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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Sharif SK, McLigeyo SO, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African. East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Haemoglobin A1C in children with sickle cell disease. East Afr Med J . 1984 Jan; 61 ( 1 ): 32-4 . No abstract available. PMID: 6745138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Juma FD, Gitau W, Bwibo NO, Gachoka C.". In: East Afr Med J . 1984 Jan; 61 ( 1 ): 32-4 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1984. Abstract

Despite the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Europe, the disease is poorly managed. Critical periods are the hospital stays during which the anaesthesiologist plays an important role. Understanding the molecular basis of polymerization processes of haemoglobin S can help to avoid triggering a crisis. Differentiation of the various haemoglobin phenotypes helps to estimate the individual perioperative risk. Knowledge of the patient's history and the actual haemoglobin S level facilitates general anaesthesia, surgery and postoperative care. Damage to liver, spleen, eyes, bones, lung and central nervous system increases the perioperative risk. Preoperative preparation includes early admission, intravenous volume substitution, continuing pain therapy and prophylactic antibiotic medication. General anaesthesia seems to be better for patients with a high-risk profile rather than regional anaesthesia. Careful perioperative and postoperative monitoring should allow hypoxaemia, hypovolaemia, hypothermia, acidosis and overtransfusion to be avoided. Effective pain therapy includes a combination of opioids with peripherally acting analgesia.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants at Kenyatta national hospital Afr Health Sci. 2007 June; 7 (2) : 108.". In: Afr Health Sci. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2007. Abstract

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Expansion of Magnetized Classical Plasma Dielectric Tensor; Kenya Journal of Science and Technology (A).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Linear Estimation of Standard deviation of Logistic Distribution.". In: Theory and Algorithms in InterStat. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Placebo-controlled trial of potassium supplements in black patients with mild essential hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Aug;14(2):294-6.". In: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Aug;14(2):294-6. E Afr Med J; 1989. Abstract
Forty-eight black patients with mildly increased blood pressure (BP) that had not yet been subjected to treatment took part in a double-blind clinical trial of the efficacy and tolerability of oral potassium supplements (64 mmol daily) versus a matching placebo (made of starch with coating) in a 16-week study. Potassium supplements produced a significant decrease in mean supine and standing BP within 4 weeks after treatment inception. Urinary potassium excretion increased significantly in the 24 patients who received potassium supplements (p less than 0.001). No significant changes occurred in plasma sodium and potassium concentrations or in urinary excretion of sodium during the study. All patients completed the trial without experiencing any notable untoward effects. These results are consistent with the premise that oral potassium supplements may exert hypotensive effects of clinically significant degree in patients with mild hypertension.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Diress, T. A., K. O. Farah, and D. M. Nyariki. 1999. Influence of settlements on land use and vegetation in the rangelands of northeastern Ethiopia: Application of aerial photographic technique. J. Hum. Ecol. 10: 349-356.". In: In: European Union Dryland series based on a regional workshop on pastoralism in the horn of Africa (this a book chapter). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Otieno LS, Kinuthia DM, Mwongera FK, Ongeri SK.Ascites in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1991 Oct;68(10):789-94.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a two-year-period (August 1984 to August 1986), 77 patients were admitted into the maintenance haemodialysis programme at Kenyatta National Hospital. 24 (31.5%) of these had ascites during haemodialysis. Nine (37.5%) of the patients who had ascites had prior peritoneal dialysis, while 15 (62.5%) had congestive cardiac failure at the time of development of the ascites. In 21 (87.5%), the ascites responded to therapy with diuretics, salt and fluid restriction, antibiotics when indicated and to ultrafiltration during dialysis. In 3 (12.5%) of the patients, the ascites developed in the absence of any predisposing cause. The ascites progressively increased in amount and was associated with marked wasting. These patients were considered to have refractory ascites of haemodialysis.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Were FN, Lusweti B, Wasunna A , Musoke RN.Isdelivery outside hospital a risk of development of early sepsis?". In: Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology East and Central Africa Vol 17:1; 19-24, 2004. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics: the use of insulin. East Afr Med J. 1982 May;59(5):301-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 May;59(5):301-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, S. M. Mutuli and G.O. Rading Stress Characterization in Autofrettaged Thick Walled Cylinders Int. J. Mechanical Engineering Education. 31(4) (2003) p 370-389.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2003. Abstract

The inaccessibility of commercial software has necessitated the development of low-cost, general-purpose finite element method (FEM) computer programs for structural analysis. Using the FEM program, the elastic, elastic-plastic, residual and service stresses and displacements in a closed ended, thick-walled cylinder under internal pressure were established. The displacement formulation was implemented and eight-noded brick isoparametric elements chosen. The frontal solution technique and the incremental theory of plasticity were used, as only limited computing facilities were available. The results were found to be in very good agreement with the through-thickness analytical values. The benefits of autofrettage were demonstrated and an optimum overstrain of 16% established for a cylinder with a thickness ratio of 2. The material economy achieved through autofrettage and the limitations imposed are illustrated. The FEM program could therefore be reliably used for other complex geometries and load conditions.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Varieties of malnutrition. Kenya Nurs J . 1975 Dec; 4 ( 2 ): 38-40 . No abstract available. PMID: 1044874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Kenya Nurs J . 1975 Dec; 4 ( 2 ): 38-40 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1975. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Assessment of inpatient paediatric care in first referral level hospitals in 13 districts in Kenya. Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow .". In: Lancet . 2004 Jun 12; 363 ( 9425 ): 1948-53 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract

KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. menglish@wtnairobi.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya. METHODS: Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts. Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers. FINDINGS: Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4-15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3-46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0-100% and 9-77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care. INTERPRETATION: Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals.

PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "G. Kalman & R. O. Genga: High-Frequency Expansion of Plasma Dielectric Tensor; Phys, Rev. A 33, 604 (1986).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1986.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Benefit/risk comparisons in therapy. East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):201-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):201-2. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Otieno L.S., Kinuthia D.M.W. Ongeri S.K., Mwongera F.K., Wairagu S.G.: Problems with a Renal Replacement Programme in a Developing Country. Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988.". In: Postgraduate Medical Journal 648 (56): 783-786, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Thorpe, W., P. Kang.". In: J. Dairy Sci. 76:2001. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Seremet T, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. Aflatoxin exposure measured by urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct and hepatitis B virus infection in areas with different liver cancer incidence in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1987 Jul 1;47(13):3430-3.". In: Cancer Res. 1987 Jul 1;47(13):3430-3. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1987. Abstract
Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO. The diagnosis and management of migraine. East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):477-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):477-8. uon; 1995. Abstract
Neurological manifestations of HIV/AIDS is reviewed and discussed. It is noted that neurological manifestations are some of the commonest modes of clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS. At autopsy, the prevalence approaches 100%. These manifestations include: involvement of the higher functions, craniopathies, spinal cord disease, peripheral neuropathy and muscle disease. It is therefore stressed that the central nervous system must be particularly assessed in patients with HIV/AIDS and where the clinician is not sure of the neurological diagnosis, a referral to the neurologist is recommended as some of these are treatable
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Diphtheria in African children (report of 13 cases seen at Mulago Hospital). J Trop Pediatr. 1969 Mar;15(1):15-7. Bwibo NO.". In: J Trop Pediatr. 1969 Mar;15(1):15-7. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1969. Abstract

