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2008
McClelland SR, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurth AE, Holmes KK. "Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: results of a randomized trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2008;197(10):1361-8. Abstract

Vaginal infections are common and have been associated with increased risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

Cherutich P, Brentlinger P, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Condom use among sexually active Kenyan female adolescents at risk for HIV-1 infection." AIDS Behav. 2008;12(6):923-9. Abstract

High rates of unintended pregnancy and HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa yet few Kenyan studies have defined correlates of condom use in sexually active female adolescents. Female adolescents receiving reproductive health care and aged 15-19 were interviewed. The prevalence of ever-use of condom was 21.4% and 52 (7.3%) subjects were infected with HIV-1. Older age, higher levels of education, ever-use of hormonal contraceptives and higher numbers of sexual partners, non-consensual sex and exchange of sex for favours, were independent correlates of condom use. Condom use should be promoted in this population. Further exploration is needed on the developmental and contextual factors predisposing female adolescents to increased risk of HIV.

Mark O. Nanyingi, Lagat BK, Wagate CG, Adanyi FN, Koros KB, Rono BC, Asaava LL. "Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Plants Traditionally used in Treatment of Malaria in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 1st National Conference and Exhibition of Research Results and Review of Innovations.Ministry of Science and Technology. K.I.C.C. Nairobi ; 2008.
Dorothy McCormick, Raphael Kaplinsky, Morris M. "Impacts and Challenges of a Growing Relationship Between China and Sub Saharan Africa." London: Washington: The Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies.; 2008. Abstract

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2009
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Book entitled Essays in Conflict and Peace Studies (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming.". In: (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

Peng B, Meng X, Tang F, Ren X, Chen D, Ren J. "General synthesis and optical properties of monodisperse multifunctional metal-ion-doped TiO2 hollow particles." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2009;113:20240-20245. Abstract
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R.S. O. "A Look at Climate Change and Human Mobility in Africa -,." paper presents at Cespi Workshop,Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 2009. Abstract
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Adebambo AO, G. Bjørnstad, W. Bulimo, H. Jianlin, G. Kierstein, L. Mazhani, B. Podisi, J. Hirbo, K. Agyemang, C. Wollny, T. Gondwe, V. Zeuh D, Tadelle, G. Abebe, P. Abdoulaye, S. Paco, L. Serunjogi, M. Abrerrahman, R. Sow, S. Weigend, R. Sanfo, F. Gaye, E. Ssewanyana, M. D. Coulibaly, B. Teme, VSF(Sudan), Hanotte. O. "Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Analysis of South Western Nigerian Chicken." Archivos de Zootecnia. 2009;58:637-643. Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop segment was sequenced for a total of 98 individuals of domestic chicken from South Western Nigeria. Domestic chicken populations were: Anak titan (Israeli breed,n= 1), Frizzle (n= 16), Opipi (n= 5), FrizzleXOpipi (n= 5), Fulani (n= 4), Giriraja (Indian breed,n= 3), Normal (n= 55), Naked neck (n= 8), Yaffa (n= 1). The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for the analysis. Seventeen haplotypes were identified in the samples, 15 for Nigerian indigenous chicken population, 1 for Giriraja and 1 for Anak titan from 23 polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Nigerian indigenous and Anak titan chicken were all grouped under clade IV, while the Indian Giriraja was under clade IIIc. Clade IV had 16 haplotypes, while clade IIIc had one haplotype. AMOVA analysis indicates that 97.32% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within population and 2.68% between populations. Our results suggest single multiple maternal origins for the South Western Nigerian domestic chicken.

Peng B, Tang F, Chen D, Ren X, Meng X, Ren J. "Preparation of PS/TiO2/UF multilayer core–shell hybrid microspheres with high stability." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2009;329:62-66. Abstract
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ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: aulines Publications Africa, 2009 pp. 75-89. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

Peng B, Deng Z, Tang F, Chen D, Ren X, Ren J. "Self-healing self-assembly of aspect-ratio-tunable chloroplast-shaped architectures." Crystal growth & design. 2009;9:4745-4751. Abstract
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Glazer G, Ponte PR, Stuart-Shor EM, NP-BC MCE, Rew L, Hoke MM, Horner SD, Walker L, MacPhee M, Cramer M, others. "Special Focus on Partnerships." The Official Journal of the American Academy of Nursing. 2009;57. Abstract
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Branthomme A, Bunning C, Kamerlaczyk S, Rodas R., Anyango SO, Situma C. Integrated Natural Resources Assessment Kenya: field manual . Rome: FAO; 2009.
Slyker JA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Maleche-Obimbo E, Emery S, Richardson B, Dong T, Iversena AKN, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Rowland-Jones SL. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection in Kenyan HIV-infected infants.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression
during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection
and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected
infants.
Methods: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIVexposed
uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers.
HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed
uninfected infants were studied for 1 year.
Results: CMVDNAwas detected frequently during the firstmonths of life; by 3months of
age,CMVDNAwasdetectedin90%ofHIV-exposeduninfectedinfantsand93%of infants
whohadacquiredHIV-1inutero.CMVviral loadswerehighest inthe1–3monthsfollowing
the first detection of virus and declined rapidly thereafter. CMV peak viral loads were
significantlyhigher in theHIV-infectedinfantscomparedwith theHIV-exposeduninfected
infants (mean3.2versus2.7 log10CMVDNAcopies/ml, respectively,P¼0.03).Thedetection
of CMV DNA persisted to 7–9 months post-CMV infection in both the HIV-exposed
uninfected (8/17, 47%) and HIV-infected (13/18, 72%, P¼0.2) children. Among HIVinfected
children, CMV DNA was detected in three of the seven (43%) surviving infants
tested between 19 and 21 months post-CMV infection. Finally, a strong correlation was
found between peak CMV and HIV-1 viral loads (r¼0.40, P¼0.008).
Conclusion: Acute CMV coinfection is common in HIV-infected Kenyan infants. HIV-1
infection was associated with impaired containment of CMV replication.

Bosshard A, Reinhard BR, Taylor S, Gichuki NN, Kinuthia WW. "Biodiversity in tropical small scale farms in central Kenya.". In: IFOAM Guide to Biodiversity and Lanscape Quality in Organic Agriculturend. Bonn: International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) ; 2009.
Kiptoon DK, Ngugi PM, Rana FS. "Cancer of the penis: case report.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Two patients with penile carcinoma are presented after management at a district hospital in Kenya. Both had undergone ritual circumcision as teenagers and presented late. HR was a 73 year old who presented with a fungating penile mass for which a partial penectomy was performed after wedge biopsy confirmed malignancy. He thereafter declined to have the surgical specimen sent for histology and took the amputated stump for burial in his compound to avoid bad omen. GK was 25 years old and presented with a fungating mass and underwent partial penectomy after a histological diagnosis was made. He absconded from follow-up after being informed of the need for further surgery due to tumour infiltration of the surgical margins. The history and clinical images are presented and we discuss the difficulties of cancer management at a rural district hospital

Teresa N. Kiama, Rita Verhelst, Mbugua PM, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, Temmerman M. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora during the menstrual cycle of HIV positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya.; 2009.
Mutsotso B, Muya EM, Karanja N, Okoth PFZ, Romen H, Munga'tu J, Thuranira G. "COMPARATIVE DESCRIPTION OF LAND USE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BELOWGROUND BIODIVERSITY BENCHMARK SITES IN KENYA ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;11(2):263-275.
Brown ER, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, R W Nduati, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Comparison of CD4 Cell Count, Viral Load, and other markers for the prediction of mortality among HIV-1–Infected Kenyan pregnant women.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Background. There are limited data regarding the relative merits of biomarkers as predictors of mortality or time
to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods. We evaluated the usefulness of the CD4 cell count, CD4 cell percentage (CD4%), human immunodeficiency
virus type 1 (HIV-1) load, total lymphocyte count (TLC), body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin measured
at 32 weeks’ gestation as predictors of mortality in a cohort of HIV-1–infected women in Nairobi, Kenya. Sensitivity,
specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC)
were determined for each biomarker separately, as well as for the CD4 cell count and the HIV-1 load combined.
Results. Among 489 women with 10,150 person-months of follow-up, mortality rates at 1 and 2 years postpartum
were 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7%–3.4%) and 5.5% (95% CI, 3.0%–8.0%), respectively. CD4 cell count
and CD4% had the highest AUC value ( 0.9). BMI, TLC, and hemoglobin were each associated with but poorly
predictive of mortality (PPV, 7%). The HIV-1 load did not predict mortality beyond the CD4 cell count.
Conclusions. The CD4 cell count and CD4% measured during pregnancy were both useful predictors of mortality
among pregnant women. TLC, BMI, and hemoglobin had a limited predictive value, and the HIV-1 load did not
predict mortality any better than did the CD4 cell count alone.

