Publications

Found 2547 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is R  [Clear All Filters]
2013
Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Penman I. Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Ofula VO, Franklin AB, Root JJ, Sullivan HJ, Gichuki P, Makio A, Bulimo W, Abong'o BO, Muchai M, Schnabel D. "Detection of avian influenza viruses in wild waterbirds in the Rift valley of Kenya using fecal sampling." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2013;13:394-400. Abstract
n/a
Obamba MO, Kimbwarata J, RIECHI ANDREWR. "Development Impacts of International Partnerships.". In: Internationalisation of African Higher Education. SensePublishers; 2013:. Abstract
n/a
RIECHI ANDREWR. "DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS OF INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS: A KENYAN CASE STUDY." Internationalisation of African Higher Education: Towards Achieving the MDGs. 2013:151. Abstract
n/a
Kandas I, Zhang B, Daengngam C, Ashry I, Jao C-Y, Peng B, Ozdemir SK, Robinson HD, Heflin JR, Yang L, others. "High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled nanomaterials." Optics express. 2013;21:20601-20610. Abstract
n/a
Sika JO, Gravenir FQ, Riechi A. "Rate and Trends of Academic Performance Index and Level of Subject Satisfactory Outcomes." Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 2013;4:127-133. Abstract
n/a
Stenmark KR, Yeager ME, El Kasmi KC, Nozik-Grayck E, Gerasimovskaya EV, Li M, Riddle SR, Frid MG. "The {Adventitia}: {Essential} {Regulator} of {Vascular} {Wall} {Structure} and {Function}." Annual Review of Physiology. 2013;75:23-47. AbstractWebsite

The vascular adventitia acts as a biological processing center for the retrieval, integration, storage, and release of key regulators of vessel wall function. It is the most complex compartment of the vessel wall and is composed of a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, immunomodulatory cells (dendritic cells and macrophages), progenitor cells, vasa vasorum endothelial cells and pericytes, and adrenergic nerves. In response to vascular stress or injury, resident adventitial cells are often the first to be activated and reprogrammed to influence the tone and structure of the vessel wall; to initiate and perpetuate chronic vascular inflammation; and to stimulate expansion of the vasa vasorum, which can act as a conduit for continued inflammatory and progenitor cell delivery to the vessel wall. This review presents the current evidence demonstrating that the adventitia acts as a key regulator of vascular wall function and structure from the outside in.

2012
Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Odera B, Odusote JK, Witcomb MJ, Chown LH, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Update on the development of platinum-based alloys for potential high-temperature applications. .". In: Proceedings of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Platinum 2012 Conference. Sun City, South Africa; 2012.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Papo MJ, Rading GO. "Microstructural investigation of some as-cast alloys of the Pt-Cr-V system.". In: Proceedings of the Ferrous and Base Metals Development Network Conference. Magaliesburg, South Africa; 2012.
Corselli M, Chen C-W, Sun B, Yap S, Rubin PJ, Péault B. "The {Tunica} {Adventitia} of {Human} {Arteries} and {Veins} {As} a {Source} of {Mesenchymal} {Stem} {Cells}." Stem Cells and Development. 2012;21:1299-1308. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Stenmark KR, Frid MG, Yeager M, Li M, Riddle S, McKinsey T, El Kasmi KC. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary circulation. 2012;2:3-14. Abstract

Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated early following vascular injury, and play essential roles in regulating vascular wall structure and function through production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recognition of the ability of these cells to generate and maintain inflammatory responses within the vessel wall provides insight into why vascular inflammatory responses, in certain situations, fail to resolve. It is also clear that the activated adventitial fibroblast plays an important role in regulating vasa vasorum growth, which can contribute to ongoing vascular remodeling by acting as a conduit for delivery of inflammatory and progenitor cells. These functions of the fibroblast clearly support the idea that targeting chemokine, cytokine, adhesion molecule, and growth factor production in activated fibroblasts could be helpful in abrogating vascular inflammatory responses and thus in ameliorating vascular disease. Further, the recent observations that fibroblasts in vascular and fibrotic diseases may maintain their activated state through epigenetic alterations in key inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes suggests that current therapies used to treat pulmonary hypertension may not be sufficient to induce apoptosis or to inhibit key inflammatory signaling pathways in these fibroblasts. New therapies targeted at reversing changes in the acetylation or methylation status of key transcriptional networks may be needed. At present, therapies specifically targeting abnormalities of histone deacytelase (HDAC) activity in fibroblast-like cells appear to hold promise.

Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S, Rueden C, Saalfeld S, Schmid B, Tinevez J-Y, White DJ, Hartenstein V, Eliceiri K, Tomancak P, Cardona A. "Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis." Nature Methods. 2012;9:676-682. AbstractWebsite

Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

Fagundes A, Pereira AH, Corrêa RK, de Oliveira MT, Rodriguez R. "Effects of removal of the adventitia of the descending aorta and structural alterations in the tunica media in pigs." Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 2012;39:133-138. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of removal of the adventitia on the tunica media in a pig model. METHODS: The experiment was performed in eight pigs. The adventitia of the descending aorta was removed. Following euthanasia, at two, four, six and eight weeks, the aortic segment was removed. Next, slices of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Weigert-Van Gieson. RESULTS: After two weeks there was a slight cellular breakdown in the outer third of the media. After four weeks structural breakdown of elastic fibers was observed in the outer two thirds of the same layer. In six weeks, several areas of necrosis and almost complete disruption of elastic fibers were identified. Finally, after eight weeks, there was fibrosis of the entire wall with disruption of the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: The removal of the adventitia leads to degeneration of the media, determining loss of the normal structure of the aortic wall that is variable in its location, intensity and shape, depending on the length and duration of the ischemic insult.

Fagundes A, Pereira AH, Corrêa RK, de Oliveira MT, Rodriguez R. "Effects of removal of the adventitia of the descending aorta and structural alterations in the tunica media in pigs." Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 2012;39:133-138. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of removal of the adventitia on the tunica media in a pig model. METHODS: The experiment was performed in eight pigs. The adventitia of the descending aorta was removed. Following euthanasia, at two, four, six and eight weeks, the aortic segment was removed. Next, slices of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Weigert-Van Gieson. RESULTS: After two weeks there was a slight cellular breakdown in the outer third of the media. After four weeks structural breakdown of elastic fibers was observed in the outer two thirds of the same layer. In six weeks, several areas of necrosis and almost complete disruption of elastic fibers were identified. Finally, after eight weeks, there was fibrosis of the entire wall with disruption of the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: The removal of the adventitia leads to degeneration of the media, determining loss of the normal structure of the aortic wall that is variable in its location, intensity and shape, depending on the length and duration of the ischemic insult.

Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Assessing Progress with the Implementation of the Public Transport Policy in Kenya.". In: 31st Southern African Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Ommeh. M. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of the Potential for Their Conversion into a Hybrid Transport Mode.". In: Southern Africa Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "‘Paratransit Operations and Regulation in Nairobi: Matatu Business Strategies and the Regulatory Regime.’ Paper presented at the Southern African Transport Conf." Nairobi - Silver Springs Hotel; 2012.
Diener LC, Slyker JA, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Tapia KA, Richardson BA, Dalton Wamalwa, Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Maleche-Obimbo E, John-Stewart G. "Performance of the integrated management of childhood illness algorithm for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among African infants." AIDS. 2012;26(15):1935-41. Abstract

Early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and treatment substantially improve survival. Where virologic HIV-1 testing is unavailable, integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) clinical algorithms may be used for infant HIV-1 screening. We evaluated the performance of the 2008 WHO IMCI HIV algorithm in a cohort of HIV-exposed Kenyan infants.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Liu AY, Bosire R, Nuvor SV, Choi RY, Mackelprang RD, Kiarie JN, De Rosa SC, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Farquhar C. "HIV-1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay responses in HIV-1-exposed uninfected partners in discordant relationships compared to those in low-risk controls." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2012;19(11):1798-805. Abstract

A number of studies of highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative individuals (HESN) have found HIV-1-specific cellular responses. However, there is limited evidence that responses prevent infection or are linked to HIV-1 exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from HESN in HIV-1-discordant relationships and low-risk controls in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV-1-specific responses were detected using gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays stimulated by peptide pools spanning the subtype A HIV-1 genome. The HIV-1 incidence in this HESN cohort was 1.5 per 100 person years. Positive ELISpot responses were found in 34 (10%) of 331 HESN and 14 (13%) of 107 low-risk controls (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; P = 0.476). The median immunodominant response was 18.9 spot-forming units (SFU)/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among HESN, increasing age (OR = 1.24 per 5 years; P = 0.026) and longer cohabitation with the HIV-1-infected partner (OR = 5.88 per 5 years; P = 0.003) were associated with responses. These factors were not associated with responses in controls. Other exposure indicators, including the partner's HIV-1 load (OR = 0.99 per log(10) copy/ml; P = 0.974) and CD4 count (OR = 1.09 per 100 cells/μl; P = 0.238), were not associated with responses in HESN. HIV-1-specific cellular responses may be less relevant to resistance to infection among HESN who are using risk reduction strategies that decrease their direct viral exposure.

Irungu E, Chersich MF, Sanon C, Chege R, Gaillard P, Temmerman M, Read JS, Luchters S. "Changes in sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in west and east Africa in the first 24 months after delivery." AIDS. 2012;26(8):997-1007. Abstract

Describe changes in sexual behaviour and determinants of unsafe sex among HIV-infected women in the 24 months after delivery.

Balkus JE, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Richardson BA, Masese L, Gitau R, Kiarie J, Marrazzo J, Farquhar C, McClelland SR. "The posttrial effect of oral periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections on the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and Lactobacillus colonization." Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39(5):361-5. Abstract

We previously demonstrated a decrease in bacterial vaginosis (BV) and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization among randomized controlled trial (RCT) participants who received monthly oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT; 2 g metronidazole + 150 mg fluconazole). Posttrial data were analyzed to test the hypothesis that the treatment effect would persist after completion of 1 year of PPT.

Balkus JE, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Richardson BA, Masese L, Gitau R, Kiarie J, Marrazzo J, Farquhar C, McClelland SR. "The posttrial effect of oral periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections on the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and Lactobacillus colonization." Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39(5):361-5. Abstract

We previously demonstrated a decrease in bacterial vaginosis (BV) and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization among randomized controlled trial (RCT) participants who received monthly oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT; 2 g metronidazole + 150 mg fluconazole). Posttrial data were analyzed to test the hypothesis that the treatment effect would persist after completion of 1 year of PPT.

Rositch AF, Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, Farquhar C. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):468-74. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner's HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner's status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rositch AF, Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, Farquhar C. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(7):468-74. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner's HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner's status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, de Bruyn G, Nakku-Joloba E, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Coombs RW, Baeten JM. "Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study." Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. Abstract

Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.

Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, de Bruyn G, Nakku-Joloba E, Ngure K, Kiarie J, Coombs RW, Baeten JM. "Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study." Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. Abstract

Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.

Ngure K, Heffron R, Mugo NR, Celum C, Cohen CR, Odoyo J, Rees H, Kiarie JN, Were E, Baeten JM. "Contraceptive method and pregnancy incidence among women in HIV-1-serodiscordant partnerships." AIDS. 2012;26(4):513-8. Abstract

Effective contraception reduces unintended pregnancies and is a central strategy to reduce vertical HIV-1 transmission for HIV-1-infected women.