No abstract available

O O, M SS, N MJ, A AA, C K. "Compressive Strength and Slump Prediction of Two Blended Agro Waste Materials Concretes." The Open Civil Engneering Journal. 2019;Vol 13:118-128.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Eric Ayienga, William Okello-Odongo, Bernard Manderick, Ann Now.". In: In UNESCO-HP . UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2011.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Structural Steel–Applications of Fracture Mechanics" M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi (1983).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1983. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFOBURRAHERBERT, PETER DRMUGWE. "Smith AW, Hatcher J, Mackenzie IJ, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z.Randomised controlled trial of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media in Kenyan schoolchildren.Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33.". In: Lancet. 1996 Oct 26;348(9035):1128-33. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1996. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) are disappointing and uncertain, especially in developing countries. Because CSOM is the commonest cause of hearing impairment in children in these countries, an effective method of management that can be implemented on a wide scale is needed. We report a randomised, controlled trial of treatment of CSOM among children in Kenya; unaffected schoolchildren were taught to administer the interventions. METHODS: We enrolled 524 children with CSOM, aged 5-15 years, from 145 primary schools in Kiambu district of Kenya. The schools were randomly assigned treatments in clusters of five in a ratio of two to dry mopping alone (201 children), two to dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids (221 children), and one to no specific treatment (102 children). Schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. The primary outcome measures were resolution of otorrhoea and healing of tympanic membranes on otoscopy by 8, 12, and 16 weeks after induction. Absence of perforation was confirmed by tympanometry, and hearing levels were assessed by audiometry. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial because they took non-trial antibiotics. There was no evidence of differences in timing of withdrawals between the groups. FINDINGS: By the 16-week follow-up visit, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% (95% CI 42-59) of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, compared with 22% (14-31) of those who received dry mopping alone and 22% (9-35) of controls. Similar differences were recorded by the 8-week and 12-week visits. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% (10-21) in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% (5-20) in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% (3-23) in the control group. The proportion with resolution in the dry-mopping alone group did not differ significantly from that in the control group at any time. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times. INTERPRETATION: Our finding that dry mopping plus topical and systemic antibiotics is superior to dry mopping alone contrasts with that of the only previous community-based trial in a developing country, though it accords with findings of most other trials in developed countries. The potential role of antibiotics needs further investigation. Further, similar trials are needed to identify the most cost-effective and appropriate treatment regimen for CSOM in children in developing countries. PIP: 524 children aged 5-15 years with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were enrolled in a study to determine the effectiveness of different treatment regimens. The subjects were from 145 primary schools in Kenya's Kiambu district. 201 children received dry mopping treatment, 221 received dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids, and 102 received no treatment. Participating schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial for taking non-trial antibiotics, with no evidence observed of differences in the timing of withdrawals between the two groups. At 16 weeks of follow-up, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, 22% of children who received dry mopping alone, and 22% of untreated children. Similar differences were observed at 8 and 12 weeks of follow-up. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% in the control group. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics. Medical treatment of peptic ulcers. East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Feb;58(2):84-9. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez-Martinez H.Cryopreservation of boar semen: II. Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau in boar semen frozen in mini -, maxi-straws and plastic bags. Acta Vet. Scand. 32, 455-461.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "August 1998: .". In: In proceeding of the 4th International, Iranian Statistical Conference IISC, TEHERAN, Iran. 1999; 1998. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The KRISP 94 lithospheric investigation of southern Kenya - the experiments and their main results.". In: In: Fuchs, K., Altherr, R., Muller, B. and Prodehl, C. (Editors). Special Issue: Structure and Dynamic Processes in the Lithosphere of the Afro-Arabian Rift System. Tectonophysics, 278: 121-147. Wiley Interscience; 1997. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-Based Medical Diagnostic Decision Assistant.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 114-123. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2004.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra HO.Ear, nose and throat problems in developing countries.East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):1-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):1-3. MEDICOM; 1990. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Institutional and organisational requirements for implementing the Livestock Identification and Traceability System in Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, J M Gathuma, G Muchemi, W Ogara, N Maingi, W Maritim* and B Moenga* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya   Abstract Livestock Identification and Traceability Systems (LITS) contribute to reduction, control or eliminated safety scares that result from transbounadry diseases outbreaks.  Recent studies on LITS in Kenya have been focused on testing  innovative technology, information and traceability system management, and examining the determinants for effective implementation. This paper analyzes the strengths and limitations of the operating a LITS institutional and organisational mechanisms in Kenya.   The result revealed that a disarticulated intitutional and organisational environment was the main constraint to effective implementation of LITS.  It proposes that for successful implemenation, a regional approach covering multiple countries, substantial private sector involvement and intensive stakeholder education are essential. Keywords: Institutional and organisational mechanisms, livestock identification, traceability  
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples.". In: Journal. African Journal of Microbiology Research; Submitted.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ngugi N, Mcligeyo S.O., Kayima J.K.:The emergency treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellular gradient in patients with renal failure - effects of various therapeutic approaches. East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere A.O., Mkhandi S.H. and P. Willems (2006): At Site Food Frequency Analysis for the Nile Equatorial basins. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31 (2006) 919.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1996). Knobbed acrosome and swollen in-piece defects associated with sub fertility in a ram. Zim. Vet. J. 28, 6 - 15.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1996. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense (Meisn) Part II: More surface and Internal Tissue Flavonoid Aglycones.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethip. (1992, 6(2) 119-122.; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "24th May, 2007 .". In: Taifa Hall, University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
n/a
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "W O Ogara and J W Thaiya 2005. Problems of Public health importance associated with irrigation. Presented at the Third Biennial Conference of the Veterinary Medicine. UoN in November 2004.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "A HAND BOOK ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O., Cameron J.S., Sacks S.: Improved survival inlupus nephritis in the modern era (1979-1989) using only oral corcosteroids and azethiprine as maitenance therapy. African Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 211-219 1995.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 211-219 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2002): Quality control of rainfall data Proceedings of pre-forum capacity building training workshop for the Great Horn of Africa (GHA), 20th January to 17th February, 2002, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "The Poverty of Africa's Position at the Climate Change Convention Negotiations.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 2001. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O., Patel, J.H. Kiere, S.M. and Mwangi, L. (1985).Massive obstructive urothiasis in a bull used for Artificial Insemination. Vet. Rec.117, 664 - 666.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1985. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.The need for animal source foods by Kenyan children. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3936S-3940S. Review.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Thematic geological map of the Lake Basin area. In Natural Resources Atlas for Lake Basin Development Authority (LBDA).". In: Published by the Regional Center in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing. 2p. Wiley Interscience; 1986. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
O PROFORINDADA. "Focal paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis preceding the development of steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. A. M. Adam, and D.A.O. Orinda, J. Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959.". In: Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 1986; 49: 957- 959. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1986. Abstract
Dept. of Human Pathol., Univ. of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 3180436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Ethnicity in the Electoral Process: The 1992 General Elections in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Political Science Vol. 2 No. 2,pp. 41-69. IPPNW; 1997. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, "Public Enterprise in Kenya: What Works, What Doesn't Work? and Why?" by Barbara Grosh.". In: African Urban Quarterly, Vol.7, Nos. 1 and 2 February and May.; 1992. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, and A O Nyangwara 2001. Requisite hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) for quality control in fish trade. Berlin Alumni Networks website.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Nitric oxide–sources, evolution and potential biological and clinical relevance. East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb;71(2):73-4. No abstract available.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05).
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Pharmacology of beta adrenoreceptor blocking agents. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. E Afr Med J; 1993. Abstract

Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Louwesweg 1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "A study of the efficacy and safety of albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of intestinal helmenthiasis in Kenyan children less than 2 years of age. East Afr Med J . 1989 Mar; 66 ( 3 ): 197-202 . PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Pamba HO, Bwib.". In: East Afr Med J . 1989 Mar; 66 ( 3 ): 197-202 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1989. Abstract

One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.

PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Microprobe and X-ray diffraction analyses of the major minerals from Jombo Hill alkaline rocks, Kenya.". In: UUDMP Research Report No. l0.20p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Centre-Periphery Linkages in the Development Process: An Assessment of the Kenyan Experience," in F. Kiros, (ed.), Challenging Rural Poverty: Experiences in Institution-Building and Popular Participation for Rural Development in Eastern Africa (Trenton, .". In: Agricultural Administration (Essex) Vol. 19, No. 3,pp. 123-137. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1997. The Ecology and Biology of saiga (Siaga tatarica Linneaus) found in the Pricaspian Steppe of Kalmwyiky. The Kenya Veterinarian 15: 50-54.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi P.N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S., Mogere R. Vascular access for Haemodialysis. East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1991. Abstract
In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups.
O O, EM N. "Solar retinopathy: a case report." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):30-31.joecsa_july_2017.pdf
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Initial experience with continuous Ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Viru infection in a developing country. Peritoneal dialysis International 12(2): 267-268, 1992.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
In a one year period (March 1990 to March 1991) the pattern of diseases in geriatric patients (over 60 years of age) admitted to the medical wards at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) was studied. In all, there were 1296 patients (M:F = 1.7:1) in this age group forming 11.5% of all admissions during the study period. 1008 (77.8%) of the geriatric patients were between 60 and 79 years of age. Most of the admissions (86.4%) were first admissions. The mean number of diseases per geriatric patient was 1.4. Hypertension and Cardiomyopathy were the commonest single diseases recorded, making up 43.9% of all diseases in this patient population. The commonest neurological diagnosis was stroke, which occurred in a setting of hypertension or cardiomyopathy in all the patients in whom it was diagnosed. The mean duration (+/- 2SD) of stay in the hospital in this patient population was 43 (+/- 19) days. Eighty eight (6.8%) of the patients died, the commonest cause of death being heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or hypertensive heart disease. It is concluded that geriatric patients form a sizeable proportion of our medical admissions and that a large proportion suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is thus recommended that further studies be carried out on the pattern of diseases in such patients and optimal management strategies for their ailments be outlined.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Special Rural Development Programme (SRDP): An Assessment," in East African Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, March 1976.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1976. Abstract

Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya. Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M.PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Relativistic Sum-rules for Quantum Dielectric Tensor II; Radiation Effect; ).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993.
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Identification of determinants of infant mortality in Rwanda using a shared frailty model.". In: European Journal of Scientific Research. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
"
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Koech DK. Outcome of intervention with or without low dose oral interferon alpha in thirty-two HIV-1 seropositive patients in a referral hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS71-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS71-6. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Thirty two critically ill patients were admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with a diagnosis of HIV-1 seropositivity on both ELISA and Western Blot between October 1989 and January 1990. Sixteen of the patients received low dose oral interferon alpha while the other 16 patients received intensive supportive management alone. Of the 16 patients who received low dose interferon alpha, 14 were discharged from the Hospital within 2 to 4 weeks of admission in a reasonable state of health while two of the patients died after 18 and 42 days from the time of admission. All the 16 patients who received intensive supportive management alone were dead within 4 weeks of entering the Hospital, their mean (+/- SD) stay after admission being 8.6 +/- 6.8 days. These results suggest that low dose oral interferon alpha may be of value in the care of critically ill HIV-1 seropositive patients.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Aboud, A. A., K. O. Farah, and W. N. Ekaya 2000.Towards sustainable pastoral productions in Eastern Africa: Approaches, Constraints, and prospects.". In: Proceedings of a regional workshop of the Pastoral Information Network Programme (PINEP) held at the Kenya College of Communications Technology, Mbagathi, Nairobi, Kenya, 4th . Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection. East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1999. Selection of a appropriate model for the interpretation of time-domain airborne electromagnetic data for geological mapping,.". In: Exploration Geophysics 29, 107-110. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1999. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Fitzgerald DW, Wasunna A. Away from exploitation and towards engagement: an ethical compass for medical researchers working in resource-poor countries. J Law Med Ethics. 2005 Fall;33(3):559-65. No abstract available.". In: Law Med Ethics. 2005 Fall;33(3):559-65. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, P,O, Box 43640, Nairobi, Kenya. sekela_mwakyusa@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: The structured admission form is an apparently simple measure to improve data quality. Poor motivation, lack of supervision, lack of resources and other factors are conceivably major barriers to their successful use in a Kenyan public hospital setting. Here we have examined the feasibility and acceptability of a structured paediatric admission record (PAR) for district hospitals as a means of improving documentation of illness. METHODS: The PAR was primarily based on symptoms and signs included in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) diagnostic algorithms. It was introduced with a three-hour training session, repeated subsequently for those absent, aiming for complete coverage of admitting clinical staff. Data from consecutive records before (n = 163) and from a 60% random sample of dates after intervention (n = 705) were then collected to evaluate record quality. The post-intervention period was further divided into four 2-month blocks by open, feedback meetings for hospital staff on the uptake and completeness of the PAR. RESULTS: The frequency of use of the PAR increased from 50% in the first 2 months to 84% in the final 2 months, although there was significant variation in use among clinicians. The quality of documentation also improved considerably over time. For example documentation of skin turgor in cases of diarrhoea improved from 2% pre-intervention to 83% in the final 2 months of observation. Even in the area of preventive care documentation of immunization status improved from 1% of children before intervention to 21% in the final 2 months. CONCLUSION: The PAR was well accepted by most clinicians and greatly improved documentation of features recommended by IMCI for identifying and classifying severity of common diseases. The PAR could provide a useful platform for implementing standard referral care treatment guidelines. PMID: 16857044 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC1555611
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Management of chronic pain: practical therapeutics. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jul;59(7):429-34. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jul;59(7):429-34. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, G. O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Transition, Convergence and Constancy in Radiused Entry Cross-Bored Cylinders Trans. Canadian Society of Mechanical Engineers 28 (2B) (2004) p 343-353.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2004. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for classical Plasmas in a Magnetic Field; Presented at .". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1987.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the role of diuretics in current medicine. East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):656-8. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Sep;60(9):656-8. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O MROUKOKENNEDY. "May, 1993: "The Implication of Social Change for Gender Relations in Kenya". Published in Gender: Between family & State, VENA, 1993.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1993. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo, S.O. and Otieno, L.S.: Complication seen in patients undergoing intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital in the period 1984 - 1986. East African Medical Journal 658(3): 147-154, 1988.". In: East African Medical Journal 658(3): 147-154, 1988. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Olukoye G.A. and R.O. Mosi (2002). Non-Genetic causes of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield among Holstein-Friesian herds in Kenya.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. 25(2002):18-23. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Related Articles, Links Diarrhoeal diseases in preterm neonates. East Afr Med J. 1990 Apr;67(4):221-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Apr;67(4):221-2. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi. To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age. PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Gitau W. Cushing's syndrome in Africans. East Afr Med J. 1980 Mar;57(3):174-7. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Mar;57(3):174-7. E Afr Med J; 1980. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kokwaro GO, Kwasa TO, Indalo AA, Kibwage IO.Steady-state anticonvulsant drug levels in epileptic patients. East Afr Med J. 1996 Oct;73(10):679-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 May;73(5):323-6. uon; 1996. Abstract
Steady state concentrations of three anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine) were measured in plasma samples from fifteen patients (eight males and seven females; ages: 13-49 years; body weights: 44-70 kg), attending the outpatient Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. In addition, total protein and albumin levels were measured in plasma from patients taking phenytoin. Total protein levels were normal (range: 6.3-7.6 g/dl) in all patients except in one patient (10.7 g/dl). Albumin levels were also normal (range: 3.7-4.1 g/dl) in all patients except one (25.4 g/dl). One patient on phenobarbitone and three patients on phenytoin had no detectable drug levels in their plasma. In the remainder, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine steady state concentrations were 8.7-21.1 mg/L (N = 8), 9.3-27.3 mg/L (N = 6) and 10-19.7 mg/L (N = 5), respectively. The unbound fraction of phenytoin in plasma (fu) was normal(approximately 0.1) in six patients, but relatively high (0.2) in one patient. Most patients in the study complied with the prescribed treatment and their epilepsy was controlled. Cases where drug levels were undetectable probably arose from a lack of money to purchase all prescribed medicines rather than deliberate non-compliance. Routine monitoring of anticonvulsant drug levels may improve management of epileptic patients.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Status of Materials Testing Equipment in Kenya" Presented at Seminar on Continuing Education of Engineers, University of Nairobi (1986).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1986. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics treatment of gout. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):151-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):151-5. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O. Articial Insemination in Pigs.". In: A paper presented at . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "Owino J., N. J. Muthama & S. Marigi (2004): .". In: J. African Society for Biomathematics, Series1, pp 133 . 1999; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Neotectonics and stress pattern in Africa.". In: In: Bormann, P. (Editor). Regional International Training Course Volume (1997) on Seismology and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Scientific Technical Report STR 98/05. Potsdam. 177-181. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Erick Ayienga, Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, William Okello-Odongo, Ann Now.". In: Second Annual International conference on sustainable capacity in developing countries - SREC06, AUGUST 6-9, 2006, MAKERERE UNIVERSITY, KAMPALA, UGANDA. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2006.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra, H. Complications following inferior turbinectomy in thirty-four patients.". In: East African Medical Journal,1995; 72: 101, 1995. MEDICOM; 1995. Abstract

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) are disappointing and uncertain, especially in developing countries. Because CSOM is the commonest cause of hearing impairment in children in these countries, an effective method of management that can be implemented on a wide scale is needed. We report a randomised, controlled trial of treatment of CSOM among children in Kenya; unaffected schoolchildren were taught to administer the interventions. METHODS: We enrolled 524 children with CSOM, aged 5-15 years, from 145 primary schools in Kiambu district of Kenya. The schools were randomly assigned treatments in clusters of five in a ratio of two to dry mopping alone (201 children), two to dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids (221 children), and one to no specific treatment (102 children). Schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. The primary outcome measures were resolution of otorrhoea and healing of tympanic membranes on otoscopy by 8, 12, and 16 weeks after induction. Absence of perforation was confirmed by tympanometry, and hearing levels were assessed by audiometry. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial because they took non-trial antibiotics. There was no evidence of differences in timing of withdrawals between the groups. FINDINGS: By the 16-week follow-up visit, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% (95% CI 42-59) of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, compared with 22% (14-31) of those who received dry mopping alone and 22% (9-35) of controls. Similar differences were recorded by the 8-week and 12-week visits. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% (10-21) in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% (5-20) in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% (3-23) in the control group. The proportion with resolution in the dry-mopping alone group did not differ significantly from that in the control group at any time. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times. INTERPRETATION: Our finding that dry mopping plus topical and systemic antibiotics is superior to dry mopping alone contrasts with that of the only previous community-based trial in a developing country, though it accords with findings of most other trials in developed countries. The potential role of antibiotics needs further investigation. Further, similar trials are needed to identify the most cost-effective and appropriate treatment regimen for CSOM in children in developing countries. PIP: 524 children aged 5-15 years with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were enrolled in a study to determine the effectiveness of different treatment regimens. The subjects were from 145 primary schools in Kenya's Kiambu district. 201 children received dry mopping treatment, 221 received dry mopping with topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroids, and 102 received no treatment. Participating schools were matched on factors thought to be related to their socioeconomic status. 29 children were withdrawn from the trial for taking non-trial antibiotics, with no evidence observed of differences in the timing of withdrawals between the two groups. At 16 weeks of follow-up, otorrhoea had resolved in a weighted mean proportion of 51% of children who received dry mopping with antibiotics, 22% of children who received dry mopping alone, and 22% of untreated children. Similar differences were observed at 8 and 12 weeks of follow-up. The weighted mean proportions of children with healing of the tympanic membranes by 16 weeks were 15% in the dry-mopping plus antibiotics group, 13% in the dry-mopping alone group, and 13% in the control group. Hearing thresholds were significantly better for children with no otorrhoea at 16 weeks than for those who had otorrhoea, and were also significantly better for those whose ears had healed than for those with otorrhoea at all times.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Sindani I.S, McLigeyo S.O: Prevention and control of tuberculosis: a review. African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4 (1): 15-19, 1997.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4 (1): 15-19, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

