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Forthcoming
Habwe J, Foundation KFJK. "The Ekegusii Determiner Phrase. Analysis in the Minimalist Programme. ." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. Forthcoming.
Submitted
Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Lee H, Mana S, Turrin BD, Fischer TP, Kianji G, Dindi E, Stamps DS. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. Submitted;12(6):1-31.
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Obiero JA, Mburu MN, Ndung’u BM, Waititu KK, Farah IO, Mwethera PG. "UniPron is A Fully Effective Non-hormonal Reversible Contraceptive in Baboon Model (Papio Anubis).". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of UniPron as a reversible contraceptive. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained before and after UniPron administration, cultured onto appropriate culture media and bacteria identification was done based on type of media used, Gram stain reactions, colony morphology and biochemical tests. Vaginal biopsy tissues were processed using paraffin wax method, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined under light microscopy to determine the effect of the product on vaginal tissues. The effect of UniPron on sperm was examined by mixing the product with electroejaculated spermatozoa in vitro at different concentrations. For efficacy studies, male baboons of proven fertility were mated with UniPron treated or untreated females of proven fertility during the fertile stages. Results All the five females (100%) that were treated with UniPron did not conceive and they regained total fertility when the treatment was stopped while all the controls conceived. At a concentration of 40%,UniPron completely immobilized spermatozoa in an in-vitro system. UniPron mechanism of action was by lowering the vaginal pH and on application in baboon, the pH was lowered for at least 3 h after which it went back to normal. Conclusions As we plan for a study to test UniPron as a microbicide to prevent STIs including HIV, our current study has established that this novel product is effective in contraception and harmless to vaginal tissues and vaginal microbial flora in a baboon model (Papio anubis).

Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "M.Sc. Project on Kenya's Domestic Export.". In: . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
de la Mata M, Magen C, Gazquez J, Utama MIB, Heiss M, Lopatin S, Furtmayr F, Fernández-Rojas CJ, Peng B, Morante JR, others. "Supplementary information of the manuscript entitled.". Submitted. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Chen W, Qiu Z-J, Shao H, Zhu H, Monserrat B, Fu D, Weng H. "Ultrafast Photo-induced Phase Transition in 2D MoTe2.". Submitted. Abstract
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In Press
JP E, J K, LW I, F H. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotherapthus wayi ." Journal of Insect Science . In Press.
2022
QURESHI ZAHIDA, Jamner A, Filippi V, Gwako G, Osoti A, Mehrtash H, Baguiya A, Bello FA, Compaoré R, Gadama L, Kim CR, Msusa AT, Tunçalp Ӧ, Calvert C. "Level and determinants of contraceptive uptake among women attending facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2022;156 Suppl 1:27-35. Abstract

To investigate the level and determinants of nonreceipt of contraception among women admitted to facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa.

Beydon N, Ferkol T, Harris AL, Colas M, Davis SD, Haarman E, Hogg C, Kilbride E, Kouis P, Kuehni CE, Latzin P, Marangu D, Marthin J, Nielsen KG, Robinson P, Rumman N, Rutter M, Walker W, Lucas JS. "An international survey on nasal nitric oxide measurement practices for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia." ERJ Open Res. 2022;8(2). Abstract

Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurements are used in the assessment of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), but recommendations for performing such measurements have not focused on children and do not include all current practices. To guide the development of a European Respiratory Society-supported technical standard for nNO measurement in children, an international online survey was conducted to better understand current measurement practices among providers involved in PCD diagnostics. 78 professionals responded, representing 65 centres across 18 countries, mainly in Europe and North America. Nearly all centres measured nNO in children and more than half performed measurements before 5 years of age. The test was often postponed in children with signs of acute airway infection. In Europe, the electrochemical technique was more frequently used than chemiluminescence. A similar proportion of centres performed measurements during exhalation against a resistance (49 out of 65) or during tidal breathing (50 out of 65); 15 centres used only exhalation against a resistance and 15 used only tidal breathing. The cut-off values used to discriminate PCD were consistent across centres using chemiluminescence analysers; these centres reported results as an output (nL·min). Cut-off values were highly variable across centres using electrochemical devices, and nNO concentrations were typically reported as ppb. This survey is the first to determine real-world use of nNO measurements globally and revealed remarkable variability in methodology, equipment and interpretation. These findings will help standardise methods and training.

Cohen AS, Campisano CJ, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Beck CC, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Feibel CS, Foerster V, Kingston JD, Lamb HF, Lowenstein TK, Lupien RL, Muiruri V, Olago DO, Owen BR, Potts R, Russell JM, Schaebitz F, Stone JR, Trauth MH, Yost CL. "Reconstructing the Environmental Context of Human Origins in Eastern Africa Through Scientific Drilling." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary SciencesAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2022. AbstractWebsite

Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Heng YY, Asad I, Coleman B, Menard L, Benki-Nugent S, Faridah H Were, Karr CJ, McHenry MS. "Heavy metals and neurodevelopment of children in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review." PLOS ONE. 2022;17(3).
Meng T, Shi M, Guo Y, Wang H, Fu N, Liu Z, Huang B, Lei C, Su X, Peng B, others. "Multifunctional Ag-coated CuO microbowl arrays for highly efficient, ultrasensitive, and recyclable surface-enhanced Raman scattering." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;354:131097. Abstract
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2021
Faris AA, Akuon PO, Kalecha VO. "BER Performance of SSK Sequence Modulation.". In: IEEE AFRICON 2021. Arusha, Tanzania; 2021.
Tanyi WN, Gachuno O, Odero T, Farquhar C, Kimosop D, Mayi A. "Factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral therapy among children and adolescents living with HIV in the Mbita Sub-County Hospital, Homa Bay- Kenya." Afr Health Sci. 2021;21(Suppl):18-24. AbstractWebsite

Adequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to the successful treatment of children and adolescents living with HIV. Continuous ART Adherence is the key factor for virologic suppression and stability of the immune system and prevents the occurrence of opportunistic infections. Children and adolescents struggle with adherence to ART for various reasons, including a poor psychosocial support system and clinic attendance.

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

Armah FA, Henneh IT, Amponsah IK, Biney RP, F M, J A, W A, Ahmed MA, Adokoh CK, Adukpo G, O AD, Gathumbi PK. "Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects and Subchronic Toxicity of the Aerial Parts of Psychotria ankasensis J.B.Hall (Rubiaceae) in Murine Models." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 5543320, 18 pages.armah_et_al_2021.pdf
Damali N, Diane K, Razak MH, Odour B, Odero T, Faguar. PGC. "Building and sustaining effective partnership for Training and New Generation of Global Health Leaders.". 2021.
Heylen D, Day M, Schunack B, Fourie J, Labuschange M, Johnson S, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akande FA, Nzalawale JS. "A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(14:576):1-20.
Makau MC, Powell J, Prendergast J, de Late PL, Morrison LJ, Gathura P, Fisch A. "Corrigendum to “Inverted CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle”[Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2021:235.
FZB B, E.N K, FG M. "Coverage of Dental services by Health Insurance Companies based in Nairobi, Kenya. ." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2021;12(2):939-945.
FW N, Ouyang K AA, J O'o, GW A, D Z. "Does Keloid Histology Influence Recurrence?" Am J Dermatol. doi. 2021;10(PMID: 33464754.). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by high recurrence rates, with few factors known to influence the same. We conducted a study to determine whether keloid histology influences recurrence. This was a prospective longitudinal study to determine whether histopathological parameters of keloid influence recurrence. Patients with keloids managed by surgical excision were followed up at Kenyatta National Hospital between August 2018 and July 2020. The excised keloids were processed for histology using hematoxylin,/eosin, Masson, and trichrome stains. The slides were analyzed for inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and capillary density using the hot spot technique and correlated to keloid recurrence. Postoperative follow-up was for a minimum of 1 year. A total of 90 patients with 104 keloids were recruited in the study. Overall keloid recurrence rate was 28.6%. There was a correlation between the absolute count of more than 50 per High power field of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and macrophages with recurrence of the disease. The sensitivity and specificity for the above parameters were lymphocytes 48% and 81%, macrophages 57% and 83%, mast cells 32% and 33%, and fibroblasts 41% and 91%, respectively. There was no correlation between mast cells and vascularity status with recurrence. Routine histology should, therefore, be performed to determine these parameters. Close monitoring and second-line therapy should be considered for patients with elevated macrophages and/or lymphocytes so as to reduce the risk of recurrence.