Irungu P;, Bett B;, Mbogoh SG;, Randolph TF;, Nyamwaro SO;, Murilla G. "Determinants of cattle market price volatility in Maasailand: a GARCH-M application."; 2009.
Irungu P;, Bett B;, Mbogoh SG;, Randolph TF;, Nyamwaro SO;, Murilla G. "Determinants of cattle market price volatility in Maasailand: a GARCH-M application."; 2009.
R. TT, Rice J. IL, B. J, A. M, F. N. "The Difference Interventions for Guardians Can Make." Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. 2009.
Bennett MR, Harris JWK, Richmond BG, Braun DR, Mbua E, Kiura P, Olago D, Kibunjia M, Omuombo C, Behrensmeyer AK, Huddart D, Gonzalez S. "Early Hominin Foot Morphology Based on 1.5-Million-Year-Old Footprints from Ileret, Kenya ." Science. 2009;323(5918):1197-1201.
Butt FMA, W. GS, Chindia ML, Rana F, M. OT. "Early outcome of three cases of Melanotic Neuroectodermal of infancy." journal of Cranio-maxillofacial Surg.. 2009.
Ruto S, Kameri-Mbote P, Muteshi J. "Engendering Environmental Management for Sustainable Livelihoods.". In: The Promises and Realities: Taking Stock of the 3rd International Women’s Conference. NAIROBI: African Women & Child Feature Service & Ford Foundation; 2009.
MayumiNomura, Yamaguchi H, Motegi E, Rugh JD, Ng’ang’a PM, Gakunga PT, Hatch JP. "Esthetic preferences of European American, Hispanic American, Japanese, and African Judges for soft - tissue profiles.". 2009.
Gitonga ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye C;, Ritho CN. "From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry."; 2009. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.

Gitonga ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye, C; Ritho CN, Ritho CN. "From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry."; 2009. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.

Kiarie, J.W, Othieno Abinya, N. A, Riyat MS. "The GLIVEC international patient assistance programme: the Nairobi experience." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(12):106-107. Abstract

Glivec is a drug used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISI). It is an expensive drug which would be out of reach for most patients in Kenya. Norvatis Pharmaceutical together with Axios International a healthcare management company and Max Foundation have made it possible for patients in developing countries to get access to the drug at no cost. Patients meet the cost of the confirmatory test and are recruited into the programme to receive the drug at no cost. A total of 201 patients are in the programme in Nairobi, mainly drawn from Kenyatta National Hospital the major referral hospital in Kenya. The age range is nine years to 75 years with a mean age of 39.5 years. Males make up 56.5% while females are 43.5%. CML are 173 (86%) while GIST patients are 28 (13.9%). Most of the CML cases are referred in the chronic stable phase (87.8%) and 85.7% have been on hydroxyurea as the initial treatment. Compliance rates are approximately 80%.

Plummer FA;, Ackers M;, Gelmon L;, Kimani J;, Thabane L;, Ball B;T, Ngugi E;, Estambale B;, Nguti R;, Barasa S;, Karanja S;, Habyarimana J;, Jack W;, Chung M;, Ritvo P;, Kariri A;, Mills EJ;, Lester RT. "The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol.". 2009. Abstract

The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS (’short message system’ or text message) slogan (the intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control). Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by ‘intention-to-treat’. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes. This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting.

Katz, DA; John FN;, Kiarie JN;, John-Stewart GC;, Richardson BA;, John FN;, Farquhar C. "HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure.". 2009. Abstract

Prevention of infant HIV is a powerful incentive for maternal HIV diagnosis and an opportunity to increase male HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status within couples. We examined male HIV disclosure in couples who attended a Nairobi antenatal clinic (ANC), had individual HIV testing, and were counselled to disclose to their partner. At two-week follow-up, men and women independently reported HIV disclosure. Of 2104 women, 1993 requested partner attendance; 313 male partners came, of whom 183 chose individual HIV testing. Of 106 couples who followed up, 93% of both partners reported disclosure by women versus 71% by men (P < 0.0001); 27% of men reported disclosure while their female partner reported not knowing partner HIV status. In these couples, male ANC HIV testing did not result in shared knowledge of HIV status. Couple counselling models that incorporate disclosure may yield greater HIV prevention benefits than offering individual partner HIV testing services at ANC.

Fujita M;, Ngugi EN;, Rotha EA. "HIV/AIDS risk and worry in Northern Kenya HIV/AIDS risk and worry in Northern Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Data from a 2003 survey of sexual behaviour (n = 400) conducted in the Ariaal community of Karare, Marsabit District, northern Kenya, were used to delineate patterns of risk and worry about contracting HIV/AIDS. Despite widespread reporting of high-risk sexual behaviours (including multiple partners, concurrency, sexual mixing and not using condoms) by survey participants, logistic regression analysis found only one statistically significant positive association between these behaviours and self-assessment of being at high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. In contrast, log-linear analysis of worry patterns found highly significant relationships between self-assessment of high risk of HIV/AIDS and worry about one's partner's sexual behaviour. These findings indicate that in relation to contracting HIV/AIDS currently Ariaal are more concerned about the sexual behaviour of others, rather than their own behaviour. More generally, results point to the potential for combining concepts of worry with risk assessment in HIV/AIDS research to generate insights into how both concepts are linked to individual, dyadic and population-level factors within specific cultural settings.

Chung MH;, Drake AL;, Richardson BA;, Reddy A;, Thiga J;, Sakr SR;, Kiarie JN;, Yowakim P;, Stewart GJC. "Impact of Prior HAART Use on Clinical Outcomes in a Large Kenyan HIV Treatment Program."; 2009.
Hama A, Rivathi MG, A OTM. "Incidence of Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections at Kenyatta National Hospital-Critical Care Unit." Kenya Nursing Journal . 2009;38 (1).
Ramadan HAI, El-Banhawy EM, Afia SI. "On the identification of a taxa collected from Egypt in the species sub- group andersoni: Morphological relationships with related species and molecular analysis of inter- and intra- specific variations ( Acari: Phytoseiidae).". 2009. AbstractOn the identification of a taxa collected from Egypt in the species sub- group andersoni: Morphological relationships with relat

Morphological studies of the diagnostic characters of Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (original description) and A. enab El Badry (several new collections including the type locality) indicated close affinity between the two species. Among the Egyptian collections, little morphological variations have been observed except for setae Z1, S2, S4 and S5. Sequencing of a fragment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of different samples from Egypt showed almost complete identity with Neoseiulus swirskii (= A. swirskii Accession number EU 310505). Other related species i.e. A. cucumeris (Oud.), N. andersoni (Chant) and N. fallacis (Garman) showed distant identity. The intraspecific variationswere great between the six samples of Egypt and mainly because of mutations (which could be due to error during replication or as a result of mutagens).

Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, Richardson B, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Farquhar C, Bosire R, Barbara Lohman Payne, John-Stewart G. "Pediatric HIV-1 in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Background—There is limited information regarding the pattern and correlates of viral replication in vertically HIV-1–infected children and its role on their outcomes in resource-limited settings. Methods—HIV-1–infected infants were followed from birth to 24 months. Serial HIV-1 RNA levels were compared in infants infected in utero (<48 hours), peripartum (48 hours–1 month), and late postnatal (after 1 month). Cofactors for viral peak [highest viral load (VL) within 6 months of infection] and set point and mortality were determined. Results—Among 85 HIV-1–infected infants, 24 were infected in utero, 41 peripartum, 13 late postnatal; 7 had no 48-hour assay. HIV-1 VL set point was significantly lower in infants infected >1 month vs. ≤1 month (5.59 vs. 6.24 log10 copies per milliliter, P = 0.01). Maternal VL correlated with peak infant VL (P < 0.001). Univariately, infant peak and set point VL and 6-month CD4% <15% predicted mortality; and 6-month CD4% <15% remained independently predictive in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.90 to 12.36). Conclusions—Infants infected after the age of 1 month contained virus better than infants infected before 1 month of age. Maternal VL predicted infant VL, which, in turn was associated with early mortality

Obimbo EM, Wamalwa D, Richardson B, Mbori-Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Otieno P, Bosire R, Payne BL, John-Stewart. "Pediatric HIV-1 in Kenya: pattern and correlates of viral load and association with mortality." J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr. 2009 Jun 1;51(2):209-15.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
There is limited information regarding the pattern and correlates of viral replication in vertically HIV-1-infected children and its role on their outcomes in resource-limited settings.
METHODS:
HIV-1-infected infants were followed from birth to 24 months. Serial HIV-1 RNA levels were compared in infants infected in utero (<48 hours), peripartum (48 hours-1 month), and late postnatal (after 1 month). Cofactors for viral peak [highest viral load (VL) within 6 months of infection] and set point and mortality were determined.
RESULTS:
Among 85 HIV-1-infected infants, 24 were infected in utero, 41 peripartum, 13 late postnatal; 7 had no 48-hour assay. HIV-1 VL set point was significantly lower in infants infected >1 month vs. < or = 1 month (5.59 vs. 6.24 log10 copies per milliliter, P = 0.01). Maternal VL correlated with peak infant VL (P < 0.001). Univariately, infant peak and set point VL and 6-month CD4% <15% predicted mortality; and 6-month CD4% <15% remained independently predictive in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.90 to 12.36).
CONCLUSIONS:
Infants infected after the age of 1 month contained virus better than infants infected before 1 month of age. Maternal VL predicted infant VL, which, in turn was associated with early mortality.