O DROPEREALFRED. "Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region . Join Africa-Asia workshop on Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change, a UNEP draft report, Huahin, Thailand; 16-18 October 2007.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and Phillipa, Chengeta (1998). Loose sperm head defect in a dorper ram. Zim. Vet. 27, 105 - 118.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1998. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The late Proterozoic Yatta Shear Zone: A possible lateral ramp extending across the Kenya Rift.". In: In Opiyo-Aketch (Editor): Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya Publication. 69-77. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "7th March, 2007 .". In: United Nations Centre for Regional Development, AICAD, Juja, Kenya.; 2007. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Prospects And Constraints Facing Women Small-Scale Dairy Farmers In Vihiga District, Western Kenya.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2006. Abstract
One of the major constraints to increased dairy production is lack of adequate feed. The Government of Kenya has encouraged the development of forage technology for adoption to address this constraint. The low adoption has been due to inappropriate technologies and cost of forage production. Data used in the analysis were collected from farmers in Vihiga and Sabatia division of Vihiga District, Western Kenya. Both on-farm experimental and formal survey data were utilized. A sample of 180 farmers was randomly selected using systematic sampling techniques. Cost Benefit analysis was done using Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR) and Net Present Value (NPV) while regression analysis techniques were used to estimate optimal nutrient levels.   The results of the Cost-Benefit analysis showed most forage technologies were economically viable to adopt. Farmers also ranked highly forage technologies with high economic returns. Based on these findings, research and extension of forage use should emphasise evaluation of forage production technologies as an aid to increasing dairy production and surplus stock food for sale.   Key Words:    Forage technology, Nutrients, Maragoli People, Economic Returns, Smallholder Dairy, Zero Grazing.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "2ND EDITION OF "AN OUTLINE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in a patient with end-stage renal disease following radiotherapy and surgery for transitional cell carcinoma. Nephron. 1996;74(2):495-6. No abstract available.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O., Awuor, V.O., Kooke, S.O. and W.O. Omoto (2003): Impact of rainfall variability on water resources management: case study in Kitui district, Kenya. Proceedings of JACs East Africa Workshop: Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, 15 May 2003.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no1, (2003). A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2003. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "With Adams Oloo "Pluralist Politics and Democratization in Kenya: Prospects and Obstacles," in A. Bujra and S. Adejumobi (eds.), Democracy, Civil Society and Governance in Africa, New Jersey: Africa World Press.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2001. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1987). The repeat-breeder syndrome in cattle: A functional approach to its causes,diagnosis and clinical management.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1987. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Whaley SE, Sigman M, Neumann C, Bwibo N, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Alber S, Murphy SP. he impact of dietary intervention on the cognitive development of Kenyan school children. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3965S-3971S.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3965S-3971S. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Abstract volume.". In: (Editor). IGCP Project 236 Conference of Gondwana Fragments. Nairobi, Kenya, 1989. UNESCO/IUGS. Wiley Interscience; 1989. Abstract
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O PROFORINDADA. "Cholelithiasis in the Kenyan African. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):656-60.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):656-60. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1990. Abstract
A prospective and retrospective review of 20 cases of cholelithiasis diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and June 1989 was done. Females were more often affected (6 times) than their male counterparts. 94% of the females were parous with a mean parity of 5.6. Most patients were in the 4th decade at the time of diagnosis. Qualitative analysis for gall-stones showed evidence of cholesterol in all stones analysed with calcium being detected in only one female patient.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation for Good Governance and Development in Africa: A Conceptual Overview," in Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 21, No. 1. Spring 2000, pp. 3-22.". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 2000. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""The Impact of the Cold War on Regional Security: The Case of Africa", in The United States and Africa: From Independence to the End of the Cold War, eds.". In: Macharia Munene, J.D. Olewe Nyunya and Korwa Odar, Nariobi: East African Educational Publishers pp.65-83.; 1995. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Tetracycline residue levels in cattle meat from Nairobi slaughter houses in Kenya. The Korean Society of Veterinary Science. J. Vet. Sci. 2 (2), 97-101.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Gromerular diseases in Kenya-another look at diseases characterised by nephrotic proteinura. Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Nov;1(4):185-190.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Renal biopsies were evaluated in 422 patients with nephrotic syndrome at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 1982 and 1993. Three hundred and fifty five (84.1%) of the patients were less than 30 years old (range: 7 months to 66 years; mean=SD: 28.4 - 9.2 years). The commonest histological lesions were mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (25.1%), minimal change nephropathy (17.5%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (15.2%). Poststreptococcal aetiology was implicated in diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis while use of skin lightening cosmetics appeared to play a role in the aetiology of minimal change nephrophathy in females. No aetiological role was apparent for hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, malarial or schistosomal infection. All patients with minimal change nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis were treated with steroids and/or cytotoxics with a variable response.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1976): Control of infectious agents exclusively transmitted by the venereal route with particular reference to Vibrio fetus. Dissertation for Partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of D.P.V.M., Royal Veterinary and Agricultural .". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1976. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N. O Bwibo Diarrhoea including Oral Dehydration Therapy. Chapter 28 In: Health care of women and Children in Developing countries.Editors: Helen Wallace and Kanti Girii third Party Publishing Company Oakland, California 1990. Pg. 327-333.". In: Helen Wallace and Kanti Girii third Party Publishing Company Oakland, California. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1990. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles.

This study explored the extent to which cognitive competence in 5-yr old Kenyan children was associated with earlier nutritional factors, family conditions and toddler characteristics. Food intake during the 18th-30th mths and physical stature at 30 mths were associated with cognitive skills at 5 yrs. Measures of family background, abilities of the child as a toddler and current schooling were also associated with cognitive abilities at 5 yrs. These variables influenced development independently, so that later cognitive competence was best predicted by a combination of earlier nutritional, family and toddler characteristics.