F M, F. M, J. N. "Effect of Employee reward, on employee performance at the Kenya Police service." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
C. M, F. M, M. M, m O. "Human Resources Management Practices and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2021;8(9).
C. M, F. M, M. MOM. "Human Resources Management Practices, Employee Competence and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
Wanja ND, Agnèse J-F, Ford AGP, Day JJ, Ndiwa TC, Turner GF, Getahun A. Identifying and conserving Tilapiine cichlid species in the twenty-first century. Springer; 2021.
Ndung'u M, Ngatia LW, Onwonga RN, Mucheru-Muna MW, Fu R, Moriasi DN, Ngetich KF. "The influence of organic and inorganic nutrient inputs on soil organic carbon functional groups content and maize yields." Heliyon. 2021;7(8):e07881.
FW N, K O, A A, J O, GW A. "Multiple Cytokines Elevated in Patients with Keloids: Is It an Indication of Auto-Inflammatory Disease?" J. Inflam Res. 2021;14(7):2465-2470. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Inflammation seems to play a major role in the pathophysiology of keloids. However, the role of cytokines in keloid pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated with only a few cytokines studied. We undertook this study to compare various cytokines in patients with keloids and a control group of patients without keloids nor family history of keloids so as to determine which cytokines are elevated and could thus be critical in keloid formation.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with keloids and a control group of those without. Patients in both groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Their plasma was analyzed for both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines using the Bio-flex ElisaTM method. Comparisons of cytokines means in both groups were done using Student's t-test.

Results: A total of 84 participants with 42 participants in each group were followed during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age ranges were similar with a mean of 29.6 years. A total of 28 cytokines were assayed. Statistically significant differences were noted in 15 of the 28 cytokines assayed with 11 being elevated more in keloid patients with only four in the non-keloid forming group. Among elevated cytokines in keloid patients were granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factors, interleukins 4, 6 and 13.

Conclusion: Patients with keloids have significantly higher cytokines compared with non-keloid forming patients. This finding suggests that keloid formation could be influenced by multiple inflammatory cytokines, an indication that the patient's immune system could play a role in keloid formation akin to auto-inflammatory disease.

Murungi MK, M.Muloi D, Muinde P, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akoko J, Fevre EM, Rushton J, Alarcon P. "The Nairobi Pork Value Chain, Mapping and Assessment of Governance, Challenges and Food Safety Issues." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.581376).
FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

FMA B, SW G. "Reconstruction of midface defect with temporalis myofascial pedicle flap: a review and case series." MedCrave Online Journal of Surgery (MOJ Surg.). 2021;2021; 9(1)(2021; 9(1)):15-19.
Aura C, Okronipa H, Olela P, Mojica L, Forella K, Otuo P, Bageant E, Obuya J, Onyango H, Ochieng J. "Small-scale fishing households facing COVID-19: The case of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2021.
K SARNA, I MURITHI, F OPONDO, S G. "A unique presentation of bilateral Kissing Molars and three-rooted Maxillary Premolars: A case report and review of literature." Clinical Case Reports Journal. 2021;2021; 9:e04679(2021; 9:e04679):2021; 9:e04679.
Simiyu MT, F Nyongesa, Aduda B, Birech Z, Mwebaze G, A., Sunnerhagen, Maitha G. "Use of Organic Binders to Enhance Defluoridation and Pathogen Removal Efficiency of Diatomaceous Earth-Based Ceramic Filters. ." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences . 2021;6:2313-3317.
Feldmann S, Gangishetty MK, Bravić I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Charge Carrier Localization in Doped Perovskite Nanocrystals Enhances Radiative Recombination." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2021;143:8647-8653. Abstract
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Peng B, Flager F, Barg S, Fischer M. "Cost-based optimization of steel frame member sizing and connection type using dimension increasing search." Optimization and Engineering. 2021:1-34. Abstract
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Peng B, Li Q, Feng X-Q, Gao H. "Effect of shear stress on adhesive contact with a generalized Maugis-Dugdale cohesive zone model." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2021;148:104275. Abstract
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Feldmann S, Gangishetty M, Bravić I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Exciton localization in doped perovskite nanocrystals enhances intrinsic radiative recombination.". In: Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Interfaces XX. Vol. 11799. International Society for Optics and Photonics; 2021:. Abstract
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Wu Y, Hua J, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Liu S, Peng B, Fang Y, Ning X, Nie Z, Li F, others. "High-throughput injection–acceleration of electron bunches from a linear accelerator to a laser wakefield accelerator." Nature Physics. 2021;17:801-806. Abstract
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Meng T, Zhang J, Wang H, Fu N, Wang M, Li W, Shi R, Peng B, Li P, Deng Z. "Multifunctional CuO-Coated Mesh for Wastewater Treatment: Effective Oil/Water Separation, Organic Contaminants Photodegradation, and Bacterial Photodynamic Inactivation." Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2021;8:2101179. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Faria Junior PE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Narrow-band high-lying excitons with negative-mass electrons in monolayer WSe2." Nature communications. 2021;12:1-8. Abstract
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Getange D, Bargul JL, Kanduma E, Collins M, Bodha B, Denge D, Chiuya T, Githaka N, Younan M, Fèvre EM, others. "Ticks and tick-borne pathogens associated with dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in northern Kenya." Microorganisms. 2021;9:1414. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Faria Junior PE, Bauer JM, Peng B, Monserrat B, Gmitra M, Fabian J, Bange S, Lupton JM. "Twist-angle engineering of excitonic quantum interference and optical nonlinearities in stacked 2D semiconductors." Nature communications. 2021;12:1-7. Abstract
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2020
Faris AA, Akuon PO. "Q-Function: Trapezoidal Rule Approximation and Application.". In: AEC 2020. Nairobi, University of Nairobi; 2020.
Bishop RP, Kappmeyer LS, Onzere CK, Odongo DO, Githaka N, Sears KP, Knowles DP, Fry LM. "Equid infective Theileria cluster in distinct 18S rRNA gene clades comprising multiple taxa with unusually broad mammalian host ranges." Parasit Vectors. 2020;13(1):261. Abstract

Equine theileriosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria equi and Theileria haneyi, affects equids throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a significant regulatory concern in non-endemic countries, where testing for equine theileriosis is required prior to horse import to prevent parasite entry. Within endemic areas, infection causes significant morbidity and mortality, leading to economic losses. No vaccine for equine theileriosis is available, and current drug treatment protocols are inconsistent and associated with significant side effects. Recent work has revealed substantial genetic variability among equine theileriosis organisms, and analysis of ribosomal DNA from affected animals around the world indicates that the organisms can be grouped into five distinct clades. As these diverse parasites are capable of infecting a wide range of both tick and mammalian hosts, movement of different equine Theileria species between endemic countries, and eventually into non-endemic countries, is a significant concern. Furthermore, the substantial genetic variability of these organisms will likely render currently utilized importation diagnostic tests unable to detect all equine Theileria spp. To this end, more complete characterization of these diverse parasites is critical to the continued global control of equine theileriosis. This review discusses current knowledge of equine Theileria spp. in this context, and highlights new opportunities and challenges for workers in this field.

Naidoo K, Kempen JH, Gichuhi S, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Leasher J, Limburg H, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2015, compared with prior years, and to estimate expected values for 2020.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting distance visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18), and also near vision impairment (

Bishop RP, Odongo D, Ahmed J, Mwamuye M, Fry LM, Knowles DP, Nanteza A, Lubega G, Gwakisa P, Clausen P-H, Obara I. "A review of recent research on Theileria parva: Implications for the infection and treatment vaccination method for control of East Coast fever." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:56-67. Abstract

The infection and treatment (ITM) live vaccination method for control of Theileria parva infection in cattle is increasingly being adopted, particularly in Maasai pastoralist systems. Several studies indicate positive impacts on human livelihoods. Importantly, the first detailed protocol for live vaccine production at scale has recently been published. However, quality control and delivery issues constrain vaccination sustainability and deployment. There is evidence that the distribution of T. parva is spreading from endemic areas in East Africa, North into Southern Sudan and West into Cameroon, probably as a result of anthropogenic movement of cattle. It has also recently been demonstrated that in Kenya, T. parva derived from cape buffalo can 'breakthrough' the immunity induced by ITM. However, in Tanzania, breakthrough has not been reported in areas where cattle co-graze with buffalo. It has been confirmed that buffalo in northern Uganda national parks are not infected with T. parva and R. appendiculatus appears to be absent, raising issues regarding vector distribution. Recently, there have been multiple field population genetic studies using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences and sequencing of antigen genes encoding targets of CD8+ T-cell responses. The VNTR markers generally reveal high levels of diversity. The antigen gene sequences present within the trivalent Muguga cocktail are relatively conserved among cattle transmissible T. parva populations. By contrast, greater genetic diversity is present in antigen genes from T. parva of buffalo origin. There is also evidence from several studies for transmission of components of stocks present within the Muguga cocktail, into field ticks and cattle following induction of a carrier state by immunization. In the short term, this may increase live vaccine effectiveness, through a more homogeneous challenge, but the long-term consequences are unknown.

