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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur (November 16.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.; 1982. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""The Company as Criminal" (Executive, Nairobi, 6-8).". In: Executive, Nairobi, 24-26.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Free Enterprise System and The Anti-Monopoly Law, Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 1989. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp.614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi,.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime" (November).". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Relationship between Crime and Socio-Economic Factors, 4(1) Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1997. Abstract
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Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Rahbar N, Aduda BO, Zimba J, Obwoya SK, Nyongesa FW, Yakub I, Soboyejo WO. "Thermal Shock Resistance of a Kyanite-Based (Aluminosilicate) Ceramic." Experimental Mechanics. 2010. Abstract

Abstract This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of microstructure and thermal shock resistance of an aluminosilicate ceramic. Shock-induced crack growth is studied in sintered structures produced from powders with different particle size ranges. The underlying crack/microstructure interactions and toughening mechanisms are elucidated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting crack-tip shielding levels (due to viscoelastic crack bridging) are estimated using fracture mechanics concepts. The implications of the work are discussed for the design of high refractory ceramics against thermal shock.

Keywords Viscoelastic crack bridging . Crack-tip shielding . Thermal shock . Refractory ceramics

Raffle A, Gray J, MacDonald HR. "Letter: First-aid treatment of poisoning." Br Med J. 1976;1(6001):93.
Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Universal SCFs and Optimal Chamfering in Cross Bored Cylinders." International Journal of Pressure Vessels & Piping. 2007;84:396-404.
Rading GO. Concise Notes on Materials Science and Engineering. Victoria BC: Trafford Publishing; 2007.
Rading GO. "D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Analysis of the Weld Strength of High Density Polyethylene Dam Liner." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):12-23.
Rading GO. Concise Notes on Materials Science and Engineering. Victoria: Trafford Publishing; 2007.
Rading GO. D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Overstrain in Flush Optimum Chamfered Cross Bored Cylinders." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 2006;220:15-25.
Rading GO. "B O Odera, L A Cornish, M B Shongwe, G O Rading and M J Papo: As Cast and Heat Treated Alloys of the Pt-Al-V System at the Pt-Rich Corner." Journal of the Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
Rading, G O; Gumbe ML; DO. "Service Life Of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining.". 2012.
Rading GO. "A Parametric Investigation of Steel Fibres from Waste Tyres as Concrete Reinforcement." Icastor Journal of Engineering. 2010;3(3):283-299.
Rachel Sarguta, Ottieno JAM. "Recursive Route to Mixed Poisson Distributions using Integration by parts." " Mathematics Theory and Modeling,. 2014;4(14):144-152. AbstractFull text link

Abstract

Mixed Poisson distributions are very significant in modeling non-homogeneous populations; for instance in Actuarial applications for modeling total claims in insurance. However, the setback is in their use since the probability mass functions are difficult to evaluate, except for a few mixing distributions. One way of dealing with this problem is to express Mixed Poisson distributions in terms of recursive relations.

In this paper, recursive relations of some mixed Poisson distributions are obtained by use of integration by parts technique.

Keywords: mixtures; recursive relation; generating functions; moments

Raburu P, Mavuti KM, Harper DM, Clark FL. "Population structure and secondary productivity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Claparede) and Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard in the profundal zone of Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". 2002. AbstractPopulation structure and secondary productivity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Claparede) and Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard in the p

Lake Naivasha has been well studied since the 1930s but attempts to understand its ecological functioning have had to wait until enough was known about its structure. The energetics of the lake has only been studied to date at primary producer level. Following the identification of the invertebrate components of the littoral and profundal benthos, this study was initiated. The absence of native fish species in Lake Naivasha, combined with a fishery based only on three, introduced species, added an applied dimension to the work. The introduction of additional fish species which will utilize unexploited ecological niches has been suggested. The benthic invertebrates form one such niche. Two oligochaetes dominated the community, Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparade. The former had a productivity of 7.4 g m−2 ann−1 (as dry weight), the latter 0.6. These figures are not particularly high and do not support the introduction of a new fish species on their own

RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Mwai C, Rutenberg N, Kalibala S, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Nganda B, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Provider time for women seeking MCH care in the kenyan Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) of HIV project: Baseline findings.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 403. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, Maina K, Kamenga C . High antenatal HIV testing does not translate into increased NVP uptake. In international Conference on AIDS and STDs in Africa (ICASA) Nairobi , Kenya 2003N. Rutenberg1, M. Siwale, C. Kankasa, R. N.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [WePeE6837]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Kalibala S, Rutenberg N, Mwai C, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Emotional needs of mothers seeking MCH and how these needs are being met by existing counseling services at two Kenyan Hospitals prior to interventions to prevent mother-to.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 234. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "R.W. Nduati , D. Mbori-Ngacha, J. Oyieke, M. Mwangi, I. Inwani, S. Yonga, G. Nyamongo, J. Kariuki. Challenges of up-scaling PMTCT into routine public health services in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [ThPeB7092]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Rutenberg N, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Kalibala S, Involving men in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 303. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "R.W. Nduati1, D. Mbori-Ngacha, S. Kalibala, S. Ogola, J. Oyieke, G. Nyamongo, G. Scott, L. Muthami, N. Rutenberg. Efficacy of PMTCT services in a routine care setting.". In: Proceedings of the XV International AIDS Conference Bankok, Thailand 11-16 July 2004. [B12044]. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
Rabe M, Price G, Krhoda G, Goodwin R. 2. Climate Change Vulnerability and Infrastructure Investment Assessment and Analysis for Small Scale Water Utilities in the Lake Victoria Basin. Guide Book for water and wastewater utilities. .; 2011. Abstract

The effect of global climate change on the built urban environment, especially installed infrastructure for the
delivery of essential services, will be particularly severe and even more so for developing countries where
resources to deal with anticipated impacts are lacking. Because the delivery of wet services is dependent on
water resources and tends to be an energy intensive operation, water and wastewater utilities will be most
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It is therefore imperative that the providers of these services embark on a programme of proactively adapting to the impacts of climate change and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through improved pumping efficiencies. Because adaptation can take on many forms, utilities must apply logic and rational thinking to this process and prioritize interventions that are most likely to cost effectively address identified
impacts.

Rabah VOK, and Mito CO. "Pre-design guidelines for Passive solar architectural buildings in Kenya." International Journal of Sustainable Energy. 2003;23(3):83-119.
RA Powell, R Harding NKMBGRMEL-ALIOAJBEELL. Palliative care research in Africa: Consensus building for a prioritized agenda..; 2013. Abstract

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Palliative care research in Africa is in its relative infancy, with dedicated financial support extremely limited. Therefore, setting research priorities to optimize use of limited resources is imperative.

OBJECTIVES:

To develop a prioritized research agenda for palliative care in Africa.

METHODS:

We used a two-stage process involving palliative care professionals and researchers: 1) generation of an initial topic list at a consultative workshop of experts and 2) prioritization of that list using a consensus development process, the nominal group technique.

RESULTS:

Phase 1: 41 topics were generated across five groups, with several topics nominated in more than one group. Phase 2: 16 topics and three broad thematic areas were identified. The two most prioritized topics within each of the three themes were the following: Theme 1: patient, family, and volunteers-1) care outcomes and the impact of palliative care as perceived by patients and caregivers and 2) palliative care needs of children; Theme 2: health providers-1) impact of palliative care training on care and practice and 2) integration of palliative care and antiretroviral therapy services; and Theme 3: health systems-1) palliative care needs assessments at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels and 2) integration of palliative care into health systems and educational curricula.

CONCLUSION:

Consensus-based palliative care topics determined by the study can assist researchers in optimizing limited research capacities by focusing on these prioritized areas. Subsequent to the identification and publication of the research agenda, concrete steps will be undertaken by the African Palliative Care Research Network and other partners to help implement it.

Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Africa, palliative care, participatory, priorities, research agenda

R.W. Kahama, D.N. Kariuki & L.W. Njenga. "Comparison of two microdiffusion methods used to measure ionizable fluoride in cow's milk." Analyst. 1995;(2245 ):120.
R.W. Kahama KNDN & LW. "Effect of interfering ions on hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion method." Talanta. 1997;44(10):1729-33. Abstract

Acid diffusion in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) enables complete recovery of ionic fluoride from standards containing varying concentrations of aluminium as one of the main interfering ions. Acid diffusion without HMDS shows a decrease in fluoride recovery as aluminium ion concentration increases. The fluoride concentration in the trapping solution is determined directly on the diffusion cover with a combination fluoride electrode after neutralising and buffering. The same procedure was used for the analysis of fluoride in soil and plant materials containing high concentrations of aluminium ions. For the same samples, the concentrations of aluminium, iron and silicon were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

