Publications

Found 893 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is C  [Clear All Filters]
A B [C] D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
C
Chindia M, Butt FM, Kenyanya T, Rana F, Gathece LW. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton.". 2010.
Chindia M, W. GS, F.G. M, odhiambo W.A. "pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.". 2008.
Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, J. M, A. L, J.G O, S.W. G. "Synchronous Occurence of Ossifying Fibroma of the Mandible and Maxilla.". 2008.
Chindia ML, Odhiambo W, Gathece LW, Dimba EAO, Okumu SB. "Clinical features and types of paediatric orofacial malignant neoplasms at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children. Patients and methods: The study involved patients aged 15years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme. Results: 65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%),proptosis 19(29%)and loss of vision 15 (23%).The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%)and maxilla 11(17%).Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%),followed by 14(21%)cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)and occurred in patients under 5 years ofage (40 cases) followed by 19cases in children aged 5-10 years. Conclusions: Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10years. Retinoblastoma and BLwere the most common neoplasms. © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery.

Chindia ML, Wagaiyu EG, ocholla Tom, Opondo F, Kihara E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM. "Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.". 1994. AbstractWebsite

The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.

Chindia ML, James RM. "Cancer of the mouth and jaws : Prevailing challenges in its management.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

Throughout the economically developing nations, the morbidity and mortality arising from cancer of the mouth and jaws has remained high despite the current advances in surgical and medical practice. Late presentation worsens the survival rates and makes complete rehabilitation of the sufferers difficult. Factors that lead to the late presentation, delayed diagnosis and often inadequate management are diverse. In addition to highlighting the incidences of oral cancer worldwide, this article presents an overview of the current developments in the identification and management of this dreadful disease. Most importantly, it is intended to sensitise clinicians, health planners and managers to evolve viable strategies that may alleviate the grave suffering endured by those afflicted in our populations.

Chindia ML, Akama MK, Awange DO, Guthua SW. "Occurent of Ameloblastic fibroma over a ten-year period.". 2005.
Chirchir MK, Kariuki CN. "Statistical quality Control, Management Science Paper.". In: Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract

Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.

Chirchir AK, Olubayo FM, Mutua GK. "Abundance and Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated With Sugarcane in Western Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

A study was conducted to determine the factors influencing plant-parasitic nematode occurrence, abundance and distribution in the sugarcane fields. Four sugarcane growing zones; Nzoia, Mumias, West Kenya and Busia of Kenya were selected from which 81 fields randomly selected and sampled. Soil samples were taken from sugarcane rhizospheres and nematodes extracted from 200 cm3 soil using the modified Baermann funnel technique. Nematodes were then fixed and mounted on slides and identified to genera level using identification keys. Nematodes of the genera Pratylenchus, Scutellonema and Meloidogyne were predominant in the sugarcane belt of western Kenya with mean densities of 61, 54 and 39, respectively. Nzoia, which falls in a marginal sugarcane zone harboured the highest proportion of these plant parasitic nematodes (55%), while West Kenya zone had the least proportion (4%). Soil texture influenced nematodes with more than 50% occurring in sandy soils compared to other soil types. Build-up of plant parasitic nematodes occurred with subsequent ratoon crops up to the second ratoon before declining in the third ratoon. Anthropogenic effects were significant with 70% higher numbers of plant parasitic nematodes in the out-grower farms compared to the factory-managed farms. This study has revealed the influence of soil texture, crop cycle and anthropogenic factors on abundance and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in western Kenya sugarcane zones. It has also set the justification of further work to determine the economic importance of the nematodes

Chirchir MK. "A discriminant model to distinguish between successful and unsuccesful students in the Faculty of Commerce of the University of Nairobi.". In: Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract

Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.

Chirchir MK, Embeywa HE, Ifukho. "Role of Physics in the Technological Development of the Third Countries presented at the Kenya National Association of Physicists (KNAP) seminar on Physics and Technology in Development.". In: Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi.; 2000. Abstract

Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.

Chisi S, Kollmann M, Karimurio J. "Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection seen at two hospitals in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2006;83:267-270. Abstract

Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and pattern of CSCC in patients with HIV infection.
Design: A hospital based cross sectional study conducted from the 3rd of November, 2003 to 30th May, 2004
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU)
Subjects: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients (409)
Results Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients (409) aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three (103) had conjunctival growths. Thirty two (32) had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6mm. 22 (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while 10 (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: 15 (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; 9 (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; 5 patients (15.6%) had CIN; 2 patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and 1 patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
Conclusions: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients is 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis.
Recommendations: Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.

Chitere PP. "PUBLIC SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS IN KENYA: Their characteristics and compliance with traffic regulations and prospects for the future." International Journal of Social Sciences. 2010;2(10):45-55. Abstract

Public Service Vehicles (PSVs) are the dominant mode of transport in Kenya. Majority of their drivers are younger having attained some secondary school education as well as some training in driving. The drivers, however, work for more days and hours per week and have no regular and reliable remuneration package. These poor conditions of work coupled with poor training and lack of discipline on roads have been found to account for their low level of compliance with traffic regulations and rules. Low compliance has in turn been found to explain the high rate of road crashes and associated fatalities and injuries of passengers and pedestrians. Between 2003-2004, the government made efforts to gazette and enforce traffic regulations and rules. Whereas there was slight reduction in road crashes, fatalities and injuries, the road safety situation soon reverted back to its earlier level. The study sought to find out reasons for persistence of drivers’ non-compliance and their characteristics that accounted for non-compliance and prospects for reduction of the problem on a sustainable basis. One hundred and twenty five (125) PSV drivers were sampled and interviewed in the cities of Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu. Additional data was collected from key informants and desk reviews. It was found that despite enforcement by the police, there was high non-compliance of the drivers with the regulations. To improve compliance, there is need, among other things, for gradual transformation of the ownership and management of PSVs from individual investor- and association- to company ownership and management, improved basic and refresher training and road safety awareness efforts targeting various stakeholders.

