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1988
W DRMAINASUSAN, R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Maina S.W and Lesan W.R. Dental Plaque and Gingival condition of Mentally Handicapped Children in Mathare Special Training Centre Nairobi, Kenya. East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
1987
Miller LH, Sakai RK, Romans P, Gwadz RW, Kantoff P, Coon HG. "Stable integration and expression of a bacterial gene in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae." Science. 1987;237(4816):779-81. Abstract

Foreign DNA was successfully introduced into the germline of the African mosquito vector of malaria Anopheles gambiae. Stable integration of genes into the germlines of insects had been achieved previously only in Drosophila melanogaster and related species and required the use of the P element transposon. In these experiments with Anopheles gambiae, the plasmid pUChsneo was used, which contains the selectable marker neo gene flanked by P element inverted repeats. Mosquitoes injected with this plasmid were screened for resistance to the neomycin analog G-418. A single event of plasmid insertion was recovered. Integration appears to be stable and, thus far, resistance to G-418 has been expressed for eight generations. The transformation event appears to be independent of P.

R W Nduati. Acute Septic Arthritis As It Is Seen In Children At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1987. Abstract

A nine-month study was done on children with acute septic arthritis admitted to the Paediatric Orthopaedic and general paediatric wards. The aims of the study were to elucidate the clinical characteristics and aetiological agents of septic arthritis in children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. Thirty one children were recruited into the study and of these 58% were infants and 32.3% were school age children. There was a striking male predominance in the school age children - 9:1 while male/female ratio was 1.2:1 in the
younger children. Knees and shoulders were the most frequently affected by septic arthritis and together were responsible for
71% of the septic joints. It is of interest that all the septic

shoulder joints occurred in infancy. Non-typhoidal salmonella species especially Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella species and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria.

The rate of bacterial isolation was as high as 72.2% when both blood cultures and joint aspirate cultures were done. Salmonella species had 75% sensitivity to the aminoglycosides (Gentamicin,Kanamycin) and Chloramphenicol while only two thirds of the Klebsiella species were sensitive to the same antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus isolated in this study were sensitive to Erythromycin and uniformly resistant to
Ampicillin,.Cloxacillin and Cotrimoxazole. There was full

recovery in 63.7% of the patients while 23% went home without appropriate follow-up.

The author recommends that blood and joint aspirate cultures should be done in all patients suspected to have septic arthritis. Antibiotic sensitivity testing should be done r~gularly to facilitate appropriate drug therapy. Clinicians should ensure adequate follow-up of patients following discharge from hospital.

Ahuya CO;, Cartwright TC;, Ruvuna F;, Okeyo AM. "Additive and heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya."; 1987.
El-Banhawy EM, Hosny MM, Rasmy AH. "Comparative studies of predation by Phytoseius plumifer and Amblyseius gossipi on population of Tetranychus arabicus.". In: 4th conference Pest control, NRC, Cairo.; 1987:.
Sinei KA. The effect of Antidepressant Drugs on the Circadian Rhythm of 5-Hydroxytrptamine Synthesis in The Central Nervous System. Redfern. S:PH, ed. Bath, England: PhD Thesis, University of Bath; 1987.
Coles GC, Bruce JI, Kinoti GK, Mutahi WT, Dias LCS, Rocha RS, Katz N. "The potential for drug resistance in schitosomiasis. ." Parastology Today . 1987;3:349.
Waruiru RM, Rurangirwa F, Jasmer D, T C MG, J M N, Thimbyu PM, Ruvuna F, T C C. "Resistance To H. Contortus Infection In Goats On Artificial Infection: Preliminary Findings.". 1987. Abstract

Natural infection with Haemonchus contortus was monitored in 300 kids using worm egg counts per gram (EPG) from the age of 2 months to one year. Some kids had low counts 201 ñ 118.2 while others had high count 601.9 ñ 199.9 EGP. Eleven goats from thelow counts group A and nineteen from the low count group B were cleared of worm infestation using Invermectin under complement. The two groups were then artificially infected with 500 larvae per kid from same (H. contortus) isolate. Individual goats within the groups had low EPG throughout the study indicating resistance to the challenge. Goats in group A had significantly lower EPG (725 ñ 212.5) than group B (1643.2 ñ 463.4) P(t=1.80.05) throughout the period. This could reflect a few group B goats with very high EPG rather than general difference between the groups. The indication by individual goats of greater resistance to (H. cortortus) than others provided an important direction for future research.

Michieka RW, Othieno H, Ruigu G, Said AN. "Towards intensive food production in Kakamega and Kiambu districts [of Kenya]: field survey results. Intensive food production and utilization project.". 1987. Abstract

A report giving the findings of a survey on food production systems conducted in Kiambu and Kakamega districts of Kenya. Looks into four principal areas such as crop and livestock production, socio-economic aspects and the adaptation of appropriate technology innovations. Gives some recommendations on the improvement of various aspects leading towards intensive food production in the two heavily populated districts.