R.W. W, P.G. K, Mbaria J.M., F.K N, G. N, S.O. R. "Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Evaluation of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae." Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2013; 3(1): 8-15.
R.W. M, T.K.Mukiama. "Evaluation of Melia volkensii extract fractions as mosquito larvicides." J.Amer.Mosq.Control Assoc. 1988;4:442-447.
R.W M, T.K.Mukiama. "Irrigation Scheme or mosquito hazard ?A case study in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." Hydrobiologia. 1992;232:19-22.
R.S. O. "Climate Change in the IGAD Sub-Region of the Horn of Africa Countries.". Paper Prepared for COF Meeting; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate and the Energy Sector in East Africa.". Invited papers for the workshop of the Kenya Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Contributions to understanding climate Change Adaptation.". IDRC Workshop on Climate Risk management; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Coping with Floods in Kenya: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation Options for the Flood-Prone Areas of Western Kenya.". Final Report prepared by the Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi (DMCN); 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Challenges to the Tourist Industry in Africa,." Workshop organized by the Kenya Tourist Board, Ministry of Tourism; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and the Energy Sector in East Africa.". Paper presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Climate Considerations and Power Production in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi. Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Post-Kyoto Negotiations and African priorities on climate Change.". Meeting with African Ministers of Environment,UNEP/AMCEN; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and Renewable Energy Issues in East Africa.". Paper Prepared for the North-South Conference; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Challenge of Global Warming and climate Change Adaptation in ACP Countries.". Paper Prepared for CTA Workshop, Ouagadougou; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "A Look at Climate Change and Human Mobility in Africa -,." paper presents at Cespi Workshop,Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 2009. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Kenya's Climate Change Technology Needs assessment Report,." Prepared under the Auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O, Ogallo LA. "Drought Occurrences in Eastern Africa. Sub-Region as witnessed from Paleo-and Instrumental Climate workshop,." Paper presented at the ClivarWorkshop on Drought and Climate Change; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "The Kenya Carbon Assist Project. Consultancy." Report prepared for the World Bank and Kenya Government; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "International Policies and Protocols in Disaster Management-." Paper presented to IGAD workshop in Disaster Management. IGAD/ICPAC; 2005. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change." Paper Prepared for the North-South Conference; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change 2001: Mitigation." Review Editor; 2001. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Kenya.". Papers presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change; 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Risk management training. African Development Bank,." African Development Bank,; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Africa."; 2011. Abstract
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R.S. O. "The Challenges of Climate Change on the Tourist Industry in Kenya.". Paper prepared for the Ministry of Tourism-Tourism Week; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Resource Management Issues Relevant to Planning and management of Hydro-Power Resources in the Greater Horn of Africa.". Paper presented at the IGAD Workshop on the Socio-Economic Aspects of Resources Management; 2001. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Kenya; Response to Climate Change and Opportunities for Sustainable Development." COP 12/COP/MOP Book edited by J.Nganga and R.S. Odingo; 2003. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change 2001: Impacts and Adaptation-ReviewEditor,." Cambridge University Press; 2001. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Importance of Adaptation studies for Climate Change and Vulnerability." Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment; 2004. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and Human health in the 21st Century.". Commencement address delivered at Stony Brook University; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Post-Kyoto Negotiations-African Priorities.". Invited Paper prepared for Meeting with African Ministers for Environment, UNEP Governing Council; 2005. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Quantifying Socio-economic benefits of Weather and Climate-." Presented at the IGAD-COF meeting; 2008. Abstract
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R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, J.G.Nduhiu. "Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxicity of Vernonia hymenolepis(A.Rich) traditionally used for toothache in Kenya." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2014;3(1):22-28.the_journal_of_phytopharmacology.pdf
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, Mbaria JM, Z.M.Rukenya, Gakuya DW. "Efficacy and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis a medicinal plant used in Kenya for oral health,.". In: . Published in the Proceeding of the 48th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference . Boma Inn,Eldoret,Uasin Gishu county, Kenya; 2014.
R.O.Onzago, S.G.Kiama, J.M. Mbaria, Z.M.Rukenya, D.W. Gakuya. "Efficacy and safety of Vernonia hymenolepis a medicinal plant used in Kenya for oral health.". In: 48th KVA Annual scientific conference. Boma Inn,Eldoret,Uasin Gishu county,Kenya; 2014.
R.O M, L.W. I, J. MM. "A survey of Phlebotomine sandflies in the Nairobi Area and an undescribed species of Sergentomyia." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1994;15(2):145-153. AbstractWebsite