Chitere, Preston O; Kibua TN. "Efforts to improve road safety in Kenya .". 2004.Website
Chitere PP. "Neighbourhood Associations and Governance In Nairobi: Their Performance and prospects." Hekima: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2009;4(1). Abstract

This article shows the contribution of neighbourhood associations in delivery of services. It examines the policy and legal framework guiding formation and operation of the associations, their governance including participation of their members and factors influencing them. Data were collected through interviews of officials of 35 associations and 42 members/leaders in Nairobi and surrounding towns, key informants and desk reviews. The article shows that the governance and operations of the associations were not based on a uniform policy and legal framework. Participation was also much better among half of the members that were older, leaders and homeowners. The associations provided services to their neighbourhoods and took affirmative actions such as withholding payment of tax to city authorities and filing cases to challenge unjust laws and practices.

Chiteva R, Yenesew A, Chikamai B, Wanjohi J. "Phytochemical investigation of resins from Kenyan Commiphora holtziana." International Journal of current research. 2013;5(7):1791-1793. Abstract

Description
Commiphora holtziana gum resins when solvent extracted followed by a combination of chromatographic separation techniques on hexane extract of the Wajir sample, led to the isolation and characterization of a new compound, 11–hydroxy-γ-muurolene 1. In addition, two known compounds,(1E)-2-methoxy-8, 12-

Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
n/a
Chogii R, ADUDA JO, Murayi MT. "The Effect of Capital Market Deepening on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2014;4(1):141-159. Abstractthe_effect_of_capital_market_deepening_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

The capital market is important since it connects the financial sector with other non-financial sectors of the economy. This study examines the effect of Capital Market Deepening on economic growth in Kenya. Controversy exists among researchers on the role of deep capital markets in growth. The finance growth nexus forms the basis of the research with the capital markets assumed to have a supply leading effect on economic growth. This study aimed at addressing the issue by incorporating a measure of bond market turnover. The research objective was to determine the effect of capital market deepening on economic growth in Kenya. The study used data from the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 1992-2011 and GDP data from The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. The study therefore concludes that Capital Market Deepening has a positive effect on GDP growth in Kenya and therefore lends support to the finance growth nexus. The Capital market plays an important role in economic growth and therefore the study recommends the government should take policy initiatives to foster growth of the capital market and especially so the bond market which is instrumental in providing finance for development of the Vision 2030 socio economic blue print. JEL classification numbers: F43, O16.
Key words: Capital Market Deepening, Economic Growth and Kenya.

Chohan BH, Tapia K, Merkel M, Kariuki AC, Khasimwa B, Olago A, Gichohi R, Obimbo EM, Wamalwa DC. "Pooled HIV-1 RNA Viral Load Testing for Detection of Antiretroviral Treatment Failure in Kenyan children.". 2013. Abstract

Pooled viral load (VL) testing with two different testing strategies was evaluated as a potential cost-saving method to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children receiving ART in a resource-limited setting. METHODS:: Archived samples collected from 250 HIV-1 infected children on first-line ART at various time-points post-ART initiation were evaluated for pooled VL testing using a minipool+algorithm strategy. Additionally, samples collected in real-time from 125 children on ART were assessed for virologic failure using a minipool strategy for pooled viral load testing. Virologic failure was determined as HIV-1 RNA viral loads >1500 copies/ml. RESULTS:: Minipool+algorithm strategy for pooled VL testing of archived samples had estimated viral failure of 13.6%, with a relative efficiency (RE) of 23.6% (95% CI; 18.5, 29.4), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 88%. This testing strategy would have resulted in 24% fewer assays needed, for a cost savings of $1,180 per 100 samples. The minipool strategy for pooled viral load testing of samples obtained in real-time yielded an estimated 23.2% of samples with viral failure and a RE of 8.0 % (95% CI; 3.9, 14.2); however had a minipool+algorithm pooling strategy been used the RE would increase to 20%. CONCLUSIONS:: The minipool+algorithm strategy for pooled VL testing to detect virologic failure in HIV-1 infected children on ART was determined to be relatively efficient in detecting virologic failure, had high NPV, with substantial cost savings. Pooling strategies may be important components of cost-effect strategies to reduce rates of viral failure and resistance, thus improving clinical outcomes.

Chohan BH, Tapia K, Benki-Nugent S, Khasimwa B, Ngayo M, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G. "Nevirapine Resistance in Previously Nevirapine-Unexposed HIV-1-Infected Kenyan Infants Initiating Early Antiretroviral Therapy." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2015;31(8):783-91. Abstract

Nevirapine (NVP) resistance occurs frequently in infants following NVP use in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) regimens. However, among previously NVP-unexposed infants treated with NVP-antiretroviral therapy (ART), the development and impact of NVP resistance have not been well characterized. In a prospective clinical trial providing early ART to HIV-infected infants <5 months of age in Kenya (OPH03 study), we followed NVP-unexposed infants who initiated NVP-ART for 12 months. Viral loads were assessed and resistance determined using a population-based genotypic resistance assay. Of 99 infants screened, 33 had no prior NVP exposure, 22 of whom were initiated on NVP-ART. Among 19 infants with follow-up, seven (37%) infants developed resistance: one at 3 months and six at 6 months after ART initiation. The cumulative probability of NVP resistance was 5.9% at 3 months and 43.5% at 6 months. Baseline HIV RNA levels (p=0.7) and other characteristics were not associated with developing resistance. Post-ART, higher virus levels at visits preceding the detection of resistance were significantly associated with increased detection of resistance (p=0.004). Virus levels after 6 and 12 months of ART were significantly higher in infants with resistance than those without (p=0.007, p=0.030, respectively). Among infants without previous NVP exposure, development of NVP resistance was frequent and was associated with virologic failure during the first year of ART. Earlier development of NVP resistance in infants than in adults initiating NVP-ART may be due to longer viremia following ART or inadequate NVP levels resulting from NVP lead-in dosing. The development of NVP resistance may, in part, explain the superiority of protease inhibitor-based ART in infants.