Ngure K, Heffron R, Mugo NR, Celum C, Cohen CR, Odoyo J, Rees H, Kiarie JN, Were E, Baeten JM. "Contraceptive method and pregnancy incidence among women in HIV-1-serodiscordant partnerships." AIDS. 2012;26(4):513-8. Abstract

Effective contraception reduces unintended pregnancies and is a central strategy to reduce vertical HIV-1 transmission for HIV-1-infected women.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie J, John-Stewart G, Wald A, Richardson BA, Hitti J, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Farquhar C. "Valacyclovir suppressive therapy reduces plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy and postpartum: a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):366-75. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Roxby AC, Drake AL, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Matemo DN, Overbaugh J, Emery S, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, Farquhar C. "Effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e38622. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.

Roxby AC, Drake AL, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Matemo DN, Overbaugh J, Emery S, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, Farquhar C. "Effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e38622. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Kiarie J, Richardson BA, Wald A, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Infant safety during and after maternal valacyclovir therapy in conjunction with antiretroviral HIV-1 prophylaxis in a randomized clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(4):e34635. Abstract

Maternal administration of the acyclovir prodrug valacyclovir is compatible with pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, the safety profile of prolonged infant and maternal exposure to acyclovir in the context of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) has not been described.

Drake AL, Roxby AC, Kiarie J, Richardson BA, Wald A, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Infant safety during and after maternal valacyclovir therapy in conjunction with antiretroviral HIV-1 prophylaxis in a randomized clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(4):e34635. Abstract

Maternal administration of the acyclovir prodrug valacyclovir is compatible with pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, the safety profile of prolonged infant and maternal exposure to acyclovir in the context of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) has not been described.

Rositch AF, Gatuguta A, Choi RY, Guthrie BL, Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Manyara L, Kiarie JN, Smith JS, Farquhar C. "Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40766. Abstract

Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.

Rositch AF, Gatuguta A, Choi RY, Guthrie BL, Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Manyara L, Kiarie JN, Smith JS, Farquhar C. "Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40766. Abstract

Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.

MONARI FRONICA, Andollo AA, Rambo DCM. "Influence of Quality Management Systems on Service Provision in the University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African International Business and Mnagement (AIBUMA). Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
R NYONJE, KYALO DN, MULWA ANELINE. ). Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes: A Hand Book for Students and Practioners. Nairobi: Aura Books-ISBN 9966-123-456-7 ; 2012.
Konyole SO, Kinyuru JN, Owuor BO, Kenji GM, Onyango CA, Estambale BB, Friis H, Roos N, Owino VO. "Acceptability of Amaranth Grain-based Nutritious Complementary Foods with Dagaa Fish (Rastrineobola argentea) and Edible Termites (Macrotermes subhylanus) Compared to Corn Soy Blend Plus among Young Children/Mothers Dyads in Western Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Slyker JA, Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, Reilly M, Richardson B, Emery VC, Atzberger A, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection is associated with increased frequencies of activated and apoptosis-vulnerable T cells in HIV-1-infected infants.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection is associated with infant HIV-1 disease progression and mortality. In a cohort of Kenyan HIV-infected infants, the frequencies of activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and apoptosis-vulnerable (CD95(+) Bcl-2(-)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased substantially during acute CMV infection. The frequency of activated CD4(+) T cells was strongly associated with both concurrent CMV coinfection (P = 0.001) and HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.05). The frequency of apoptosis-vulnerable cells was also associated with CMV coinfection in the CD4 (P = 0.02) and CD8 (P < 0.001) T cell subsets. Similar observations were made in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. CMV-induced increases in T cell activation and apoptosis may contribute to the rapid disease progression in coinfected infants.

Nthakanio NP, Ireri KJ, Munji. KJ, Raphael W. Adaptability of PGMS and TGMS rice lines for hybrid rice seed production in Kenya..; 2012.
Musumba GW, R.O. O, E.T.O. O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
Musumba GW, R.Oboko GW, E.T.Omulo O. "Agent Based Adaptive Learning Model for Intermittent Internet Connection Conditions." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012.
Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Onywera VO. "Analysis of Factors that affect the standard of soccer in Africa. The case of East African countries." Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES). 2012;12(1):135-139.
Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T. "Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent." 12. 2012;11(12):2-15.analysis_of_pan-african_centres_of_excellence_in_health_innovation_highlights_opportunities_and_challenges_for_local_innovation_and_in.pdf
Drannik AG, Nag K, Yao X-D, Henrick BM, Jain S, Ball BT, Plummer FA, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Rosenthal KL. "Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Is More Potent than Its Precursor's, Trappin-2, in Genital Epithelial Cells.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) is a natural source of anti-HIV-1 factors; however, molecular characterization of the anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that CVLs from HIV-1-resistant (HIV-R) compared to HIV-1-susceptible (HIV-S) commercial sex workers (CSWs) contain significantly larger amounts of serine antiprotease trappin-2 (Tr) and its processed form, elafin (E). We assessed anti-HIV-1 activity of CVLs of CSWs and recombinant E and Tr on genital epithelial cells (ECs) that possess (TZM-bl) or lack (HEC-1A) canonical HIV-1 receptors. Our results showed that immunodepletion of 30% of Tr/E from CVL accounted for up to 60% of total anti-HIV-1 activity of CVL. Knockdown of endogenous Tr/E in HEC-1A cells resulted in significantly increased shedding of infectious R5 and X4 HIV-1. Pretreatment of R5, but not X4 HIV-1, with either Tr or E led to inhibition of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. Interestingly, when either HIV-1 or cells lacking canonical HIV-1 receptors were pretreated with Tr or E, HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis were significantly reduced, and decreased attachment was not associated with altered expression of syndecan-1 or CXCR4. Determination of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Tr and E anti-HIV-1 activity indicated that E is ~130 times more potent than its precursor, Tr, despite their equipotent antiprotease activities. This study provides the first experimental evidence that (i) Tr and E are among the principal anti-HIV-1 molecules of CVL; (ii) Tr and E affect cell attachment and transcytosis of HIV-1; (iii) E is more efficient than Tr regarding anti-HIV-1 activity; and (iv) the anti-HIV-1 effect of Tr and E is contextual

Endale M, Alao JP, Akala HM, Rono NK, Eyase FL, Solomon D, Ndakala A, Mbugua M, Walsh DS, Erdelyl M, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial Quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata." Planta Medica . 2012;78(1):31-35.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "As-cast and heat-treated alloys of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner." The Journal of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
Ndambiri HK;, Ritho C;, Mbogoh SG;, Ng’ang’a SI;, Muiruri EJ;, Nyangweso PM;, Kipsat MJ;, Ogada JO;, Omboto PI;, Kefa C;, Kubowon PC;, Cherotwo FH. "Assessment of Farmers' Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in Kenya: the Case of Kyuso District.". 2012. Abstract

The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change. Survey data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The probit regression model was fitted into the data in order to assess factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to the effects of climate change. The analysis revealed that 85% of the farmers had adapted in various ways to the effects of climate change. In this regard, the age of the farmer, gender, education, farming experience, farm income, access to climate information, household size, local agro-ecology, distance to input/output market, access to credit, access to water for irrigation, precipitation and temperature were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to adapt to climate change. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change.

Murila F, Obimbo MM, R. M. "Assessment of knowledge on neonatal resuscitation amongst health care providers in Kenya." Pan Afr Med J. 2012;11:78. Epub 2012 Apr 24.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
INTRODUCTION:
Competence in neonatal resuscitation, which represents the most urgent pediatric clinical situation, is critical in delivery rooms to ensure safety and health of newly born infants. The challenges experienced by health care providers during this procedure are unique due to different causes of cardio respiratory arrest. This study aimed at assessing the knowledge of health providers on neonatal resuscitation.
METHODS:
Data were gathered among 192 health providers drawn from all counties of Kenya. The clinicians were asked to complete questionnaires which were in two parts as; demographic information and assessment of their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for windows. The results are presented using tables.
RESULTS:
All the participants were aged 23 years and above with at least a certificate training. Most medical providers had heard of neonatal resuscitation (85.4%) with only 23 receiving formal training. The average duration of neonatal training was 3 hours with 50% having missed out on practical exposure. When asked on steps of resuscitation, only 68 (35.4%) of the participants scored above 85%. More than 70% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal resuscitation inadequate and blamed it on inadequate medical training programs.
CONCLUSION:
Health providers, as the key personnel in the management of neonatal resuscitation, in this survey seem to have inadequate training and knowledge on this subject. Increasing the duration and quality of formal training should be considered during the pre-service medical education to ensure acceptable neonatal outcome.

Rading GO. "B O Odera, L A Cornish, M B Shongwe, G O Rading and M J Papo: As Cast and Heat Treated Alloys of the Pt-Al-V System at the Pt-Rich Corner." Journal of the Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
Ongarora DSB, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Masimirembwa CM. "Benzoheterocyclic amodiaquine analogues with potent antiplasmodial activity: Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. . 2012;22(15):5046-5050.
Lohman-Payne B, Slyker JA MS, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C O, Overbaugh J J-SG. "Breast milk cellular HIV-specific interferon γ responses are associated with protection from peripartum HIV transmission." AIDS. 2012 Oct 23;26(16):2007-16. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328359b7e0.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Breast milk is a major route of infant HIV infection, yet the majority of breast-fed, HIV-exposed infants escape infection by unknown mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the role of HIV-specific breast milk cells in preventing infant HIV infection.
DESIGN:
A prospective study was designed to measure associations between maternal breast milk HIV-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses and infant HIV-1 detection at 1 month of age.
METHODS:
In a Kenyan cohort of HIV-infected mothers, blood and breast milk HIV-gag IFN-γ ELISpot responses were measured. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between breast milk IFN-γ responses and infant HIV infection at 1 month of age.
RESULTS:
IFN-γ responses were detected in breast milk from 117 of 170 (69%) women. IFN-γ responses were associated with breast milk viral load, levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α, MIP-1β, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted and stromal-cell derived factor 1 and subclinical mastitis. Univariate factors associated with infant HIV infection at 1 month postpartum included both detection and breadth of breast milk IFN-γ response (P = 0.08, P = 0.04, respectively), breast milk MIP-1β detection (P = 0.05), and plasma (P = 0.004) and breast milk (P = 0.004) viral load. In multivariate analyses adjusting for breast milk viral load and MIP-1β, breast milk IFN-γ responses were associated with an approximately 70% reduction in infant HIV infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.092-0.91], and each additional peptide pool targeted was associated with an approximately 35% reduction in infant HIV (aOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97).
CONCLUSION:
These data show breast milk HIV-gag-specific IFN-γ cellular immune responses are prevalent and may contribute to protection from early HIV transmission. More broadly, these data suggest breast milk cellular responses are potentially influential in decreasing mother-to-child transmission of viruses.