Inwani I, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G. "Performance of Clinical Algorithms for HIV-1 Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Initiation among HIV-1-Exposed Children Aged Less Than 18 Months in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 50% die before 2 years. Methods We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and ART initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: 1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), 2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and 3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA PCR testing. Findings A total of 1,418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1-infected. Compared to HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4 percent improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD to 74% and 84% respectively, however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively. Interpretation Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high prevalence, resource-limited setting remains a challenge and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Inwani I, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Performance of Clinical Algorithms for HIV-1 Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Initiation among HIV-1-Exposed Children Aged Less Than 18 Months in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 50% die before 2 years. Methods We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and ART initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: 1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), 2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and 3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA PCR testing. Findings A total of 1,418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1-infected. Compared to HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4 percent improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD to 74% and 84% respectively, however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively. Interpretation Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high prevalence, resource-limited setting remains a challenge and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Hansen JW, Mishra A, Rao KPC, Indeje M, Ngugi RK. "Potential value of GCM-based seasonal rainfall forecasts for maize management in semi-arid Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

We estimate the potential value of general circulation model (GCM)-based seasonal precipitation forecasts for maize planting and fertilizer management decisions at two semi-arid locations (Katumani and Makindu) in Southern Kenya. Analyses combine downscaled rainfall forecasts, crop yield simulation, stochastic enterprise budgeting and identification of profit-maximizing fertilizer N rates and stand densities. October–February rainfall predictions were downscaled from a GCM, run with both observed and forecast sea surface temperature boundary conditions – representing upper and lower bounds of predictability – and stochastically disaggregated into daily crop model inputs. Simulated interactive effects of rainfall, N supply and stand density on yield and profit are consistent with literature. Perfect foreknowledge of daily weather for the growing season would be worth an estimated 15–30% of the average gross value of production and 24–69% of average gross margin, depending on location and on whether household labor is included in cost calculations. GCM predictions based on observed sea surface temperatures increased average gross margins 24% at Katumani and 9% at Makindu when labor cost was included. At the lead time used, forecasts using forecast sea surface temperatures are not skillful and showed near-zero value. Forecast value was much more sensitive to grain price than to input costs. Stochastic dominance analysis shows that farmers at any level of risk aversion would prefer the forecast-based management strategy over management optimized for climatology under the study’s assumptions, despite high probability (25% at Katumani, 34% at Makindu) of lower returns in individual years. Results contribute to knowledge of seasonal forecast value in a relatively high-risk, high-predictability context; utility and value of forecasts derived from a GCM; and risk implications of smallholder farmers responding to forecasts.

Mukundan L, Odegaard JI, Morel CR, Heredia JE, Mwangi JW, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Goh YP, Eagle AR, Dunn SE, Awakuni JU, Nguyen KD, Steinman L, Michie SA, Chawla A. "PPAR-delta senses and orchestrates clearance of apoptotic cells to promote tolerance.". 2009. Abstract

Macrophages rapidly engulf apoptotic cells to limit the release of noxious cellular contents and to restrict autoimmune responses against self antigens. Although factors participating in recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells have been identified, the transcriptional basis for the sensing and the silent disposal of apoptotic cells is unknown. Here we show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) is induced when macrophages engulf apoptotic cells and functions as a transcriptional sensor of dying cells. Genetic deletion of PPAR-delta decreases expression of opsonins such as complement component-1qb (C1qb), resulting in impairment of apoptotic cell clearance and reduction in anti-inflammatory cytokine production. This increases autoantibody production and predisposes global and macrophage-specific Ppard(-/-) mice to autoimmune kidney disease, a phenotype resembling the human disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, PPAR-delta has a pivotal role in orchestrating the timely disposal of apoptotic cells by macrophages, ensuring that tolerance to self is maintained.

Robertson MC, Murila F, Tong S, Baker LS, Yu VY WEM. "Predicting perinatal outcome through changes in umbilical artery Doppler studies after antenatal corticosteroids in the growth-restricted fetus." Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Mar;113(3):636-40. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318197bf4d.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate whether persistently absent umbilical artery end-diastolic flow in the intrauterine growth-restricted fetus after betamethasone administration is associated with altered perinatal outcomes.
METHODS:
This is a retrospective cohort study of 92 pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and absent end-diastolic flow in which antenatal betamethasone was given. Predefined maternal outcomes (maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis of absent end-diastolic flow, gestational age at delivery, preexisting medical conditions) and neonatal outcomes (including birth weight; perinatal mortality; duration of neonatal intensive care unit admission; requirement for intubation, assisted ventilation, inotropic support; duration of supplemental oxygen, assisted ventilation; respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage) were analyzed.
RESULTS:
Betamethasone administration was associated with a transient return of end-diastolic umbilical artery flow in 58 pregnancies (63%) and persistent absent end-diastolic flow in 34 (37%). Persistent absent end-diastolic flow was seen more frequently in women with prepregnancy medical disorders (59% compared with 24%, P<.001). Neonates from the persistent absent end-diastolic flow subgroup were more likely to require assisted ventilation (93.1% compared with 73.5%, P=.03) and to have longer durations of assisted ventilation (median time 30 days compared with 4 days, P=.03) and supplemental oxygen (median time 45 days compared with 4 days, P=.04).
CONCLUSION:
Betamethasone administration is associated with a transient return of end-diastolic flow in two thirds of pregnancies complicated by IUGR and umbilical artery absent end-diastolic flow. Persistent absent end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery after betamethasone administration may identify a subgroup of fetuses with IUGR at further heightened perinatal risk that, as neonates, are more likely to require assisted ventilation and a longer duration of ventilation and supplemental oxygen.

Magutu  PO, Mbeche IM, Nyaoga RB, Nyamwange O, Richard Nyaanga Ongeri, Ogoro T. "Quality Management Practices in Kenyan Educational Institutions." IBIMA Business Review . 2009.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN, Nyaoga RB, Magutu PO, Richard Nyaanga Ongeri, Ombati TO. "Quality Management Practices in Kenyan Educational Institutions: The Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: 12th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference on Creating Global Economies through Innovation and Knowledge Management. Published in Communications of the IBIMA (ISSN: 1943-7765) and IBIMA Business Revi. IBIMA Publishing; 2009.
Wanyoike G, Rukaria RK, Gachuno OW. "Risk factors associated with tubal infertility.". 2009.
Shiroya-Wandabwa M, Yuko-Jowi C, R W Nduati, Githanga J, Wamalwa D. "Risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in children on treatment for cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the point prevalence of abnormal cardiac function and to assess the risk factors for cardiac dysfunction in paediatric oncology patients on treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study with a nested case control. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between February and April 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular dysfunction if ejection fraction (EF) <55% or fractional shortening (FS) <29% defined cases. Controls had EF >55% or FS >29%. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled of whom 32 had abnormal cardiac function and were classified as cases while 79 had normal cardiac function. About a third, point prevalence 29% (95% CI 21.2-37.9), had cardiac dysfunction. Cumulative anthracycline dose was a risk factor for cardiac dysfunction in this population. Above 200 mg/m2 the attributable risk percentage of cardiac dysfunction was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: Serial echocardiography should be performed to identify patients at risk. Alternative treatment protocols should be used when the cumulative anthracycline dose exceeds 200 mg/m2 due to the high attributable risk. Studies to further assess the other associated risk factors and long term effects of anthracycline are recommended.

Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Similarities In Periods Of Meteorological Variables Over Kenya And Solar Activity Periods." Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). 2009;29(3):43-51. AbstractAFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL)

Using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, we determined the spectral characteristics of some meteorological variables over Kenya and identified the prominent periodicities associated with the variables. The meteorological variables studied are the maximum temperature, mini-mum temperature, average temperature, wind speed, precipitation, relative humidity, solar radia-tion intensity, evaporation and sunshine duration. Data from five terrestrial stations, represent-ing the regional climatic zones in Kenya, were employed in the study. The result reveals periods that are associated with solar activity. It is established that solar forcing is very significant over the Kenyan climate. The Sun-Climate relations were influenced at some locations by local ef-fects such as orography and vegetation.