PMID: 1903401 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Distribution of trace elements and their petrogenetic significance in the Jombo Hill alkaline rocks, Kenya.". In: UUDMP Research Report No. 10. 14p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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O PROFORINDADA. "Activirale Aktivitat von Inhaltastoffen der Composite Echinacea purpurea.D.A.O. Orinda, et al Arrneim. Forsch. (Drug Res.) 23, 1119-1120 (1973).". In: (Drug Res.) 23, 1119-1120 (1973). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1973. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Kenya: Two Decades of Decentralisation Efforts," in African Administrative Studies (Tangier) No. 26, pp.133-161.". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1986. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1998. Animals, Husbandry, Utilization and the Environment. Proceedings of Environment Litigation Workshop, Mombasa 1998: 14 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1998. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "S.O. McLigeyo, J.K. Kayima Evolution of nephrology in East Africa in the last seventy years .". In: East African Medical Journal, 70(6): 362 - 368; 1993. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno MR, McLigeyo SO, Kigondu CS, Rogo KO.Menstrual disorders in patients with chronic renal failure. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):6-9.". In: Bri. Med. J. 307: 802-803, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Kofi-Tsekpo, Ellison RH, Mugambi M. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio in salt substitute and its putative significance in essential hypertension. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):507-14. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jul;62(7):507-14. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "N .O Bwibo Tuberculosis: Chapter 14 In: child Health in Tropics Editor: D B Jelliffee, fifth Edition pp 135-147. Edward Arnold Publishers, 1985.". In: Edward Arnold Publishers. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Role of Technical Assistance in National Development: The Case of Kenya," in Y. Tandon, (ed.), Technical Assistance Administration in East Africa (Uppsala: Dag Hammarksjold Foundation, 1973).". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1973. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Plasmas in a Magnetic Field; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 27, 835 (1998).". In: Int. J. Theor. Phys. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
O M’ligeyoS. " Emerging alternatives to autologous blood transfusions. ." East African Medical Journal . 2002;78(1):561-563.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1981 Veterinary Sanitary Characteristics of poultry meat in Stenorol (coccidiostat tests Msc. Thesis, Moscow, 1981.).". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Koech DK. Potassium supplementation versus bendrofluazide in mildly to moderately hypertensive Kenyans. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1991 Mar;17(3):504-7.". In: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1991 Mar;17(3):504-7. E Afr Med J; 1991. Abstract
Eighty-four consecutive black patients who had confirmed but untreated hypertension participated in a double-blind randomized clinical trial involving potassium supplement (64 mmol/day) versus bendrofluazide (10 mg/day). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the 42 patients receiving potassium supplementation (group A) decreased from a mean (+/- SD) of 108 +/- 3 to 88 +/- 4 mm Hg (p less than 0.001; paired t test) after 28 weeks of medication. DBP of the 42 patients receiving bendrofluazide (group B) decreased from a mean of 108 +/- 2 to 84 +/- 4 mm Hg (p less than 0.001; paired t test). There was no statistically significant difference between the magnitude of decrease in DBP in group A and B patients (unpaired t test). No clinical, biochemical, or ECG abnormalities occurred in group A patients. Eight group B patients showed hyperuricemia; 4 patients in the same group had hyperglycemia and 3 other patients had hypokalemia. The results support the notion that potassium supplementation may be an effective therapeutic approach to mildly hypertensive blacks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Wachira, M.W., McLigeyo, S.O., Otieno L.S: Nutritional requirements in chronic renal failure and end stage renal disease. East African Medical Journal. 68(7): 567-575, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(7): 567-575, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Munga, D., Mwangi, S., Ong.". In: Editors, pp. 213-228, published by Taylor & Francis/Balkema, The Netherlands. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2006. Abstract
n/a
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. DRIRIMUGRACE, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Irimu G, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M.Developing and introducing evidence based clinical practice guidelines for serious illness in Kenya.Arch Dis Child. 2008 Sep;93(9):799-804.". In: Arch Dis Child. 2008 Sep;93(9):799-804. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO.Poisons information and treatment. East Afr Med J. 1983 Dec;60(12):825-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):201-2. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High Frequency Sum Rules for Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Plasma Dielectric Tensor; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 27, 835 (1988).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: first aid and therapy of poisoning from agricultural insecticides and herbicides. East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):335-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):335-8. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFORINDADA, A DRRAJABJAMILLA, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rajab JA, Waithaka PM, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Analysis of cost and effectiveness of pre-transfusion screening of donor blood and anti-malarial prophylaxis for recipients. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of malaria in donor units in a low and a high endemic region in Kenya and evaluate the cost effectiveness of recipient anti-malarial prophylaxis and pre-transfusion screening (using an automated method) as options to prevent post transfusion malaria. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks, Nairobi and its environs (National Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) a low malaria endemic region and western region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu) high malaria endemic region. SUBJECTS: All the donated units were included in the study for analysis, during the duration of study, from the two study sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of malaria in donor units in low endemic area (Nairobi) and high endemic area (Kisumu). Cost per case prevented for the two options, Option I Prophylactic administration of anti-malarial (sulfadoxine pyrimethamine SP) drugs to recipients, and Option II pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. RESULTS: A malaria prevalence of 0.67% was found in Nairobi and its environments (low endemic) and 8.63% for Kisumu and its environments (high endemic area). The cost analysis showed a cost per case prevented of Ksh.105 (US$1.4) adult, Ksh.52.5 (US$0. 69) and paediatric for the option of recipient prophylaxis using an SP based drug. The cost escalated to Ksh.592 (US$7.79) adult Ksh.444 (US$5.84) paediatric if the prophylaxis was upgraded to the recommended artemisinin derivative (ACT-artemisinin based combination) and for the option of pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique the cost was Ksh.2.08 (US$0.03). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malaria in donors showed the expected regional variation in the low and high endemic areas and was comparable to data obtained elsewhere. If malaria positive donor units were to be excluded from the national blood supply, an estimated 5% (compared to 1.3% for human Immunodeficiency virus, 3.6% for hepatitis B virus and 1.3% for hepatitis C virus) would be wasted. The cost per case prevented of transfusion-associated malaria is considerably higher for recipient antimalarial prophylaxis than pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. The cost escalates by five to seven times if the newer artemesinin based combination antimalarial drugs are adopted.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K.O., 1987. Agriculture, livestock production, and land use in North-Eastern Province of Kenya. 10pp.". In: Paper presented at N.E. Province cultural show symposium organized and hosted by Institute of African studies, University of Nairobi, June, 1987. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1987.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Notghi A, Anderton JL, Dick J.Acute renal allograft rejection: the role of monoclonal antibodies in treatment: experience with orthoclonal anti-T3 cell antibody. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):667-73. Review.". In: Nairobi Medical Journal 16(2): 28-32, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Hypertension: what is new about its management? East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Renal tuberculosis. A case report. Trop Geogr Med. 1970 Sep;22(3):377-80. Bwibo NO.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1970 Sep;22(3):377-80. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Solomon Thuo, Elisha T. O. Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo, Job scheduling in grid computing using simulated annealing. In the proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in N.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Non-Destructive Testing–Practical Applications" Presented at Seminar on Continuing Education of Engineers, University of Nairobi (1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Gitau W. Comparison of the antihypertensive effect of metipranolol, butizide and torrat in Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):867-71. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Nov;58(11):867-71. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.: Management of fertility problems in village herds of cattle in Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "J. O. Owino, C. Mwathi, Miheso M. O.". In: In Proceedings of the International Congress on Mathematics Instruction, ICMI-1, S. Africa. 1999; 2006. Abstract
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O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Steel CM, Ennis M, Levin AG, Wasunna A. The mitogenic response of cryopreserved human lymphocytes in a microculture system. Cytobios. 1977;18(70):89-99.". In: Cytobios. 1977;18(70):89-99. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1977. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Ground subsidence and its socio-economic implications on the population: A case study of Nakuru area in Central Rift Valley, Kenya.". In: Environmental Geology. 39(6), 567-574. Wiley Interscience; 2000. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Getao Katherine, Opiyo E. T. O. (2007). A Grid Service Matrix Model for Resource Scheduling in Grid Computing Environments.". In: 1st International Conference in Computer Science and Informatics, 5th . UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2007.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra HO.Ear, nose and throat/head and neck medical services in developing countries: challenges and future perspectives.East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):317-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):317-8. MEDICOM; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. Primary Health Care; .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, June 1987. James Murimi; 1987. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellur gradient in patients with renal failure: effect of various therapeutic approaches East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
Ten patients with acute and 60 with chronic renal failure (both groups having hyperkalaemia), were managed at Kenyatta National Hospital in the medical wards and Renal Unit between August, 1995 and January, 1996. They were divided into seven different treatment groups, each consisting of ten patients. Treatment A glucose 25g i.v. with insulin 10 units i.v., treatment B 50 mmol of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate infusion, treatment C 0.5mg of salbutamol i.v. in 50mls 5% dextrose, treatment D was a combination of treatments A and B, treatment E was a combination of treatment B and C, treatment F was a combination of treatments A and C while treatment G was a combination of treatments A and B and C. Serum potassium was measured, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours and 8 hours after treatment. Plasma glucose concentration was measured before treatment was given and 1 hour after in all patients. Electrocardiography was done before treatment on all patients and repeated 30 minutes and 1 hour after treatment for the patients with hyperkalaemic changes on the initial recording. All treatment modalities had satisfactory potassium lowering effects. Of the single therapeutic approaches, treatment A and C were equieffective, but better than treatment B (P < 0.001). Amongst the two regimen combinations, treatment D and F were more efficacious than treatment E and all the single therapeutic approaches (P < 0.001). Treatment G was the most efficacious in lowering serum potassium in this study. All treatment modalities had maximum serum potassium lowering effect at 1-2 hours. A fall in plasma glucose concentration was a notable feature of treatments A and D, but significant hypoglycaemia occurred in 20% of patients receiving treatment A and in none on treatment D. The ECG changes of hyperkalaemia did not correlate with serum potassium levels. The normalisation of hyperkalaemic ECG alteration occurred within the first 30 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, combination therapies for hyperkalaemia appear to be more efficacious than single therapeutic approaches. Inclusion of salbutamol seems to protect against insulin induced hypoglycaemia. The maximum potassium lowering effect is observed 1-2 hours of administration of either agents. The potassium reducing effect remains significant compared to baseline values even after 8 hours. If dialysis cannot be instituted early enough it seems reasonable to repeat treatment every 4-6 hours to sustain the effect. Repeated administration of glucose with insulin may not be safe because of the hypoglycaemic effect. Other single and combination therapies can theoretically be repeated regularly until dialysis is initiated although this requires further clinical evaluation.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Daniel Olago, Michael Marshall, Shem O. Wandiga*, Maggie Opondo, Pius Z. Yanda, Richard Kangalawe, Andrew Githeko, Tim Downs, Alfred Opere, Robert Kabumbuli, Edward Kirumira, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugambi, Eugene Apindi, Faith Githui,James Kathuri, Lydia Ola.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O OET, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Okello-Odongo W, Nowé A. "Game Theoretic Multi-Agent Systems Scheduler for Parallel Machines with Fixed Parameters." International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. 2008;Volume 1(Special Issue).
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Kusina, N.T., F. Tarwirei, H. Hamudi Kuwanda, G. Agumbah and J. Mukwena (2000). A Comparison of the effects of Progesterone sponges and ear implants, PGP2∝ and their combination on efficacy of Oestrus synchronization and fertility of Mashona goat do.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2000. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Rifting of the Continents:.". In: A keyproject of the International Lithospere Program. Tectonophysics, 236, 1-2. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract
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O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Insect Anti-feedant, Growth Inhibiting and Larvicidal Compounds from Rapanea melanphloes (Myrsinaceae).". In: Insect Science Application, 16 (2) pp. 163-166.; 1995. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "2ND EDITION OF "A HANDBOOK ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2006.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN, OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Okeyo, A.M. and R.O. Mosi (2001). Lactation characteristics of Dutch Friesian cows under semi-arid conditions of Kenya: 305-day milk yield and lactation length.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. 21-37. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2001. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Luta M.Kidney transplantation: recent medical experiences from the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1996 Sep;73(9):614-8.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Flow routing in river Yala using the Muskingum technique (revised).". In: African Academy Science publishers. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2004. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Role of NGOs in Fostering Development and Good Governance at the Local Level in Africa with a Focus on Kenya," in Africa Development, Vol. XXXIX, No. 4, 2004, pp. 19-55, CODESRIA.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2004. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "MacLaren A.P.C. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1988). Infertility in cattle in South-West Scotland caused by an .". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1988. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Grillenberger M, Neumann CG, Murphy SP, Bwibo NO, Weiss RE, Jiang L, Hautvast JG, West CE.Intake of micronutrients high in animal-source foods is associated with better growth in rural Kenyan school children. Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):379-90.". In: Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):379-90. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2006. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Petrology, geochemistry and evaluation of the heavy mineral deposits in Malindi and Uganga shore areas.". In: Marine Mining. Vol. 10, 337-351. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
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O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Mbiti MJ, Ayisi RK, Orinda DA. Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk: II. Effects on protein and bone metabolism.East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):627-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):627-30. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Kenyatta National Hospital, University of Nairobi, Kenya. We determined serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, total protein and albumin levels in a group of 66 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. We used these parameters as markers to study the effect of sodium supplementation on protein and bone metabolism in VLBW infants fed on their mothers' milk. 41 of the infants were supplemented with 3 mMol/kg/day sodium chloride for a duration of six weeks of postnatal life. The remaining group were fed only on their mothers' milk. Results indicated significantly increased serum levels of calcium (P < 0.01) in the non-supplemented group while inorganic phosphate and total protein levels showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in the supplemented group. Both groups had increased levels of osteoblastic activity accompanied by high rate of protein synthesis in the supplemented group compared to the non-supplemented one. These findings together with a significant difference in growth rate (P < 0.01) observed between the two groups indicate that sodium supplementation may have a significant effect on the rate of bone mineralization and protein synthesis in VLBW infants.