Tonya Renee Thurman, Jarabi B, Rice J. "Caring for the caregiver: evaluation of support groups for guardians of orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya, AIDS Care." Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, DOI:10.1080/09540121.2011.644229. 2012.
Blish CA, Dogan OC, Jaoko W, McClelland RS, Mandaliya K, Odem-Davis KS, Richardsonb BA, Overbaugh J. "Cellular Immune Responses And Susceptibility To HIV-1 Superinfection: A Case-control Study.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

A case-control study was performed to determine the effects of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses on the odds of acquiring a second HIV-1 infection (superinfection). Changes in the frequency of cytokine-producing or cytolytic CD8+ or CD4+ T cells were not associated with significant alterations in the odds of superinfection, suggesting that HIV-1 specific cellular immune responses at the level induced by chronic infection do not appear to significantly contribute to protection from HIV-1 superinfection.

Renaud Becquet, Milly Marston, Franc¸ois Dabis, Lawrence H. Moulton, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Debra Jackson, Anna Coutsoudis, Charles Kilewo, Vale´ riane Leroy, Stefan Z. Wiktor, Ruth Nduati, Philippe Msellati, Basia Zaba PGD, the survival group" Marie-Louise Newell UNAIDSC. "Children Who Acquire HIV Infection Perinatally Are at Higher Risk of Early Death than Those Acquiring Infection through Breastmilk: A Meta-Analysis." PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 February 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 2 | e28510. 2012. Abstractchildren_who_acquire_hiv.pdfWebsite

Abstract
Background: Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be
updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant
survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed.
Methodology/Principal Findings: A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and
randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant
antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant
characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child’s HIV infection status and timing of HIV
infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000
child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of
HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected
children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0),
maternal CD4,350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3).
Conclusions/Results: These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival
estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the
prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate
antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children.

Yanda P, Wandiga S, Kangalawe R, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Downs T, Robert Kabumbuli, Opere A, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Apindi E, Marshall M, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Kirumira E, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Sigalla R, Achola P. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region: Adapting to Changing Risks.". In: Climate Change and Adaptation. Routledge; 2012. Abstract

In the East African countries, malaria is ranked as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. It causes about 40,000 infant deaths in Kenya each year; in Uganda annual cases of malaria range between 6 to 7 million, with 6500 to 8500 fatalities, and in Tanzania the annual death toll is between 70,000 and 125,000 and accounts for 19 per cent of health expenditure (De Savigny et al, 2004a and b). In the case of cholera, the first epidemic in Africa was reported as far back as 1836 (Rees, 2000). Major outbreaks were next reported in 1970 and affected West Africa (Guinea), the horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) and Kenya (Waiyaki, 1996). The most severe cholera outbreak on the African continent was in 1998, accounting for more than 72 per cent of the global total number of cholera cases and acutely affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Cholera outbreaks in East Africa have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1972. In the Lake Victoria region of East Africa both malaria and cholera are common, with malaria endemic in the lowlands and epidemic in the highland areas and cholera endemic in the basin since the early 1970s (Rees, 2000).

Magati PO, Kibwage JK, Gor SO, Ruigu G, Omwansa W. "A Cost - Benefit Analysis of Substituting Bamboo for Tobacco: A Case Study of Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South Nyanza, Kenya." Science Journal of Business Management. 2012:1-8.
Rading GO. D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Rintaugu EG, Ngetich EDK, Kamande IM. "Determinants of alcohol consumption of university- student athletes: The case of University of Nairobi,Nairobi,Kenya." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;4(5):354-361.
Otieno NA, Culhain J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. Development of endophytic bacterial inoculants possessing plant growth promotion traits for practical application in bio-energy plant species. 29 July-2 August,Kyoto, Japan: International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions; 2012. Abstract

Internal plant tissue colonisation has made endophytic bacteria valuable for agriculture as a tool to improve crop performance particularly for those bacteria having traits such as plant growth promotion (PGP). This project involved screening and identifying endophytic bacterial strains, sourced from the bacterial collection available at the Institute of Technology Carlow, with the potential to enhance growth rate in bio-energy plant crop species. In the initial stage under greenhouse condition, a total of 140 strains in master mix (MM) groups of 10 strains, were inoculated into Rye Grass. The inoculated Rye Grass seeds were sown in pots and arranged in complete randomised design and their growth was monitored for a period of 3 months. The plant fresh weights (FW) and dry weights (DW) were used as growth parameters. Three MMs (comprising 30 strains) showed PGP potential in Rye Grass, significantly increased the mean FW and DW of Rye Grass plants compared to the negative controls. The 30 selected strains were further characterised for PGP traits under in vitro study. Results showed three strains inhibited Pythium spp. growth in dual culture assay, whereas the culture filtrates to quantify gluconic acid production necessary for inorganic phosphate solubilisation, had six strains recording more than 20mg/ml of gluconic acid production. Ten strains showed Indole acetic acid (IAA) production in the range (10-18 µg/ml) while three strains showed 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity. This study indicates that the selected bacterial endophytes have the potential for PGP and development in plant crops.

Rambo CM. "Effects of Procurement reforms on Expenditure Management in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya,." DBA Africa Management Review Journal. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 3 :150-168.
Odera BO, Cornish LA, Papo JM, Rading GO. "Electrolytic Etching of Platinum- Aluminium Based Alloys.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The microstructures of as-cast and annealed platinum alloys of different compositions were revealed after electrolytic etching in hydrochloric acid/sodium chloride solution using direct current. It was shown that the etching process enhances good microstructural images of platinum-aluminium based alloys.

ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Papo MJ, Rading GO. "Electrolytic etching of platinum-aluminium based alloys." Platinum Metals Rev. 2012;56(4) 2012(E-ISSN 1471-0676):pp 257-261.
WR M, Collins K. Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Benedict O. Orindi, Renate C. Smallegange, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W. "Evaluation of low density polyethylene and nylon for delivery of synthetic mosquito attractants." Parasites & Vectors. 2012;5:202.
Tomedi A, Rohan-Minjares F, McCalmont K, Ashton R, Opiyo R, Mwanthi M. "Feasibility and effectiveness of supplementation with locally available foods in prevention of child malnutrition in Kenya." Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(4):749-56.
Subramanian BR, S.Villinger, Muthomi J, R.D NJ, Pappu HR. "First report of Tomato yellow ring virus (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) Infecting tomatoes in Kenya.". 2012;96(1384).
Rukwaro R. "Form Making in Architecture.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Form making is one of the most important activities that the architect is engaged in when creating architecture. During the process of form making the architect expresses the individual perceptions of reality in tangible form, which is the symbolic form of architecture. When one observes the majority of built forms in the city of Nairobi they are more of an expression of Western culture than Kenyan culture. The individual perceptions of reality of Kenyan culture and nature are not well symbolized in most of the built forms. This has led to lack of a unifying architectonic style that defines and guides the Kenyan mordern architecture. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to establish the extent to which the built forms in Nairobi portray the Kenyan cultural and natural forms through symbolism in their form making. A sample of 21 buildings constructed between 1960 and 2011 in the City of Nairobi were studied. Data was collected using interviews and observation techniques. Qualitative methods were used to analyse the data. Out of the 21 sampled buildings, only 40% seemed to be inspired by Kenyan culture and nature in their built forms. The study recommends that the architects in Kenya create architectural forms that are inspired by natural environment, traditions and cultural values of the local communities. It is only out of this that the symbolic architectural forms in Kenya can be realised

Rinkanya AN. "Generic Innovations in Kenyan Anglophone Novel after the Year 2000 // Under Africa’s Sky." Moscow: Moscow State University Press. 2012;6:174-191.
Rayya. "Haki Yangu Naidai.". In: Takrima Nono na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Longman; 2012.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, S.W., Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. Heat of hydration and chemical shrinkage characteristics of sugarcane waste fiber ash blended cement. Nairobi, Kenya: AMSEN Workshop; 2012.
Rositch, A F; Cherutich BKNRW; FP; P; J. "HIV infection and sexual partnerships and behaviour among adolescent girls in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence was 7% and seropositive adolescents had a younger age at sexual debut (P < 0.01), more sexual partners in 12 months (P = 0.03), and were more likely to report transactional or non-consensual sex (P < 0.01). Girls who reported not knowing their partner’s HIV status were 14 times as likely to be HIV-seropositive than girls who knew their partner’s status (adjusted odds ratio: 14.2 [1.8, 109.3]). Public health messages to promote HIV testing and disclosure within partnerships could reduce sexual risk behaviours and HIV transmission among adolescents.

Rambo CM. "http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/9784.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The Education Act and the Secondary School Heads’ Manual recognize school heads as
the financial controllers and accounting officers, responsible for all school revenue and
expenditure management. Prior to reforms, procurement and tendering activities in
public institutions, including secondary schools, was carried out under unclear legal
frameworks, which failed to check irregularities arising from the process. Studies
commissioned by the government and the World Bank in 1986 and 1997 revealed
serious shortcomings in the procurement system, leading to loss of public funds.
Procurement reforms were initiated to enhance efficiency and minimize loss of public
resources. Even though the reforms process was initiated about a decade earlier, little
had been documented about the extent to which the regulations had been implemented
in public secondary schools and its effect on expenditure management. To achieve the
objective of this study, a cross-sectional survey design, with quantitative and qualitative
approaches was applied to guide data sourcing, processing and analysis. Primary data
was sourced from 117, which were sampled from a national population of 3,868 schools
that have been in existence for at least ten years as at the time of this study. The sample
included 6 national, 42 provincial and 69 district schools. In terms of gender, 23 were
pure girls’ schools, 19 were boys’ schools, while 75 were mixed schools. The schools
were selected through a stratified random procedure, based on the category of schools;
viz. national, provincial or district. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were
applied to process and analyze the data. The study found that advertising tenders,
number of committee members trained in procurement had strong positive effects on
expenditure efficiency. Besides, the frequency of tender-splitting had the strongest
negative effect on expenditure efficiency. The adjusted regression models explained 45.1
percent of variance in expenditure management. The study recommends the need for:
procurement regulations to be reviewed for tender committees to include BoG, PTA
and ministry representatives; regular supervision of tender committees by the ministry
officials; training of tender committee members; technical and financial evaluation
committees to be created to enhance efficiency.

Kinyuru JN;, Konyole SO;, Kenji GM;, Onyango CA;, Owino VO;, Owuor BO;, Estambale BB;, Friis H;, Roos N. "Identification of Traditional Foods with Public Health Potential for Complementary Feeding in Western Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding.

Price MA;, Rida W;, Mwangome M;, Mutua G;, Middelkoop K;, Roux S;, Okuku HS;, Bekker LG;, Anzala O;, Ngugi EN;, Stevens, G; Chetty P;, Amornkul PN;, Sanders EJ. "Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth.". 2012. Abstract

To identify and describe populations at risk for HIV in 3 clinical research centers in Kenya and South Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Volunteers reporting recent sexual activity, multiple partners, transactional sex, sex with an HIV-positive partner, or, if male, sex with men (MSM; in Kenya only) were enrolled. Sexually active minors were enrolled in South Africa only. Risk behavior, HIV testing, and clinical data were obtained at follow-up visits. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2008, 3023 volunteers were screened, 2113 enrolled, and 1834 contributed data on HIV incidence. MSM had the highest HIV incidence rate of 6.8 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 9.2] followed by women in Kilifi and Cape Town (2.7 cases per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 1.7 to 4.2). No seroconversions were observed in Nairobi women or men in Nairobi or Cape Town who were not MSM. In 327 MSM, predictors of HIV acquisition included report of genital ulcer (Hazard Ratio: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.7 to 11.6), not completing secondary school education (HR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6 to 7.2) and reporting receptive anal intercourse (HR: 8.2, 95% CI: 2.7 to 25.0). Paying for sex was inversely associated with HIV infection (HR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.8). 279 (13.0%) volunteers did not return after the first visit; subsequent attrition rates ranged from 10.4 to 21.8 volunteers per 100 person-years across clinical research centers. CONCLUSIONS: Finding, enrolling, and retaining risk populations for HIV prevention trials is challenging in Africa. African MSM are not frequently engaged for research, have high HIV incidence, need urgent risk reduction counseling, and may represent a suitable population for future HIV prevention trials.