Chohan BH, Tapia K, Merkel M, Kariuki AC, Khasimwa B, Olago A, Gichohi R, Obimbo EM, Wamalwa DC. "Pooled HIV-1 RNA Viral Load Testing for Detection of Antiretroviral Treatment Failure in Kenyan children.". 2013. Abstract

Pooled viral load (VL) testing with two different testing strategies was evaluated as a potential cost-saving method to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children receiving ART in a resource-limited setting. METHODS:: Archived samples collected from 250 HIV-1 infected children on first-line ART at various time-points post-ART initiation were evaluated for pooled VL testing using a minipool+algorithm strategy. Additionally, samples collected in real-time from 125 children on ART were assessed for virologic failure using a minipool strategy for pooled viral load testing. Virologic failure was determined as HIV-1 RNA viral loads >1500 copies/ml. RESULTS:: Minipool+algorithm strategy for pooled VL testing of archived samples had estimated viral failure of 13.6%, with a relative efficiency (RE) of 23.6% (95% CI; 18.5, 29.4), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 88%. This testing strategy would have resulted in 24% fewer assays needed, for a cost savings of $1,180 per 100 samples. The minipool strategy for pooled viral load testing of samples obtained in real-time yielded an estimated 23.2% of samples with viral failure and a RE of 8.0 % (95% CI; 3.9, 14.2); however had a minipool+algorithm pooling strategy been used the RE would increase to 20%. CONCLUSIONS:: The minipool+algorithm strategy for pooled VL testing to detect virologic failure in HIV-1 infected children on ART was determined to be relatively efficient in detecting virologic failure, had high NPV, with substantial cost savings. Pooling strategies may be important components of cost-effect strategies to reduce rates of viral failure and resistance, thus improving clinical outcomes.

Chohan BH, Froggett S, Emery S WD, G J-S, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, J. O. "8.Evaluation of a single round polymerase chain reaction assay using dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in an African setting." BMC Pediatr. 2011 Feb 18;11:18. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-18.. 2011. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The aim of this study was to develop an economical 'in-house' single round polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using filter paper-dried blood spots (FP-DBS) for early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and to evaluate its performance in an African setting.
METHODS:
An 'in-house' single round PCR assay that targets conserved regions in the HIV-1 polymerase (pol) gene was validated for use with FP-DBS; first we validated this assay using FP-DBS spiked with cell standards of known HIV-1 copy numbers. Next, we validated the assay by testing the archived FP-DBS (N=115) from infants of known HIV-1 infection status. Subsequently this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay was then established in Nairobi, Kenya for further evaluation on freshly collected FP-DBS (N=186) from infants, and compared with findings from a reference laboratory using the Roche Amplicor® HIV-1 DNA Test, version 1.5 assay.
RESULTS:
The HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay could detect one HIV-1 proviral copy in 38.7% of tests, 2 copies in 46.9% of tests, 5 copies in 72.5% of tests and 10 copies in 98.1% of tests performed with spiked samples. Using the archived FP-DBS samples from infants of known infection status, this assay was 92.8% sensitive and 98.3% specific for HIV-1 infant diagnosis. Using 186 FP-DBS collected from infants recently defined as HIV-1 positive using the commercially available Roche Amplicor v1.5 assay, 178 FP-DBS tested positive by this 'in-house' single-round HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS PCR assay. Upon subsequent retesting, the 8 infant FP-DBS samples that were discordant were confirmed as HIV-1 negative by both assays using a second blood sample.
CONCLUSIONS:
HIV-1 was detected with high sensitivity and specificity using both archived and more recently collected samples. This suggests that this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol FP-DBS PCR assay can provide an alternative cost-effective, reliable and rapid method for early detection of HIV-1 infection in infants.

Choi, RY; Farquhar JM-NDA; L-PVWTBJ-SC; J; B. "http://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/dorothymbori/publications.". 2010. Abstract

The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid change that could alter its structure and influence human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection risk. HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Nairobi were followed with their infants for 1 year postpartum. Among 131 infants, those with the 868T allele were more likely than wild-type infants to acquire HIV-1 overall [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 3.50, P = 0.03; adjusted HR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.03, 3.98, P = 0.04], after adjusting for maternal viral load. This SNP (an allele frequency of approximately 15% in our cohort) was associated with increased susceptibility to mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, consistent with a previous study on this polymorphism among Nairobi sex workers.

Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Choi RY, Fowke KR, Juno J, Lohman-Payne B, Oyugi JO, Brown ER, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "C868T single nucleotide polymorphism and HIV type 1 disease progression among postpartum women in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2012;28(6):566-70. Abstract

The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid substitution of tryptophan for arginine in the third domain. Previous studies suggest that C868T increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition; however, the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on disease progression has not been established. The presence of the C868T polymorphism was not statistically significantly associated with HIV-1 disease progression outcomes in a cohort of postpartum Kenyan women.

Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Choi RY, Fowke KR JL-POJOBERBJ-SFJBR. "C868T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and HIV Type 1. Disease Progression among Postpartum Women in Kenya." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011.
Choksey PV, Gichuhi S. "Diabetes and the eye.". In: Clinical care guidelines for diabetes in Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2005. Abstract