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""Legislation and the Proliferation of Small Arms in Kenya".". In: Human Security, Vol. 1 no. 8 , pp 16-27.; 2001. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Mosi R O, A M Okeyo, C O Ahuya, M A Okomo and W O Ogara, 2002. Herd structure and uses of small East African Zebu cattle in Lake Victoria Basin and Coastal Lowland of Kenya. (Bull. Hith. Prod. Afri.).". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O., Kungu A., Kayima J.K., Sitati S.M., Were A.j.: Glomerular disease in KEnya - Another look at the disease characterised by Nephrotic Proteinuria. African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 1(4): 185-191, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O. and Waghela, S. (1978). Isolation and characterization of Campyobacter biotypes in Kenya. Wld. Congr. Bint. Mexico pg 166 - 173.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1978. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Mineral resources of the Lake Victoria Basin - Proceedings of I.D.S.". In: Workshop on Lake Victoria Basin Development. Occasional Paper 34. 159-174. Wiley Interscience; 1979. Abstract
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O PROFORINDADA. "Beta-glucuronidase in human mammary carcinomas. East Afr Med J. 1977 Jun;54(6):314-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Jun;54(6):314-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1977. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""The Influence of International System on Public Administration in Africa," in R. B. Jain, (ed.), Bureaucratic Politics in the Third World (New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House).". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1989. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Disaster preparedness in the livestock industry in Kenya with respect to drought. In: The veterinary Profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary association/ Kenya Veterinary Association Joint Regional.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Mheta Koy, McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Waiyaki P.G., Urinary tract Infection in patients with short-term indwelling urinary bladder catheters. African Journal of Health Sciences V ol. 3(3):84-90, 1996.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences V ol. 3(3):84-90, 1996. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1996. Abstract
Significant asymptomatic bacteriuria is an important cause of pyelonephritis and gram negative septicaemia among certain predisposed individuals, such as diabetics. We investigated the incidence of asymptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) among our diabetic patients and the type and antibacterial sensitivity patterns of the organisms causing these UTIs. One hundred and thirty five patients submitted midstream urine specimens for culture. Fifteen patients had positive cultures showing the incidence of asymptomatic UTI to be 11.1%. There were ten female and five male patients with UTI. The commonest organism isolated was Escherichia coli at 40%. Gram negative bacilli made up 66.7% of the isolates. Isolates were poorly sensitive to the regularly available antibiotics-ampicillin (33% sensitive, cotrimoxazole (33% sensitive). Nitrofurantoin inhibited growth in 93% of the isolates. Other antimicrobials with over 80% sensitivity level included: gentamicin, ceftazidime, augmentin, cefuroxime and norfloxacin. They are expensive or require parenteral administration. The incidence of asymptomatic UTI is high among diabetics and although the organisms isolated are those usually isolated in UTIs, they are not that sensitive to the commonly available and antibacterial agents.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O. and Kayima J.K.: Evaluation of Nephrology in East Africa in the last seventy years - Studies and practice. East African Medical Journal 70(16): 260-266, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(16): 260-266, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a six month period at the Kenyatta National Hospital, 46 patients (30 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 22 healthy subjects have had a clinical and echocardiographic study of their cardiovascular systems. The patients with CRF were further classified as stable or in end stage renal disease (ESRD), the latter group requiring dialysis. Hypertension and circulatory congestion were the commonest clinical cardiovascular findings in patients with CRF. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine than the ones with stable CRF. Echocardiographically right ventricular size, left atrial size, aortic root diameter, left ventricular internal diameters, left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, ejection time and mitral and aortic peak flow rates were significantly higher in patients with CRF than in controls. In contrast, the circumferential fibre shortening and the ejection fraction were reduced in patients with CRF. Global left ventricular dysfunction was found in 47.8% of the patients. Using doppler flow studies, valvular incompetence was detected in a number of patients, mitral regurgitation being found in 84%.76% of the patients with CRF had varying degrees of pericardial effusion. The echocardiographic abnormalities and the pericardial effusions responded six weeks of haemodialysis in a variable manner.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Effects of chlorthalidone, oxprenolol, and their combination in hypertensive blacks: a randomized double-blind crossover study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Mar;13(3):465-70.". In: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1989 Mar;13(3):465-70. E Afr Med J; 1989. Abstract