Ochola SA, Labadarios D, RW. N. "Impact of counselling on exclusive breast-feeding practices in a poor urban setting in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial. ." Public Health Nutr. 2012 Oct 8:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the impact of facility-based semi-intensive and home-based intensive counselling in improving exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in a low-resource urban setting in Kenya.
DESIGN:
A cluster randomized controlled trial in which nine villages were assigned on a 1:1:1 ratio, by computer, to two intervention groups and a control group. The home-based intensive counselling group (HBICG) received seven counselling sessions at home by trained peers, one prenatally and six postnatally. The facility-based semi-intensive counselling group (FBSICG) received only one counselling session prenatally. The control group (CG) received no counselling from the research team. Information on infant feeding practices was collected monthly for 6 months after delivery. The data-gathering team was blinded to the intervention allocation. The outcome was EBF prevalence at 6 months.
SETTING:
Kibera slum, Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
A total of 360 HIV-negative women, 34-36 weeks pregnant, were selected from an antenatal clinic in Kibera; 120 per study group.
RESULTS:
Of the 360 women enrolled, 265 completed the study and were included in the analysis (CG n 89; FBSICG n 87; HBICG n 89). Analysis was by intention to treat. The prevalence of EBF at 6 months was 23•6 % in HBICG, 9•2 % in FBSICG and 5•6 % in CG. HBICG mothers had four times increased likelihood to practise EBF compared with those in the CG (adjusted relative risk = 4•01; 95 % CI 2•30, 7•01; P = 0•001). There was no significant difference between EBF rates in FBSICG and CG.
CONCLUSIONS:
EBF can be promoted in low socio-economic conditions using home-based intensive counselling. One session of facility-based counselling is not sufficient to sustain EBF

Slyker JA;, Lohman-Payne B;, John-Stewart GC;, Dong T;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Tapia K;, Atzberger A;, Taylor S;, Rowland-Jones SL;, Blish CA. "The impact of HIV-1 infection and exposure on natural killer (NK) cell phenotype in Kenyan infants during the first year of life.". 2012. Abstract

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the containment of HIV replication during primary infection, though their functions are impaired during chronic HIV infection. Infants experience more rapid HIV disease progression than adults, but contributions of infant NK cells to containing HIV infection are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of HIV infection on infant NK cell phenotype by evaluating samples and data from a cohort study of women and their infants, conducted in Nairobi, Kenya between 1999 and 2003. The percentage and phenotype of NK cells was evaluated longitudinally by multi-parameter flow cytometry over the first year of life in HIV-infected (HIV+, = 16), HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU, n = 6), and healthy unexposed controls (HIV-, n = 4). At birth, NK subset distributions based on expression of CD56 and CD16 did not differ between HIV+, HIV-EU, or HIV- infants. However, HIV infection was associated with a subsequent decline in NK cells as a percentage of total lymphocytes (p < 0.001), and an expanding proportion of CD56-CD16+ NK cells (p < 0.001). Activated CD38(bright)CD69+ NK cells were more frequent in the HIV+ infants, followed by HIV-EU and HIV- infants, in both CD56(dim) (p = 0.005) and CD56(bright) compartments (p = 0.03). HIV infection and exposure was also associated with a significant decline in the percentage of perforin-expressing NK cells in the CD56(dim) compartment over the first year of life, with HIV+ infants losing approximately 2.5% (p < 0.001) and HIV-EU infants losing 3.0% (p = 0.01) of perforin+ cells per month. Thus, infant HIV infection is associated with alterations in NK cell subsets, activation, and cytolytic potential that could contribute to their poor control over HIV infection. Furthermore, exposure to HIV infection in infants who escaped infection is also associated with alterations in NK cells that may contribute to the reduced ability to fight infections that is observed in HIV-EU infants

Tarkang PA, Guantai AN;, Tsabang N;, Agbor GA;, Okalebo FA;, Rukunga GM;. "Indigenous Knowledge and folk use of a polyherbal antimalarial by the Bayang Community, South West Region of Cameroon.". 2012. Abstract

Nefang is a polyherbal preparation constituted of the leavesof six plants and the bark of one of these,used traditionally for the treatment of malaria by the Bayang community, South West Region of Cameroon. Since no ethnopharmacological survey has been carried out on this preparation, this study aims at obtaining indigenous and folkloric information on the optimal methods for harvesting of constituent plants, preparation and administration of Nefang in the treatment of malaria. The study design was an exploratory survey.Semi-structured questionnaires were administered randomly to 20 respondents after obtaining their informed consent with the assistance of a medical practitioner. Review of literature of constituent plants was also undertaken. This study revealed that the respondents had a good knowledge of malaria and its causes. Various compositions for the preparation by decoction was obtained and administration was ascertained to be by oral route or by enema. The brief scientific review also validated the pharmacological actions of the constituent plants. The diverse indigenous knowledge and folk use of this preparation in the treatment of malaria are a pre-requisite for theoptimization of its compositionfor efficacy and pharmacological screening

Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Agbor GA, Tsabang N, Guantai AN, Rukunga GM. "Indigenous Knowledge and folk use of a polyherbal antimalarial by the Bayang Community, South West Region of Cameroon." J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour.. 2012;2(3):372-380.
and Rambo POCAM. "Influence of Access to Training on the Effectiveness of Secondary School Board of Governors in Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction.. 2012;Volume 4, 2, November 2012. ISSN: 1992-2744.
Chandler M, Bebber DP, Castro S, Lowman MD, Muoria P, Oguge N, Rubenstein DI. "International citizen science: making the local global." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment . 2012;10:328-331.
Ombasa, Kareru PG, Rukunga G, Mbaria J, Keriko JM, Owuor BO. "Invitro Anthelmintic Effects of Two Kenyan Plants Extracts against Haemonchus contortus Adult Worms. ." International Journal of Pharmacological Research. 2012; 2(3):113-116.
Rayya. "Kuwa Mume.". In: Mwavyaji wa Roho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2012.
Rayya T. Mama Mkwe.; 2012.Website
S.M.1 G, J.W.2 M, R.D.2 N, J.H.2 N, F.M.2 O, J.M.3 W. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops." International Journal of AgriScience Vol. 2(5): 393-402, May 2012. 2012;2(5):393-402.management_of_thrips_in_bulb_onion_by_use_of_veg_intercrops.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Jacques M. Kabaru, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and Thermal Degradation Properties of Silk from African Wild Silkmoths." J. APPL. POLYM. SCI. 2012;(DOI: 10.1002/APP.37873):5-15.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silks from African wild silkworms." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2012;DOi 1.0.1002/APP.37873:1-9.
Addis Teshome, Onyari JM, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Vollrath F. "Mechanical and thermal degradation properties of silks from African wild silkworms." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2012;DO:1.0.1002/APP.37873:1-9.
MBUYA TO, Sinclair I, Moffat AJ, Reed PAS. "Micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth in cast aluminium piston alloys." International Journal of Fatigue. 2012;42:227-237. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2011.10.015

The fatigue crack growth behaviour in as-cast and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) model cast aluminium piston alloys with hypoeutectic Si compositions of 6.9 wt% and 0.67 wt% has been investigated. The HIP alloys showed slightly improved fatigue crack growth resistance. Analysis of the crack path profiles and fracture surfaces showed that the crack tends to avoid Si and intermetallic particles at low ΔK levels up to a mid-ΔK of ∼7 MPa√m. However, some particles do fail ahead of the crack tip to facilitate crack advance due to the interconnected microstructure of these alloys. At higher levels of ΔK, the crack increasingly seeks out Si and intermetallic particles up to a ΔK of ∼9 MPa√m after which the crack preferentially propagates through intermetallic particles in the 0.67 wt%Si alloy or Si and intermetallics in the 6.9 wt%Si alloys. It was also observed that crack interaction with intermetallics caused crack deflections that led to roughness-induced crack closure and possibly oxide-induced crack closure at low to mid-ΔK. However, crack closure appears unimportant at high ΔK due to the large crack openings and evidenced by the fast crack growth rates observed.

Ombasa, Kareru PG, Rukunga G, Mbaria J, Keriko JM, Owuor BO. "Mortality of Haemonchus contortus Adult Worms in Entada leptostachya (Harms.) and Rapanea rhododendroides (Gil) Mez. Extracts. ." African. J. Ethnomed. Pract. . 2012;1(1):36-43.
Grace D;, Gilbert J;, Randolph T;, Kang’ethe E. "The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment.". 2012.
Grace D, Gilbert J, Randolph T, Kang’ethe E. "The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment.". 2012. Abstract

Zoonoses occur at the interface of human and animal disease and partly because their impact and management fall across two sectors they are often neglected. The Global Burden of Disease captures the impact of zoonoses on human health in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Based on this, we estimate that in low income countries, zoonoses and diseases which recently emerged from animals make up 26 % of the DALYs lost to infectious disease and 10 % of the total DALYs lost. In contrast, in high income countries, zoonoses and diseases recently which emerged from animals represent less than 1 % of DALYs lost to infectious disease and only 0.02 % of the total disease burden. We present a framework that captures the costs of zoonoses and emerging disease to human, animal and ecosystem health in terms of cost of treatment, cost of prevention, health burden and intangible and opportunity costs. We also discuss how ecohealth concepts of transdisciplinarity, participation and equity can help in assessing the importance of zoonoses in developing countries and illustrate these with an example of assessing milk-borne disease.

R.M.J. Deacon, T.D. Dulu, Patel NB. "Naked mole-rats: Behavioural phenotyping and comparison with C57BL/6 mice." Behavioural Brain Research. 2012;231:193-200.
Wolfgang R. Mukabana, Collins K. Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Philemon Omusula, Renate C. Smallegange, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W. "A novel synthetic odorant blend for trapping of malaria and other african mosquito species." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:235-244.
Parita S, Chinwe SI, Romanus O, Joshua N. "Options for Improving the Communication of Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts to Smallholder Farmers – The Case of Kenya." German Development Institute. 2012;17/2012(17/2012):1-4.
Rop KV, KONDITI DBO, H.A. O, Musyoki S. "Parameter Optimization in Design of a Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Technique." International Journal of Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering (IJTPE). 2012;4(12):16-23. Abstract

Modern wireless systems are placing greater
emphasis on antenna designs for future development in
communication technology because the antenna is a key
element in the overall communication system. A
Microstrip Antenna is well suited for wireless
communication due to its light weight, low volume and
low profile planar configuration which can be easily
conformed to the host surface. In this paper, an
optimization method based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy
inference system (ANFIS) for determining the parameters
used in the design of a rectangular microstrip patch
antenna is presented. The ANFIS has the advantages of
expert knowledge of fuzzy inference system (FIS) and the
learning capability of artificial neural network (ANN). By
calculating and optimizing the patch dimensions and the
feed point of a rectangular microstrip antenna, this paper
shows that ANFIS produces good results that are in
agreement with Ansoft HFSS 13.0 simulation results.