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, W5010, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. sgichuhi@jhsph.edu BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a rare, slow-growing tumour of the eye, normally affecting elderly men around 70 years of age. In Africa, however, the disease is different. The incidence is rising rapidly, affecting young persons (around 35 years off age), and usually affecting women. It is more aggressive, with a mean history of three months at presentation. This pattern is related to the co-existence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, high HPV exposure, and solar radiation in the region. Various interventions exist, but despite therapy, there is a high recurrence rate (up to 43%) and poor cosmetic results in late disease. This review was conducted to evaluate the interventions for treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of interventions for treating squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV-infected individuals on local control, recurrence, death, time to recurrence, and adverse events. SEARCH STRATEGY: Using a sensitive search strategy, we attempted to identify all relevant trials, regardless of language or publication status, from the following electronic databases; Medline/PubMed, CENTRAL, AIDSearch, EMBASE, LILACS, African Healthline, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialised Register, and the Cochrane Cancer Network Specialised Register. We searched the clinical trial register of the US National Institutes of Health, searched the international conference proceedings of AIDS and AIDS-related cancers, and contacted individual researchers, research organisations, and pharmaceutical companies that manufacture the drugs used as interventions. Searches were done between September 2005 and June 2006. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving HIV-infected individuals with ocular surface squamous neoplasia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies and to retrieve the full articles. We independently applied the inclusion criteria to the potentially relevant studies. No studies were identified that fulfilled the selection criteria. MAIN RESULTS: No RCTs of interventions currently used against conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals were identified. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Implications for practice:Current clinical practice in treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva rests on a weak evidence base of case series and case reports.Implications for research:Randomised controlled trials for treatment of this disease are needed in settings where it occurs most frequently. Preventive interventions also need to be identified. HIV/AIDS research has not focused on treatment of this tumour. PMID: 17443606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Chopra S, Baby C, Jacob JJ. "Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure." Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;15:S281-S288. AbstractWebsite

As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP) is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP control, the neural mechanisms, renal-endocrine mechanisms, and a variety of other hormones that have a bearing in normal BP control are discussed and the possible role in the pathophysiology is alluded to.

Chow YW, Pietranico R, Mukerji A. "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1424-31.
Chow YW, Pietranico R, Mukerji A. "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1424-31.
Chris G, Kimuyu PK, Manos R, Murinde V. "How do small firms in developing countries raise capital? Evidence from a large - scale survey of Kenyan micro and small scale enterprises’ Paper No.43.". In: Working Paper Series, Finance and Development Programme, Institute for Development Policy and Management. University of Manch ester; 2002.
Christiana Z. Peppard, Andrea Vicini SJ. "C.A. Mumma-Martinon.". In: Just Sustainability. New york: Orbis books , Maryknoll; 2015.1._towards_environmental_sustainability_-_ctewc.pdf
CHRISTOPH DRSCHALLERULRICH, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Microbial contamination of multi-use ophthalmic solutions in Kenya. Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. PMID: 17475714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nentwich MM, Kollmann KH, Meshack J, Ilako DR, Schaller UC.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
CHRISTOPH DRSCHALLERULRICH, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Microbial contamination of multi-use ophthalmic solutions in Kenya. Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. PMID: 17475714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nentwich MM, Kollmann KH, Meshack J, Ilako DR, Schaller UC.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

Universit

CHRISTOPH DRSCHALLERULRICH, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Microbial contamination of multi-use ophthalmic solutions in Kenya. Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. PMID: 17475714 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nentwich MM, Kollmann KH, Meshack J, Ilako DR, Schaller UC.". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
Christophe Long, Yannick Aussagues, Nicolas Molinier LMLVASVPPCMBF. "Dichapetalins from Dichapetalum species and their cytotoxic properties." Phytochemistry . 2013;94:184-191.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., Utilisation of Wind as an Energy Source in Kenya.". In: First International Conference of African Meteorological Society, Nairobi, Kenya, 8 -12 Feb., 1993, pp. 630 - 641. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Equatorial Total ozone as a predictor of sea surface temperatures useful for East African seasonal rainfall prediction.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol. 6. No. 2, pp 1-10, 2003. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Wind: A promising energy alternative for power generation. Solarnet Newsletter Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 1. pp 31-43.". In: United Nations University, 2001, Hong Kong. pp. 123. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., (2002): Synthesis Report on Factoring Weather and Climate information and Products into Disaster Management Policy,.". In: A contribution to strategies for disaster management in Kenya., July 2002, pp. 9-12. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2002.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE, CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Use of Equatorial Total Ozone as a predictor of Sea Surface Temperatures for the East African Seasonal Rainfall Prediction.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol. 6. No. 2, pp 1-10. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2003.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Statistical Characteristics of Wind Power in Kenya.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1987.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Vertical Variations of Wind Power in Kenya. Journal of Discovery and Innovation, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp 73 - 80.". In: Kenya. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., Wind energy technology in the Sub-Saharan Africa with special reference to the Kenyan region.". In: Seminar Proceeding Publication, First International Conference on recent experience in research, development and dissemination of renewable energy technologies (RETS), Nairobi, Kenya. 29th Mar. - 2nd April. 1993, pp 96 - 101. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., An assessment of the Space-Time characteristics of wind power availability in Kenya.". In: Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Meteorology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., Main Report on Factoring Weather and Climate information and Products into Disaster Management Policy,.". In: A contribution to strategies for disaster management in Kenya., July 2002, pp.152-206. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2002.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Analysis of Power Output Curves from Five Wind Energy Converters at the wind farm in Norden, Germany.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Oldenburg, Germany. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1989.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., Wind Power Utilisation in Kenya.,.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, Vol 1, No. 2., pp.153 -160. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1992.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C and Ogallo, L. J, Spatial Characteristics of the Wind Speeds over Kenya.". In: Kenya Journal of African Academy of Sciences. Series (A), No. 10, pp 93 - 113. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1995.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., Once Burned, Twice Shy?: Lessons Learned from the 1997-98 El-Nino.". In: United Nations University, 2001, Hong Kong. pp. 123. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "A simple Model for Determining the Potential Risks of Lightning Strokes over the Cities of Nairobi and Mombasa.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. , Vol. 6, No.2, pp 18-24. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2003.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN, N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Equatorial Total ozone as a predictor of sea surface temperatures useful for East African seasonal rainfall prediction.". In: J. Afric.Met.Soc. Vol. 6. No. 2, pp 1-10, 2003. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2003.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE, CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., and Ogallo, L. J., Statistical Characteristics of the Surface Wind Speeds over Kenya.". In: Journal of applied statistics, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp 331-343. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1989.
eds. Christopher Adam, et al. "Securing Property Rights in Land in Kenya: Formal Versus Informal.". In: Kenya Policies For Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.
Chrysant, SG; Gollub DMI; BIS; DKJRS; R;. "Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of enalapril in patients with heart failure.". 1985. Abstract

Placebo and enalapril were added on a double-blind basis to conventional treatment in 14 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), New York Heart Association class II-III. The patients were followed for 14 weeks and their performance was evaluated by a treadmill test, ejection fraction by nuclear scan, cardiothoracic ratio, and Yale Scale score. Metabolic studies were done to test any adverse effects of the drugs. Enalapril decreased arterial pressure and cardiothoracic ratio, and increased ejection fraction. Placebo exerted no significant effects. However, both drugs improved treadmill time and Yale Scale score. No adverse metabolic or clinical effects were observed with either drug. Based on these limited observations we conclude that: Enalapril is a useful ancillary agent to conventional treatment of CHF; it exerts its effects through afterload and preload reduction; and it is safe and well tolerated and has a prolonged duration of action.