R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Dental fluorosis: a review of literature with comments on tropical characteristics. East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):493-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):493-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
R PROFLESANWILFRED. "The effects of a commercial beverage on the enamel surface of human tooth: a scanning electron microscopy study. East Afr Med J. 1987 May;64(5):345-51.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 May;64(5):345-51. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
R PROFLESANWILFRED. "The effects of a commercial beverage on the enamel surface of human tooth: a scanning electron microscopy study. East Afr Med J. 1987 May;64(5):345-51.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 May;64(5):345-51. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
R PROFLESANWILFRED. "The effects of crown margin location on the aesthetics and periodontal status of fluorosed teeth treated with jacket crowns. Afr Dent J. 1987 Oct;1(2):79-82.". In: Afr Dent J. 1987 Oct;1(2):79-82. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
R DRWARUINGIMM. "Evaluation of Radioimmunoassays for Progesterone and Estradiol in Saliva during normal Menstrual cycle. C.B. Sekadde 􀂲 Kigondu, M.R.W. Muriithi, J.K. Njoroge. J. of Obs & Gyne of Eastern and Central Africa Vol 6 No. 1 ; 1987, 47.". In: J. of Obs & Gyne of Eastern and Central Africa Vol 6 No. 1 ; 1987, 47. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1987. Abstract
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R DRWARUINGIMM. "Mmed Thesis (UoN), 1987 .". In: MMed Thesis (UoN). University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1987. Abstract
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R DRWARUINGIMM. "Mmed Thesis (UoN), 1987 .". In: MMed Thesis (UoN), 1987. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1987. Abstract
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R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Unusual case of dental erosion: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
1986
Reichard GA, Skutches CL, Hoeldtke RD, Owen OE. "Acetone metabolism in humans during diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes. 1986;35:668-674. Abstract

Plasma acetone turnover rates were measured with the primed continuous infusion of 2-[14C]acetone in patients with moderate to severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Plasma acetone turnover rates ranged from 1.52 to 15.9 mumol X kg-1 X min-1 (108-1038 mumol X 1.73 m-2 X min-1) and were directly related to the plasma acetone concentrations that ranged from 0.47 to 7.61 mM. The average acetone turnover rate was 6.45 mumol X kg-1 X min-1 (533 mumol X 1.73 m-2 X min-1), a value twice that obtained in a similar group of diabetic ketoacidotic patients via the single-injection technique of 2-[14C]acetone administration. Degradation of urine glucose revealed that 14C from administered 2-[14C )acetone was principally located in carbons 1, 2, 5, and 6 of the glucose molecule in five of six patients. This distribution is similar to that expected from 2-[14C]pyruvate, suggesting that acetone was converted to glucose through pyruvate. In one patient, label was located predominantly in glucose carbons 3 and 4, indicating that acetone metabolism may be different in some patients. Acetol (1-hydroxyacetone) and 1,2-propanediol (PPD), two possible metabolites of acetone, were detected in plasma of the patients. The concentrations of Acetol ranged from 0 to 0.48 mM and of PPD ranged from 0 to 0.53 mM. The concentrations of each metabolite were directly related to the plasma acetone concentrations. During the continuous infusion of 2-[14C]acetone, the specific activities of plasma glucose and PPD rose continuously but did not reach constant values. Estimates of the minimal percent plasma glucose and PPD derived from plasma acetone averaged 2.1 and 74%, respectively.

Kager PA;, Rees PH. "Haematological investigations in visceral leishmaniasis.". 1986. Abstract

Various haematological parameters were followed in a group of 47 Kenyan patients with visceral leishmaniasis during treatment and follow up. The WBC and platelet numbers were normal by the time of cure, the Hb level took longer to become normal. Red cells were microcytic and hypochromic. MCV and MCH increased during follow up but microcytosis persisted up to a year after cure. Low serum iron and transferrin concentration, low total iron binding capacity and normal to high serum ferritin levels were found in 10 patients and are consistent with 'anaemia of chronic inflammation'. Bone marrows of 15 patients before treatment were normo- to hypercellular with increased erythropoietic activity. Low haemosiderin content of the bone marrow was consistent with iron deficiency, but normalization of Hb without iron suppletion would argue against a major role of iron deficiency. Coagulation studies did not indicate diffuse intravascular coagulation. Splenomegaly seems the most important factor in the causation of the pancytopenia. Further studies of contributing factors and of the cause and mechanism of 'hypersplenism' are needed.

Gichaga FJ, Rangasami KS. Introduction to Building and Civil Engineering Drawing. MacMillan Publishers; 1986.
Lubwama SW;, Plummer FA;, Ndinya-Achola JO;, Nsanze H;, Namaara W;, D'Costa LJ;, Ronald AR. "Isolation and identification of Haemophilus ducreyi in a clinical laboratory.". 1986. Abstract

Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.

Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H;, Karasira P, Fransen L, Fransen L, Piot P, Ronald AR. "Three day oral course of Augmentin to treat chancroid.". 1986. Abstract

Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Beecham Research Laboratories) was used to treat patients with bacteriologically proved chancroid in three different dose regimens. A single dose of Augmentin (amoxycillin 3 g, clavulanic acid 350 mg) was found to be ineffective. A similar dose repeated after 24 hours was equally ineffective, but a dose (amoxycillin 500 mg, clavulanic acid 250 mg) given every 8 hours for three days was found to be effective. The drug was well tolerated and no side effects were noted in any of the patients treated

Okeyo AM, Ruvuma F, Cartwright TC, Maleche JN. "Use of teething technique to estimate age in goats.". 1986.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. 1986. Reproduction and Herd Health. Kenya Vet. 10 (1) : 33-34.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1986. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
1985
Rosenthal NR, Barrett EJ. "An assessment of insulin action in hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic diabetic patients." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1985;60:607-610. Abstract

The effect of insulin treatment on the rate of decline of plasma glucose concentration was determined in nine patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketosis [HHNK; mean plasma glucose, 999 +/- 59 (+/- SEM) mg/dl] and in six normal subjects rendered hyperglycemic by a combined infusion of somatostatin and glucose (mean plasma glucose, 653 +/- 28 mg/dl). Both the fractional glucose turnover and the half-time of the fall in plasma glucose during low dose (5-10 U/h) insulin treatment were reduced 10-fold (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic patients compared with the hyperglycemic normal subjects. In the hyperosmolar patients, the mean glucose clearance during insulin treatment was only 7% that in the normal subjects (P less than 0.001). The rate of plasma glucose decline in our hyperosmolar patients after hydration and insulin administration was 80 +/- 7 mg/dl X h. This decline is comparable to the results reported in other series, although in striking contrast to the 508 +/- 32 mg/dl X h decline in normal subjects (P less than 0.001). Our findings do not support the clinical impression that HHNK patients are insulin sensitive. We conclude that marked resistance to infused insulin delays the correction of hyperglycemia during treatment of HHNK and suggest that resistance to the normal basal insulin levels encountered in some HHNK patients may contribute in part to the development of the hyperosmolar state.

Brun-Buisson CJ, Bonnet F, Bergeret S, Lemaire F, Rapin M. "Recurrent high-permeability pulmonary edema associated with diabetic ketoacidosis." Critical Care Medicine. 1985;13:55-56. Abstract

Delayed-onset pulmonary edema complicating severe diabetic ketoacidosis was observed twice in one patient. Hemodynamic measurements during the second episode showed normal transmural pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, suggesting an alteration in alveolocapillary permeability. Hyperventilation and acidosis may underlie this alteration. Vigorous fluid therapy, while decreasing oncotic pressure, may also contribute to the pulmonary edema. The two episodes in one patient suggest that pulmonary microvascular diabetic angiopathy may predispose some diabetics with severe ketoacidosis to increased-permeability pulmonary edema.

Redfern PH, Sinei KA. "24-Hr variation in synaptosomal tryptophan-5- hydroxylase activity in the rat brain.". In: Circadian Rhythms in the Central Nervous System. London: MacMillan Press; 1985.
Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike M;, Ruvuna F;, Gichuru WN;, Cartwright TC;, Wachira JD. "Comparison of edible meat yields among different goat breeds and crosses."; 1985.
Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike M;, Ruvuna F;, Gichuru WN;, Cartwright TC;, Wachira JD. "Comparison of edible meat yields among different goat breeds and crosses."; 1985.
Okeyo AM;, Kitlit JK;, Ahuya CO;, Ruvuna F;, Cartwright TC. "Disease and prolificacy characteristics of the Galla and East African Breeds at Ol'Magog."; 1985.
McPherson CNL;, Zeyhle E;, Mwangi M;, Rees P;, McPherson C;, Wachira T;, Cheruiyot H;, Gathura PB;, Gathuma JM;, Romig T;, Kinoti GK. "Echnicoccus – Research for appropriate control techniques for Turkana.".; 1985.
Rashid K;, Waithaka K. "The effect of phosphorous fertilization on growth and tuberization of sweet potato, ipomoea Batatas L.".; 1985. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on the growth and tuberization of two sweet potato cultivars. P did not cause any significant influence on growth or yield of vines and tubers in either cultivar. Cv. I (Musinya) produced significantly longer and a higher yield of vines than cv. II (Gikanda), but the latter produced a significantly higher yield and number of tubers than the former. There was no significant difference in dry matter accumulation in the tubers of both cultivars at all P levels and the control. However, cv. I accumulated significantly higher dry matter in the vines than cv. II, whereas cv. II accumulated significantly higher dry matter in tubers than cv. I during both seasons but P fertilization did not influence the accumulation.

Adam, A.M; Rogers HJ, Bradbrook ID;, Rogers HJ. "High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and acetylaminoglutethimide in biological fluids.". 1985. Abstract

A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide.