Keywords: periodicity, solar activity, Sun-climate relations

Harper GW, Ngugi EN, Lemos D, Gikuni A, Riplinger AJ, Hooks K, Hooks K. "Sources of resillience among kenyan youth newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in the nairobi slum of kibera: Implications for intervetion.". 2009. Abstract

Adolescents and young adults who are living with HIV in Kenya comprise a growing percentage of the population. Currently, youth (ages 15-35) represent 38% of the Kenyan population, yet over 60% of new HIV infections occur among this group. In 2008, adolescents and young adults living with HIV accounted for an estimated 6 % of the adolescent population between the ages of 15 and 24 (KDHS, 2009). Of these, the prevalence rates are nearly 6 times higher among young women (2.7% for 15 to 24 year old females; 6.4% for 20 to 24 year old females) as compared to young men (0.7% for 15 to 19 year old males; 1.5% for 20 to 24 year old males) (KDHS, 2009). The difference in prevalence rates among age groups suggests that many youth are becoming infected during adolescence (NASCOP, 2009). Geographic disparities also exist with regards to HIV infection. HIV is more prevalent in urban areas (7.2%) than in rural areas (6.2%). The vast majority ofthe infections are attributed to heterosexual contact in regular partnerships, men who have sex with men, and prisoners (HIV Prevention, Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis, 2009). A study on HIV seroprevalence study found this disparity is even greater in young women aged 15-24 who are four times more likely to become infected with HIV than men of the same age (KDHS, 2009). While having multiple sex partners is seen as a risk factor for HIV transmission, it has also been reported that married persons (6.4%) have higher HIV prevalence rates than nonmarried persons (4.2%) in Kenya, suggesting the need for tailored messages for married partners. Additionally, despite the urgent need for focus on HIV in Kenya, with limited resources there is a need also to focus on urban slum settlements in Kenya as they have higher rates of HIV prevalence than urban regions in general (12% versus 7.1%).

Okoth SA, Okoth P, Wachira P, Roimen H. "Spatial distribution of Trichoderma sp. in Embu and Taita regions, Kenya." Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;(11):291-302.
and R. J. Musembi, M. Rusu MAFMCL-SJMBO. Temperature dependent characterization of TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PBS/PEDOT:PSS ETA solar cell. 13-15 October 2009, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2009.
Ndiba PK, Axe L, Jahan K, Ramanujachary V. XRF measurement of heavy metals in highway marking beads..; 2009.Website
Lingappa JR, Kahle E, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Magaret A, Baeten J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife K, de Bruyn G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, McIntyre J, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington W, Corey L, Wald A, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(4):e5272. Abstract

The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.

THURMAN TR, RICE J, IKAMARI L, B.JARAB, MUTUKU AK, NYANGARA F. The difference interventions for guardians can make: Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. Washington, DC.: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); 2009.ovc_kilifi.doc
Katz DA, Kiarie JN, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, John FN, Farquhar C. "Male perspectives on incorporating men into antenatal HIV counseling and testing." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(11):e7602. Abstract

Male partner involvement in antenatal voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) has been shown to increase uptake of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify methods for increasing male involvement in antenatal VCT and determine male correlates of accepting couple counseling in these settings.

Kiptoon DK, Ngugi PM, Rana FS. "Cancer of the penis: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(4):196-200. Abstract

Two patients with penile carcinoma are presented after management at a district hospital in Kenya. Both had undergone ritual circumcision as teenagers and presented late. HR was a 73 year old who presented with a fungating penile mass for which a partial penectomy was performed after wedge biopsy confirmed malignancy. He thereafter declined to have the surgical specimen sent for histology and took the amputated stump for burial in his compound to avoid bad omen. GK was 25 years old and presented with a fungating mass and underwent partial penectomy after a histological diagnosis was made. He absconded from follow-up after being informed of the need for further surgery due to tumour infiltration of the surgical margins. The history and clinical images are presented and we discuss the difficulties of cancer management at a rural district hospital.

Chung MH, Drake AL, Richardson BA, Reddy A, Thiga J, Sakr SR, Kiarie JN, Yowakim P, John-Stewart GC. "Impact of prior HAART use on clinical outcomes in a large Kenyan HIV treatment program." Curr. HIV Res.. 2009;7(4):441-6. Abstract

HIV treatment programs in Africa typically approach all enrolling patients uniformly. Growing numbers of patients are antiretroviral experienced. Defining patients on the basis of antiretroviral experience may inform enrollment practices, particularly if medical outcomes differ.

McClelland SR, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Graham SM, Kiarie J, Baeten JM, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Holmes KK. "Prospective study of vaginal bacterial flora and other risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis." J. Infect. Dis.. 2009;199(12):1883-90. Abstract

It has been suggested that vaginal colonization with lactobacilli may reduce the risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), but supporting data are limited. Our objective was to determine the relationship between vaginal bacterial flora and VVC.

Katz DA, Kiarie JN, John-Stewart GC, Richardson BA, John FN, Farquhar C. "HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure." Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20(11):765-7. Abstract

Prevention of infant HIV is a powerful incentive for maternal HIV diagnosis and an opportunity to increase male HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status within couples. We examined male HIV disclosure in couples who attended a Nairobi antenatal clinic (ANC), had individual HIV testing, and were counselled to disclose to their partner. At two-week follow-up, men and women independently reported HIV disclosure. Of 2104 women, 1993 requested partner attendance; 313 male partners came, of whom 183 chose individual HIV testing. Of 106 couples who followed up, 93% of both partners reported disclosure by women versus 71% by men (P < 0.0001); 27% of men reported disclosure while their female partner reported not knowing partner HIV status. In these couples, male ANC HIV testing did not result in shared knowledge of HIV status. Couple counselling models that incorporate disclosure may yield greater HIV prevention benefits than offering individual partner HIV testing services at ANC.

Umpierrez GE, Jones S, Smiley D, Mulligan P, Keyler T, Temponi A, Semakula C, Umpierrez D, Peng L, Cerón M, Robalino G. "Insulin analogs versus human insulin in the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis: a randomized controlled trial." Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1164-1169. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of insulin analogs and human insulins both during acute intravenous treatment and during the transition to subcutaneous insulin in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a controlled multicenter and open-label trial, we randomly assigned patients with DKA to receive intravenous treatment with regular or glulisine insulin until resolution of DKA. After resolution of ketoacidosis, patients treated with intravenous regular insulin were transitioned to subcutaneous NPH and regular insulin twice daily (n = 34). Patients treated with intravenous glulisine insulin were transitioned to subcutaneous glargine once daily and glulisine before meals (n = 34). RESULTS: There were no differences in the mean duration of treatment or in the amount of insulin infusion until resolution of DKA between intravenous treatment with regular and glulisine insulin. After transition to subcutaneous insulin, there were no differences in mean daily blood glucose levels, but patients treated with NPH and regular insulin had a higher rate of hypoglycemia (blood glucose {\textless}70 mg/dl). Fourteen patients (41%) treated with NPH and regular insulin had 26 episodes of hypoglycemia and 5 patients (15%) in the glargine and glulisine group had 8 episodes of hypoglycemia (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Regular and glulisine insulin are equally effective during the acute treatment of DKA. A transition to subcutaneous glargine and glulisine after resolution of DKA resulted in similar glycemic control but in a lower rate of hypoglycemia than with NPH and regular insulin. Thus, a basal bolus regimen with glargine and glulisine is safer and should be preferred over NPH and regular insulin after the resolution of DKA.

2010
Richard M Mariita, Callistus KPO Ogol NOO, Okemo PO. "Antitubercular and Phytochemical Investigation of Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants Used by the Samburu Community in Kenya." Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9(4): 379-385; 2010. Abstract
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Ogoma MO, Breckling B, Reuter H, Muchane M, Githiru M. "The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve, South Coast, Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2010;30:1-11. Abstract
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R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

Hulse RS, Stuart-Shor EM, Russo J. "Endoscopic procedure with a modified Reiki intervention: a pilot study." Gastroenterology Nursing. 2010;33:20-26. Abstract
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Andersson M, De Benoist B, Rogers L. "Epidemiology of iodine deficiency: salt iodisation and iodine status." Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010;24:1-11. AbstractWebsite
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MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2010. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages. RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012
Bulimo W, J JS, DL B, MC J, PJ B, PA S, JA T, JM M, JA P, DC S, AA E, S T, M Q, KG V, RL B, LE L, JL M, RL E, KL R, JL S, Group DDIW. "Influenza and respiratory disease surveillance: the US military{'}s global laboratory-based network.". 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Mozaffarian D, Kris-Etherton P, Van Horn L, Lichtenstein AH, Kumanyika S, Kraus WE, Fleg JL, Redeker NS, Meininger JC, Banks JA, others. "Interventions to Promote Physical Activity and Dietary Lifestyle Changes for Cardiovascular Risk Factor Reduction in Adults." Circulation. 2010;122:406-441. Abstract
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Artinian NT, Fletcher GF, Mozaffarian D, Kris-Etherton P, Van Horn L, Lichtenstein AH, Kumanyika S, Kraus WE, Fleg JL, Redeker NS, others. "Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association." Circulation. 2010;122:406-441. Abstract
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Meng X, Tang F, Peng B, Ren J. "Monodisperse hollow tricolor pigment particles for electronic paper." Nanoscale research letters. 2010;5:174-179. Abstract
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Rehman AU, Lodhi S, Murad S. "Morphological pattern of posterior cranial fossa tumors." Annals of King Edward Medical University. 2010;15. AbstractWebsite
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Impellizzeri P, Romeo C, Borruto FA, Granata F, Scalfari G, De Ponte FS, Longo M. "Sclerotherapy for cervical cystic lymphatic malformations in children. {Our} experience with computed tomography-guided 98% sterile ethanol insertion and a review of the literature." Journal of pediatric surgery. 2010;45:2473-2478. AbstractWebsite
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Peng B, Chen D, Deng Z, Wen T, Meng X, Ren X, Ren J, Tang F. "Surfactant-Free Self-Assembly of Nanocrystals into Ellipsoidal Architectures." ChemPhysChem. 2010;11:3744-3751. Abstract
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Niramis R, Watanatittan S, Rattanasuwan T. "Treatment of cystic hygroma by intralesional bleomycin injection: experience in 70 patients." European journal of pediatric surgery: official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery...[et al]= Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie. 2010;20:178-182. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng’o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphologica. 2010;69:160-163. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a Kenyan national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