Studies were commenced to collect and identify the phlebotomine sandflies found in Nairobi. These studies were also aimed at determining their numbers as well as assessing the effects of seasonal changes on the sandfly population. Four trapping methods, namely, light traps, sticky traps, aspiration and human bait were employed. Eight species and one undescribed species were recorded over a period of 6 months. The identified species included Phlebotomus guggisbergi (Kirk and Lewis), P. rodhaini (Parrot), Sergentomyia adleri (Theodor), S. harveyi (Heisch, Guggisberg and Teesdale) and S. bedfordi (Newstead) and an undescribed species. Most of the sandfly species trapped showed seasonal prevalence. The seasonal variation was closely related to the weather conditions. Sandflies were found in termite mounds, animal burrows, caves and dugouts some of which were near human habitations. Termite mounds and animal burrows were the most preferred habitats.

R.O N, Kiplagat KW, Kiplagat KW, R.D N, S.J S, J.N K, J.A L. "Early and late harvest agronomic performance and stability of R-free late blight potato genotypes." Crop Improvement. 2011.
R.M.J. Deacon, T.D. Dulu, Patel NB. "Naked mole-rats: Behavioural phenotyping and comparison with C57BL/6 mice." Behavioural Brain Research. 2012;231:193-200.
R.M. Kweyu, T. Thenya KEKJ. "The nexus between land cover changes, politics and conflict in Eastern Mau forest complex, Kenya." Applied Geography. 2020;114(102115).
R.M. O. "Rural Aging, Social Isolation, Culture and Globalization: The ethics of Welfare for the Aged in Kenya.". In: the Sixth Pan African Social Work conference. K.I.C.C., Nairobi Kenya; 2005.
R.M. K. "Contributory Negligence in Lender-Valuer Context." Kenya Surveyor Journal;The official Journal of the Institution of Surveyors of Kenya.. 2001;8(2).
R.M. W, Thamsborg SM, Nansen P, Bøgh HO, W.K M, J G, N. K. "The epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy cattle in central Kenya. ." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2001;33:173-187.
R.M O. "Basic Human Psychology in Community Organization.". In: t the African Network for the prevention and protection against Child Abuse and Neglect, Community Organization Training Program. Nairobi, Kenya; 2000.
R.M K, MUNENE J. "Valuing the Environmental Quality of Open Space: An Application of the Hedonic Pricing Method(HPM)." Kenya Surveyor Journal; The official Journal of the Institution of Surveyors of Kenya.. 2006;11(7).
R.M O. "Nationalism in Africa." CPK guest house, Nairobi; 1997.
R.M O. "Youth and Violence.". In: the Youth Initiatives on Peace and Democra cy (YIOPEAD - K). series of places; 1998.
R.M O. "Ideological Components of the Concepts of Ethnicity and Violence vis - a - vis Human Rights and National Solidarity: The Kenya Case.". In: Constitutional Reform Process - The Challenges Ahead. the A.C.K. Guesthouse, Nairobi; 1998.
R.M O. "Social Policy and the role of the Individual in regulating Business Crime.". In: BEN - Africa International Convention. the BEN - Africa International Convention held at the Fair View Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2000.
R.M K, O.A.K’Akumu. "Critical factors affecting affordability of mortgage housing in Kenya." Journal of Housing and the Built Environment- Springer/Netherlands. 2018;33(1):111-131. Abstract