Nthiwa D, Bett B, Odongo D, Kenya E, Wainaina M, Grazioli S, Foglia E, Brocchi E, Alonso S. "Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds raised in Maasai Mara ecosystem in Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2020;176:104929. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seroprevalence and identify risk factors of exposure among cattle herds raised in three zones with different types of land use and progressively distant from the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) boundary. We selected five villages purposively; two in zone 1 (area < 20 km from the MMNR), another two in zone 2 (area between 20-40 km away from the MMNR) and one in zone 3 (area >40 km away from the MMNR). A total of 1170 cattle sera were collected from 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus (FMDV) using two 3ABC-based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA kits. All sera samples were also screened for serotype-specific antibodies using Solid Phase Competitive ELISA (SPCE) kits (IZSLER, Italy). We targeted FMDV serotypes A, O, South African Territory [SAT] 1 and SAT 2, known to be endemic in East Africa including Kenya. Data on putative risk factors for FMD seropositivity in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level FMD seroprevalence based on the parallel comparison of the two anti-NSPs ELISA kits was 83.8 % (95 % CI; 81.8-85.9), and differed significantly across zones. Zone 1 had a higher seroprevalence than zones 2 and 3 (χ = 116.1, df = 2, p < 0.001). In decreasing order, the overall seroprevalences of FMDV serotypes A, SAT 2, O and SAT 1 were 26.3 % (95 % CI; 23.5-29.2), 21.4 % (95 % CI; 18.8-24.0), 21.2 % (95 % CI; 18.7-23.9) and 13.1 % (95 % CI; 11.1-15.3), respectively. The distribution of these serotypes differed significantly between zones (p < 0.05) except for SAT 2 serotype (χ = 0.90, df = 2, p = 0.639). Both serotypes A and O were more prevalent in zones 1 and 2 than zone 3 while serotype SAT 1, was higher in zone 3 compared to other zones. The results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (i.e., female), raising of cattle in zones 1 and 2 (areas < 40 km away from the MMNR); mixing of cattle from multiple herds at watering points, and pastoral husbandry practices, as significant predictors of animal-level FMD seropositivity. This study established that FMD seroprevalence declined with distance from the MMNR.

Yoshizaki M, Ramke J, Furtado JM, Burn H, Gichuhi S, Gordon I, Aghaji A, Marques AP, Dean WH, Congdon N, Buchan J, Burton MJ. "Interventions to improve the quality of cataract services: protocol for a global scoping review." BMJ Open. 2020;10(8):e036413. AbstractWebsite

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness globally and a major cause of vision impairment. Cataract surgery is an efficacious intervention that usually restores vision. Although it is one of the most commonly conducted surgical interventions worldwide, good quality services (from being detected with operable cataract to undergoing surgery and receiving postoperative care) are not universally accessible. Poor quality understandably reduces the willingness of people with operable cataract to undergo surgery. Therefore, it is critical to improve the quality of care to subsequently reduce vision loss from cataract. This scoping review aims to summarise the nature and extent of the published literature on interventions to improve the quality of services for primary age-related cataract globally.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the 'STOP SEPSIS!' WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." BMJ Open. 2020;10(5):e036338. Abstract

To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Ng'ang'a M, Ramke J, Kipturgo M, Gichuhi S, Kim M, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muraguri D, Gakuo E, Muthami L, Foster A. "Feasibility of a cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of peer-led health education interventions to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy in Kirinyaga, Kenya: a pilot trial." Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2020;6:102. AbstractWebsite

Background: People living with diabetes can reduce their risk of vision loss from diabetic retinopathy by attending screening, which enables early detection and timely treatment. The aim of this pilot trial was to assess the feasibility of a full-scale cluster randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase uptake of retinal examination in this population, as delivered within existing community-based diabetes support groups (DSGs).

Methods: All 16 DSGs in Kirinyaga county were invited to participate in the study. The first two groups recruited took part in the pilot trial. DSG members who met the eligibility criteria were recruited before the groups that were randomized to the two arms. In the intervention group, two peer educators were trained to deliver monthly DSG-based eye health education and individual telephone reminders to attend screening. The control group continued with usual DSG practice which is monthly meetings without eye health education. The recruitment team and outcome assessors were masked to the allocation. We documented the study processes to ascertain the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of the intervention. Feasibility was assessed in terms of clarity of study procedures, recruitment and retention rates, level of acceptability, and rates of uptake of eye examination. We set the target feasibility criteria for continuation to the main study to be recruitment of 50 participants in the trial, 80% monthly follow-up rates for individuals, and no attrition of clusters.

Results: Of the 122 DSG members who were assessed for eligibility, 104 were recruited and followed up: 51 (intervention) and 53 (control) arm. The study procedures were well understood and easy to apply. We learnt the DSG meeting days were the best opportunities for recruitment. The study had a high acceptance rate (100% for clusters, 95% for participants) and high follow-up and retention rate (100% of those recruited). All clusters and participants were analysed. We observed that the rate of incidence of eye exam was about 6 times higher in the intervention arm as compared to the control arm. No adverse unexpected events were reported in either arm.

Conclusions: The study is feasible and acceptable in the study population. The results support the development of a full-scale cluster RCT, as the success criteria for the pilot were met.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Ramke J, Kipturgo M, Kim M, Ng'ang'a M, Gichuhi S, Mutie D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Foster A. "Peer-support to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy: process evaluation of the DURE cluster randomized trial." Trop Med Health. 2020;48:1. AbstractWebsite

Background: There is limited evidence on how implementation of peer support interventions influences effectiveness, particularly for individuals with diabetes. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a peer-led health education package versus usual care to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: Our process evaluation used a mixed-method design to investigate the recruitment and retention, reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability, and context of implementation, and was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). We reviewed trial documents, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 10) and conducted four focus group discussions with participants in both arms of the trial. Three analysts undertook CFIR theory-driven content analysis of the qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed to provide descriptive statistics relevant to the objectives of the process evaluation.

Results: The trial had positive implementation outcomes, 100% retention of clusters and 96% retention for participants, 83% adherence to delivery of content of group talks (fidelity), and 78% attendance (reach) to at least 50% (3/6) of the group talks (dose). The data revealed that intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, individual characteristics, and process (all the constructs of CFIR) influenced the implementation. There were more facilitators than barriers to the implementation. Facilitators included the relative advantage of the intervention compared with current practice (intervention characteristics); awareness of the growing prioritization of diabetes in the national health policy framework (outer setting); tension for change due to the realization of the vulnerability to vision loss from DR (inner setting); a strong collective sense of accountability of peer supporters to implement the intervention (individual characteristics); and regular feedback on the progress with implementation (process). Potential barriers included the need to queue at the eye clinic (intervention characteristic), travel inconveniences (inner setting), and socio-political disruption (outer setting).

Conclusions: The intervention was implemented with high retention, reach, fidelity, and dose. The CFIR provided a valuable framework for evaluating contextual factors that influenced implementation and helped to understand what adaptations may be needed during scale up.

Sorensen JPR, Carr AF, Nayebare J, Diongue DML, Pouye A, Roffo R, Gwengweya G, Ward JST, Kanoti J, Okotto-Okotto J, van der Marel L, Ciric L, Faye SC, Gaye CB, Goodall T, Kulabako R, Lapworth DJ, MacDonald AM, Monjerezi M, Olago D, Owor M, Read DS, Taylor RG. "Tryptophan-like and humic-like fluorophores are extracellular in groundwater: implications as real-time faecal indicators.". 2020;10(1):15379. AbstractWebsite

Fluorescent natural organic matter at tryptophan-like (TLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF) peaks is associated with the presence and enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater. We hypothesise, however, that it is predominantly extracellular material that fluoresces at these wavelengths, not bacterial cells. We quantified total (unfiltered) and extracellular (filtered at < 0.22 µm) TLF and HLF in 140 groundwater sources across a range of urban population densities in Kenya, Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. Where changes in fluorescence occurred following filtration they were correlated with potential controlling variables. A significant reduction in TLF following filtration (ΔTLF) was observed across the entire dataset, although the majority of the signal remained and thus considered extracellular (median 96.9%). ΔTLF was only significant in more urbanised study areas where TLF was greatest. Beneath Dakar, Senegal, ΔTLF was significantly correlated to total bacterial cells (ρs 0.51). No significant change in HLF following filtration across all data indicates these fluorophores are extracellular. Our results suggest that TLF and HLF are more mobile than faecal indicator bacteria and larger pathogens in groundwater, as the predominantly extracellular fluorophores are less prone to straining. Consequently, TLF/HLF are more precautionary indicators of microbial risks than faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater-derived drinking water.