{BACKGROUND/AIMS} Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. {METHODS} This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. {RESULTS} The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. {CONCLUSION} This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a {Kenyan} national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. METHODS This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. CONCLUSION This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a {Kenyan} national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. METHODS This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. CONCLUSION This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

D.C W, E.M O, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, G J-S. "1. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a prospective cohort." BCM Pediatr. 2010:10-33.predictors_of_mortality_in_hiv-1infected_children.pdf
Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010.Website
Migowa AN, Gatinu B, RW. N. "Adherence to oral rehydration therapy among in-patient children aged 1-59 months with some or no dehydration. ." J Trop Pediatr. 2010 Apr;56(2):103-7. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp059. Epub 2009 Jul 14.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To determine adherence to oral rehydration solution (ORS) among in-patients aged 1-59 months suffering from gastroenteritis and having some dehydration (SD) or no dehydration (ND) in two rural hospitals in Kenya.
METHODS:

Children aged 1-59 months suffering from acute gastroenteritis with (SD) or (ND) were enrolled into the study, examined and medical records reviewed. On the second and third day of follow up, children were re-examined to ascertain hydration status and care-takers interviewed.
RESULTS:

Ninety-nine children were enrolled. Forty-five (75%) of the 60 children with SD received a correct prescription for ORS but only 12 (20%) received the correct amount. Among the 39 children with ND, 23 (59%) received a correct prescription for ORS, however only 16 (41%) received the correct amount. On the 3rd day, 9 (15%) of the 60 children with SD at baseline and 2 (5%) of the 39 with ND were classified as having SD.
CONCLUSION:

Four in five children with SD and 6 in 10 children with ND fail to receive the correct amounts of ORS.

Losovyj YB, Ruihua Cheng, J Carvell, E Ayieta. "Angle resolved photoemission study of surface states on the Pt (997) vicinal surface." Physics Letters A. 2010;374(30):3080-3083. Abstract

One-dimensional atomic chains can be synthesized on stepped surfaces and the electronic
structure of the high vicinal surface plays an essential role in determining the physical
properties of atomic chains grown on top of it. We have applied surface analysis techniques
to study the surface of a Pt (997) single crystal. The STM image of the surface showed that
the surface was uniform with a well defined distance between the terraces. Angle resolved
photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) was used to characterize the electronic states of …

Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. "Are Blind People More Likely to Accept Free Cataract Surgery? A Study of Vision-Related Quality of Life and Visual Acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17(1):41-49. Abstract

Purpose: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and visionrelated Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.
Methods: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.
Results: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.
Conclusion: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person’s decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

Chindia M, Butt FM, Kenyanya T, Rana F, Gathece LW. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton.". 2010.
E L, A O, M C, V C, G C, S M, R C, J N, W M, R I, K S, C B, Leoncini L. "B cell differentiation in EBV-positive Burkitt Lymphoma is impaired at post-transcriptional level by miRNA altered expression. ." Int J. Cancer.. 2010;126(6):1316-26.
Sigana DOA. The biology of the mullets (Pisces: Mugilidae) from Kilifi, a tropical mangrove creek on the Kenya coast. Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Ebrahim YH, Rukwaro RW, Sealey A. Building design and development 1: Thermal design. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2010.
Ebrahim YH, Rukwaro RW, Sealey A. Building science: Thermal design. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2010.
John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Farquhar C, Ruth Nduati, and Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha GJ-S. "Cofactors for HIV-1 Incidence during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period." Curr HIV Res. 2010 October ; 8(7): 510–514.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Objectives—To estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy
and postpartum.
Design—Retrospective study among women who were HIV seronegative during pregnancy.
Methods—Mothers accompanying their infants for routine 6-week immunizations at 6 maternal
child health clinics in Nairobi and Western Kenya were tested for HIV-1 after completing a
questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographics, obstetric history and HIV-1 risk
perception.
Results—Of 2,135 mothers who had tested HIV-1 seronegative antenatally, 2,035 (95.3%)
accepted HIV-1 re-testing at 6 weeks postpartum. Of these, 53 (2.6%) were HIV-1 seropositive
yielding an estimated HIV-1 incidence of 6.8 (95% CI: 5.1-8.8) per 100 woman-years). Mothers
who seroconverted were more likely to be employed (45.3% vs 29.0%, p=0.01), married (96.2 vs
86.6%, p=0.04) and from a higher HIV-1 prevalence region (60.4% in Western Kenya vs 28.8% in
Nairobi, p<0.001). Among married women, those in polygamous relationship were significantly
more likely to seroconvert (19.6% vs 6.7%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, region and
employment independently predicted seroconversion.
Conclusions—Repeat HIV-1 testing in early postpartum was highly acceptable and resulted in
detection of substantial HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum period. Within
prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission programs strategic approaches to prevent
maternal HIV-1 acquisition during pregnancy are urgently needed.

R.G. OGJJ &. Company Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
Rading GO. "D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Analysis of the Weld Strength of High Density Polyethylene Dam Liner." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):12-23.
Haile A;, Duguma G;, Mirkena T;, Tibbo M;, Iñiguez L;, Rischkowsky B;, Mwai OA;, Wurzinger M;, Sölkner J. "Designing and implementation of community-based breeding programs for adapted local sheep breeds in Ethiopia."; 2010.
MO O, RO O. "The Dialectics of Sustainable Kibera Neighbourhood Development." International Refereed Journal the Icfai University Journal of Architecture. 2010;II(1).
R B, S S, Villinger.J, J M, R.D N, H.R P. Distribution of tospoviruses, Iris yellow spot virus infecting onions in Kenya. JKUAT; 2010.
Farah Z;, Meyer J;, Wangoh J;, Eberhard P;, Gallmann P;, Rehberger. B. "Effect of Ultra - High - Temperature treatments on camel milk.".; 2010.
Bellan C, Stefano L, Giulia DF, Giulia DF, Rogena EA, Lorenzo L. "Emily Rogena Emily Rogena Burkitt lymphoma versus diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma: a practical approach.". 2010. Abstract

Abstract Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) is listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid tumours as an 'aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma', characterized by a high degree of proliferation of the malignant cells and deregulation of the c-MYC gene. The main diagnostic challenge in BL is to distinguish it from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While in children BL and DLBCL types probably do not differ clinically, and the differential diagnosis between BL and DLBCL may theoretically appear clear-cut, ...

Dambolena JS, Zunino MP, Lopez AG, Rubinstein HR, Zygadlo JA, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JM, Mwalukumbi JM, Kariuki ST. "Essential oils composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. From Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides." Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2010;11:410-414.
Shaka, Roushdy, Dulo. Flood and Drought Forecasting and Early Warning Program (For the Nile Basin). Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering; 2010.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Gelaw Y, Kollmann M, Irungu NM, Ilako DR. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness on Intraocular Pressure Measured by Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Among Selected Ethiopian Communities. J Glaucoma. 2010 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print].". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

{
BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages.
RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012

Migowa AN;, Murungi CW;, Gatinu BW;, Mbithe J;, Kimani E;, Okiro P;, Rana FS;, Ochieng R;, R W Nduati. "Harlequin ichthyosis in an African child: case report.". 2010. Abstract

Severe congenital skin abnormalities are a rare event. This case is unique in that it is a case of harlequin ichthyosis in sub-sahara Africa in a child of African origin and elaborates the challenges faced in its management. We present a neonate who was managed for this condition at Chogoria Mission Hospital. In presenting this case, we aim to sensitise healthcare providers to promptly recognise and manage this rare skin condition.