DOI:10.1007/s10901-017-9547-4

R.M O. "Elections and Social Conflic." the CPK guest house, Nairobi ; 1997.
R.M O. "Social Conflict: Its causes, effects and management.". In: Empowerment fo r Reconciliation and Peace with Justice (ERPJ). series of places; 1998.
R.M O. "Constitutional Making as a Mechanism to Conflict Prevention.". In: Constitutional Reform Process - The Challenges Ahead. the ACK Guesthouse, Nairobi; 1998.
R.M O. "Social Isolation of the rural old and the concomitant disequilibrium.". In: the first International Conference on Ru ral Aging, A global challenge. Charleston Civic Center, Charleston, West Virginia, USA; 2000.
R.M O. "The images of Africa - images of Europe.". In: the African, Caribbean, Pacific and European countries. the Hotel Silver Springs; 1993.
R.M O. "Political part ies and their responsibility." CPK guest house, Nairobi; 1997.
R.M O. "Involving the People in the Constitutional Reform Process – In search of Participation and Consultation.". In: Constitutional Reform Process - The Challenges Ahead. the ACK Guesthouse, Nairobi ; 1998.
R.K. K. " Economic Issues of Women of Africa for the Africa and Global Beijing Platform." - UN 1995 Decade for Women a UNWomen publication. 1995.
R.K I, Matula PD. "Emerging Forms of Violence in Universities and Campus Safety Initiatives: A case of Kenya. ." International Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Research and Publications,. 2018;1(1).
R.G. OGJJ &. Company Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
R.E B, T.M. W, et al. "Oxfendazole Treatment for Cystic Hydatid Disease in Naturally Infected Animals." Antibiotic Agents and Chemotherapy. 1998;42(3):601-605.
R.D N, Muthomi JW, Gachu SM, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping bulb onion and vegetables on purple blotch and downy mildew." Journal of Biological Sciences . 2011;11(1):52-57.effect_of_intercropping_bulb_onion_and_vegetables.pdf
R.Birithia, S.Subramanian, H.R.Pappu, Muthomi J, R.D.NARLA. "Analysis of Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) replication in vector and non-vector thrips species." Plant Pathology . 2013;(12057).
R. Sungura, Onyambu C, Mpolya E, E. Sauli, Vianney J-M. "Extended scope of neuroimaging and prospects in brain atrophy mitigation: A systematic review." Interdisciplinary neurosurgery . 2021;23:100875.
and R. S. Malele, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO, López ML, Zunino MP, López AG, Zygadlo JA, Oliva MM, Demo MS. "Essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and antimicrobial activity." J. Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2007;10:83-87.
R. K. Ngugi, J. M. Kilonzo, Kimeu JM, Mureithi SM. "Seasonal botanical characteristics of the diets of Grant’s (Gazella granti Brooke) and Thompson’s (Gazella ThompsoniGuenther) in the dry land habitats of south-central Kenya." R. K. Ngugi1, J. M. Kilonzo , J. M. Kimeu1 and S. M. Mureithi. 2014;6(8)(1):581-588.
and R. J. Musembi, M. Rusu MAFMCL-SJMBO. Temperature dependent characterization of TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PBS/PEDOT:PSS ETA solar cell. 13-15 October 2009, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2009.
R. Cherogony, Maru SM, Ndwigah SN. "Pre-formulation Study on Enhancing the Solubility of Albendazole. ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2018;21:10-15.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, A. Kakembo, F. Ngounou, D. Ilako, H. S. Adala Eye injuries in developing countries. Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996).". In: Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Araya,MR Ngugi,RK Musimba NKR and Nyariki DM(2003). Effect of acacia. Acacia tortilis pods on intake, digestibility and nutritive quality of goat diets in south-western Eritrea. African Journal of Range forage science 20 (i), 59-62.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, W. Mathenge, P.V. Choksey Ocular Manifestation of Rheumatoid Arthritis, E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999.". In: E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
R. I, Mugambi M. The Curriculum in Perspective . Chisinau: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2021.
R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Musimba, NKR & Nyariki, D.M. (2003). Development of and policy on the range and pastoral industry: with special reference to Kenya. The Anthropologist, 5(4),261-267.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "C. Cofie, D. Ilako, K. H. M. Kollmann Ocular effects of methanol poisoning as seen in patients involved in the .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

R. TT, Rice J. IL, B. J, A. M, F. N. "The Difference Interventions for Guardians Can Make." Evaluation of the Kilifi Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project in Kenya. 2009.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "MusimbaNKR, Nyariki, DM and Mutungi, EM (2001). The socio-economics, culture and ecology of bee-keeping among the Akamba community of Southern.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
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R. TRBO &. "UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SLUM DWELLER: A case of Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya." http://ijirk.com/issue-details/365. 2018;Vol. 3, (12).
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, A. Kakembo, F. Ngounou, D. Ilako, H. S. Adala Eye injuries in developing countries. Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996).". In: Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Farah, KO, Nyariki, DM Norr, AA, Ngugi, RK & Musimba, NKR (2003). The Socio- Economic and ecological impacts of small-scale irrigation schemes on Pastoralists and drylands in northern Kenya. Journal of soil Sciences, 7(4), 27-274.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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R. E, W. MR, Otieno DJ. "A Cultural Paradigm Shift in Central Africa: Sociocultural Determinants and Cultural Dimensions." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2019;14(1):19-37.
R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, W. Mathenge, P.V. Choksey Ocular Manifestation of Rheumatoid Arthritis, E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999.". In: E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

R. T. "Tamathali za Usemi na Taswira katika Utenzi wa Ukimwi ni Zimwi." Mwanga wa Lugha -Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrica. 2020;5/2(September 2020):15-32.

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