Gichaga FJ, Rangasami KS. "Introduction To Building And Civil Engineering Drawing."; 1985.
Ruvuna F;, Cartwright TC;, Okeyo AM. "The Kenya Dual-Purpose Goats: its development and utility."; 1985.
Mitaru BN, Reichert RD, Blair R. "Protein and Amino Acid Digestibilities for Chickens of Reconstituted and Boiled Sorghum Grains Varying in Tannin Contents.". 1985. Abstract

Two high and one low tannin sorghum type grains were used to study the effect of reconstitution (high moisture storage) and boiling treatments of the grain on protein and amino acid digestibilities. One lot of the grains was untreated. The second lot was reconstituted by adding distilled water at a 25% level (w/w) and stored for 20 days at 25 C with an acetic-propionic acid mixture added at 2% to deter fungal growth. The third lot of the grains was boiled in distilled water for 50 min. The true ileal protein and amino acid digestibilities of the treated grains for broiler chickens were determined. The high tannin sorghum cultivars showed protein digestibility values of 45.5 and 66.7% and the low tannin sorghum had a value of 89.9%. The amino acid digestibility values ranged from 43.1 to 73.7% and 84.8 to 93.0% in high and low tannin sorghums, respectively. Reconstitution improved (P<.05) the protein and amino acid digestibilities in high, but not low, tannin sorghums. The reconstituted high tannin sorghums showed protein digestibilities of 77.4 and 84.5% and the amino acid digestibilities ranged from 73.5 to 90.9%. Boiling treatment had a detrimental effect on the protein and amino acid digestibilities in both high and low tannin sorghums. The protein digestibility values of boiled high tannin sorghums were 25.4 and 46.9% and the amino acid digestibility values ranged from 21.1 to 62.8%. The boiled low tannin sorghum had a protein digestibility value of 58.4% and the amino acid digestibility values ranged from 54.2 to 74.0%.

Kibwage IO, Roets E, Hoogmartens J, Vanderhaeghe H. "Separation of erythromycin and related substances by high-performance liquid chromatography on poly (styrene-divinylbenzene) packing materials.". 1985. Abstract

A comparative evaluation of three brands of polyrstyrene-divinylbenzene) co¬polymers, Hamilton PRP-I (10 ,um), Rogel (8 ,um) and TSK-Gel (10 Jim), as column packing materials for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of eryth¬romycins is presented. Erythromycins A, Band C, anhydroerythrornycin A, eryth¬rornycin A enol ether, Nvdcmcthylerythromycin A, anhydro Nvdemethylerythro¬myci n A and Nvdemethylerythromycin A enol ether were chromatographed. The effects of column temperature, concentration of organic modifier in the mobile phase, concentration of phosphate buffer, the addition of quaternary ammonium salts and pH are described. The best separations were obtained on TSK-Gel with the mobile phase acetonunle-methanot-uz M tetramethylammonium hydroxide pH 8.0-0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0-water (30:15:25:5:25). PRP-l and Rogel gave equally good separations but with higher retention volumes .

RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""An excrept from a long poem titled "TheVillage Bride" Published inMusings a Massey Univeristy literary journal.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1984
C.K M, J.O O, R.W M, S O, F.D J. "A comparative study of the efficacy of seven brands of frusemide tablets." East Afr Med J. . 1984;61(1):6-10.
Mitaru BN, Reichert RD, Blair R. "Nutritive value of reconstituted sorghum grains for weanling pigs.". 1984. Abstract

Grains from a high and low tannin sorghum were reconstituted by adding distilled water at a 30% level (w/w) and stored for 20 d at 25 C with an acetic-propionic acid mixture added to deter fungal growth. Another batch of grain from the same sources was used as control (no moisture treatment). The grains treated as above were incorporated at a 75% level in soybean meal-based starter diets for pigs. Reconstitution reduced the tannin content of high tannin sorghum significantly. The weight gains and feed consumptions with untreated and treated sorghums were not different (P>.05). Feed efficiency (G/F) was better (P<.05) with reconstituted than with the untreated sorghums. Dry matter digestibility was improved (P<.05) by reconstitution. The diets containing high tannin sorghum had lower (P<.05) digestible energy than the diets containing low tannin sorghums. Reconstitution improved (P<.05) the protein digestibility of the high tannin sorghum, but not that of the low tannin sorghum.

Kibwage IO, Janssen G, Busson R, Roets E, Hoogmartens J, Vanderhaeghe H. "Preparative high performance liquid chomatography on straight silica gel of fermentatio liquor of Streptomyces erythreus.". 1984.
Monyonko NM, Reid JH, Sen A. "Some properties of green's functions in the non-linear Rξ gauge.". 1984. AbstractWebsite

In the non-linear Rξ gauge, the W− boson field satisfies the naive Ward identity and in consequence one-loop contributions give zero neutrino charge, which they do not in the conventional Rξ gauge. Further, in this non-linear gauge, the separate diagrams contributing to the photon self-energy are transverse and their divergent parts gauge independent.