Maina S;, Miano DW;, Runo SM;, Njiru PN;, John I;, Mbogo E. "Partial Nucleotide Sequences Of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus Occurring In Kenya And Its Phylogenetic Relationship With Other Members Of Begomoviruses."; 2012. Abstract

Sweet potato leaf curl virus has been reported in different sweet potato growing regions of Kenya. Partial nucleotide sequences of Kenyan Sweet potato leaf curl virus isolates were compared with other isolates from different parts of the world. Sequences from ORFs AV1 (in the virion sense) and ORFs AC1, AC2, and AC4 (in the complementary sense) were analyzed using OMEGA 5 software. Samples from Central, and Coast Kenya were closely related to isolates from Spain and India with nucleotide sequence identities that varied from 61 to 96%. AV1 sequences of four samples from central were related with over 92% nucleotide sequence identity. AC2 fragments of Isolates from Western and Coast had 95% and 96% nucleotide sequence identity and amino acid sequence identity respectively indicating that the AC2 protein may have had common ancestry. The study reports the first partial sequences of begomovirus infecting sweet potato inform different parts of Kenya and their phylogenetic relationship with other begomoviruses from other parts of the world.

Hannah H;, Kimani T;, Irungu P;, Grace D;, Randolph T. "Participatory disease surveillance: Cost effectiveness relative to passive surveillance in Kajiado County, Kenya."; 2012. Abstract

Effective surveillance for infectious diseases is an essential and resource-consuming activity for mitigating unwanted consequences for animal and public health. Allocation of scarce resources for surveillance must be considered against alternative prevention and control measures and regularly reviewed. Few studies estimate cost-effectiveness and benefits of different animal disease surveillance approaches and systems. In this study, we considered the benefits and resource costs of participatory epidemiology (PE) surveys and participatory disease surveillance (PDS) compared with routine passive surveillance. Focusing on a 6-month interval in a primarily pastoralist district in Kenya, basic performance indicators for surveillance measured were (1) number of outbreaks; (2) number of samples generated from suspected outbreaks; (3) number of positive laboratory confirmations. Costs of passive surveillance and interventions mounted were determined for the 6-month interval. In the same district, PE surveys were conducted in randomly selected communities to determine the number of outbreaks of notifiable cattle diseases in the same 6-month interval. Additional information was collected on the scale of morbidity and mortality for historical outbreaks (numbers and duration), the value of individual animals and the number of active outbreaks. Costs associated with mounting PE visits were ascertained and extrapolated to district level. One month after completion of PE visits, district level stakeholders were interviewed to determine the response, if any, to outbreaks detected during the visits. The study provides cost effectiveness estimates at a district level for the 6-month interval, including losses which occurred from outbreaks missed by passive surveillance and costs if PE were applied at regular intervals. In addition, the findings consider available prevention and control responses and provide decision-makers with evidence to inform future application of participatory approaches in animal disease surveillance.

Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, and Njenga M.J, Wairire G.G MWNRG, Njenga M.J, Wairire G.G, Maingi N., R.G W. "Participatory risk assessment of Peste des petit ruminants; Factor analysis of small ruminants’ pastoral management practices in Turkana District, Kenya." Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Sciences . 2012;2(9):503-510 .2012._participatory_risk_assessment_for_peste_des_petit_ruminants...pdf
Diener; Slyker J, Christine G, Dalton W, Lara C, Tapia KA, Richardson BA, Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Elizabeth M-O, John-Stewart G. "Performance Of The Integrated Management Of Childhood Illness Algorithm For Diagnosis Of Hiv-1 Infection Among African Infants.". 2012.
Otieno N, Culhane J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. Phosphate solubilisation and gluconic acid production by endophytic bacterial strains and ability to promote plant growth in oil seed rape (Brassica napus). 18-21 May 2012, Aldemar Hotel, Rhodes, Greece: New Phytologist Organisation; 2012. Abstract

Several studies have shown that the release of low molecular weight organic acids is
a major mechanism for solubilising insoluble phosphate by phosphate solubilising
bacteria (PSB). The production of gluconic acid during inorganic phosphate
solubilisation in conjunction with liberation of phosphate and the influence on plant
growth as a function of phosphate solubilisation by endophytic strains was analysed.
Solubilisation of Ca3(PO4)2 in National Botanical Research Institute’s Phosphate
(NBRIP) growth medium varied among the endophytes with P-liberated ranging from
1109.33 μg/ml to 67.3 μg/ml. In all cases, the final supernatant had a significant pH
decrease and this had a direct relation to P-liberated. High Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the culture filtrate to quantify gluconic acid
produced by the strains ranged from 33.21±2.34 mg/ml to 2.2 ±0.18 mg/ml. The
results suggest that acidification was the main strategy for solubilising phosphate. In
this study, a clear relationship was observed between supernatant acidification and
P solubilisation from Ca3(PO4)2. However, no significant difference was observed for
key growth parameters in oil seed rape between treatments. The result of this study
indicates in planta expression of P solubilisation traits may be more complex than
those in vitro studies.

Ndinya-Achola JO KA, McClelland RS, Gitau R, G W, J S, F K, L1 M, Lester R, Richardson BA, A. K. "A pilot study of the feasibility of a vaginal washing cessation intervention among Kenyan female sex workers.". 2012.document1.pdf
Ruto WKS, Kinyamario JI, Ng'etich NK, Akunda E, Akunda E. "Plant Species Diversity and Composition of Two Wetlands in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Two wetlands (Hyena and Nalogomon) in the Nairobi National Park were investigated by comparing plant composition in and around their immediate vicinity. The most common aquatic plant species in the Hyena wetland was Cyperus dives while in the Nalogomon wetland was Typha domingensis. The terrestrial vegetation surrounding Hyena wetland dominated by while that of surrounding Nalogomon wetland was the grass Hyparrhemia rufa. It was also noted that Hyena Dam waters were colonized by aquatic weeds, namely Gunnera perpensa, Enhydra fluctuans and Ludwigia abyssinica, that were absent in Nalogomon wetland waters. This could have been due to eutrophication of the waters of Hyena Dam as it originated from human settlements (city estates) outside the park boundary.

Balkus JE, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Richardson BA, Masese L, Gitau R, Kiarie J, Marrazzo J, Farquhar C, McClelland SR. "The post-trial effect of oral periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections on the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and Lactobacillus colonization.". 2012. Abstract

We previously demonstrated a decrease in bacterial vaginosis (BV) and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization among randomized controlled trial (RCT) participants who received monthly oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) [2g metronidazole + 150mg fluconazole]. Post-trial data were analyzed to test the hypothesis that the treatment effect would persist following completion of one year of PPT. Methods Data were obtained from women who completed all 12 RCT visits and attended ≥1 post-trial visit within 120 days following completion of the RCT. We used Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models to estimate the post-trial effect of the intervention on the incidence of BV by Gram stain and detection of Lactobacillus species by culture. Results The analysis included 165 subjects (83 active and 82 placebo). The post-trial incidence of BV was 260 per 100 person-years in the intervention arm versus 358 per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR]=0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51–1.12). The post-trial incidence of Lactobacillus colonization was 180 per 100 person-years in the intervention arm versus 127 per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (HR=1.42; 95% CI: 0.85–2.71). Conclusions Despite a decrease in BV and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization during the RCT, the effect of PPT was not sustained at the same level following cessation of the intervention. New interventions that reduce BV recurrence and promote Lactobacillus colonization without the need for ongoing treatment are needed.

Balkus JE, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Richardson BA, Masese L, Gitau R, Kiarie J, Marrazzo J, Farquhar C, McClelland SR. "The post-trial effect of oral periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections on the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and Lactobacillus colonization.". 2012. Abstract

We previously demonstrated a decrease in bacterial vaginosis (BV) and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization among randomized controlled trial (RCT) participants who received monthly oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) [2g metronidazole + 150mg fluconazole]. Post-trial data were analyzed to test the hypothesis that the treatment effect would persist following completion of one year of PPT. Methods Data were obtained from women who completed all 12 RCT visits and attended ≥1 post-trial visit within 120 days following completion of the RCT. We used Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models to estimate the post-trial effect of the intervention on the incidence of BV by Gram stain and detection of Lactobacillus species by culture. Results The analysis included 165 subjects (83 active and 82 placebo). The post-trial incidence of BV was 260 per 100 person-years in the intervention arm versus 358 per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR]=0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51–1.12). The post-trial incidence of Lactobacillus colonization was 180 per 100 person-years in the intervention arm versus 127 per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (HR=1.42; 95% CI: 0.85–2.71). Conclusions Despite a decrease in BV and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization during the RCT, the effect of PPT was not sustained at the same level following cessation of the intervention. New interventions that reduce BV recurrence and promote Lactobacillus colonization without the need for ongoing treatment are needed.

McGrath CJ, R W Nduati, Richardson BA, Kristal AR, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Farquhar C, John-Stewart GC. "The Prevalence of Stunting Is High in HIV-1–Exposed Uninfected Infants in Kenya.". 2012. Abstractthe_prevalence_of_stunting.pdf

As prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) programs decrease the numbers of HIV-1–infected infants, it remains important to improve growth in HIV-1–exposed, uninfected (EU) infants. To determine the growth rate and predictors of growth faltering in breast-fed and formula-fed EU infants, growth analyses [weight-for-age (WAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), and length-for-age (LAZ) Z-scores] were conducted by using data from a randomized feeding trial in HIV-1–infected women in Kenya. Growth faltering in EU infants was compared based on randomization to breastfeeding (BF) or formula feeding (FF) using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Linear mixed-effects models determined rate and cofactors of length growth. Among 338 EU infants, 164 (49%) were breast-fed and 174 (51%) formula-fed. In both arms, growth declined steadily during follow-up. By 2 y, 29% of children were underweight (WAZ < −2), 18% were wasted (WLZ < −2), and 58% were stunted (LAZ < −2), with no differences by feeding arm. Higher maternal education (y) and taller stature (cm) were associated with a decreased risk of underweight and stunting [underweight: adjusted HR (aHR) = 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.99), P = 0.03, and aHR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.97), P = 0.002; and stunting: aHR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.97), P = 0.003, and aHR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.99), P = 0.02, respectively]. Diarrhea was associated with an increased risk of wasting [aHR = 2.26 (95% CI: 1.11, 4.62), P = 0.03]. In multivariate analyses, FF was associated with slower declines in length velocity [0.24 LAZ/y (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43), P = 0.009]. Despite being uninfected, HIV-1–exposed infants showed frequent growth faltering, suggesting the need for vigilance in recognizing stunting within PMTCT programs. The slower rate of decline in length growth with FF may reflect benefits of micronutrients. Because BF is the best option for HIV-1–infected mothers in resource-limited settings, nutritional interventions should be examined for their impact on growth in EU breast-fed infants.

