advance Revenue Capacity. Nairobi: Tax Justice Network; 2010.
o. K K, R.N K, G WR, W. E. "Effects of supplementing mesquit ( Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Keny.". In: Second RUFORUM Biennial Meetin. Entebbe, Uganda; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner
Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4%
dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4
(2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

D.C W, E.M O, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, G J-S. "1. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a prospective cohort." BCM Pediatr. 2010:10-33.predictors_of_mortality_in_hiv-1infected_children.pdf
Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010.Website
Migowa AN, Gatinu B, RW. N. "Adherence to oral rehydration therapy among in-patient children aged 1-59 months with some or no dehydration. ." J Trop Pediatr. 2010 Apr;56(2):103-7. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp059. Epub 2009 Jul 14.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine adherence to oral rehydration solution (ORS) among in-patients aged 1-59 months suffering from gastroenteritis and having some dehydration (SD) or no dehydration (ND) in two rural hospitals in Kenya.
METHODS:

Children aged 1-59 months suffering from acute gastroenteritis with (SD) or (ND) were enrolled into the study, examined and medical records reviewed. On the second and third day of follow up, children were re-examined to ascertain hydration status and care-takers interviewed.
RESULTS:

Ninety-nine children were enrolled. Forty-five (75%) of the 60 children with SD received a correct prescription for ORS but only 12 (20%) received the correct amount. Among the 39 children with ND, 23 (59%) received a correct prescription for ORS, however only 16 (41%) received the correct amount. On the 3rd day, 9 (15%) of the 60 children with SD at baseline and 2 (5%) of the 39 with ND were classified as having SD.
CONCLUSION:

Four in five children with SD and 6 in 10 children with ND fail to receive the correct amounts of ORS.

Losovyj YB, Ruihua Cheng, J Carvell, E Ayieta. "Angle resolved photoemission study of surface states on the Pt (997) vicinal surface." Physics Letters A. 2010;374(30):3080-3083. Abstract

One-dimensional atomic chains can be synthesized on stepped surfaces and the electronic
structure of the high vicinal surface plays an essential role in determining the physical
properties of atomic chains grown on top of it. We have applied surface analysis techniques
to study the surface of a Pt (997) single crystal. The STM image of the surface showed that
the surface was uniform with a well defined distance between the terraces. Angle resolved
photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) was used to characterize the electronic states of …

Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. "Are Blind People More Likely to Accept Free Cataract Surgery? A Study of Vision-Related Quality of Life and Visual Acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17(1):41-49. Abstract

Purpose: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and visionrelated Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.
Methods: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.
Results: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.
Conclusion: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person’s decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

Chindia M, Butt FM, Kenyanya T, Rana F, Gathece LW. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton.". 2010.
E L, A O, M C, V C, G C, S M, R C, J N, W M, R I, K S, C B, Leoncini L. "B cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt Lymphoma is impaired at post-transcriptional level by miRNA altered expression. ." Int J. Cancer.. 2010;126(6):1316-26.
Sigana DOA. The biology of the mullets (Pisces: Mugilidae) from Kilifi, a tropical mangrove creek on the Kenya coast. Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Ebrahim YH, Rukwaro RW, Sealey A. Building design and development 1: Thermal design. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2010.
Ebrahim YH, Rukwaro RW, Sealey A. Building science: Thermal design. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2010.
John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Farquhar C, Ruth Nduati, and Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha GJ-S. "Cofactors for HIV-1 Incidence during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period." Curr HIV Res. 2010 October ; 8(7): 510–514.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Objectives—To estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy
and postpartum.
Design—Retrospective study among women who were HIV seronegative during pregnancy.
Methods—Mothers accompanying their infants for routine 6-week immunizations at 6 maternal
child health clinics in Nairobi and Western Kenya were tested for HIV-1 after completing a
questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographics, obstetric history and HIV-1 risk
perception.
Results—Of 2,135 mothers who had tested HIV-1 seronegative antenatally, 2,035 (95.3%)
accepted HIV-1 re-testing at 6 weeks postpartum. Of these, 53 (2.6%) were HIV-1 seropositive
yielding an estimated HIV-1 incidence of 6.8 (95% CI: 5.1-8.8) per 100 woman-years). Mothers
who seroconverted were more likely to be employed (45.3% vs 29.0%, p=0.01), married (96.2 vs
86.6%, p=0.04) and from a higher HIV-1 prevalence region (60.4% in Western Kenya vs 28.8% in
Nairobi, p<0.001). Among married women, those in polygamous relationship were significantly
more likely to seroconvert (19.6% vs 6.7%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, region and
employment independently predicted seroconversion.
Conclusions—Repeat HIV-1 testing in early postpartum was highly acceptable and resulted in
detection of substantial HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum period. Within
prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission programs strategic approaches to prevent
maternal HIV-1 acquisition during pregnancy are urgently needed.