R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. 1984. Superovulation and Embryo Recovery in the postpartum ewe. Vm/Sac 79: 1141-1142.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Baker, A.A. 1984. Detection of oestrus mating behaviours of entire rams, vasetomised rams and, testosterone treated ewes and wethers. Kenya Vet. 8(1) : 15-17.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Baker, A.A. 1984a. Effect of reduced daylight length on oestrus occurrence and superovulatory response in ewes treated with FSH-P during the non-breeding season. Vet. Rec. 114 : 401-404.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., and Baker, A.A. 1984B. Transfer of sheep embryos through a laparoscope. Vet. Record. 114: 401-404.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., and Baker, A.A. 1984d. Ovarian activity oestrous cycle length and plasma progesterone levels in goats following superovulation. Kenya Vet. 8(1) : 3-24.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1984. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
1983
Ogeto J, Maitai CK, Wangia C, Mkoji ML, Wakori E, Rutere GK, Mithamo RW, Ochieng' A, Githiga IM. "Practical therapeutical drug quality control in kenya - further observations.". 1983. Abstract

Over a period of 18 months starting from 20th July 1981, 191 requests for drug analysis were received and processed In the Drug Analysis and Research nil (DARU) at the department of pharmacy in the University of Nairobi. Of these requests, about 65% came from the government central medical stores, 13% from government hospitals, 11.3% from the Ministry of Health headquaters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist), 5% from private local pharmaceutical firms, 4.8% from the Tuberculosis Investigation Centre and the rest from miscelaneous sources. About 65% of the samples received were manufactured locally and 35% imported. In general complaints received from medical practitioners were found 10 be justified. Results of analysis together with some relevant observations are presented.

Ogeto J, Maitai CK, Wangia C, Mkoji ML, Wakori E, Rutere GK, Mithamo RW, Ochieng' A, Githiga IM. "Practical therapeutical drug quality control in kenya - further observations.". 1983. Abstract

Over a period of 18 months starting from 20th July 1981, 191 requests for drug analysis were received and processed In the Drug Analysis and Research nil (DARU) at the department of pharmacy in the University of Nairobi. Of these requests, about 65% came from the government central medical stores, 13% from government hospitals, 11.3% from the Ministry of Health headquaters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist), 5% from private local pharmaceutical firms, 4.8% from the Tuberculosis Investigation Centre and the rest from miscelaneous sources. About 65% of the samples received were manufactured locally and 35% imported. In general complaints received from medical practitioners were found 10 be justified. Results of analysis together with some relevant observations are presented.

R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Agumbah, G.J.O., Ogaa, J.S., Mutiga, E.R. and Muraguri, J.M. 1983. Coliform mastitis in the Nairobi area of Kenya: Bacteriological Types, Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns and clinical problems of treatment. Kenya Vet. 7(1) : 20-24.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1983. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., Baker, A.A. and Jillella, D. 1983. Limitations of intrauterine balloon catheters for ova collection in sheep. Theriogenology 20: 213-220.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1983. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
1982
KAAYA GP, RATCLIFFE NA. "Comparative study of haemocytes and the associated cells of some medically important Dipterans." Journal of Morphology . 1982;173:351-365.
Monyonko NM, Reid JH. Neutrino charge in the non-linear Rzeta gauge.; 1982.
Gachene CKK, Michieka DO, Rachilo JR. "Soils of Busia area.". 1982.
Mitaru BN, Blair R, Bell JM, Reichert RD. "Tannin and fiber contents of rapeseed and canola hulls.". 1982. Abstract

Hulls from rapeseed and canola seed were analyzed for tannins, and the ability of these tannins to inhibit a-amylase in vitro was determined. Extractable tannin content ranged from 0.02 to O.22Vc. The a-amylase inhibition test showed zero values for rapeseed and canola hulls indicating the absence of tannins capable of inhibiting this enzyme.

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Doctors and Standard of Medical Care", New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur (November 16.". In: Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.; 1982. Abstract
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R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Kanyongo-Male, H., Karue, C.N. and Mutiga, E.R. 1982. The effect of preconception supplementation on the productivity of dairy heifers grazed on medium quality pasture under East African conditions. Bull. Anima. Hlth. Prod. 30:65-72.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1982. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Baker A.A. 1982. Superovulation of sheep using PMSG at different days of the oestrus cycle.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1982. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Baker, A.A. 1982B. Ovarian response, ova recovery and fertility in Merino ewes superovulated either during the luteal phase of their oestrous cycle of after intravaginal progestagen treatment. Theriogenology 17 (5) : 537-544.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1982. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Baker, AA. 1982a. Superovulatory response in Merino ewes to three PMSG dosage levels. Theriogenology 17 (1). 100 abst.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1982. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. ""Shocking National Tragedy" a review of Bhabani Bhattacharva's So Many Hungers! In Daily Nation Jan.1982.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1982. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
1981
R D, and Epp ONH>. "Forest Cover mapping in Kenya using remote sensing techniques." Forest Cover mapping in Kenya using remote sensing techniques. 1981;Report No. 30 .
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Kanyongo-Male, H., Karue, C.N. and Mutiga, E.R. 1981. The effect of supplementation on the fertility of dairy heifers grazed on medium quality pasture under East Africa Conditions East. Afric. Agric. & For. Jo. 43 (3) 317-320.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1981. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., Ogaa, J.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. 1981. Bovine dystocia in Kabete area of Kenya. Mod. Vet. Pract. February 1981. 111-113.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1981. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
Cordobés F, Lobato RD, Rivas JJ, Muñoz MJ, Chillón D, Portillo JM, Lamas E. "Observations on 82 patients with extradural hematoma: comparison of results before and after the advent of computerized tomography." Journal of neurosurgery. 1981;54:179-186. AbstractWebsite
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1980
Sprung CL, Rackow EC, Fein IA. "Pulmonary edema; a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1980;77:687-688. Abstract

Hemodynamic evaluation in two patients and analysis of pulmonary edema fluid in one patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pulmonary edema were performed. Pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in both patients were low or normal (1 and 9 mm Hg). In one patient the colloid osmotic pressure of the pulmonary edema fluid was 68 percent of the value of the serum. The serum colloid osmotic pressure-pulmonary arterial wedge pressure gradient in the second patient was markedly reduced. Pulmonary edema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis may be the result of increased permeability of pulmonary capillary membranes and altered intravascular colloid-hydrostatic forces.