Chumo JJ, Ochieng JAW, Njoroge K, Compton WA. "Maize improvement, production and protection in Eastern and Southern Africa.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd E & S Africa Regional Maize Conference. Nairobi & Kitale; 1989.
Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Njiri F, John-Stewart GC. "Highly active antiretroviral therapy versus zidovudine/nevirapine effects on early breast milk HIV type-1 Rna: a phase II randomized clinical trial." Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 2008;13(6):799-807. Abstract

Defining the effect of antiretroviral regimens on breast milk HIV type-1 (HIV-1) levels is useful to inform the rational design of strategies to decrease perinatal HIV-1 transmission.

Chung MH, McKenzie KP, De Vuyst H, Richardson BA;, Rana F, Pamnani R, Njoroge JW, Nyongesa-Malava E, Sakr SR, John-Stewart GC, Mugo NR. "Comparing pap smear, via, and hpv cervical cancer screening methods among hiv-positive women by immune status and antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

A rigorous comparison of cervical cancer screening methods utilizing data on immune status, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and colposcopy-directed biopsy has not been performed among HIV-positive women.
METHODS::
Between June and November 2009, 500 HIV-positive women were enrolled at an HIV treatment clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and underwent Papanicolau (Pap) smear, Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA), human papillomavirus (HPV), and colposcopy-directed biopsy (gold standard). Positive Pap smear (ASCUS+, LSIL+, HSIL+), VIA, HPV, and their combinations were compared to CIN2/3+. Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (sensitivity and 1-specificity) were compared using pairwise tests and multivariate logistic regression models that included age, CD4 count, and ART duration.
RESULTS::
Of 500 enrolled, 498 samples were collected. On histology, there were 172 (35%) normal, 186 (37%) CIN1, 66 (13%) CIN2, 47 (9%) CIN3, and 27 (5%) indeterminate. Pap (ASCUS+) was the most sensitive screening method (92.7%), combination of both Pap (HSIL+) and VIA positive was the most specific (99.1%), and Pap (HSIL+) had the highest AUC (0.85). In multivariate analyses, CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm was associated with decreased HPV specificity (p = 0.002); ART duration <2 years was associated with decreased HPV (p = 0.01) and VIA (p = 0.03) specificity; and age <40 years was associated with increased VIA sensitivity (p < 0.001) and decreased HPV specificity (p = 0.005).
CONCLUSIONS::
Pap smear is a robust test among HIV-positive women regardless of immune status or ART duration. Results should be cautiously interpreted when using HPV among those younger, immunosuppressed, or on ART <2 years, and when using VIA among those ≥ 40 years.

Chung, Michael H; Kiarie JRBLDOJ; KNF; J-SN; A; A;. "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) versus Zidovudine/Nevirapine Effects on Early Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA: A Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial.". 2008. Abstract

Background Defining the effect of antiretroviral regimens on breast milk HIV-1 levels is useful to inform the rational design of strategies to decrease perinatal HIV-1 transmission. Methods Pregnant HIV-1 seropositive women (CD4 >250 and <500 cells/mm3) electing to breastfeed in Nairobi, Kenya were randomized to HAART (zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine) during pregnancy and 6 months postpartum or to short-course zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/NVP). Breast milk samples were collected 2-3 times per week in the first month postpartum. Findings Between November 2003 and April 2006, 444 breast milk samples were collected from 58 randomized women during the first month after delivery. Between 3 and 14 days postpartum, women in the HAART and ZDV/NVP arms had a similar prevalence of undetectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA. From 15 to 28 days postpartum, women in the HAART arm had significantly lower levels of breast milk HIV-1 RNA than women randomized to ZDV/NVP (1.7 log10 copies/ml (limit of detection) vs. > 2.10 log10 copies/ml, P < 0.001). In contrast to breast milk HIV-1 RNA, suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA during the neonatal period was consistently several log10 greater in the HAART arm compared to the ZDV/NVP arm. Conclusions HAART resulted in lower breast milk HIV-1 RNA than ZDV/NVP, however, ZDV/NVP yielded comparable breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels in the first 2 weeks postpartum. Breast milk HIV-1 RNA remained suppressed in the ZDV/NVP arm despite increased plasma HIV-1 levels, which may reflect local drug-effects or compartmentalization.

Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, Njiri F, John-Stewart GC. "Independent effects of nevirapine prophylaxis and HIV-1 RNA suppression in breast milk on early perinatal HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2007;46(4):472-8. Abstract

The mechanism of action of single-dose nevirapine on reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 may involve reduction of maternal HIV-1 or prophylaxis of infants.