RW. N. "HIV prevention--a public health priority. ." East Afr Med J. 2010 Mar;87(3):89-90. No abstract available. PMID: 23057303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] . 2010.
Raphael Kaplinsky, Morris. M. "Impacts and Challenges of a Growing Relationship Between China and Sub Saharan Africa.". In: The Political Economy of Africa, pp. 389-409. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41; 2010.
Musoni1* A, Paul Kimani2, R. D. Narla2, Buruchara3 R, Kelly4 J. "Inheritance of fusarium wilts (Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. phaseoli) resistance in climbing beans." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2010;5(5): 399-404,4.inheritance_of_fusarim_wilts_resistance_in_climbing_beans.
Jamison, J.L., MOULTON, J.E., Riley, F.E., Ramsdell, D.L., Serio, V.M, Rothschild, L.J., F. Mwaura, and Duboise SM. "Integration of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Extremophile Virology Research into University and K-12 Education in Maine and Kenya." Microscopy & Microanalysis. 2010;16 S2:1962-1963.
Rayya. "Kikojozi.". In: Mizungu ya Manabii na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers; 2010.
AO A, VA M, JM M, Jianlin H, BM O, RA A, LO I, BO M, O A, G B, H J, O H. "Lack of phylogeographic structure in Nigerian village chickens revealed by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence analysis." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2010;9:503-507. Abstract

n/a

Riogi B, Odhiambo K, Ogutu O. "Lithopedion Causing Intestinal Obstruction." The Annals of African Surgery . 2010;vol 8(No 7).lithopaedon.docx
J Carvell, E Ayieta, A Gavrin RCVRSSP, A Gavrin, Ruihua Cheng, Shah VR, Sokol P. "Magnetic properties of iron nanoparticle." Journal of Applied Physics. 2010;107(10):103913. Abstract

Magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles with different sizes synthesized by a physical
deposition technique have been investigated experimentally. We have used a high pressure
sputtering technique to deposit iron nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. The nanoparticles
are then analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy
(TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device techniques. TEM and AFM data
show that the particle size could be tuned by adjusting the deposition conditions. The …

Rambo CM, Atisa E. "Material Production and Control Strategies.". In: Material Production and Control Strategies. Nairobi: UoN; 2010.
Mackelprang RD, Carrington M, G J-S, Lohman-Payne B, Richardson BA, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Gao X, Majiwa M, Mbori-Ngacha D, C. F. "Maternal human leukocyte antigen A*2301 is associated with increased mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. ." J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15;202(8):1273-7. doi: 10.1086/656318. 10. . 2010. Abstract

Abstract
We examined associations between maternal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and vertical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission in a perinatal cohort of 277 HIV-infected women in Nairobi. HLA class I genes were amplified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes, and analyses were performed using logistic regression. Maternal HLA-A*2301 was associated with increased transmission risk before and after adjusting for maternal viral load (unadjusted: odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-7.27; P = .005; Pcorr = 0.04; adjusted: OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.26-7.51; P =.01; Pcorr is not significant). That maternal HLA-A*2301 was associated with transmission independent of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels suggests that HLA may alter infectivity through mechanisms other than influencing HIV-1 load.

Rayya. "Mifereji ya Machozi.". In: Wali wa Ndevu na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Vide Mua; 2010.
Rayya. Mombasa Swahili Women’s Wedding Songs – A Stylistic Analysis. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co.Germany 2010; 2010.
Rading GO. "A Parametric Investigation of Steel Fibres from Waste Tyres as Concrete Reinforcement." Icastor Journal of Engineering. 2010;3(3):283-299.
Wamalwa DC, Obimbo EM, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, John-Stewart G. "Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Among children, early mortality following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains high. It is important to define correlates of mortality in order to improve outcome. Methods: HIV-1-infected children aged 18 months-12 years were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi after initiating NNRTI-based HAART. Cofactors for mortality were determined using multivariate Cox regression models. Results: Between August 2004 and November 2008, 149 children were initiated on HAART of whom 135 were followed for a total of 238 child-years (median 21 months) after HAART initiation. Baseline median CD4% was 6.8% and median HIV-1-RNA was 5.98-log10 copies/ml. Twenty children (13.4%) died at a median of 35 days post-HAART initiation. Mortality during the entire follow-up period was 8.4 deaths per 100 child-years (46 deaths/100 child-years in first 4 months and 1.0 deaths/100 child-years after 4 months post-HAART initiation). On univariate Cox regression, baseline hemoglobin (Hb) <9 g/dl, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) < -2, and WHO clinical stage 4 were associated with increased risk of death (Hb <9 g/dl HR 3.00 [95% C.I. 1.21-7.39], p = 0.02, WHZ < -2 HR 3.41 [95% C.I. 1.28-9.08], p = 0.01, and WHO clinical stage 4, HR 3.08 [1.17-8.12], p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis Hb < 9 g/dl remained predictive of mortality after controlling for age, baseline CD4%, WHO clinical stage and weight-for-height z-score (HR 2.95 (95% C.I. 1.04-8.35) p = 0.04). Conclusion: High early mortality was observed in this cohort of Kenyan children receiving HAART, and low baseline hemoglobin was an independent risk factor for death.

Wamalwa DC, Obimbo EM, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, John-Stewart G. "Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Among children, early mortality following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains high. It is important to define correlates of mortality in order to improve outcome. Methods: HIV-1-infected children aged 18 months-12 years were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi after initiating NNRTI-based HAART. Cofactors for mortality were determined using multivariate Cox regression models. Results: Between August 2004 and November 2008, 149 children were initiated on HAART of whom 135 were followed for a total of 238 child-years (median 21 months) after HAART initiation. Baseline median CD4% was 6.8% and median HIV-1-RNA was 5.98-log10 copies/ml. Twenty children (13.4%) died at a median of 35 days post-HAART initiation. Mortality during the entire follow-up period was 8.4 deaths per 100 child-years (46 deaths/100 child-years in first 4 months and 1.0 deaths/100 child-years after 4 months post-HAART initiation). On univariate Cox regression, baseline hemoglobin (Hb) <9 g/dl, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) < -2, and WHO clinical stage 4 were associated with increased risk of death (Hb <9 g/dl HR 3.00 [95% C.I. 1.21-7.39], p = 0.02, WHZ < -2 HR 3.41 [95% C.I. 1.28-9.08], p = 0.01, and WHO clinical stage 4, HR 3.08 [1.17-8.12], p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis Hb < 9 g/dl remained predictive of mortality after controlling for age, baseline CD4%, WHO clinical stage and weight-for-height z-score (HR 2.95 (95% C.I. 1.04-8.35) p = 0.04). Conclusion: High early mortality was observed in this cohort of Kenyan children receiving HAART, and low baseline hemoglobin was an independent risk factor for death.

Rambo CM, Otieno M. "Principles and Procedures in Project Planning and Management." Nairobi: UoN; 2010.
Rambo CM, Matseshe L. "Project Financing.". In: Project Financing. Nairobi: UoN ; 2010.
Maina JN, West JB, Orgeig S, Foot NJ, Daniels CB, Kiama SG, Gehr P, Mühlfeld C, Blank F, Müller L, Lehmann A, Brandenberger C, Rothen-Rutishauser B. "Recent advances into understanding some aspects of the structure and function of mammalian and avian lungs.". 2010. Abstract

Recent findings are reported about certain aspects of the structure and function of the mammalian and avian lungs that include (a) the architecture of the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs); (b) the pulmonary blood capillary circulatory dynamics; (c) the adaptive molecular, cellular, biochemical, compositional, and developmental characteristics of the surfactant system; (d) the mechanisms of the translocation of fine and ultrafine particles across the airway epithelial barrier; and (e) the particle-cell interactions in the pulmonary airways. In the lung of the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata, at least, the ACs are rotund structures that are interconnected by narrow cylindrical sections, while the BCs comprise segments that are almost as long as they are wide. In contrast to the mammalian pulmonary BCs, which are highly compliant, those of birds practically behave like rigid tubes. Diving pressure has been a very powerful directional selection force that has influenced phenotypic changes in surfactant composition and function in lungs of marine mammals. After nanosized particulates are deposited on the respiratory tract of healthy human subjects, some reach organs such as the brain with potentially serious health implications. Finally, in the mammalian lung, dendritic cells of the pulmonary airways are powerful agents in engulfing deposited particles, and in birds, macrophages and erythrocytes are ardent phagocytizing cellular agents. The morphology of the lung that allows it to perform different functions-including gas exchange, ventilation of the lung by being compliant, defense, and secretion of important pharmacological factors-is reflected in
its "compromise design."

PMID:
20687843
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Jaoko, W. KKO-MATAEMGBSKRABEKG, RT., Smith DFANZALAMCMBT-FBPJHHCLB, M., Loughran KSTBMJCJHSGNGJFKWG. "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Multiclade HIV-1 Adenoviral Vector Vaccine Alone or as Boost following a Multiclade HIV-1 DNA Vaccine in Africa." PLoS ONE . 2010;5(9).
Ogoma SB, Lweitoijera DW, Ngonyani H, Furer B, Russell TL, WR M, GF K, SJ. M. "Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2010;4(8):e773.
Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Katende M, Mutua GN, Ruzagira E, Stevens G, Simek M, Price M. "Sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing.". 2010. Abstract

HIV rapid tests (RT) are a quick and non-technically demanding means to perform HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) but understanding their limitations is vital to delivering quality VCT. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing at four sites in East Africa. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Masaka District, Uganda; a sugar plantation in Kakira, Uganda; Coastal Villages in the Kilifi District of Kenya; and the Urban slum of Kangemi located West of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Six thousands two hundred and fifty five consenting volunteers were enrolled into the study, and 675 prevalent HIV infections were identified. Results: The RT sensitivity tended to be high for all assays at all sites (97.63-100%) with the exception of the Uni-Gold assay (90.24% in Kangemi, 96.58% in Kilifi). Twenty four RT results were recorded as ‘weak positives’, 22 (92%) of which were negative by ELISA. There was a high rate of RT false positives in Uganda (positive predictive values ranging from 45.70% to 86.62%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the RT varied significantly across sites. The rate of RT misclassification in Uganda suggests that a multiple test algorithm may be preferable to a single test as screener for HIV VCT.

Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Katende M, Mutua GN, Ruzagira E, Stevens G, Simek M, Price M. "Sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing.". 2010. Abstract

HIV rapid tests (RT) are a quick and non-technically demanding means to perform HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) but understanding their limitations is vital to delivering quality VCT. Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV rapid tests used for research and voluntary counselling and testing at four sites in East Africa. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Masaka District, Uganda; a sugar plantation in Kakira, Uganda; Coastal Villages in the Kilifi District of Kenya; and the Urban slum of Kangemi located West of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Six thousands two hundred and fifty five consenting volunteers were enrolled into the study, and 675 prevalent HIV infections were identified. Results: The RT sensitivity tended to be high for all assays at all sites (97.63-100%) with the exception of the Uni-Gold assay (90.24% in Kangemi, 96.58% in Kilifi). Twenty four RT results were recorded as ‘weak positives’, 22 (92%) of which were negative by ELISA. There was a high rate of RT false positives in Uganda (positive predictive values ranging from 45.70% to 86.62%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of the RT varied significantly across sites. The rate of RT misclassification in Uganda suggests that a multiple test algorithm may be preferable to a single test as screener for HIV VCT.

Rinkanya AN. "Short Story in Kenya ." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2010;6:29-39.
Rambo CM, Paul A. Odundo. "Socio - E co nomic Empowerment of Women through Micro - Finance: A comparative Assessment of Funded and U nfunded W omen in Kisumu District, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster M anagement and Risk Reduction. 2010;2(2):92-107.
Odundo P, Rambo C. "Socio-Economic Empowerment of Women Through Micro-Finance: A comparative Assessment of Funded and unfunded Women in Kisumu District, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction . 2010;2(2).
Mutua F, Revathi G, Machoki JM. "species distribution and antifungal sensitivity patterns of vaginal yeasts.". 2010. Abstract

To identify yeast isolates in vaginal specimens to species level and determine their antifungal susceptibility patterns. Design: Cross-sectional laboratory-based study. Setting: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Nairobi. Subjects: Yeast isolates from high vaginal swabs presented to the laboratory for culture and sensitivity were identified to species level using the API Candida system and subjected to broth microdilution susceptibility testing. Main outcome measures: Frequency tables and graphs were used to summarise the data. Susceptibility data was analysed by the non-parametric Fisher’s exact test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 101 yeasts were studied. C.albicans was the prominent species (69.3%) followed by C. glabrata (12.9%), C. famata (5.0%), C. krusei (3.0%), Trichosporon species (3.0%) and S.cerevisiae (3.0%), C.parapsilosis (1.0%). Three (3.0%) of the isolates had profiles that fell between C. glabrata and C. famata. The percentages of C. albicans susceptible to flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole were 94.3, 92.9, 100 and 90 respectively; that of non-albicans isolates were 93.5, 80.6, 77.4 and 29 respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the susceptibility of C.albicans and non-albicans isolates to flucytosine and amphotericin B, however there was a significant difference (p<0.05) to fluconazole and itraconazole. Conclusions: C. albicans was the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis in this study, and demonstrated good susceptibility to antifungal agents tested. A significant number of non-albicans yeasts were identified; these demonstrated reduced susceptibility to all drugs, in particular to the azoles which are commonly used for treatment of vaginal candidiasis. The isolation of non-albicans yeasts may have clinical implication given their reduced susceptibility to antifungals

Renate C Smallegange, Wolfgang H Schmied, Karel J van Roey, Niels O Verhulst, Jeroen Spitzen, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. ." Malaria Journal. 2010;9:292.
Hans RH, Guantai EM, Carmen L, Smith PJ, Baojie W, Gut J, Franzblau SG, Rosenthal PJ, Chibale K. "Synthesis, antimalarial and antitubercular activity of acetylenic chalcones.". 2010. Abstract

A series of acetylenic chalcones were evaluated for antimalarial and antitubercular activity. The antimalarial data for this series suggests that growth inhibition of the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum can be imparted by the introduction of a methoxy group ortho to the acetylenic group. Most compounds were more active against non-replicating than replicating cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, an unusual pattern with respect to existing anti-TB agents

Ngugi EN, Bonell C, Rhodes T, Jolley E, Sorhaindo A, Fletcher A, Grenfell P, Platt L. "Systematic review examining differences in HIV, sexually transmitted infections and health-related harms between migrant and non-migrant female sex workers.". 2010. Abstract

I have picked this evaluation because it focuses on the special needs of migrant female sex workers (FSWs), in particular those in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STls) and HIV is high and the health infrastructure is insufficient to respond to these problems. In addition, migrant FSWs might initially be too afraid to immediately seek medical help in the 'new country' due to the fear of being apprehended for real or perceived reasons. By the same token, they might not have access to male or female condoms, but may have a high incidence of partner change and unprotected sex. Fear of stigma and discrimination might also keep them away from appropriate services.

Hoffmann B, Rostalski A, Mutembei HM, Goericke-Pesch S. "Testicular steroid hormone secretion in the boar and expression of testicular and epididymal steroid sulphatase and estrogen sulphotransferase activity.". 2010. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis and epididymal function depend on testicular steroids with estrogens being important regulatory factors. However, testicular estrogen secretion shows distinct species specificities, with the boar being characterized by the production of high amounts of estrone [E1] and estronesulphate [E1S]. As the boar testis also expresses estrogen sulphatase [StS] and sulphotransferase [EST] the present paper is based on the hypothesis that local availability of biologically active estrogens results from an interplay between estrogen synthesis and local activities of StS and EST. METHODS: Blood was collected during castration of 37 boars, aged between 98 (peripubertal) to 2 793 (old sexually mature) days, from the testicular vein and artery and peripheral circulation; E1, E1S, testosterone [T] and progesterone [P] were determined by established RIA-procedures. Similarly seminal plasma from 21 sexually mature boars was assessed. StS- and EST-activity were determined in testicular- and epididymal homogenates of 3 sexually mature boars (200 d) using (3)H-E1S resp. (3)H-E1 as substrate. Immunohistochemistry [IHC] was applied to locate EST- expressing cells in testes in relation to age and in the epididymis of 3 mature boars. RESULTS: Hormone data showed a high variability. A significant age dependent increase was only observed for E1 and E1S in the peripheral circulation with absolute values being highest for E1S (5-60 nmol/l), followed by T (2.6-14 nmol/l), P (0.5-1.48 nmol/l) and E1 (0.24-0.84 nmol/l). Testicular vein concentrations always exceeded those in the testicular artery with the differences being significant for E1 and P, group 1. Concentrations in the testicular artery and peripheral vein plasma were not different but higher (p<0.0001) than those in seminal plasma with the exception of E1. StS activity was higher (p<0.001) in the testis than the epididymis. EST activity was high in epididymal homogenates and at the level of detection in testis homogenates. IHC located EST in virtually all epididymal epithelial cells. In the testis the number of positive staining Leydig cells decreased (p<0.05) from 72% in the premature to 57% in the mature boars. CONCLUSION: The provision of biologically active estrogens to the testicular and epididymal compartment is controlled by a complex regulatory system, with the sulphatase pathway being an important component. P is a secretory product of the testis, E1 and E1S are not actively enriched in seminal plasma.

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Rahbar N, Obwoya SK, Zimba J, Yakub I, Soboyejo WO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic." Experimewntal Mechanics. 2010;DOI 10(April 2010). AbstractWebsite

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Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

Rahbar N, Aduda BO, Zimba J, Obwoya SK, Nyongesa FW, Yakub I, Soboyejo WO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic." Experimental Mechanics. 2010. Abstract

Abstract This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of microstructure and thermal shock resistance of an aluminosilicate ceramic. Shock-induced crack growth is studied in sintered structures produced from powders with different particle size ranges. The underlying crack/microstructure interactions and toughening mechanisms are elucidated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting crack-tip shielding levels (due to viscoelastic crack bridging) are estimated using fracture mechanics concepts. The implications of the work are discussed for the design of high refractory ceramics against thermal shock.