Robertson TW, Hickey TL, Guillery RW. "Development of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in normal and visually deprived {Siamese} cats." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1980;191:573-579. Abstract

Neuronal cell bodies in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and of monocularly-deprived Siamese cats have been measured. Seventeen normally reared Siamese cats, ranging in age between 20 and 120 days, were used to determine rates of normal geniculate cell growth. A second group of five adult Siamese cats reared from bith with the lids of one eye closed were used to study the effects of monocular visual deprivation upon geniculate cell size. For each of the normal and visually deprived Siamese cats, the cross-sectional areas of 600 lateral geniculate cells were measured from camera lucida drawings of Nissl preparations. During normal development the geniculate cells rapidly increase in size during the first postnatal month of life and reach their adult size sometime between days 28 and 56. While this course of geniculate cell growth is similar to that seen in normally pigmented cats, the pattern of change seen after monocular deprivation is quite different in Siamese cats from that found in normally pigmented cats. In Siamese cats the regions of the nucleus receiving a contralateral projection from the deprived eye appear to be shielded from the effects of binocular competition. Cells throughout lamina A and in the abnormal, contralaterally innervated segment of lamina A1 show only about a 10% reduction in cell size. There are no noticeable differences between the parts of lamina A in the binocular and monocular segments of the nucleus. Cells in the ipsilaterally innervated segment of lamina A1, in contrast, show deprivation-induced changes that average 27.1%. Two mechanisms are proposed to explain why some geniculate cells in Siamese cats appear to be shielded from binocular competition: one depends on possible interactions between geniculo-cortical cells lying in adjacent parts of the same geniculate lamina, and the other depends on an anatomical segregation of the cell type ("Y-cells") most heavily affected by the binocular competition. Each proposed mechanism is related to earlier observations on monocularly deprived, normally pigmented cats.

Raja, R; Adamali GN; J. "Heel pad thickness in Kenyan Africans.". 1980.
Mailu AM, Rose DJW, Khamala CPM. "Sequential surveys for the pine woolly aphid, Pineus pini (L.) Homoptera: Adelgidae in Kenya.". 1980. AbstractWebsite

Sequential survey procedures are described from Kenya for classifying the damage caused by the aphid Pineus pini (Gmel.) to Pinus patula. The criteria used are the degree of needle stunting caused by a given number of aphids per centimetre of shoot length, the percentage of twigs on individual trees with mats of aphid wool, and the amount of tree surface covered with aphid wool. Field procedures for making measurements are given, and the survey procedures are presented.

Rajula CM. The Survival After The Cardiac Arrest At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1980. Abstract

The records of 450 patients who required cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the period 1974-1980 are reviewed. All suffered cardio-pulmonary arrest, and the results of treatment are expressed in terms of length of survival. One hundred fifty nine patients (35.6%) responded to the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation initially. Out of this, 115 patients (72.33%) died in the hospital later; 44 (8.9%) who were hospitalised for another one month, after cardio-pulmonary arrest, and then discharged, were considered long survivors.
The chances of successful resuscitation were greater in patients with ischaemic heart disease (20% survived); undergoing anaesthesia (20% survived); and those with drug
overdose (15.5% survived). Patients with ventricular fibrilation as the primary electro-cardiographic finding had better prog~osis as compared to those with asystole.
Resuscitation in patients with progressive metabolic and respiratcry failure, and multiple episodes of cardiac arrests, was associated with poor prognosis. Low survival rates were
also found in children under ten years of age.
About eleven percent of all the survivors developed residual brain damage with marked intelectual impairment, including 2 patients with psychiatric problems.

R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Kayongo-Male, H. Karue, C.N. and Mutiga, E.R. 1980. The effect of supplementation on the growth of dairy heifers grazed on medium quality pasture under East African conditions. East Afric. Agric. & For. Jo. 42 (4) : 435-440.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1980. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
1979
Musuva JK, Radon JC. "The Effect Of Stress Ratio And Frequency On Fatigue Crack Growth.". 1979. AbstractWebsite

Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on compact tension specimens (CTS) made in two thicknesses 12 and 24 mm. Tests were conducted at two frequencies of 0·25 and 30 Hz, applying a stress ratio R varying from – 0·7 to 0·7. The results were analysed using the linear elastic fracture mechanics approach. They showed that the increase in both positive and negative R caused increased fatigue crack growth rates. Also an empirical effective stress intensity factor range, ΔKeff, was found more appropriate to correlate the fatigue crack growth data than the ΔK factor frequently used in crack growth studies. The loading frequency had only a little influence on crack growth rates at low R. However, at high R, growth rates were significantly higher at lower frequencies. It is suggested that this frequency influence may be associated with environmental effects, due to the embrittlement caused by hydrogen from the moist air, while the crack was fully open.