Chung MH, Richardson BA, Tapia K, Benki-Nugent S, Kiarie JN, Simoni JM, Overbaugh J, Attwa M, John-Stewart GC. "A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Effects of Counseling and Alarm Device on HAART Adherence and Virologic Outcomes.". 2011. Abstract

Behavioral interventions that promote adherence to antiretroviral medications may decrease HIV treatment failure. Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa confront increasing financial constraints to provide comprehensive HIV care, which include adherence interventions. This study compared the impact of counseling and use of an alarm device on adherence and biological outcomes in a resource-limited setting. Methods and Findings A randomized controlled, factorial designed trial was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Antiretroviral-naïve individuals initiating free highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the form of fixed-dose combination pills (d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine) were randomized to one of four arms: counseling (three counseling sessions around HAART initiation), alarm (pocket electronic pill reminder carried for 6 months), counseling plus alarm, and neither counseling nor alarm. Participants were followed for 18 months after HAART initiation. Primary study endpoints included plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count every 6 months, mortality, and adherence measured by monthly pill count. Between May 2006 and September 2008, 400 individuals were enrolled, 362 initiated HAART, and 310 completed follow-up. Participants who received counseling were 29% less likely to have monthly adherence <80% (hazard ratio [HR]=0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–1.01; p=0.055) and 59% less likely to experience viral failure (HIV-1 RNA ≥5,000 copies/ml) (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21–0.81; p=0.01) compared to those who received no counseling. There was no significant impact of using an alarm on poor adherence (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65–1.32; p=0.7) or viral failure (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.53–1.84; p=1.0) compared to those who did not use an alarm. Neither counseling nor alarm was significantly associated with mortality or rate of immune reconstitution. Conclusions Intensive early adherence counseling at HAART initiation resulted in sustained, significant impact on adherence and virologic treatment failure during 18-month follow-up, while use of an alarm device had no effect. As antiretroviral treatment clinics expand to meet an increasing demand for HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, adherence counseling should be implemented to decrease the development of treatment failure and spread of resistant HIV.

Chung MH, Drake AL, Richardson BA, Reddy A, Thiga J, Sakr SR, Kiarie JN, Yowakim P, John-Stewart GC. "Impact of prior HAART use on clinical outcomes in a large Kenyan HIV treatment program." Curr. HIV Res.. 2009;7(4):441-6. Abstract

HIV treatment programs in Africa typically approach all enrolling patients uniformly. Growing numbers of patients are antiretroviral experienced. Defining patients on the basis of antiretroviral experience may inform enrollment practices, particularly if medical outcomes differ.

Chung MH;, Drake AL;, Richardson BA;, Reddy A;, Thiga J;, Sakr SR;, Kiarie JN;, Yowakim P;, Stewart GJC. "Impact of Prior HAART Use on Clinical Outcomes in a Large Kenyan HIV Treatment Program."; 2009.
Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Breast milk HIV-1 suppression and decreased transmission: a randomized trial comparing HIVNET 012 nevirapine versus short-course zidovudine." AIDS. 2005;19(13):1415-22. Abstract

To compare the effect of perinatal regimens of short-course nevirapine (HIVNET 012) and zidovudine [Thai-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regimen] on breast milk viral shedding and perinatal transmission during the first 6 weeks postpartum in a randomized clinical trial.

Chung MH, Richardson BA, Tapia K, Benki-Nugent S, Kiarie JN, Simoni JM, Overbaugh J, Attwa M, John-Stewart GC. "A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of counseling and alarm device on HAART adherence and virologic outcomes." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(3):e1000422. Abstract

Behavioral interventions that promote adherence to antiretroviral medications may decrease HIV treatment failure. Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa confront increasing financial constraints to provide comprehensive HIV care, which include adherence interventions. This study compared the impact of counseling and use of an alarm device on adherence and biological outcomes in a resource-limited setting.

Chunge CN, Estambale B, Pamba HO, Chitayi PM, Munanga PN, Kang'ethe S. "Comparison of four nitroimidazole compounds for treatment of symptomatic amoebiasis in Kenya.". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Four antiamoebic drugs currently used in many Kenyan hospitals and health centres were compared for their efficacy on symptomatic luminal amoebiasis in Kiambu, Kilifi, and Machakos hospitals during this study. The drugs were; the brand metronidazole (Flagyl, May & Baker, Kenya Ltd.), the generic metronidazole (Metrozol, Cosmos Ltd., Nairobi, Kenya), the brand tinidazole (Fasigyn, Pfizer Laboratories Ltd.) and the generic tinidazole (Tynazole Laboratory and Allied Equipments, Kenya Ltd). Clinical cure was achieved in all individuals receiving any of the four drugs. Parasitological cure was better for those receiving either Flagyl or Fasigyn, than those receiving the generic counterparts. Both parasitological and clinical cures were achieved in about 50% of all those who received either Flagyl or Fasigyn. It appears that Flagyl and Fasigyn are not as efficacious as previously reported but are still much better than their generic counterparts for the treatment of symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infections

Chunge CN, Kangethe S, Pamba HO, Owate J. "Treatment of symptomatic trichomoniasis among adult women using oral nitroimidazoles.". 1992. Abstracttreatment_of_symptomatic_trichomoniasis_among_adult_women_using_oral.pdf

Successful treatment of infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is difficult because of many confounding factors such as poor abstinence from sex during chemotherapy, lack of standardised chemotherapy, difficulties in understanding transmission patterns and low detection rates among infected individuals. The purpose of this study was to establish the present efficacy of the available drugs at their recommended single or double dosages for Kenya. Adult symptomatic females (age 17-39 years) with positive High Vaginal Swabs but without pregnancy were recruited into the study; and asked to swallow one of the following medicine: nimorazole 2G (Naxogin Farmitalia Carlo Erba, Italy), nimorazole 4G in two equally divided doses 24 hours apart (2GBD), nimorazole 3G, tinidazole 2G (Fasigyn, Pfizer Ltd) and ornidazole 1.5G (Tiberal, Roche, Switzerland). All patients were reviewed 48 hours after the drugs administration and 24 hours after the last dose for the group which received nimorazole 2GBD. 153 patients were recruited into the study. 121 came for follow up out of which 49 were dropped from the study for involvement in sexual intercourse leaving only 72 for the final analysis. Clinical cure was 100% for the group receiving nimorazole 2GBD and nimorazole 3G. Parasitological cure was highest for the group on nimorazole 2GBD (100%) and lowest for the group on tinidazole (50%). Instruction to avoid sex during treatment were withheld from patients. This made it easier during the follow up to pick out and drop from the study those who had had sexual contact

Chunge CN, Chunge RN, Masinde MS, Atinga JN. "An Outbreak of Acute Schistosomiasis Following a Church Retreat to Mwanza, Tanzania, 2008." Journal of Travel Medicine Volume . 2011;18(6):408-410. Abstract

Clinical and laboratory findings are described from 77 persons from Nairobi, Kenya, of whom 66 were diagnosed with acute Schistosoma mansoni infection following a trip to Mwanza, Tanzania. Unusual ocular symptoms were observed as a rare manifestation of acute schistosomiasis. The outbreak highlights the risk of swimming in Lake Victoria.