Folayan MO, Tantawi ME, Schroth R, Kemoli AM, Gaffar B, Amalia R, Feldens CA. "Association between environmental health, ecosystem vitality and early childhood caries." Front Pediatr. 2020;2020; 8:196.(2020; 8:196.):2020; 8:196.
Folayan M, Tantawi ME, Schroth RJ, Vukovic A. "Associations between early childhood caries and malnutrition and anaemia: a global perspective." BMC Nutrition J. 2020;2020:=;6:16.(2020:=;6:16.):2020:=;6:16.
Twala PP, Mitema A, Baburam C, Feto, N.A. "Breakthroughs in the discovery and use of different peroxidase isoforms of microbial origin." AIMS Microbiology. 2020;6(3):330-349.
Chalo DM, Kakudidi E, Origa-Oryem H, Namukobe J, Franke K, Yenesew A, Wessjohann LA. "Chemical constituents of the roots of Ormocarpum sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;93:104142. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
Phytochemical investigation of the roots of O. sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum Brenan & J.B. Gillett resulted in the isolation of three biflavonoids (trime-chamaejasmin, (+)- chamaejasmin, (+)-liquiritigeninyl-(I-3,II-3)-naringenin), one bi-4-phenyldihydrocoumarin (diphysin), one isoflavan (glabridin), one triterpenoid (3-O-acetyloleanoic acid) and a phytosterol (β-sitosterol). Compounds were identified by detailed MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were elucidated based on ECD spectra. The previously undescribed trime-chamaejasmin represents a bis-epi-chamaejasmenin C diastereomer. The chemophenetic significance is discussed in detail. The results contribute to the phytochemical characterization of the genus Ormocarpum and suggest a close chemophenetic relationship with other genera within the subfamily Papilionoideae. Furthermore, this report provides baseline …

Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle." BioMed research international. 2020;2020.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle." BioMed research international. 2020;2020.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines While Evaluating the Microbial Diversity in Feces of Tanzanian Small Holder Dairy Cattle." BioMed Research International. 2020;2020.
Mundo L, Porro LD, Granai M, Siciliano MC, Mancini V, Santi R, Marcar L, Vrzalikova K, Vergoni F, Stefano GD, Schivoni G, Segreto G, Noel Onyango, Nyagol JA, Amato T, Bellan C, Anagnostopoulos I, Falini B, Leoncini L, Lazzi S. "Correction: Frequent traces of EBV infection in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas classified as EBV-negative by routine methods: expanding the landscape of EBV-related lymphomas." Modern Pathology. 2020:10.1038/s41379-020-0608-y.
M G, L M, AU A, MC S, H R, V M, N O, J N, OA A, I M, S M, W W, M B, PP P, L Q-M, F F, S L, Leoncini L, T M. "Correction: Immune landscape in Burkitt lymphoma reveals M2-macrophage polarization and correlation between PD-L1 expression and non-canonical EBV latency program. ." Infect Agent & Cancer . 2020;15(39):doi:10.1186/s13027-020-00304-9.
A K, Folayan MO, Sabbah W, El Tantawi M, Ramos-Gomez F. "Country Profile of the Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Early Childhood Caries.". In: Country Profile of the Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Early Childhood Caries. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA.; 2020.
Mitema A, Feto NA, Rafudeen MS. "Development and Validation of TOF/Q-TOF MS/MS, HPLC Method and in-vitro Bio-Strategy for Aflatoxin Mitigation." Food Additives & Contaminants. 2020.
Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the ‘STOP SEPSIS!’ WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." British Medical Journal . 2020;10(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Design Independent sample precampaign/postcampaign through online and paper-based surveys available for over 30 days before campaign roll-out (pre) and after study data collection (post). Descriptive statistics were used for campaign recognition and exposure, and odds ratio (OR) and percentage change were calculated for differences in awareness, adjusting for confounders using multivariate logistic regression.

Setting and participants Healthcare providers from 398 participating facilities in 46 low, middle and high-income countries.

Intervention An awareness campaign to accompany GLOSS launched 3 weeks prior to data collection and lasting the entire study period (28 November 2017 to 15 January 2018) and beyond.

Main outcome measures Campaign recognition and exposure, and changes in awareness.

Results A total of 2188 surveys were analysed: 1155 at baseline and 1033 at postcampaign. Most survey respondents found the campaign materials helpful (94%), that they helped increase awareness (90%) and that they helped motivate to act differently (88%). There were significant changes with regard to: not having heard of maternal sepsis (−63.4% change, pre-OR/post-OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.68) and perception of confidence in making the right decisions with regard to maternal sepsis identification and management (7.3% change, pre-OR/post-OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06).

Conclusions Awareness raising campaigns can contribute to an increase in having heard of maternal sepsis and an increase in provider perception of confidence in making correct decisions. Offering the information to make accurate and timely decisions while promoting environments that enable self-confidence and support could improve maternal sepsis identification and management.

Mudavadi Patrick Ongadi, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Charles Gachuiri, Francis Namasake Muyekho, Lukuyu AB. "Effects of Season Variation on Water, Feed, Milk Yield and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in Smallholder Farms in Eastern Africa." Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2020.
Mundo L, Porro LD, Granai M, Siciliano MC, Mancini V, Santi R, Marcar L, Vrzalikova K, Vergoni F, Stefano GD, Schivoni G, Segreto G, Noel Onyango, Nyagol JA, Amato T, Bellan C, Anagnostopoulos I, Falini B, Leoncini L, Lazzi S. "Frequent traces of EBV infection in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas classified as EBV-negative by routine methods: expanding the landscape of EBV-related lymphomas." Modern Pathology . 2020.
Folayan MO, Tantawi ME, Vukovic A, Schroth R, Alade M, Mehebbi S, Al-Batayneh OB, Arheiam A, Amalia R, Gaffar B, Onyejaka NK, Daryanavard H, Kemoli A, Diaz ACM, grewal N. "Governance, maternal well-being and early childhood caries in 3-5 year olds." BMC Oral Health. 2020;2020; 20:166(2020; 20:166):2020; 20:166.
M G, L M, AU A, MC S, H R, V M, N O, J N, OA A, I M, S M, W W, M B, PP P, L Q-M, F F, S L, Leoncini L, T M. "Immune landscape in Burkitt lymphoma reveals M2-macrophage polarization and correlation between PD-L1 expression and non-canonical EBV latency program. ." Infectious Agents & Cancer . 2020;15(28).
E L, M K, S S, FH R, Kinuthia J, L S, W J, H A, A K, F E, John-Stewart, Fredricks DN, McClelland S. "Impact of preconception vaginal microbiota on women’s risk of spontaneous preterm birth: Protocol for a prospective case-cohort study." BMJ Open J. 2020;2020; 10:e035186(2020; 10:e035186):2020; 10:e035186.
StellaKiambi, Onono JO, Kang’ethe E, Aboge GO, Murungi MK, Muinde P, Akoko J, Momanyi K, Rushton J, Fevre EM, Alarcon P. "Investigation of the governance structure of Nairobi dairy value chain and its influence on food safety." . Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2020;28(4).
N A, Aly NM, Folayan MO, Mohebbi SZ, P H-H, S B, Y K, DA M, A R, I K, M M, AA S, OB A-B, M R, V P, S C, G G, A P, D M, A A, MA D, M N, P P, J K, Y C, JL C, E J, MM A, MM A, I H, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Knowledge of Dental Academics About the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Country – Online Survey." BMC Medical Education. 2020;2020; 20:399.(2020; 20:399.):2020; 20:399.
Jennings Mayo-Wilson L, M M, Yi G, Mak’anyengo, MO, Davoust M, ML M, Stefan Baral, Fred M. Ssewamala, Glass NE. "Lessons learned from using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to assess sexual risk behaviors among Kenyan young adults living in urban slum settlements: A process evaluation." PLoS ONE . 2020;15(4).
F.H W, Wafula AG, C LB, T. KK. "Levels of PM10 and PM2.5 and Respiratory Health Impacts on School-Going Children in Kenya. Journal of Health and Pollution." . Journal of Health and Pollution. 2020;10 (27) 200912(ISSN: 2156-9614).
Ouko E, Omondi S, Mugo R, Wahome A, Kasera K, Kiema JBK, Flores A, Adams EC, Kuraru S, Wambua M. "Modeling Invasive Plant Species in Kenya’s Northern Rangelands." Front. Environ. Sci.. 2020:1-10.
F EA, N MJ, K KC. "Openings Effects on the Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beams Loaded in Bending and Shear." Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 2020;Vol 10(2):5352-5360.
O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
Fardolo EK, Bulimo W, Aluora PO, Gachara G. "Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus among Voluntary Blood Donors in Nairobi County, Kenya: A Pilot Study." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2020;8:78-85. Abstractjbm_2020121415213791.pdf

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Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Fidelis Mukudi, Justus Mile, Lucy Chikamai, Aywa S. "Strong Commutativity of Unbounded Self-adjoint Operators on a Separable Hilbert space." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2020;10(8). AbstractWebsite

The unbounded Self-adjoint operators that strongly commute on a common dense subset of their domain
commute pointwise. When the operators commute pointwise on the same dense subset, there is to guarantee that
they will commute strongly. By imposing some conditions, we on the operators as well as the underlying space,
we get pointwise commuting unbounded operators that commute strongly. This article shows that by suitably
selecting two unbounded positive Self-adjoint operators with compact inverses we get a set of pointwise
commuting self-adjoint operators that commute on common core. then prove that it strongly commutes on the
same subspace.