Patel JP, Raja PKS. "A palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya.". 1979. AbstractA palaeomagnetic study of lower Proterozoic granites from Western Kenya

This paper reports a palaeomagnetic study of the lower Proterozoic granites, exposed in the western part of Kenya and dated at 2530 ± 50 Ma (λRb= 1.39 × 10−11 yr−1). Ten sites out of 13 have yielded stable palaeomagnetic directions which are believed to be primary. Polished section and thermomagnetic analyses indicate titanomagnetite grains as the main carrier of the primary component of the natural remanence. The mean palaeomagnetic north pole is calculated at 210.7° E, 60.9° N with A95= 13.5°.

Patel JP, Raja PKS. "Paleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya.". 1979. AbstractPaleomagnetic results from the Narosura and Magadi volcanics of Kenya

Results of a paleomagnetic study carried out on the exposed volcanic rocks on the western side of the South Kenya Rift Valley are presented. Nine stratigraphic groups ranging in age from Miocene to Pleistocene were sampled. The rocks consist of basalts, trachytes, nephelinites, melanephelinites, olivine melanephelinites and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic poles obtained for different age ranges are as follows: Period I (0.64–0.72 Ma), 116°E, 85°N (A95 = 6°); Period II (1.6–6.9 Ma), 297°E, 84°N (A95 = 4°); Period III (12.0–15.0 Ma), 34°E, 80°N (A95 = 9°). The results for Period II show large secular variations which are in disagreement with the model predictions for near-equatorial sites.

RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "Exerpts from the Village Bride, Heinnemann.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1979. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
RUTE DRMARETEGIDEONNTEERE. "The Horn, Kenyatta Universrity college newspaper.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1979. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. 1979. Genital Discharges in Your Dairy Cow. They Mean Something. Kenya Farmer. March 1979 p. 16-18.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1979. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. 1979. Treatment of the Repeat Breeder cow Syndrome in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Vol. 10 p. 223-228.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1979. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Nyaga, P.N., Kaminjoro, J.S., Mutiga, E.R. and Bebora, L.C. 1979. Occurrence of a typical fowlpox in poultry farms in Kenya. Avian Diseases 23 (3) : 745-752.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1979. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Nyaga, P.N., Kaminjoro, J.S., Mutiga, E.R. and Bebora, L.C. 1979. Occurrence of a typical fowlpox in poultry farms in Kenya. Avian Diseases 23 (3) : 745-752.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1979. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
1978
Rodineau P. "[Elementary respiratory care in the postoperative period]." Anesth Analg (Paris). 1978;35(4):677-84.
Adholla M-, Ruigu G. "The Development of Coffee Production in K enya."; 1978.
Mailu AM, Khamala CPM, Rose DJW. "Evaluation of pine woolly aphid damage to Pinus patula and its effect on yield in Kenya.". 1978. AbstractWebsite

It is reported in this further paper on the damage caused by Pineus pini (Gmel.) to Pinus patula in Kenya [see preceding abstract] that reduction in the elongation of the needles and stems occurs only after crown damage and aphid infestation become extreme. Lighter infestations are reflected in slight reductions of needle length. Damage to the trees and consequent losses of wood volume are most severe under warm dry conditions. Severely stunted needles caused by aphid feeding result in loss of half the tree yield. Infested stands may incur up to 5% economic loss in wood volume. These relations are, however, affected by site factors such as rainfall and altitude. With stands of P. patula at suitable sites. Pineus pini need not pose an important threat to plantations in Kenya.