One hundred twenty black patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the efficacy and tolerability of slow release oxprenolol versus chlorthalidone singly and in combination. Oxprenolol as monotherapy produced no effect on blood pressure as compared with placebo even after doubling the dose. Chlorthalidone as monotherapy produced a significant decrease in blood pressure (p less than 0.01). Combining oxprenolol with chlorthalidone yielded hypotensive effects in excess of those of either of the components given singly. Oxprenolol produced a significant decrease in plasma renin activity (PRA) whereas chlorthalidone produced a significant increase in PRA. These results indicate that a beta-blocking agent alone is ineffective in lowering blood pressure in hypertensive blacks, even when the dose is high. Oxprenolol may increase the hypotensive effect of chlorthalidone by counteracting the hypokalemic effect of the diuretic and by attenuating the diuretic-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Meme J. S., Hillma D., Hillman E., Macleod S., Bwibo N. O. University of Nairobi, Department of Paediatrics: The McGill Legacy Clin. Invest. Med 9: 14 1986.". In: Clin. Invest. Med 9: 14 1986. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1986. Abstract

No abstract available

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, P G Mbuthia, H Kaburi 1993. Fish pathogens isolated from fish species inhabiting L. Naivasha and aquaculture systems of Nyandarua District, Kenya. European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP) 5th International conference. Diseases of fish a.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1993. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Pharmacology of beta adrenoreceptor blocking agents. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. E Afr Med J; 1993. Abstract
Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Louwesweg 1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Mcligeyo, S.O. and Otieno, L.S. Diabetes ulcers - A clinical and bacteriological study. East African Medical Journal. 68(3) 204-209, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(3) 204-209, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in African patients. East Afr Med J. 1983 Aug;60(8):592-6. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Aug;60(8):592-6. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in strongly Magnetized Electron Gas; Kenya Journal of Science and Technology (A), 10 (1989).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Sharif SK, McLigeyo SO, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African. East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Sep;61(9):724-6. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K. O. 1989. Rehabilitation and development of arid lands in Kenya. How effective is the ASAL approach? p.35-39.". In: In: Proceedings of First symposium of University of Nairobi ASAL thrust and ICRAF held at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, December, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Nephrotic syndrome in the tropics. East African Medical Journal, 67 (6): 377-380, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal, 67 (6): 377-380, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1983. Geophysical investigations for kimberlite pipes in the greenstone belt of western Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences 1, 235-253. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1983. Abstract
n/a
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Mohammed K. Morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):539-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):539-42. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies (birthweight < 2000 gm) of adolescent (age < 20 years) and older mothers. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All babies weighing less than 2000 gm at birth whose mothers consented to the study had their gestational age verified using the Dubowitz scoring system. They were then followed up by daily clinical assessment until discharge, death or up to one month in the ward. The babies were divided into two groups according to their mother's age and then compared with respect to episodes of illness, duration of hospital stay, and overall outcome. RESULTS: One hundred and forty two babies were studied. Of these, 64 were born to adolescent mothers. Babies of the adolescent mothers tended to be more premature (p = 0.0174), be lower in weight (p = 0.0078), had more occurrences of respiratory distress and anaemia (probably reflecting their increased prematurity) and had frequent multiple morbidity events They also had longer hospital stay and they were more likely to die (57.7% compared to 42.3% of babies of older mothers). CONCLUSION: Low birthweight babies of the adolescent mothers were found to be more likely to have increased morbidity and adverse outcome compared to similar babies of older mothers.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Ogada T. Related Articles, Links Hyperprolactinaemic diabetes insipidus-like syndrome. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):156-62. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):156-62. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, M. Shamsuzzoha and J.T. Berry "A TEM and High Resolution Microstructural Characterization of the Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 in the T8 Temper Condition" ACEM-13: 13th. Conf. Australian Society for Electron Microscopy, Brisbane (1994).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Clinical significance of strongyloides in African children. J Trop Med Hyg . 1971 Apr; 74 ( 4 ): 79-81 . No abstract available. PMID: 5574874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: J Trop Med Hyg . 1971 Apr; 74 ( 4 ): 79-81 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1971. Abstract

No abstract available

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