FG W, CK O, RA N, GN M. "A Survey of Clinicians’ Preference, Opinion and Satisfaction with Radiological Reports at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy. 2020;7(1):1088.
Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
de Llano-Pérula C, Kihara E, Thevissen P, Nyamunga D, Fieuws S, Kanini M, Willems G. "Validating dental age estimation in Kenyan black children and adolescents using the Willems method. ." Medicine, Science and the Law. . 2020;(https://doi.org/10.1177/0025802420977379).
"Fungomeli M", Cianciaruso M, Zannini P, Githitho A, Frascaroli F, Fulanda B, Kibet S, Wiemers B, Mbuvi MT. "Woody plant species diversity of the coastal forests of Kenya: filling in knowledge gaps in a biodiversity hotspot." Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology. 2020;154(6):973-982.
Fu W, Zhao X, Wang K, Chen Z, Leng K, Fu D, Song P, Wang H, Deng L, Pennycook SJ, others. "An anomalous magneto-optic effect in epitaxial indium selenide layers." Nano Letters. 2020;20:5330-5338. Abstract
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Peng B, Feng X-Q, Li Q. "Decohesion of a rigid flat punch from an elastic layer of finite thickness." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2020;139:103937. Abstract
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Fei Y, Wu J, An H-W, Zhu K, Peng B, Cai J, Zhang Y, Li L-L, Wang H, Huang Z. "Identification of new nitric oxide-donating peptides with dual biofilm eradication and antibacterial activities for intervention of device-related infections." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2020;63:9127-9135. Abstract
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Feldmann S, Gangishetty M, Bravic I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Mechanism of carrier localization in doped perovskite nanocrystals for bright emission." arXiv preprint arXiv:2008.11495. 2020. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Chen W, Hou B, Qiu Z-J, Shao H, Zhu H, Monserrat B, Fu D, Weng H, others. "Sub-picosecond photo-induced displacive phase transition in two-dimensional MoTe2." npj 2D Materials and Applications. 2020;4:1-8. Abstract
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Al-Azawi A, Cenev Z, Tupasela T, Peng B, Ikkala O, Zhou Q, Jokinen V, Franssila S, Ras RHA. "Tunable and Magnetic Thiol–ene Micropillar Arrays." Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 2020;41:1900522. Abstract
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2019
F.M M, D.O M, Gitau. A.N. "Modelling and Prediction of Drying Kinetics in a Hybrid Solar Desiccant Drier.". In: Kenya Society of Environmental, Biological and Agricultural Engineers Annual Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019.
Gitao, C.G., Toroitich, K, Khalif, Field, C, Wario, S. Mass Livestock Deaths In EL-HADI Of North-Horr Sub-County, MARSABIT COUNTY. Nairobi: RPLP; 2019.marsabit_camel_deaths-paper_-1.docx
Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Attardo GM, Abd-Alla AMM, Acosta-Serrano A, Allen JE, Bateta R, Benoit JB, Bourtzis K, Caers J, Caljon G, Christensen MB, Farrow DW, Friedrich M, Hua-Van A, Jennings EC, Larkin DM, Lawson D, Lehane MJ, Lenis VP, Lowy-Gallego E, Macharia RW, Malacrida AR, Marco HG, Masiga D, Maslen GL, Matetovici I, Meisel RP, Meki I, Michalkova V, Miller WJ, Minx P, Mireji PO, Ometto L, Parker AG, Rio R, Rose C, Rosendale AJ, Rota-Stabelli O, Savini G, Schoofs L, Scolari F, Swain MT, Takáč P, Tomlinson C, Tsiamis G, Van Den Abbeele J, Vigneron A, Wang J, Warren WC, Waterhouse RM, Weirauch MT, Weiss BL, Wilson RK, Zhao X, Aksoy S. "Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes." Genome Biol. 2019;20(1):187. Abstract

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. austeni), Palpalis (G. palpalis, G. fuscipes), and Fusca (G. brevipalpis) which represent different habitats, host preferences, and vectorial capacity.

Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Chege BM, Waweru MP, Frederick B, Nyaga NM. "The freeze-dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and hypoinsulinemic on type 2 diabetes rat model.". 2019;244:112077. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb is a plant species used in traditional medicine for the management of diabetes in the lower eastern part of Kenya (Kitui, Machakos and Makueni Counties, Kenya) that is mainly inhabited by the Kamba community.
Aim
This study investigated the antihyperglycaemic, antidyslipidemic and antihyperinsulinemic activity of the freeze-dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb (RME) in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods
Type 2 diabetes was induced by dietary manipulation for 56 days via (high fat- high fructose diet) and intraperitoneal administration of streptozocin (30 mg/kg). Forty freshly-weaned Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the negative control (high fat/high fructose diet), low dose test (50mg/kg RME, high dose test (100mg/kg RME and positive control (Pioglitazone, 20mg/kg) groups. Fasting blood glucose and body weight were measured at weekly intervals. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on days 28 and 56. Lipid profile, hepatic triglycerides, fasting serum insulin levels and serum uric acid were determined on day 56.
Results
The RME possessed significant antihyperglycemic [FBG: 6.5 ± 0.11 mmol/l (negative control) vs. 4.62 ± 0.13 mmol/l (low dose test) vs. 5.25 ± 0.15 mmol/l in (high dose test) vs. 4.33 ± 0.09 mmol/l (positive control): p < 0.0001] and antihyperinsulinemic effects [1.84 ± 0.19 (negative control) vs. (0.69 ± 0.13 (low dose test) vs. (0.83 ± 0.17 (high dose test) vs. (0.69 ± 0.10 (positive control): F (3, 36) = 0.6421: p < 0.0001. The extracts also possessed significant antidyslipidemic effects [LDL levels: 3.52 ± 0.19 mmol/l (negative control) vs. 0.33 ± 0.14 mmol/l (low dose test) vs. 0.34 ± 0.20 mmol/l (high dose test) vs. 0.33 ± 0.01 mmol/l (positive control): p < 0.0001].RME significantly lowered plasma uric acid levels, as well as hepatic triglycerides and hepatic weights. Network pharmacology analysis indicated that the observed pharmacological effects are mediated via the modulation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptor.
Conclusions
The freeze dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides possessed significant antihyperglycemic and antidyslidemic effects. In addition it lowered serum uric levels, as well as hepatic triglycerides and hepatic weight. These results appear to validate the traditional use of this plant species in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Sorensen, Olago, D. O., Dulo, Kanoti, Gaye, Faye, Pouye, Owor. "Real-time indication of faecally contaminated drinking water with fluorescence spectroscopy: towards understanding the causation.". In: 10th International Groundwater Quality Conference (GQ 2019). Liège, Belgium; 2019.
Gathumbi JK, Kimani, J.M., Mutisya P, Kombe, Yeri, Wamunyokoli, Fred W, Mbakaya, Charles FL. "The Additive Effect of Hepatitis B Virus and Aflatoxin B1 to Liver Disease Burden: A Case Study in Kitui, Makueni and Machakos Counties, Kenya." Journal of Health and Medical Sciences. 2019;2(3):312-331.
Efferth T, Banerjee M, Abu-Darwish MS, Abdelfatah S, Böckers M, Bhakta-Guha D, Bolzani V, Daak S, Demirezer LÖmür, Dawood M, Efferth M, El-Seedi HR, Fischer N, Greten HJ, Hamdoun S, Hong C. "Biopiracy versus One-World Medicine–From colonial relicts to global collaborative concepts." Phytomedicine. 2019;53:319-331. Abstract

Background
Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neocolonialism.
Hypothesis
The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe.
Study design
Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of …

H. NGUETTIJ, K. IJ, W. OM, S. MITEMAE, F. MBACHAMW, J. WANG’OMBE. "Consumer’s Awareness of the presence of pathogenic bacteria and pesticide Residues on tomatoes sold in Nairobi." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2019;14(35):2146-2158.
Fozia AA, Victor K, Armelle MT, Matthias H, Andreas K, Albert N, Beatrice I, Abiy Y, Thomas E. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural Product Research. 2019;33(18): 2609-2617 .
Kwadha CA, Mutunga JM, Irungu J, Ongamo G, Ndegwa P, Raina S, Fombong AT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
PK K, F T, G O'amo, JM N, EA O, A K. "Diversity and Abundance of Grasshopper and Locust Species in Nakuru County, Kenya." Asian J Conserv Biol. 2019;8(2):102-109.
Catherine K, Fidahusein DS, Wanjiru LC, Maina WJ, Carla K, Hahn D, Serge F, Paul G, Thomas S. "Effect of Vernodalol, a Sesquiterpene Lactone, on Economically Important Agricultural Fungi." International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2019;4(3):685-694. Abstract

The status of food insecurity in the world is devastating and fungal based diseases are a major cause that result in approximately 40-60% crop yield loss. Although synthetic chemical fungicides have been the preferred immediate method for management of fungal diseases, they have undesirable effects on human and animal health; causes environmental hazards, and are expensive. This study investigated whether the natural products from Vernonia glabra (Asteraceae) could be used as alternative biofungicide against disease causing agricultural fungi. Fractions were separated from V. glabra methanolic flower crude extract, using bioassay-guided fractionation. The single pure fraction yielded was selected for bioassay tests, and was isolated and characterized using chromatographic and spectrometric methods. In vitro bioassay test was performed against spore germination of Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Zymoseptoria tritici, Ustilago maydis, and Pyricularia oryzae. A known sesquiterpene lactone, Vernodalol was identified using high resolution mass spectrometry. In vitro bioassay results revealed that spores of Z. tritici were the most susceptible to Vernodalol, (42% spore inhibition) at 33 μg/100 μL compared to Azoxystrobin, a standard fungicide, (100% inhibition) against the fungus at 0.005 μg/100 μL. Vernodalol sprayed on 7 days old wheat seedlings that were inoculated with spores of Zymosepteria tritici, Puccinia triticina, and Helminthosporium sativum, at 50 and 200 ppm did not exhibit any disease control under greenhouse conditions. Azoxystrobin exhibited 90-100% disease control. V. glabra extracts have sesquiterpene lactones which are antifungal, however Vernodalol needs further research on its structural modification to increase efficacy against fungal pathogens.
Keywords:- Plant Fungal Diseases; Alternative Biofungicides; Sesquiterpene Lactones; Food Security.

Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tian Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;3007:792-798. AbstractJournal Publication

Description
A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tia Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;30(07):792-798. AbstractSynlett

Description
A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Lydia W. Njenga, Njogu REN, Fodran P, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Scheblykin I, Ola F. Wendt, Wallenti C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium(III)2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene ." Synlett. 2019;30:A-G.
Floridah Igoki Mbogori, Luketero S. "FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINABILITY OF WOMEN OWNED SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES: A CASE OF NKUBU TOWN, IMENTI SOUTH SUBCOUNTY, MERU COUNTY, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2019;3(4):355-376. AbstractWebsite

Women owned SMEs have continued to collapse despite the growing number of initiatives and resources made available to promote and develop women’s entrepreneurship in developing countries. Women are still earning less money in their businesses that have a slow growth, are more likely to fail and tend to be more necessity entrepreneurs. In Nkubu town Imenti South Sub-County, sustainability of women owned small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is facing a lot of challenges. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors influencing sustainability of women owned SMEs in Nkubu town Imenti South Sub-County, Meru County. The study was guided by the following objectives; to establish the influence of entrepreneurial training, networking opportunities, source of funding and technological know-how on sustainability of women owned SMEs in Nkubu town Imenti South Sub-County, Meru County. The findings of this study would be of great importance to the women who are involved in SMEs in Meru county and entire parts of the country. The findings of this study would be used by government and policy makers to get the insight of real factors influencing sustainability of women owned SMEs on issues of management as compared to their counterparts. This study was anchored on pecking order theory, credit rationing theory and household economic portfolio model. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population for this study was 286 owners of SMEs comprising of food vendors, clothing vendors, beverages vendors, services vendors and curio vendors Stratified random sampling technique was used in this …

Florence WN Wachira, Mathai M, Kathuku D. "Family Connectedness and Its Association with Sexual Risk-Taking Among Undergraduate Students At The University Of Nairobi." The East African Health Research Commission (EAHRC). 2019;3(1).
Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Odida J, Custodio E. "Groundwater hydrodynamics of an Eastern Africa coastal aquifer during the recent La Niña 2016-17 drought." Science of The Total Environment. 2019;661:575-597. AbstractWebsite

In 2016–17 much of East Africa was affected by a severe drought which has been attributed to Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño Southern Oscillation conditions. Extreme events such as this have immediate and knock-on effects on water availability for household, agricultural and industrial use. Groundwater resources can provide a buffer in times of drought, but may themselves be stressed by reduced recharge and increased usage, posing significant challenges to groundwater resource management. In the context of East Africa, groundwater management is also hampered by a lack of information on aquifer characteristics. With the aim of addressing this knowledge gap, this study shows the hydrogeological behaviour before and during La Niña 2016/17 drought in southern coastal Kenya on a groundwater system which sits within a geological structure which is representative of an important portion of the East African coast. Diverse hydrochemical and isotopic campaigns, as well as groundwater head variation measurements, were carried out to study the groundwater hydrodynamics and thus characterize the aquifer system under climatic conditions before and during the La Niña event. This information is complemented with an estimation of changes in local recharge since 2012 using local data sets. The main consequence of the drought was a 69% reduction of recharge compared to an average climatic year. There was reduced recharge during the first rainy season (April–June) and no recharge during the second wet season (October–December). There was a concurrent increase in seawater intrusion even during the wet season.

TM N, Gathumbi P K, C BL, M MG, EW M, FM G, EK K, TA N. "Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-ranging Lesser Flamingos ( Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya." Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2019;55(1):123-128 .
Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Katuva J, et al. "How does water-reliant industry affect groundwater systems in coastal Kenya?" Science of the Total Environment. 2019;694:133634. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

The industrialization process taking place in Africa has led to an overall increase in groundwater abstraction in most countries in the continent. However, the lack of hydrogeological data, as in many developing countries, makes it difficult to properly manage groundwater systems. This study presents a real case study in which a combination of different hydrogeological tools together with different sources of information allow the assessment of how increased competition for water may be affecting groundwater systems by analysing the sustainability of new abstraction regimes under different real climatic condition (before, during and after La Niña 2016). The area where this approach has been applied is Kwale County (in Coastal Kenya) in a hydrogeological context representative of an important part of the east coast of the continent, where new mining and agriculture activities co-exist with tourism and local communities. The results show that the lack of aquifer systems data can be overcome, at least partly, by integrating different sources of information. Most of the time, water-reliant users collect specific hydrogeological information that can contribute to defining the overall hydrogeological system, since their own main purpose is to exploit the aquifer with the maximum productivity. Therefore, local community water usage, together with different stakeholder's knowledge and good corporate water management act as a catalyst for providing critical data, and allows the generation of credible models for future groundwater management and resource allocation. Furthermore, complementary but simple information sources such as in situ interviews, Google Earth, Trip Advisor and easy-to use analytical methods that can be applied in the African context as in many developing countries, and enables groundwater abstraction to be estimated and the sustainability of the aquifer system to be defined, allowing potential future risks to be assessed.

Kitonde C, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Klittich C, Hahn D, Fotso S, Graupner P, Slanec T, Xiong Q. "In vitro studies of 3-O-Methylquercetin against phytopathogenic fungi of major cereals." Journal of Agricultural Science and Practice. 2019;4(4):102-112. Abstract

Maize, wheat, and rice are major cereal crops in the world, which provide more caloric energy than any other type of cereal class. In recent years, the yield of these cereal grains has stagnated due to a myriad of constraints, including infestation by pests and pathogens. Plant pathogens, especially agricultural phytopathogenic fungi, may be resistant to the available chemical fungicides which may have detrimental effects and are expensive. This study investigated whether natural products isolated from Linzia glabra Steetz of family Asteraceae could be used as alternative antifungals for control of cereal diseases caused by agricultural fungi. A single pure fraction was separated and identified from L. glabra methanolic flower crude extract using high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry methods. The pure fraction isolated was tested for inhibition of spore germination in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticillioides, Zymoseptoria tritici, Ustilago maydis, and Pyricularia oryzae. The fraction was identified as a flavonol, 3-O-Methylquercetin using high resolution mass spectrometry. Among the fungi tested, spores of Z. tritici were the most susceptible to 3-O-Methylquercetin (44% spore inhibition), followed by F. oxysporum (33% inhibition) at 27 μg/mL. Azoxystrobin, a standard commercialized fungicide, gave a complete inhibition of 100% against Z. tritici and 58% inhibition against F. oxysporum at 5 μg/mL. L. glabra contains flavonols with antifungal activity, but the modest and weak antifungal activity of 3-O-Methylquercetin compared to a standard such as azoxystrobin demonstrates the challenge to produce highly potent natural product fungicides. There is need for continued search for antifungals with new modes of action as solutions to challenges in agricultural production.

Keywords: Alternative antifungals, cereal crops, flavonoid concentration, flavonols, plant diseases, Linzia glabra Steetz.

F B, Thakker, Munguti, G WE. "Infection Control Measures Among Dental Health Care Workers at a Dental Teaching Hospital in Kenya." Annals of Surgery African Surgery. 2019.
M M, LZ M, J F, GM E, E R, R N, J T, DH M, J N, F W, AK B, M B, JG. O. "Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein H is Indispensable for Infection of Epithelial, Endothelial, and Fibroblast Cell Types. ." J Virol. . 2019;93(16).
Munialo S, Hall O, Francisca ABM, Boke-Olén N, Onyango MC, Oluoch-Kosura W, Marstorp H, D. G. "Micro-Spatial Analysis of Maize Yield Gap Variability and Production Factors on Smallholder Farms." Agriculture. 2019;9:219.
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Frank T. Wiggers IM. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia Africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):91-95.rahab_et_al_2019_pharmacognosy.pdf
Mette Vaarst, Gidi Smolders, Wahome R, Charles Odhong, Muhammad Kiggundu, Fred Kabi, Sylvia Nalubwama, Halberg N. "Options and challenges for organic milk production in East African smallholder farms under certified organic crop production." Livestock Science. 2019;220:230-240.
M. V, G. S, R. W, C. O’, M. K, F K, S N, N. H. "Options and challenges for organic milk production in East African smallholder farms under certified organic crop production." Livestock Science 220. 2019:230-240.
Ngugi(1) J, Rading GO, ODERA BO, Ngibe B, Forbes R, Cornish LA. "Partial Isothermal Sections of the Cu-Rich Corner of the Al-Cu-Zn System at 200 and 240°C." J of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion. . 2019:588-599.
Ogeng’o JA, Obimbo MM, Zhou Y, McMaster MT, Cohen CR, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Ong’ech J, Fisher SJ. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2019;80(1):94-102. Abstractplacental_structure_in_preterm_birth_among_hiv-positive.pdfWolters Kluwer Health, Inc

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant
morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest
that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection,
use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the
mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to
determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental
changes that could contribute to PTB.
Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIVpositive
women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had
preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at
gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational
age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal
HIV serostatus.
Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly
associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032),
anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane
infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010).
Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with
immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of
HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant
fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast
delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction
in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.
Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART
are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that
contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests
that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia.
Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate
the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for
decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.
Key Words: preterm birth, term birth, placenta, HIV, ART