R.G. OGJJ &. Company Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
Rading GO. "D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Analysis of the Weld Strength of High Density Polyethylene Dam Liner." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):12-23.
Haile A;, Duguma G;, Mirkena T;, Tibbo M;, Iñiguez L;, Rischkowsky B;, Mwai OA;, Wurzinger M;, Sölkner J. "Designing and implementation of community-based breeding programs for adapted local sheep breeds in Ethiopia."; 2010.
MO O, RO O. "The Dialectics of Sustainable Kibera Neighbourhood Development." International Refereed Journal the Icfai University Journal of Architecture. 2010;II(1).
R B, S S, Villinger.J, J M, R.D N, H.R P. Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya. JKUAT; 2010.
Farah Z;, Meyer J;, Wangoh J;, Eberhard P;, Gallmann P;, Rehberger. B. "Effect of Ultra - High - Temperature treatments on camel milk.".; 2010.
Bellan C, Stefano L, Giulia DF, Giulia DF, Rogena EA, Lorenzo L. "Emily Rogena Emily Rogena Burkitt lymphoma versus diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma: a practical approach.". 2010. Abstract

Abstract Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) is listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid tumours as an 'aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma', characterized by a high degree of proliferation of the malignant cells and deregulation of the c-MYC gene. The main diagnostic challenge in BL is to distinguish it from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While in children BL and DLBCL types probably do not differ clinically, and the differential diagnosis between BL and DLBCL may theoretically appear clear-cut, ...

Dambolena JS, Zunino MP, Lopez AG, Rubinstein HR, Zygadlo JA, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JM, Mwalukumbi JM, Kariuki ST. "Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. From Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2010;11:410-414.
Shaka, Roushdy, Dulo. Flood and Drought Forecasting and Early Warning Program (For the Nile Basin). Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering; 2010.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

{
BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages.
RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012

Migowa AN;, Murungi CW;, Gatinu BW;, Mbithe J;, Kimani E;, Okiro P;, Rana FS;, Ochieng R;, R W Nduati. "Harlequin ichthyosis in an African child: case report.". 2010. Abstract

Severe congenital skin abnormalities are a rare event. This case is unique in that it is a case of harlequin ichthyosis in sub-sahara Africa in a child of African origin and elaborates the challenges faced in its management. We present a neonate who was managed for this condition at Chogoria Mission Hospital. In presenting this case, we aim to sensitise healthcare providers to promptly recognise and manage this rare skin condition.

RW. N. "HIV prevention--a public health priority. ." East Afr Med J. 2010 Mar;87(3):89-90. No abstract available. PMID: 23057303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] . 2010.
Raphael Kaplinsky, Morris. M. "Impacts and Challenges of a Growing Relationship Between China and Sub Saharan Africa.". In: The Political Economy of Africa, pp. 389-409. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41; 2010.
Musoni1* A, Paul Kimani2, R. D. Narla2, Buruchara3 R, Kelly4 J. "Inheritance of fusarium wilts (Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. phaseoli) resistance in climbing beans." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2010;5(5): 399-404,4.inheritance_of_fusarim_wilts_resistance_in_climbing_beans.
Jamison, J.L., MOULTON, J.E., Riley, F.E., Ramsdell, D.L., Serio, V.M, Rothschild, L.J., F. Mwaura, and Duboise SM. "Integration of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Extremophile Virology Research into University and K-12 Education in Maine and Kenya." Microscopy & Microanalysis. 2010;16 S2:1962-1963.
Rayya. "Kikojozi.". In: Mizungu ya Manabii na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers; 2010.
AO A, VA M, JM M, Jianlin H, BM O, RA A, LO I, BO M, O A, G B, H J, O H. "Lack of phylogeographic structure in Nigerian village chickens revealed by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence analysis." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2010;9:503-507. Abstract

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Riogi B, Odhiambo K, Ogutu O. "Lithopedion Causing Intestinal Obstruction." The Annals of African Surgery . 2010;vol 8(No 7).lithopaedon.docx
J Carvell, E Ayieta, A Gavrin RCVRSSP, A Gavrin, Ruihua Cheng, Shah VR, Sokol P. "Magnetic properties of iron nanoparticle." Journal of Applied Physics. 2010;107(10):103913. Abstract

Magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles with different sizes synthesized by a physical
deposition technique have been investigated experimentally. We have used a high pressure
sputtering technique to deposit iron nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. The nanoparticles
are then analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy
(TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device techniques. TEM and AFM data
show that the particle size could be tuned by adjusting the deposition conditions. The …

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