John-Stewart GC, Wariua G, Beima-Sofie KM, Richardson BA, Farquhar C, Maleche-Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Wamalwa D. "Prevalence, perceptions, and correlates of pediatric HIV disclosure in an HIV treatment program in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Disclosure to HIV-infected children regarding their diagnosis is important as expanding numbers of HIV-infected children attain adolescence and may become sexually active. In order to define correlates of pediatric disclosure and facilitate development of models for disclosure, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of primary caregivers of HIV-1 infected children aged 6-16 years attending a pediatric HIV treatment program in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted focus group discussions with a subset of caregivers to further refine perceptions of disclosure. Among 271 caregiver/child dyads in the cross-sectional survey, median child age was 9 years (interquartile range: 7-12 years). Although 79% of caregivers believed children should know their HIV status, the prevalence of disclosure to the child was only 19%. Disclosure had been done primarily by health workers (52%) and caregivers (33%). Caregivers reported that 5 of the 52 (10%) who knew their status were accidentally disclosed to. Caregivers of older children (13 vs. 8 years; p<0.001), who were HIV-infected and had disclosed their own HIV status to the child (36% vs. 4%; p=0.003), or who traveled frequently (29% vs. 16%, p=0.03) were more likely to have disclosed. Children who had been recently hospitalized (25% vs. 44%, p=0.03) were less likely to know their status, and caregivers with HIV were less likely to have disclosed (p=0.03). Reasons for disclosure included medication adherence, curiosity or illness while reasons for nondisclosure included age and fear of inadvertent disclosure. Our study found that disclosure rates in this Kenyan setting are lower than observed rates in the USA and Europe but consistent with rates from other resource-limited settings. Given these low rates of disclosure and the potential benefits of disclosure, strategies promoting health worker trainings and caregiver support systems for disclosure may benefit children with HIV.

John-Stewart GC, Wariua G B-SKM, Richardson BA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D WD. "Prevalence, perceptions, and correlates of pediatric HIV disclosure in an HIV treatment program in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2012 Dec 20. [Epub ahead of print]. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
Abstract Disclosure to HIV-infected children regarding their diagnosis is important as expanding numbers of HIV-infected children attain adolescence and may become sexually active. In order to define correlates of pediatric disclosure and facilitate development of models for disclosure, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of primary caregivers of HIV-1 infected children aged 6-16 years attending a pediatric HIV treatment program in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted focus group discussions with a subset of caregivers to further refine perceptions of disclosure. Among 271 caregiver/child dyads in the cross-sectional survey, median child age was 9 years (interquartile range: 7-12 years). Although 79% of caregivers believed children should know their HIV status, the prevalence of disclosure to the child was only 19%. Disclosure had been done primarily by health workers (52%) and caregivers (33%). Caregivers reported that 5 of the 52 (10%) who knew their status were accidentally disclosed to. Caregivers of older children (13 vs. 8 years; p<0.001), who were HIV-infected and had disclosed their own HIV status to the child (36% vs. 4%; p=0.003), or who traveled frequently (29% vs. 16%, p=0.03) were more likely to have disclosed. Children who had been recently hospitalized (25% vs. 44%, p=0.03) were less likely to know their status, and caregivers with HIV were less likely to have disclosed (p=0.03). Reasons for disclosure included medication adherence, curiosity or illness while reasons for nondisclosure included age and fear of inadvertent disclosure. Our study found that disclosure rates in this Kenyan setting are lower than observed rates in the USA and Europe but consistent with rates from other resource-limited settings. Given these low rates of disclosure and the potential benefits of disclosure, strategies promoting health worker trainings and caregiver support systems for disclosure may benefit children with HIV.

John-Stewart GC, Wariua G, Beima-Sofie KM, Richardson BA, Farquhar C, Maleche-Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, D. W. "Prevalence, perceptions, and correlates of pediatric HIV disclosure in an HIV treatment program in Kenya." AIDS Care.2012 Dec 20. [Epub ahead of print]. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
Abstract Disclosure to HIV-infected children regarding their diagnosis is important as expanding numbers of HIV-infected children attain adolescence and may become sexually active. In order to define correlates of pediatric disclosure and facilitate development of models for disclosure, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of primary caregivers of HIV-1 infected children aged 6-16 years attending a pediatric HIV treatment program in Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted focus group discussions with a subset of caregivers to further refine perceptions of disclosure. Among 271 caregiver/child dyads in the cross-sectional survey, median child age was 9 years (interquartile range: 7-12 years). Although 79% of caregivers believed children should know their HIV status, the prevalence of disclosure to the child was only 19%. Disclosure had been done primarily by health workers (52%) and caregivers (33%). Caregivers reported that 5 of the 52 (10%) who knew their status were accidentally disclosed to. Caregivers of older children (13 vs. 8 years; p<0.001), who were HIV-infected and had disclosed their own HIV status to the child (36% vs. 4%; p=0.003), or who traveled frequently (29% vs. 16%, p=0.03) were more likely to have disclosed. Children who had been recently hospitalized (25% vs. 44%, p=0.03) were less likely to know their status, and caregivers with HIV were less likely to have disclosed (p=0.03). Reasons for disclosure included medication adherence, curiosity or illness while reasons for nondisclosure included age and fear of inadvertent disclosure. Our study found that disclosure rates in this Kenyan setting are lower than observed rates in the USA and Europe but consistent with rates from other resource-limited settings. Given these low rates of disclosure and the potential benefits of disclosure, strategies promoting health worker trainings and caregiver support systems for disclosure may benefit children with HIV.

Onono JO, Wieland B, Rushton J. "Productivity in different cattle production systems in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Cattle are kept as an important source of livelihood in many Kenyan farming households whilst also having cultural and social value. A review was undertaken to estimate productivity in the three main Kenyan cattle production systems: small-scale dairy and meat; small-scale dairy; and large-scale dairy and meat. Data on production parameters were collected through a systematic literature search of electronic databases for peer reviewed and grey literature. The parameters included were reproductive rates, mortality rates and yields. Prices for livestock and livestock products were estimated from markets. The data were used to estimate net output from cattle using the Livestock Productivity Efficiency Calculator (LPEC), a deterministic steady state model which measures productivity as net output per megajoule (MJ) of metabolisable energy (ME). The estimated net outputs per livestock unit year−1 were USD 146.6,USD215.1andUSD84.8inthelarge-scaledairyand meat, small-scale dairy and meat and small-scale dairy systems,respectively.Milkproductioncontributedsignificantly tonetoutputinallsystemsandwas91.8%oftotaloutputin small-scaledairy.Cattlesaleshadthehighestcontributionto net output in large-scale dairy and meat system (45.1 %). Sensitivity analysis indicated that output was most affected by milk yield, age and weight at maturity and parturition rate. The productivity differences between the production systems call for more detailed research on the constraints to the production systems such as diseases, and to describe the benefits that farmers and society would obtain from disease control and improved management.

Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives." American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2012;2(12):126-135.
R B, S S, J V, Muthomi J, R.D N, H.R. P. Resistance Screening of onion cultivars to Thrips and Iris yellow spot virus. Daegu-Korea; 2012.
Ross JA, Agwanda AT. "The Rise of Injectable Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa." African Journal of Reproductive health . 2012;16(4):63-73.
Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2012. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Rambo CM. "Risk Factors Influencing the Survival of Strategic Alliances: Evidence From Kenya." International Journal of Management and Marketing Research. ISSN: 1933-3153 (print) and 2157-0205 (online) . 2012.
Rading, G O; Gumbe ML; DO. "Service Life Of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining.". 2012.
Mbuge(3) DO, Gumbe L, Rading G. Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO, Rading GO. Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining - Prediction Using Viscoelasticity. Saarsbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
John-Stewart G, R W Nduati. "Should women with HIV-1 infection breastfeed their infants? It depends on the setting.". 2012. Abstract

Breastfeeding is the ideal infant food—it provides both optimal nutrition and numerous factors that contribute to infant immunity, growth, cognition, and health. It also enhances maternal–infant bonding and child-spacing and may provide long-term benefits to mothers. An estimated 7.7 million children under 5 years of age die annually, with >30% dying of infectious diseases [1, 2]. Breastfeeding has been identified as the most effective intervention to prevent under-5 mortality [3]. It was therefore a huge public health and policy challenge to discern the best infant feeding strategy when it was discovered that HIV-1 could be transmitted through breastfeeding. While nonbreastfeeding could entirely prevent transmission of a rapidly fatal infection, implementation of artificial feeding could be associated with increased infant mortality and morbidity. Over the past two decades, mothers, clinicians, and policy makers have wrestled with balancing infant risk of HIV-1 acquisition against risk of infant mortality in the context of concurrently changing interventions that decrease transmission of HIV-1.

Rintaugu EG, Mwisukha A, Amusa LO. "Socio-demographic correlates of alcohol consumption among university athletes." African Journal of Physical Heath Education Sports and Dance. 2012;18(4:2):939-954.
Kodikra GL, Woldai T, van Ruitenbeek JA, Kuria ZN, van der Meer F, Shepherd KD, van Hummel GJ. "Spectral remote sensing of evaporate minerals and associated sediments in Lake Magadi area, Kenya." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 2012;14(1):22-32.
Rambo CM. "Strategic Alliances and the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 1:56-76.
Addis Teshome, Vollrath F, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Onyari J. "Study on the microstructures of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers." International Journal of Biological Biomolecules. 2012;Vol. 50 (1):63-68.
Addis Teshome, Fritz Vollrath, Suresh K. Raina, Raina SK, Kabaru JM, Onyari J. "Study on the microstructures of African wild silk cocoon shells and fibers." International Journal of Biological Biomolecules. 2012;50(1):63-68.
Muthama NJ, W.B. Masieyi, R. E O, Opere AO. "Survey on the Utilization of Weather Information and Products for Selected Districts in Kenya." J Meteorol Rel Sci. 2012;6: 51-58. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi Research Archive

This study summarizes the results of a pilot survey on utilization of weather information and products for selected districts in Kenya and the response of users to Kenya Meteorological Department’s (KMD) weather products on how members of the public obtain, perceive, use, and value weather services. Questionnaires were used to conduct sample surveys on three distinct populations comprising of general public, enterprises and public officials. The survey (288 respondents were interviewed in June 2007) indicated that people use weather information for a variety of activities ranging from crop farming to road transport. Most people identified crop-farming as the activity most vulnerable to weather. Majority of people indicated that they are willing to spend money on weather information, including value added products an indication that KMD should add value to its products and services. The overall assessment of KMD’s performance in terms of provision of weather information was rated as above average. The results from this survey suggest that there is need for KMD to brand its products. The effective dissemination and awareness of the availability and use of weather information should be promoted through a partnership between KMD and local media. Most respondents feel that the government should put in place policies on monitoring, processing and dissemination of weather information with more emphasis on dissemination. Regulatory measures are also necessary and critical in the development of new weather information dissemination strategies.