Benignus Valentine Ngowi, Henri Edouardo-Zefack Tonnang, Fathiya Khamis, Evans Mungai Mwangi, Brigitte Nyambo PNN, Subramanian S. "Seasonal abundance of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and diversity of its parasitoids along altitudinal gradients of the eastern Afromontane." Phytoparasitica. 2019:1-17.
Kyomuhimbo D, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Derese S, Feleni U, Iwuoha EI. "Silver-Zinc Oxide nanocomposite Antiseptic Extract of Bidens Pilosa." SN Applied Sciences. 2019;1:681.
Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay K-A, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. "Argasid and ixodid systematics: implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list." Ticks and tick-borne diseases. 2019;10:219-240. Abstract
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Mans BJ, Featherston J, Kvas M, Pillay KA, de Klerk DG, Pienaar R, de Castro MH, Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Teel P, others. Argasid and ixodid systematics: Implications for soft tick evolution and systematics, with a new argasid species list. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 10: 219–240.; 2019. Abstract
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Fajardo I, Lidtke AA, Bendoukha SA, Gonzalez-Llorente J, Rodríguez R, Morales R, Faizullin D, Matsuoka M, Urakami N, Kawauchi R, Miyazaki M, Yamagata N, Hatanaka K, Abdullah F, Rojas JJ, Keshk ME, Cosmas K, Ulambayar T, Saganti P, Holland D, Dachev T, Tuttle S, Dudziak R, Okuyama K-ichi. "Design, Implementation, and Operation of a Small Satellite Mission to Explore the Space Weather Effects in LEO." Aerospace. 2019;6. AbstractWebsite

Ten-Koh is a 23.5 kg, low-cost satellite developed to conduct space environment effects research in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Ten-Koh was developed primarily by students of the Kyushu Institute of Technology (Kyutech) and launched on 29 October 2018 on-board HII-A rocket F40, as a piggyback payload of JAXA’s Greenhouse gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT-2). The satellite carries a double Langmuir probe, CMOS-based particle detectors and a Liulin spectrometer as main payloads. This paper reviews the design of the mission, specifies the exact hardware used, and outlines the implementation and operation phases of the project. This work is intended as a reference that other aspiring satellite developers may use to increase their chances of success. Such a reference is expected to be particularly useful to other university teams, which will likely face the same challenges as the Ten-Koh team at Kyutech. Various on-orbit failures of the satellite are also discussed here in order to help avoid them in future small spacecraft. Applicability of small satellites to conduct space-weather research is also illustrated on the Ten-Koh example, which carried out simultaneous measurements with JAXA’s ARASE satellite.

Monroe-Wise A, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Fuller S, Dunbar M, Masuda D, Opiyo E, Muchai B, Chepken C, Omwenga E, Oboko R, others. "Improving information and communications technology (ict) knowledge and skills to develop health research capacity in Kenya." Online Journal of Public Health Informatics. 2019;11. Abstract
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Zhao X-X, Li L-L, Zhao Y, An H-W, Cai Q, Lang J-Y, Han X-X, Peng B, Fei Y, Liu H, others. "In Situ Self-Assembled Nanofibers Precisely Target Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts for Improved Tumor Imaging." Angewandte Chemie. 2019;131:15431-15438. Abstract
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Zhu K, Hou D, Fei Y, Peng B, Wang Z, Xu W, Zhu B, Li L-L, Wang H. "Thermosensitive Hydrogel Interface Switching from Hydrophilic Lubrication to Infection Defense." ACS Applied Bio Materials. 2019;2:3582-3590. Abstract
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2018
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia." Br J Ophthalmol. 2018. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

Widmer M, Piaggio G, Nguyen TMH, Osoti A, Owa OO, Misra S, Coomarasamy A, Abdel-Aleem H, Mallapur AA, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Lumbiganon P, Patel AB, Carroli G, Fawole B, Goudar SS, Pujar YV, Neilson J, Hofmeyr JG, Su LL, Ferreira de Carvalho J, Pandey U, Mugerwa K, Shiragur SS, Byamugisha J, Giordano D, Gülmezoglu MA. "Heat-Stable Carbetocin versus Oxytocin to Prevent Hemorrhage after Vaginal Birth." N Engl J Med. 2018;379(8):743-752. Abstract

Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death. Oxytocin is the standard therapy for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, but it requires cold storage, which is not available in many countries. In a large trial, we compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin.

Knowles DP, Kappmeyer LS, Haney D, Herndon DR, Fry LM, Munro JB, Sears K, Ueti MW, Wise LN, Silva M, Schneider DA, Grause J, White SN, Tretina K, Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Pelzel-McCluskey AM, Scoles GA, Mealey RH, Silva JC. "Discovery of a novel species, Theileria haneyi n. sp., infective to equids, highlights exceptional genomic diversity within the genus Theileria: implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance." Int J Parasitol. 2018;48(9-10):679-690. Abstract

A novel apicomplexan parasite was serendipitously discovered in horses at the United States - Mexico border. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA showed the erythrocyte-infective parasite to be related to, but distinct from, Theileria spp. in Africa, the most similar taxa being Theileria spp. from waterbuck and mountain zebra. The degree of sequence variability observed at the 18S rDNA locus also suggests the likely existence of additional cryptic species. Among described species, the genome of this novel equid Theileria parasite is most similar to that of Theileria equi, also a pathogen of horses. The estimated divergence time between the new Theileria sp. and T. equi, based on genomic sequence data, is greater than 33 million years. Average protein sequence divergence between them, at 23%, is greater than that of Theileria parva and Theileria annulata proteins, which is 18%. The latter two represent highly virulent Theileria spp. of domestic cattle, as well as of African and Asian wild buffalo, respectively, which differ markedly in pathology, host cell tropism, tick vector and geographical distribution. The extent of genome-wide sequence divergence, as well as significant morphological differences, relative to T. equi justify the classification of Theileria sp. as a new taxon. Despite the overall genomic divergence, the nine member equi merozoite antigen (EMA) superfamily, previously found as a multigene family only in T. equi, is also present in the novel parasite. Practically, significant sequence divergence in antigenic loci resulted in this undescribed Theileria sp. not being detectable using currently available diagnostic tests. Discovery of this novel species infective to equids highlights exceptional diversity within the genus Theileria, a finding with serious implications for apicomplexan parasite surveillance.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9840. Abstract

Intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) is a complementary method to sprouting angiogenesis (SA). The hallmark of IA is formation of trans-capillary tissue pillars, their fusion and remodeling of the vascular plexus. In this study, we investigate the formation of the zebrafish caudal vein plexus (CVP) in Tg(fli1a:eGFP) and the synergistic interaction of IA and SA in crafting the archetypical angio-architecture of the CVP. Dynamic in vivo observations and quantitative analyses revealed that the primitive CVP during development was initiated through SA. Further vascular growth and remodeling occurred by IA. Intussusception contributed to the expansion of the CVP by formation of new pillars. Those pillars arose in front of the already existing ones; and in a subsequent step the serried pillars elongated and fused together. This resulted in segregation of larger vascular segments and remodelling of the disorganized vascular meshwork into hierarchical tree-like arrangement. Blood flow was the main driving force for IA, particularly shear stress geometry at the site of pillar formation and fusion. Computational simulations based on hemodynamics showed drop in shear stress levels at locations of new pillar formation, pillar elongation and fusion. Correlative 3D serial block face scanning electron microscopy confirmed the morphological substrate of the phenomena of the pillar formation observed in vivo. The data obtained demonstrates that after the sprouting phase and formation of the primitive capillary meshwork, the hemodynamic conditions enhance intussusceptive segregation of hierarchical vascular tree i.e. intussusceptive arborization resulting in complex vascular structures with specific angio-architecture.

Makenzius M, Faxelid E, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Odero TMA, Klingberg-Allvin M, Oguttu M. "Contraceptive uptake in post abortion care-Secondary outcomes from a randomised controlled trial, Kisumu, Kenya." PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0201214. AbstractWebsite

The aim was to explore contraceptive uptake, associated factors and satisfaction among post abortion-care (PAC) seeking women in Kenya. Due to unsafe abortions, almost 120 000 Kenyan women received PAC in 2012, and of these women, 70% did not use contraception before pregnancy.

Perciani CT, Jaoko W, Farah B, Ostrowski MA, Anzala O, MacDonald KS. "αEβ7, α4β7 and α4β1 integrin contributions to T cell distribution in blood, cervix and rectal tissues: Potential implications for HIV transmission." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2):e0192482. Abstract

Cell surface expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins play a key role in T cell distribution. Understanding the contribution of integrins to the density and ratios of CD4+: CD4negT cell at the portals of entry for HIV is of fundamental importance for the advance of more effective HIV prevention strategies. We therefore set out to characterize and compare the expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins on systemic, cervical and rectal CD4+ and CD4negT cells isolated from a cohort of healthy Kenyan women at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 45). Here we show that blood and cervix were enriched in α4+β1+CD4+T cells and α4+β7hiCD4+T cells, whereas the rectum had an equal frequency of α4+β7hiCD4+T cells and αE+β7hiCD4+T cells. Most cervical and rectal αE+β7hiCD4+T cells expressed CCR5 as well as CD69. Interestingly, αEβ7 was the predominant integrin expressed by CD4negT cells in both mucosal sites, outnumbering αE+β7hiCD4+T cells approximately 2-fold in the cervix and 7-fold in the rectum. The majority of αE+β7hiCD4negT cells expressed CD69 at the mucosa. Taken together, our results show unique tissue-specific patterns of integrin expression. These results can help in guiding vaccine design and also the use of therapeutically targeting integrin adhesion as a means to preventing HIV.