Chunge CN, Ngige S, Bwibo CR, Mulega PC, Kilonzo JF, Kibati F, Owate J. "A rapid staining technique for Leishmania parasites in splenic aspirate smears.". 1989. Abstract

A quick and suitable method for staining Leishmania donovani and other blood protozoa is described. The method, which could have wide applications, is a modification of Field's staining technique as used for malaria parasites. It uses the same stains in a different order. The method has been tried on smears containing malaria and trypanosomes, and the results were good. It is very cheap and requires no special apparatus or training

Chweya L, Omosa M, P. W. "Ideology and Governance in Kenya: Reflections on the Theory and Practice, ." Governance and Political Transition in Kenya. 2006.
Ciarunji C. East African Women Writers.; 1996.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Drama in East Africa' in Encyclopaedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1995. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Oral Literature of the Embu and Mbeere: EAEP.". In: In 'Wajibu, Journal of Social and Religious Concern', Vol. 19, No. 3 (Sept.- Oct.). uon press; 1996. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "La Femme Malgache' in 'La Nouvelle Revue de Makerere'.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1970. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Notes to Francis Imbuga's Man of Kafira Nairobi Heinemann.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1984. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Oral Literature of the Kalenjin Nairobi EAEP.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1991. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Perspectives on Women in African Literature: Impact Associates.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1994. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Folklore in East Africa' in Encyclopaedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1995. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Students' Guide to Peter Abrahams' Mine Boy:.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1996. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Globalisation: What's in it for the Kenyan Woman?'.". In: In 'Wajibu, Journal of Social and Religious Concern', Vol. 19, No. 3 (Sept.- Oct.). uon press; 2004. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'The Theme of Regeneration in Robert Serumaga's Return to the Shadows' in Africa Thought and Practice Vol. 4 No. 1.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1982. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Little Fishes and Crocodiles' (A Short Story) in Little Amu and the Kobole ed. by W.Mwotia et al Oxford University Press:.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1989. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'The development of Women's Studies in Kenya' in Women's Studies Around the World.Women's Press.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1994. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Francis Imbuga' in Encyclopaedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1995. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Teaching of Africa Literature in the 21st Century (In Press: University of Nairobi Press).". In: In 'Wajibu, Journal of Social and Religious Concern', Vol. 19, No. 3 (Sept.- Oct.). uon press; 1996. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Who is on Trial in The Trial of Dedan Kimathi?' in Busara Vol. 8 No.2.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1976. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Women Issues, What Role for Literature?'in Wajibu: A Journal of Social and ReligiousConcern Vol. 3 No. 2.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1988. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Grace Ogot: A Creative Writer's Contribution to Cultural Development and Women'sEmancipation' in Writers'Forum.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1992. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Hope on the Horizon: Impact Associates.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1994. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Cicerone CM, Nerger JL. "The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis." Vision research. 1989;29:115-128. Abstract

The determination of the relative numbers of different cone types in the human retina is fundamental to our understanding of visual sensitivity and color vision; yet direct measurement which provide this basic information have not previously been made for all cone types. Here we present a model which links the detection of a test light of small dimension to the number of cones contributing to detection of the light. We selectively isolated either the long-wavelength-sensitive (L) or the middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones, by choosing combinations of wavelengths of adapting backgrounds and tests to favor detection by the cone class of interest. Our model was applied to the detection functions measured for six color normal observers to obtain estimates of the relative numbers of L to M cones. Our estimates ranged between 1.46 and 2.36 for our observers with a mean value near two L cones for every M cone in human fovea centralis.

Cicerone CM, Nerger JL. "The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis." Vision Research. 1989;29:115-128. AbstractWebsite

The determination of the relative numbers of different cone types in the human retina is fundamental to our understanding of visual sensitivity and color vision; yet direct measurements which provide this basic information have not previously been made for all cone types. Here we present a model which links the detection of a test light of small dimension to the number of cones contributing to detection of the light. We selectively isolated either the long-wavelength-sensitive (L) or the middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones, by choosing combinations of wavelengths of adapting backgrounds and tests to favor detection by the cone class of interest. Our model was applied to the detection functions measured for six color normal observers to obtain estimates of the relative numbers of L to M cones. Our estimates ranged between 1.46 and 2.36 for our observers with a mean value near two L cones for every M cone in human fovea centralis.

CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(1997)Kenya Secondary School Christian Religious Education: quantitative and qualitative investigation of teachers and students attitudes-Phd. Thesis:.". In: Unpublished Phd. Thesis. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2002)Milestones in child growth and development.". In: Conference Report on quality, viable and sustainable early childhood development service for the African Child pp 37-38. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2005).". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2001)Philosophical and Psychological issues in transition.". In: National workshop on transition from preschool to primary on 5th April 2001 at Kenya Institute of Education Nairobi. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2005).". In: The Fountain Journal of the Faculty of Education. No. 2 pp29-42. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(1998)'Development of an attitude scale for Kenya secondary Christian Religious Education Teachers and Students' in Ife PsychologIA Vol. 6 No 2. p. 94-115.". In: Ife PsychologIA Vol. 6 No 2. p. 94-115. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2003).". In: The Fountain Journal of the faculty of Education No. 1 pp25-36. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CK K, J M, JA O, SG K. "Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses." Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;2(2):1-5.Website
CK M, PN K, K M, DG N, GA M, SA O. "Correlates and management of anaemia of chronic kidney disease in a Kenyan tertiary hospital. ." East African Medical Journal. 2016.
Claeys G, Taelman H, Gichangi P, Tyndall M, Ombete J, Verschraegen G, Temmeperman M. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from men with urethritis in Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 1998;74(4):294-5.
Clair V, Mutiso V, Musau A, Frank E, Ndetei D. "Online learning improves substance use care in Kenya: Randomized control trial results and implications." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(3):320-321. AbstractWebsite

Alcohol use is the 5th most important risk factor driving the global burden of diseases. WHO identifies a lack of health worker training as one of the main barriers to providing cost-effective brief interventions for alcohol use disorder. This study assesses the impact of online training, using the NextGenU.org model, on the delivery of the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and its linked brief intervention (BI).