Chen B, Restaino J, Norris L, Xirasagar S, Qureshi ZP, McKoy JM, Lopez IS, Trenery A, Murday A, Kahn A, Mattison DR, Ray P, Sartor O, Bennett CL. "A tale of two citizens: a State Attorney General and a hematologist facilitate translation of research into US Food and Drug Administration actions--a SONAR report.". 2012. Abstract

Pharmaceutical safety is a public health issue. In 2005, the Connecticut Attorney General (AG) raised concerns over adverse drug reactions in off-label settings, noting that thalidomide was approved to treat a rare illness, but more than 90% of its use was off label. A hematologist had reported thalidomide with doxorubicin or dexamethasone was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates of 25%. We review US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturer responses to a citizen petition filed to address these thalidomide safety issues. Case study. The AG petitioned the FDA requesting thalidomide-related safety actions. Coincidentally, the manufacturer submitted a supplemental New Drug Approval (sNDA), requesting approval to treat multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone. FDA safety officers reviewed the petition and the literature and noted that VTE risks with thalidomide were not appropriately addressed in the existing package insert. In the sNDA application, the manufacturer reported thalidomide-associated toxicities for multiple myeloma were primarily somnolence and neurotoxicity, and a proposed package insert did not focus on VTE risks. In October, the FDA informed the Oncology Drug Division that VTE risks with thalidomide were poorly addressed in the existing label. After reviewing this memorandum, an Oncology Drug Division reviewer informed the manufacturer that approval of the sNDA would be delayed until several thalidomide-associated VTE safety actions, including revisions of the package insert, were implemented. The manufacturer and FDA agreed on these actions, and the sNDA was approved. New approaches addressing off-label safety are needed. The conditions that facilitated the successful response to this citizen petition are uncommon.

Bailasha NK, Rintaugu EG, Wanderi PM. "Teacher- Trainee attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya." Education Research and Review,. 2012;7(27):585-588.
Sinei KA, Redfern PH. "The Time-Dependent Effect of the Antidepressant Drug Paroxetine on the Synthesis of 5-Hydroxytryptamine in the Rat Brain." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2012;15(2):46-54. Abstractabstract

The effect of paroxetine on the day--night variations in the synthesis of 5HT was determined in the rat brain in an effort to gain an insight into the mechanism of action of this drug. This was done by determining its effect on the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5HT in serotonergic neurons. The enzyme activity was determined in two brain regions, cortex and the brainstem, at two time points of 12hr light/12hr dark cycle, namely, mid-light and mid-dark. The results obtained showed that the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase was significantly greater in control animals during the dark than light phase both in the cortex and brainstem. They also demonstrate that the rate of synthesis of 5HT was affected by paroxetine in a time-dependent manner. It was therefore concluded that these time-dependent changes observed in paroxetine effect may influence the activity of serotonergic input into the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hence the regulation or expression of certain circadian rhythms. This action may help correct or compensate for abnormalities present in depressive illness.

Rajab JA, Ngoma T, Adde M, Durosinmi M, Githang'a J, Aken'Ova Y, Kaijage J, Adeodou O, Brown BJ, Leoncini L, Naresh K, Raphael M, Hurwitz N, Scanlan P, Rohatiner A, Venzon D, Magrath I. "Treatment of Burkitt lymphoma in equatorial Africa using a simple three-drug combination followed by a salvage regimen for patients with persistent or recurrent disease.". 2012. Abstract

Prior to the introduction of the International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR) protocol INCTR 03-06, survival of patients with Burkitt lymphoma at four tertiary care centres in equatorial Africa was probably no more than 10-20%. The results reported here for 356 patients have demonstrated marked improvement in survival through the use of a uniform treatment protocol consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, vincristine, and intrathecal therapy, and the introduction of non-cross resistant second-line (salvage) therapy, consisting of ifosfamide, mesna, etoposide and cytarabine, when patients failed to achieve a complete response to first-line therapy or relapsed early. Overall survival rates of 67% and 62% were observed at 1 and 2 years (relapse is rare after 1 year of remission). Of interest was the small impact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bone marrow involvement on outcome. However, the presence or absence of abdominal involvement clearly defined two prognostic groups. An additional finding was the association between CSF pleocytosis and orbital tumours, suggesting that spread of tumour cells to the central nervous system may sometimes occur via direct involvement of cranial nerves in the orbit. Survival rates may be increased in patients with abdominal involvement by combining first- and second-line therapy, but verification will require a further clinical study.

Lowther K, Victoria Simms, Selman L, Lorraine Sherr, Liz Gwyther, Hellen Kariuki, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Rachel Jenkins, Irene J Higginson RH. "Treatment outcomes in palliative care: the TOPCare study. A mixed methods phase III randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy." BMC Infect Dis.. 2012;6(12):288.
Juma G, Thiongo M, Dutaur L, Rharrabe K, Marion-Poll F, Ru LB, Magoma G, Silvain J-F, Calatayud P-A. Two sugar isomers influence host plant acceptance by a cereal caterpillar pest. PO Box 62000 Nairobi, Kenya:: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, ; 2012.abstracts_juma.pdf
Lobo N, MOULTON, J.E., Lobo, C., Rothschild, L.J., Mwaura, F., Kabaru JM, and Duboise SM. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage Φ1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy & Microanalysis . 2012;Vol 18, S2:110.
Rothschild L, Mwaura F, Kabaru J, Lobo N, Moulton K, Lobo C, Duboise S. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage [Phi] 1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110. AbstractFull text link

Bacteriophage 1N2-2 infects a narrow range of alkaliphilic bacterial strains phylogenetically
related to the family Idiomarinacea [1]. Both phage and host bacterium were isolated from alkaline
and saline waters of Lake Nakuru, a soda lake of Kenya’s Great Rift Valley. Virion structures
including capsids must tolerate extreme alkaline environments of pH 10 and above. The phage is
morphologically and genetically related to lambdoid viruses of the family Siphoviridae (Fig. 1B)[1].
Genomic analysis revealed that 1N2-2 genes are organized in functional modules. Capsid
morphogenesis genes are homologous both in order and predicted amino acid sequence to the
corresponding genes of the coliphage HK97 (Fig. 1A )[2]. Like many dsDNA viruses, HK97
assembles multiple subunits of a single gene product into a protocapsid around a transient
protein-scaffolding core that is subsequently cleaved by a protease at the time of DNA packaging
triggering expansion and stabilization of the mature capsid [3]. 1N2-2, like HK97, lacks an
independent capsid scaffolding gene but rather, as we have inferred, the N-terminal 110 residues of
the major head protein (MHP) encoded by gene 10 probably assume a coiled-coil folding typical of
scaffolding proteins.
We cloned the 1N2-2 gene 10 MHP sequence into a pQE-Tri-system plasmid (Qiagen) and have
expressed a 46-kDa MHP protein in Escherichia coli strain SG19003 (Qiagen) that can be
precipitated by 8% PEG treatment in ice and low speed centrifugation (Fig. 1C and 1E).
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows the presence of virus-like particles (VLP)
of similar size and shape as empty proheads of naturally formed 1N2-2 (Fig. 1B). Alternatively,
the 3’ end of the gene 10 in the pQE vector was modified to eliminate the stop codon allowing in
frame translation of ten additional codons including eight histidine residues at the C-terminus of
MHP (MHP-his). Based on a Swiss-model prediction of the 1N2-2 MHP protein sequence using
the structure of phage HK97 MHP as template (PDB 1OHG)[4] we inferred that the C-terminus and
its additional modifications would be located on the surface of the recombinant capsid allowing the
purification of fully assembled capsids with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography (data not shown).
SDS-PAGE analysis and UAc-stained protein samples visualized by TEM show that MHP-his
expressed in E. coli is a protein of 46.5 kDa (Fig. 1E) that can assemble into VLPs, possibly
proheads of 46 nm in diameter (Fig. 1D). Other non-closed structures that are seen in the sample are
presumably incomplete capsids (Fig 1 C and 1D). We are currently investigating whether capsid
morphogenesis including incomplete structures and proheads produced from the expression plasmid
in E. coli differ from natural capsid morphogenesis in the alkaliphilic host of 1N2-2. We are
formulating capsid assembly buffers to produce fully closed stable VLP in vitro. We conclude that the Φ1N2-2 MHP protein, either intact or with histidineresidues at the C-terminus, is sufficient to produce VLP in theabsence of other virally-encoded proteins. Weexpectthe MHP C-terminus can be used to
display antigens on the prohead surface while modifications of the N-terminus may be used for
packaging antigens internally providing a versatile VLP platform for vaccine development and
other nanomedicine applications.

Lobo N, Moulton KD, Lobo C, Rothschild LJ, Mwaura F, Kabaru JM, Duboise SM. "Ultrastructure and biochemical analysis of in vitro and in vivo capsid assembly of alkaliphilic Phage Ф1N2-2 for application in nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110.
P.N N, J.I. K, J.N K, R.K. W. Use of Anthocyanin morphological markers to select hybrids from non-hybrids Basmati lines.; 2012. Abstract

Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) is preferred by consumers over other varieties because of its aroma and good cooking traits. However, its yield is genetically low compared to other pure bred lines. To increase yield of Basmati per hectare, it has become necessary to adopt hybrid rice technology that has been reported to increase yield by up to 30% above pure dwarf lines. Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) and Thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) rice lines contain genes that confer male sterility under long day light-length and high temperature growth conditions, respectively. Pollination of these lines, in their male sterile period, with a viable male parent pollen produce hybrid seeds. The problem of using PGMS or TGMS is that in the tropics, day-light length is 12hours and diurnal temperature range is high, making induction of complete male-sterility in these lines difficult. The result is contamination of hybrid seeds with self-bred pure line seeds. The objective of this research work was to produce pure hybrid Basmati seeds. Hypothesis to be tested is that anthocyanin markers can be used to differentiate hybrid F1s from pure inbred seedlings. This tool can be used in selection of Basmati hybrid seedlings free from contamination with self-bred parents before transplanting and therefore save on the associated losses. The F1 seeds from a cross between PGMS or TGMS and Basmati were sown in greenhouse at KARI Mwea- Kimbibi station. Hybrid seeds were scored for anthocynanin morphological marker, by observation, to differentiate them from the pure bred lines. All hybrids involving Basmati370 and Basmati217 had very conspicuous incidence of anthocyanin which made them distinct from the parents. The conclusion is that anthocyanin can be used as a marker to separate F1 hybrid plants from the parents.

Key words: Anthocyanins, Morphological marker, Basmati, Hybrid rice seed

Hitti J, Richardson BA, Wald A, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Ongecha-Owuor F, Roxby AC, Drake AL. "Valacyclovir Suppressive Therapy Reduces Plasma and Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA Levels During Pregnancy and Postpartum: A Randomized Trial.". 2012. Abstract

The effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions is unknown. Methods. Between April 2008 and August 2010, we conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of twice daily 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo beginning at 34 weeks gestation in 148 HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected pregnant Kenyan women ineligible for highly active antiretroviral therapy (CD4 > 250 cells/mm3). Women received zidovudine and single dose nevirapine for PMTCT and were followed until 12 months postpartum. Results. Mean baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA was 3.88 log10 copies/mL. Mean plasma HIV-1 was lower during pregnancy (−.56 log10 copies/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], −.77 to −.34) and after 6 weeks postpartum (−.51 log10 copies/mL; 95% CI, −.73 to −.30) in the valacyclovir arm than the placebo arm. Valacyclovir reduced breast milk HIV-1 RNA detection at 6 and 14 weeks postpartum compared with placebo (30% lower, P = .04; 46% lower, P = .01, respectively), but not after 14 weeks. Cervical HIV-1 RNA detection was similar between arms (P = .91). Conclusions. Valacyclovir significantly decreased early breast milk and plasma HIV-1 RNA among women receiving PMTCT.