Keywords Viscoelastic crack bridging . Crack-tip shielding . Thermal shock . Refractory ceramics

Matt A. Price, Carole L. Wallis SLEKAKOMUANZALAESL-GBJ, Rogers Twesigye, Eric Hunter PKKKSAERMM, Gaudensia Mutua, Pauli N. Amornkul GSSPMSMPWSLKA, and the Jill Gilmour IAVIEICSG. "Transmitted HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Individuals with Recent HIV Infection in East and Southern Africa." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2010;26(11).
and Robinson J. Musembi, Bernard O. Aduda JMMRKF-ropoulos MCM. Transport Mechanism Analysis of TiO2/ Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer. Jakukur, Bangalore-560 64, India, February 11 – 13, 2010; 2010.
McClelland SR, Graham SM, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Masese LN, Wanje GH, Mandaliya KN, Kurth AE, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy is Not Associated with Increased Sexual Risk Behaviour in Kenyan Female Sex Workers.". 2010. Abstract

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that sexual risk behaviour would increase following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Design—Prospective cohort study. Setting—FSW cohort in Mombasa, Kenya, 1993-2008. Subjects—898 women contributed HIV-1-seropositive follow-up visits, of whom 129 initiated ART. Intervention—Beginning in March 2004, ART was provided to women qualifying for treatment according to Kenyan National Guidelines. Participants received sexual risk reduction education and free condoms at every visit. Main Outcome Measures—Main outcome measures included unprotected intercourse, abstinence, 100% condom use, number of sexual partners, and frequency of sex. Outcomes were evaluated at monthly follow-up visits using a one week recall interval. Results—Compared to non-ART-exposed follow-up, visits following ART initiation were not associated with an increase in unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-1.19, P=0.4). There was a non-significant decrease in abstinence (AOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65-1.01, P=0.07), which was offset by a substantial increase in 100% condom use (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.20, P=0.02). Numbers of sex partners and frequency of sex were similar before versus after starting ART. A trend for decreased sexually transmitted infections following ART initiation provides additional support for the validity of the self-reported behavioural outcomes (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.44-1.02, P=0.06). Conclusions—In the setting of ongoing risk reduction education and provision of free condoms, initiation of ART was not associated with increased sexual risk behaviour in this cohort of Kenyan FSWs.

K MMO, RE C, G M, LM G, SM K. "Tsetse and Livestock Disease Situation in a Ranch and Surrounding Farms of Makueni District, Kenya." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2010;34:1-12.
Nixon CA, Achterberg RK, Teanby NA, Irwin PGJ, Flaud J-M, Kleiner I, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Brown LR, Sams RL, Bezard B, Coustenis A, Ansty TM, Mamoutkine A, Vinatier S, Bjoraker GL, Jennings DE, Romani PN, Flasar MF. "Upper limits for undetected trace species in the stratosphere of Titan." Faraday Discussions. 2010;147:1-17.
Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Kumar R, Musoke R, Macharia WM, Revathi G. "Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care Newborn Unit in Kenya. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: All neonates admitted to Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital during the study period with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. RESULTS: Of the 310 infants, there were 83 episodes of proven sepsis and 94 episodes of probable sepsis. Using the standard CRP cut-off value of 5 mg/dl, a sensitivity of 95.2% in proven sepsis and 98.9% for probable septic episodes were noted. In proven sepsis, a specificity of 85.3%, positive predictive value of 80.6%, and a negative predictive value of 96.5% were noted. In probable sepsis, a specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 99.1% were noted. The overall accuracy in proven sepsis was 96.5%, and in probable sepsis was noted to be 99.1%. Sub-analysis showed a lower positive predictive value (61.5%) for early onset sepsis compared to 93% for late onset sepsis. Repeat CRP tests were done in 33 babies. Twenty two of the 29 with proven/probable infection had a ten-fold increase in CRP levels, but levels were noted to be low or reducing in seven (24.1%) babies showing signs of improvement clinically. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off point for CRP was found to be 5 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Serum CRP is an accurate indicator of neonatal sepsis, with high sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, at the standard cut-off of 5. CRP is a better screening test for late-onset than early-onset neonatal sepsis. The standard recommended CRP cut -off point of 5 is appropriate for local use

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a Kenyan national teaching and referral hospital.". 2010. Abstract

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. {METHODS} This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. {RESULTS} The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. {CONCLUSION} This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts

o. K K, R.N K, G WR, W. E. "Effects of supplementing mesquit ( Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Keny.". In: Second RUFORUM Biennial Meetin. Entebbe, Uganda; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner
Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4%
dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4
(2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Lingappa JR, Hughes JP, Wang RS, Baeten JM, Celum C, Gray GE, Stevens WS, Donnell D, Campbell MS, Farquhar C, Essex M, Mullins JI, Coombs RW, Rees H, Corey L, Wald A. "Estimating the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission risk." PLoS ONE. 2010;5(9):e12598. Abstract

The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART), therapeutic vaccines, and other non-ART interventions.

Waris A, Kohonen M, Ranguma J, Mosioma A. Taxation and State Building in Kenya: Using Human Rights to Advance Revenue Capacity. Nairobi: Tax Justice Network; 2010.
Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Elbusaidy H, Ogeng'o J. "Variations in the anatomy of ansa cervicalis." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(3):160-3. Abstract

With the emerging utilisation of ansa cervicalis in nerve reconstructive surgery, it is important for surgeons to be conversant with the anatomy of these nerves. This descriptive cross sectional study aimed at describing the morphology and topographic anatomy of ansa cervicalis. We examined 38 adult human formalin-fixed cadavers. The superior root was present in 38 (100%) cases and 37 (97%) cases, on the right and left sides, respectively. More than half (56%) of these roots were located superior to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. The inferior root, on the other hand, was present in 34 (89.5%) cases on the right side and 31 (81.6%) cases on the left side. Of all the inferior roots, 81.5% were located lateral to the internal jugular vein. The loop was seen in all the cases that had the inferior root, and was mostly (64.6%) located above the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle. Knowledge of the anatomy of ansa cervicalis is not only important for nerve reconstruction surgeries, but also for operations in the neck, so as to avoid injuring the great vessels that are closely related to it.

Rouet F, Foulongne V, Viljoen J, Steegen K, Becquart P, Valéa D, Danaviah S, Segondy M, Verhofstede C, Van de Perre P. "Comparison of the Generic HIV Viral Load assay with the Amplicor HIV-1 monitor v1.5 and Nuclisens HIV-1 EasyQ v1.2 techniques for plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation of non-B subtypes: the Kesho Bora preparatory study." J. Virol. Methods. 2010;163(2):253-7. Abstract

The implementation of cost effective HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays in resource-poor settings is of paramount importance for monitoring HV-1 infection. A study comparing the analytical performance of three HIV-1 RNA assays (Generic HIV Viral Load, Amplicor v1.5 and Nuclisens EasyQ v1.2) was performed on 160 plasma samples from 160 consecutive antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women assessed for eligibility in the Kesho Bora trial aimed at prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in three African countries (Burkina Faso, Kenya and South Africa). Correlation and agreement of results of the three assays were assessed for plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation in specimens harbouring mainly sub-subtype A1, subtype C, and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 02_AG and CRF06_cpx. Good degrees of correlation and agreement were observed between these HIV-1 RNA assays. However, nine (9/160, 5.6%) strains detectable with the Generic HIV Viral Load assay were not detected by either the Amplicor (n=7) or EasyQ (n=2) test. One strain (0.6%) was missed with the Generic HIV Viral Load assay. Further, concordantly positive plasma samples harbouring CRF02_AG and CRF06_cpx yielded significantly higher HIV-1 RNA concentrations when tested by Generic HIV Viral Load, as compared to Amplicor v1.5 (mean differences, +0.33 and +0.67 log(10) copies/ml; P=0.0004 and P=0.002, respectively). The Generic HIV Viral Load assay accurately quantified the majority of the non-B HIV-1 subtypes assessed in this study. Due to its low cost (approximately 10 US $/test), this assay performed with open real-time PCR instruments is now used routinely in the Kesho Bora trial and may be recommended in other African settings.

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Kapiga SH, Ronald A, John-Stewart G, Inambao M, Manongi R, Vwalika B, Celum C. "Male circumcision and risk of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission: a multinational prospective study in African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." AIDS. 2010;24(5):737-44. Abstract

Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV-1 transmission risk by approximately 60%. Data assessing the effect of circumcision on male-to-female HIV-1 transmission are conflicting, with one observational study among HIV-1-serodiscordant couples showing reduced transmission but a randomized trial suggesting no short-term benefit of circumcision.

Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, Hughes JP, Thomas KK, Mujugira A, Mugo N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Kidoguchi L, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L, Celum C. "Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2010;375(9717):824-33. Abstract

Most people infected with HIV-1 are dually infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. Daily suppression of this herpes virus reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but whether it delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. We investigated the effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 progression.

Peters PJ, Stringer J, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Ratanasuwan W, Intalapaporn P, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Zulu I, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Brooks JT, Weidle PJ. "Nevirapine-associated hepatotoxicity was not predicted by CD4 count ≥250 cells/μL among women in Zambia, Thailand and Kenya." HIV Med.. 2010;11(10):650-60. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for developing severe hepatotoxicity (grade 3 or 4 hepatotoxicity) and rash-associated hepatotoxicity (rash with ≥ grade 2 hepatotoxicity) among women initiating nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

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