Hardy DG, Rhoton Jr AL. "Microsurgical relationships of the superior cerebellar artery and the trigeminal nerve." Journal of neurosurgery. 1978;49:669-678. AbstractWebsite
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R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Kiptoon, J.C. 1978. Dexafort induced parturition in dairy cows with clinical problems. Kenya Veterinarian. January 1978 p. 13-14.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1978. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R., Kiptoon, J.C. and Masha, J.B. 1978. Pueperal diseases of dairy cattle in Kenya. Mod. Vet. Practice. January 1978. P. 45-46.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1978. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
1977
Saeki N, Rhoton AL. "Microsurgical anatomy of the upper basilar artery and the posterior circle of {Willis}." Journal of Neurosurgery. 1977;46:563-578. AbstractWebsite
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Munyua JK, Almlof E, Larsson M, Razinikiewicz, Lindqvist I. Fractionation by size of Casein micelles on controlled pore size glass. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1977.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Kiberling, C.V. 1977. An evaluation of a clinical procedure for treatment of retained placenta in cattle. Vm/Sac. Vol. 72 : 1877-1878.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1977. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Mutiga, E.R. and Ogaa, J.C. 1977. Abnormal oestral pattern in agoat a case history, Vm/Sac. August 1977 p. 1372-1373.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1977. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
1976
Mosin VI, Radbil' OS. "[Cyclic nucleotides and intestinal function]." Klin Med (Mosk). 1976;54(10):23-8.
Berg CP, Rodden FA. "Purification of D-amino oxidase from Trigonopsis variabilis." Anal. Biochem.. 1976;71(1):214-22.
Roseleur OJ, van Gent CM. "Alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bile acids." Clin. Chim. Acta. 1976;66(2):269-72.
Raffle A, Gray J, MacDonald HR. "Letter: First-aid treatment of poisoning." Br Med J. 1976;1(6001):93.
Rees BI, Lari J. "Chronic intussusception in children." British Journal of Surgery. 1976;63:33-35. AbstractWebsite
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1975
Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Bhagwat VM, Ramachandran BV. "Malathion A and B esterases of mouse liver-I." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(18):1713-7.
Ris MM, Deitrich RA, Von Wartburg JP. "Inhibition of aldehyde reductase isoenzymes in human and rat brain." Biochem. Pharmacol.. 1975;24(20):1865-9.
Elgart ES, Gusovsky T, Rosenberg MD. "Preparation and characterization of an enzymatically active immobilized derivative of myosin." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):178-92. Abstract

Purified skeletal muscle myosin (EC 3.6.1.3) has been covalently bound to Sepharose 4B by the cyanogen bromide procedure. The resulting complex, Sepharose-Myosin, possesses adenosine triphosphatase activity and is relatively stable for long periods of time. Under optimal binding conditions, approximately 33% of the specific ATPase activity of the bound myosin is retained. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of polypeptides released from denatured Sepharose-Myosin indicates that 85% of the myosin is attached to the agarose beads through the heavy chains and the remainder through the light chains, in agreement with predictions of binding and release based upon either the lysine contents or molecular weights of themyosin subunits. The adenosine triphosphatase of the immobilized myosin has been investigated under conditions of varying pH, ionic strength, and cation concentration. The ATPase profiles of immobilized myosin are quite similar to those for free myosin, however subtle differences are found. The Sepharose-Myosin ATPase is not as sensitive as myosin to alterations in salt concentration and the apparent KM is approximately two-fold higher than that of myosin. These differences are probably due to chemical modification in the region of the attachment site(s) to the agarose beads and hydration and diffusion limitations imposed by the polymeric agarose matrix.

Roskoski R, Lim CT, Roskoski LM. "Human brain and placental choline acetyltransferase: purification and properties." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5105-10. Abstract

Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) catalyzes the biosynthesis of acetylcholine according to the following chemical equation: acetyl-CoA + choline in equilibrium to acetylcholine + CoA. In addition to nervous tissue, primate placenta is the only other animal source which contains appreciable acetylcholine and its biosynthetic enzyme. Human brain caudate nucleus and human placental choline acetyltransferase were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using ion-exchange and blue dextran-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The molecular weights determined by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis are 67000 plus or minus 3000. N-Ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) inhibit the enzyme. Dithiothreitol reverses the inhibition produced by the latter two reagents. The pKa of the group associated with N-ethylmaleimide inhibition is 8.6 plus or minus 0.3. A chemically competent acetyl-thioenzyme is isolable by Sephadex gel filtration. The enzymes from the brain and placenta are thus far physically and biochemically indistinguishable.

Rajcáni J, Krobová J, Málková D. "Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus in the chick embryo." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):467-72. Abstract

Distribution of Lednice (Yaba 1) virus antigen (LVA) was followed by immunofluorescene (IF) in chick embryos inoculated into the yolk sacs. Positive fluorescence of LVA was observed in neurons and neuroblasts of the developing brain, spinal cord and spinal ganglia as well as in skeletal muscles, heart muscle, vascular endothelium and lung mesenchyma. In the yolk sac, foci of specific fluorescence were occasionally seen in endothelium cells of vessels and in islands of extraembryonic haematopoesis. At sites corresponding to the occurrence of LVA, extensive oedema was accompanied by extravazation of erythrocytes and accumulation of white blood cells. The nature of tissues in which the virus replicates was discussed from the point of view of LVA distribution and the morphological lesions observed.

Robinson JV, James AL. "Some observations on the effects produced in white mice following the injection of certain suspensions of corroding bacilli." Br J Exp Pathol. 1975;56(1):14-6. Abstract

Strictly anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic strains of "corroding bacilli" failed to produce any pathological symptoms when injected into white mice and no viable organisms could be recovered after 7 days. However, when these same strains were coupled with certain other living bacteria or certain sterile bacterial extracts, lesions developed from which corroding bacilli could be isolated even after 21 days.

1974
1973
1972
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1963
Rainey RL, Estes PW, Neely CL, Amick LD. "Myoglobinuria following diabetic acidosis with electromyographic evaluation." Archives of Internal Medicine. 1963;111:564-571. Abstract
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1949
REISMAN HENRYA, WOLK ARTHURD. "{CHRONIC} {INTUSSUSCEPTION}." Pediatrics. 1949;4:183-187. AbstractWebsite
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1930

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