Mwisukha A, Rintaugu EG, Mwangi PW. "Witchcraft Practices in Kenyan Football: A Reality or Myth?" International Journal of Sports Technology Management and Allied sciences. 2012;1(1):1-10.
Rugendo CJ, Njue N,, Gatimu JC. "woman participation in miraa (khat) Business and Academic performance of primary school children in Runyenjes Divisions, Embu, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and social study. 2012.
Bulimo W, KK W, WD B, J M, RA A, SK S, M S, JM M, MO W, FA O, SO M, JK M, JM W, JN M, JO N, BD O, BH O, KK M, J B, S L, DC S. "Epidemiology of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 among Kenyans aged 2 months to 18 years, 2009-2010.". 2012. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Bulimo W, CO O, R N, S K, R A, W B, SR W, PA C, RN G, LL H, JA S, JA B, DJ N. "Influenza surveillance among children with pneumonia admitted to a district hospital in coastal Kenya, 2007-2010.". 2012. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Bulimo W, WD B, RA A, J M, S M, M W, F O, J M, J N, J W, J N, B O, K M, D O, S S, M N, A O, C A, J K, R M, F M, G K, M M, D K, E M, D K, S K, M K, A S, ' O, DC S. "Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin 1 protein of human influenza A virus subtype H1N1 circulating in Kenya during 2007-2008.". 2012. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
Stenmark KR, Yeager M, Riddle S, El Kasmi KC, Frid MG, Li M, McKinsey T. "Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: {A} potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change." Pulmonary Circulation. 2012;2:3. AbstractWebsite
n/a
2011
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "A study of some as-cast and heat treated alloys of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner.". In: Proceedings of the ZrTa New Metals Development Network Conference at Mount Grace Country House and Spa, Magaliesburg. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Advanced Metals Initiative; 2011.
Jung B, Rimmele T, Goff CL, Chanques G, Corne P, Jonquet O, Muller L, Lefrant J-Y, Guervilly C, Papazian L, Allaouchiche B, Jaber S, firstName \$author.lastName \$author. "Severe metabolic or mixed acidemia on intensive care unit admission: incidence, prognosis and administration of buffer therapy. a prospective, multiple-center study." Critical Care. 2011;15:R238. AbstractWebsite

In this study, we sought describe the incidence and outcomes of severe metabolic or mixed acidemia in critically ill patients as well as the use of sodium bicarbonate therapy to treat these illnesses. PMID: 21995879

Savage MW, Dhatariya KK, Kilvert A, Rayman G, a. Rees JE, Courtney CH, Hilton L, Dyer PH, Hamersley MS, Joint British Diabetes Societies. "Joint {British} {Diabetes} {Societies} guideline for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2011;28:508-515. Abstract

The Joint British Diabetes Societies guidelines for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (these do not cover Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Syndrome) are available in full at: (i) http://www.diabetes.org.uk/About\_us/Our\_Views/Care\_recommendations/The-Management-of-Diabetic-Ketoacidosis-in-Adults; (ii)  http://www.diabetes.nhs.uk/publications\_and\_resources/reports\_andġuidance; (iii) http://www.diabetologists-abcd.org.uk/JBDS\_DKA\_Management.pdf. This article summarizes the main changes from previous guidelines and discusses the rationale for the new recommendations. The key points are: Monitoring of the response to treatment (i) The method of choice for monitoring the response to treatment is bedside measurement of capillary blood ketones using a ketone meter. (ii) If blood ketone measurement is not available, venous pH and bicarbonate should be used in conjunction with bedside blood glucose monitoring to assess treatment response. (iii) Venous blood should be used rather than arterial (unless respiratory problems dictate otherwise) in blood gas analysers. (iv) Intermittent laboratory confirmation of pH, bicarbonate and electrolytes only. Insulin administration (i) Insulin should be infused intravenously at a weight-based fixed rate until the ketosis has resolved. (ii) When the blood glucose falls below 14 mmol/l, 10% glucose should be added to allow the fixed-rate insulin to be continued. (iii) If already taking, long-acting insulin analogues such as insulin glargine (Lantus(®), Sanofi Aventis, Guildford, Surry, UK) or insulin detemir (Levemir(®), Novo Nordisk, Crawley, West Sussex, UK.) should be continued in usual doses. Delivery of care (i) The diabetes specialist team should be involved as soon as possible. (ii) Patients should be nursed in areas where staff are experienced in the management of ketoacidosis.

Rudebjer P, Chakeredza S, Dansi A, Ekaya W, Ghezae N, Aboagye LM, Kwapata M, Njoroge K, Padulosi S. "Beyond commodity crops: Strengthening young scientists’ capacity for research on underutilized species in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2011.
ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Solidification projection of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner.". In: Proceedings of the Microscopic Society of Southern Africa Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Paul UK, Naushaba H, Alam MJ, Begum T, Rahman A, Akhter J. "Length of {Vermiform} {Appendix}: {A} {Postmortem} {Study}." Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy. 2011;9. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Reese BE. "Development of the retina and optic pathway." Vision research. 2011;51:613-632. Abstract

Our understanding of the development of the retina and visual pathways has seen enormous advances during the past 25years. New imaging technologies, coupled with advances in molecular biology, have permitted a fuller appreciation of the histotypical events associated with proliferation, fate determination, migration, differentiation, pathway navigation, target innervation, synaptogenesis and cell death, and in many instances, in understanding the genetic, molecular, cellular and activity-dependent mechanisms underlying those developmental changes. The present review considers those advances associated with the lineal relationships between retinal nerve cells, the production of retinal nerve cell diversity, the migration, patterning and differentiation of different types of retinal nerve cells, the determinants of the decussation pattern at the optic chiasm, the formation of the retinotopic map, and the establishment of ocular domains within the thalamus.

Reese BE. "Development of the retina and optic pathway." Vision research. 2011;51:613-632. Abstract

Our understanding of the development of the retina and visual pathways has seen enormous advances during the past 25years. New imaging technologies, coupled with advances in molecular biology, have permitted a fuller appreciation of the histotypical events associated with proliferation, fate determination, migration, differentiation, pathway navigation, target innervation, synaptogenesis and cell death, and in many instances, in understanding the genetic, molecular, cellular and activity-dependent mechanisms underlying those developmental changes. The present review considers those advances associated with the lineal relationships between retinal nerve cells, the production of retinal nerve cell diversity, the migration, patterning and differentiation of different types of retinal nerve cells, the determinants of the decussation pattern at the optic chiasm, the formation of the retinotopic map, and the establishment of ocular domains within the thalamus.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a {Kenyan} tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Spinal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal TB. Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of TB, data on spinal TB in this country remain scarce. PURPOSE To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty-nine patients. OUTCOME MEASURES Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. METHODS This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal TB. RESULTS The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A or ASIA B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-TB drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. CONCLUSION Patients with spinal TB in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

Mureithi SM, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Verdoodt A, Warinwa F, Ranst VE. "Impact of rehabilitated sites on herbivore dynamics in a livestock-wildlife interface in Laikipia, Kenya. CBD Technical Series. 62. p.78-80.". In: CBD SBSTTA 15 - Fifteenth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. Montreal, Canada: Rangeland Ecology & Management; 2011. Abstract

Refer Website

Mugo NR, Heffron R, Donnell D, Wald A, Were EO, Rees H, Celum C, Kiarie JN, Cohen CR, Kayintekore K, Baeten JM. "Increased risk of HIV-1 transmission in pregnancy: a prospective study among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." AIDS. 2011;25(15):1887-95. Abstract

Physiologic and behavioral changes during pregnancy may alter HIV-1 susceptibility and infectiousness. Prospective studies exploring pregnancy and HIV-1 acquisition risk in women have found inconsistent results. No study has explored the effect of pregnancy on HIV-1 transmission risk from HIV-1-infected women to male partners.

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Kim HN, Scott J, Cent A, Cook L, Morrow RA, Richardson B, Tapia K, Jerome KR, Lule G, John-Stewart G, Chung MH. "HBV lamivudine resistance among hepatitis B and HIV coinfected patients starting lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in Kenya." J. Viral Hepat.. 2011;18(10):e447-52. Abstract

Widespread use of lamivudine in antiretroviral therapy may lead to hepatitis B virus resistance in HIV-HBV coinfected patients from endemic settings where tenofovir is not readily available. We evaluated 389 Kenyan HIV-infected adults before and for 18 months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Twenty-seven (6.9%) were HBsAg positive and anti-HBs negative, 24 were HBeAg negative, and 18 had HBV DNA levels ≤ 10,000 IU/mL. Sustained HBV suppression to <100 IU/mL occurred in 89% of 19 evaluable patients. Resistance occurred in only two subjects, both with high baseline HBV DNA levels. Lamivudine resistance can emerge in the setting of incomplete HBV suppression but was infrequently observed among HIV-HBV coinfected patients with low baseline HBV DNA levels.

Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

McClelland SR, Richardson BA, Wanje GH, Graham SM, Mutunga E, Peshu N, Kiarie JN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W. "Association between participant self-report and biological outcomes used to measure sexual risk behavior in human immunodeficiency virus-1-seropositive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38(5):429-33. Abstract

Few studies have examined the association between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and biologic outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-seropositive African adults.

Chung MH, Richardson BA, Tapia K, Benki-Nugent S, Kiarie JN, Simoni JM, Overbaugh J, Attwa M, John-Stewart GC. "A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of counseling and alarm device on HAART adherence and virologic outcomes." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(3):e1000422. Abstract

Behavioral interventions that promote adherence to antiretroviral medications may decrease HIV treatment failure. Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa confront increasing financial constraints to provide comprehensive HIV care, which include adherence interventions. This study compared the impact of counseling and use of an alarm device on adherence and biological outcomes in a resource-limited setting.

Balkus JE, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Marrazzo J, Farquhar C, McClelland SR. "Establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment: analysis of data from a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections." J. Infect. Dis.. 2011;204(2):323-6. Abstract

Data from a randomized trial of oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections were analyzed to assess the effect of the intervention on a healthy vaginal environment (normal flora confirmed by Gram stain with no candidiasis or trichomoniasis). The incidence of a healthy vaginal environment was 608 cases per 100 person-years in the intervention arm and 454 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.58). Sustained vaginal health (healthy vaginal environment for ≥3 consecutive visits) was also more frequent in the intervention arm (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23-2.33). PPT is effective at establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment.

Hlushchuk R, Ehrbar M, Reichmuth P, Heinimann N, Styp-Rekowska B, Escher R, Baum O, Lienemann P, Makanya A, Keshet E, Djonov V. "Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning." Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.. 2011;31(12):2836-44. Abstract

The concept of vascular pruning, the "cuting-off" of vessels, is gaining importance due to expansion of angio-modulating therapies. The proangiogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are broadly described, but the mechanisms of structural alterations by its downregulation are not known.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

UoN Websites Search