Ogolaa J, Fèvreb EM, Gitaud GK, Christleye R, Muchemi G, de Glanvilleb WA. "1. The topology of between-herd cattle contacts in a mixed farming production system in western Kenya ." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2018;158:43-50.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
H. NGUETTIJ, K IMUNGIJ, W. OM, J WANG’OMBE, F. MBACHAMW, E. MITEMAS. "Assessment of the knowledge and use of pesticides by the tomato farmers in Mwea Region, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2018;13(8):379-388.
F M, JJ C. "Clinical Learning Experiences: A study among Undergraduate Nursing Students, Kenya." Nursing Research and Practice Journal. 2018.
A. K, Folayan. MO. "A compendium on Oral health of children around the world – Early childhood caries.". In: A compendium on Oral health of children around the world – Early childhood caries. New York: Nova Biomedical Publishers; 2018.
Quinlan MM, Birungi J, Coulibaly MB, Diabaté A, Facchinelli L, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, M J. "Containment studies of transgenic mosquitoes in disease endemic countries: The broad concept of facilities readiness." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2018;18(1):14-20.
FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
F. NJ, N MJ, T N, K DV. "Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Surface and Mechanical Properties of Borassus Aethiopium Mart Fibre." International Journal of Science and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2018;Vol. 7(11):774-779.
Farquhar C, Nduati RW, JN. W. "Ethical Obligations in Short-Term Global Health Clinical Experiences: The Devil Is in the Details." Ann Intern Med.. 2018; 1;(168(9):):672-673.
Flarian MM, Frederick AO, Julius MT, John WK. "Farmer-based dynamics in tissue culture banana technology adoption: a socio-economic perspective among small holder farmers in Uganda." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;13(50):2836-2854.
Ogeng’o JA, Pulei AN, Olabu BO, Fidel O Gwala. "HIBISCUS EXTRACT MITIGATES SALT INDUCED CAROTID ADVENTITIAL CHANGES IN RATS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2018;8(1):1342-1350. Abstract

The tunica adventitia is an active vascular compartment that actively participates in modulation of
vascular structure, function and pathophysiology. Adventitial thickness has recently been accepted as a
surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The effects of salt and chemicals that ameliorate those effects are
important in understanding vascular structure, function and pathology. There are few studies on
hibiscus and high salt induced vascular pathology. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of
hibiscus on salt induced vascular changes on rat carotid artery. The experimental animals were divided
into 3 groups of 8 animals each – (i) controls; (ii) high salt diet alone and (iii) high salt + hibiscus
extract for a period of eight weeks. At ages 2, 5 and 8weeks 2 – 3 animals were sacrificed for study.
They were anaesthetized with ether and perfused with formal saline. Specimens were then obtained
from the middle of common carotid artery, fixed in 5% formaldehyde solution, processed routinely for
paraffin embedding and 5-micron thick sections stained with Hematoxylin / Eosin and also with Mason’s
Trichome/ Aniline blue. Adventitial thickness and volumetric densities of collagen were measured using
morphometric techniques. High salt consumption induced statistically significant increase in adventitial
thickness from 297.45μm at week 2 to 659.4μm in week 8. In hibiscus fed rats, this increase
progressively reduced to 482.55μm in week 8. Volumetric density of collagen was 57% in high salt fed
rats but reduced to 45.66% in hibiscus fed rats (p<0.001). The increase in tunica adventitial thickness
and collagen density which is induced by high salt can be mitigated by hibiscus extract. This implies
that hibiscus has potential to restore salt induced vascular injury. Further studies are recommended to
refine the extract.

Ritho C, Ng’ang’a SK, Herrero M, Fraval S, Journal TR. "Household-oriented benefits largely outweigh commercial benefits form cattl in Mabalane District, Mozambique." The Rangeland Journal. 2018;(40)6: 565-576.
Onono OJ, Alarcon P, Maurice K, Akoko J, Carron Maud, Rushton J, Muinde P, F`evre E. "Identification of production challenges and benefits using value chain mapping of egg food systems in Nairobi, Kenya." Agricultural Systems. 2018;159:1-8.
S P, Simiyu BN, JY S, K T, FI W, KG DL, GES D, LV I. "Management of Mandibular Lateral Incisors with Vertucci Type II Canal Configuration." Journal of the Endodontic Society of the Philippines . 2018;11:19-23.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
Simba N, Fawzia B, Symon GW, Francis M, AKAMA M. "Occurrence and Pattern of Maxillofacial Injuries Caused by Motorcycle Crashes Presenting at Two Major Referral Hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction Open. 2018;Volume: 2(Issue: 1).
FO N, M B, Gachago MM, D K. Outcomes of Combined Cataract and Trabeculectomy Surgery In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Leasher JL, Braithwaite T, Furtado JM, Flaxman SR, Lansingh VC, Silva JC, S R, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." The British journal of ophthalmology. 2018. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment for distance and near in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2015 and to forecast trends to 2020.

METHODS: A meta-analysis from a global systematic review of 283 cross-sectional, population-representative studies from published and unpublished sources from 1980 to 2014 in the Global Vision Database included 17 published and 6 unpublished studies from LAC.

RESULTS: In 2015, across LAC, age-standardised prevalence was 0.38% in all ages and 1.56% in those over age 50 for blindness; 2.06% in all ages and 7.86% in those over age 50 for moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI); 1.89% in all ages and 6.93% in those over age 50 for mild vision impairment and 39.59% in all ages and 45.27% in those over 50 for near vision impairment (NVI). In 2015, 117.86 million persons were vision impaired; of those 2.34 million blind, 12.46 million with MSVI, 11.34 million mildly impaired and 91.72 million had NVI. Cataract is the most common cause of blindness. Undercorrected refractive-error is the most common cause of vision impairment.

CONCLUSIONS: These prevalence estimates indicate that one in five persons across LAC had some degree of vision loss in 2015. We predict that from 2015 to 2020, the absolute numbers of persons with vision loss will increase by 12% to 132.33 million, while the all-age age-standardised prevalence will decrease for blindness by 15% and for other distance vision impairment by 8%. All countries need epidemiologic research to establish accurate national estimates and trends. Universal eye health services must be included in universal health coverage reforms to address disparities, fragmentation and segmentation of healthcare.

Tantawi ME, Folayan MO, FWACS, Mehaina M, Vukovic A, Castillo JL, Gaffar BO, Arheiam A, Al-Batayneh OB, Kemoli AM, Schroth RJ, Lee GHM. "Prevalence and data availability of early childhood caries in 193 United Nations Countries, 2007-2017." AJPH. 2018;8): 1066- 1072(8): 1066- 1072):8): 1066-1072.
EK G, GO O, A G, KM B, B M, FO O, RG C. "Sarcocystosis: a rare polymyositis mimic." Afr J Rheumatol . 2018;6(1):18-19.sarcocystosis.pdf
Mary Taabu, F Nyongesa, Birech Z, Aduda B. Use of Diatomaceous Earth Wastes and Plant derived Binders in Water Purification Systems. NAIROBI, KENYA: MSSEESA; 2018.
Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

Chamandy L, Frank A, Blackman EG, Carroll-Nellenback J, Liu B, Tu Y, Nordhaus J, Chen Z, Peng B. "Accretion in common envelope evolution." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2018;480:1898-1911. Abstract
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Peng B, Yue C, Zhang H, Fang Z, Weng H. "Dirac semimetals in Sodium Ternary Compounds from Material Design on Na3Bi." arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.01434. 2018. Abstract
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Peng B, Flager FL, Wu J. "A method to optimize mobile crane and crew interactions to minimize construction cost and time." Automation in Construction. 2018;95:10-19. Abstract
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Chen W, Zhang J, Peng B, Özdemir ŞK, Fan X, Yang L. "Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery mode nanoparticle sensor." Photonics Research. 2018;6:A23-A30. Abstract
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Peng B, Yue C, Zhang H, Fang Z, Weng H. "Predicting Dirac semimetals based on sodium ternary compounds." npj Computational Materials. 2018;4:1-6. Abstract
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2017
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of {ABCB}1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan {HIV} Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;5. AbstractWebsite
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Balkus JE, Srinivasan S, Anzala O, Kimani J, Andac C, Schwebke J, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR. "Impact of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis on the Vaginal Microbiome among Women Participating in the Preventing Vaginal Infections Trial." J. Infect. Dis.. 2017;215(5):723-731. Abstract

Evidence suggests that specific vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized, double-blinded trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection of select vaginal bacteria.

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