Clark OH, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. Textbook of endocrine surgery. WB Saunders Company; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Claudia Bobach, Jana Schurwanz, Katrin Franke ADTVSRKPCMBSLWA. "Multiple readout assay for hormonal (androgenic and antiandrogenic) and cytotoxic activity of plant and fungal extracts based on differential prostate cancer cell line behavior." Journal of Ethnopharmacology . 2014;155(1):721-730.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Misingi Ya Hisabati1,2,3.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics Guides1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.E.A.E.P.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 E.AE.P.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Peak Revision Mathematics.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Algebra 1 and 11 (O.D.L Lecture Notes).". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
Clegg-Lamptey JN, Naaeder SB. "Appendicitis {In} {Accra}: {A} {Contemporary} {Appraisal}." Ghana medical journal. 2003;37:52-6. Abstract
n/a
Clegg-Lamptey JN, Dakubo JC, Hodasi WM. "Comparison of four-day and ten-day post-mastectomy passive drainage in {Accra}, {Ghana}." East African medical journal. 2008;84:561-565. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Clemens ET, Maloiy GMO. "Organic acid concentrations and digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of the bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus) and Vervet monkey (Cercopithecidae pygerythrus).". 2009. Abstract

Studies were conducted to compare digestive functions in two species of sub-human primate, the bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus) and the Vervet monkey (Cercopithecidae pygerythrus). Major differences were observed in the rate at which digesta markers moved through their respective gastrointestinal tracts, and in the concentration of lactic acid present in the gut. In both species, the caecum and colon were the principle sites of microbial activity and organic acid production.

Clement G Tweh, Célestin Y Kouakou, Chira R, John M Githaiga, Shadrach Kerwillain MM-O, Matthew Varney JJ. "Nest Counts Reveal a Stable Chimpanzee Population in Sapo National Park, Liberia." Primate Conservation. 2018;32:12.
Clet Wandui Masiga, Abdalla Mohamed, Sarah Osama, Abigail Ngugi, Dan Kiambi, Santie de Villiers, Ngugi K, Mugoya C, Rasha Ali. "Enhanced Utilization of Biotechnology Research and Development Innovations in Eastern and Central Africa for Agro-ecological Intensification.". In: Enhanced Utilization of BiotechnologyResearch and Development Innovationsin Eastern and Central Africafor Agro-ecological Intensification. Entebe: Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA); 2014.masiga_et_al_2014_enhanced_use_of_biotechnology_in_eca.pdf
Clifford PS. "Local control of blood flow." Advances in Physiology Education. 2011;35:5-15. AbstractWebsite

Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors varies over time, from tissue to tissue, and among vessel generations.

Clough JM, Midiwo JO. Aspects of African Biodiversity.; 2008.
CM M, D K, S N, T C. "Challenges of parathyroidectomy in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and end stage renal disease- Case report." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.. 2013;13(2):57-61.
CM M, MV G, C K. "Attitude and practices of sedation amongst critical care nurses working in a Kenyan national hospital." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2014;14(2):35-41.
CM M, K K, C K. "Blind naso-endotracheal intubation." Annals of African Surgery . 2013;10(1):43-46.
CN M, Keriko JM, Mutai C, A Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Nyangacha R, Mungai GM, s. D. "Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya." J Ethnopharmacol.. 2015;175(3):15-23. Abstract

J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Dec 4;175:315-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.017. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya.
Muthaura CN1, Keriko JM2, Mutai C3, Yenesew A4, Gathirwa JW5, Irungu BN5, Nyangacha R5, Mungai GM6, Derese S4.
Author information
Abstract
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Medicinal plants play a major role in many communities across the world, in the treatment and prevention of disease and the promotion of general health. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to combat malaria by the Ameru community of Imenti Forest area and Gatunga in Eastern Region of Kenya, and validate their ethnopharmacological claims by evaluating their antiplasmodial efficacies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was carried out in Meru County at Imenti Forest Game Reserve and in Tharaka Nithi County at Gatunga. Traditional health practitioners (THP) were interviewed with a standard questionnaire to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for management of malaria. Group interviews were also held among THPs and members of the community. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semi-automated micro-dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-3H) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite.
RESULTS:
Ninety nine (99) species in eighty one (81) genera and forty five (45) families were documented and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Compositae, Fabaceae, Meliceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae had the highest number of species mentioned in treatment of malaria in Meru/Tharaka Nithi study area. Twenty four (24.2%) species showed antiplasmodial efficacy of IC50≤5µg/ml and were considered to have potential for isolation of antimalarial compounds. Eight plant (8) species with moderate antiplasmodial activity namely; Cordia africana, Commiphora africana, Elaeodendron buchananii, Gomphocarpus semilunatus, Tarena graveolens, Plectranthus igniarius, Acacia senegal and Ziziphus abyssinica were documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. The antiplasmodial activity of MeOH root bark extract of Maytenus obtusifolia was very promising (IC50<1.9µg/ml) and this is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and antimalarial activity.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results seem to indicate that ethnopharmacological inquiry used in search for new herbal remedies as predictive and could be used as the basis for search of new active principles. Eight plant (8) species are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. This is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activity.

CO A, PM N, LW. I. "Natural and experimental studies on domestic animal infections with visceral and cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2012;23:292-297.
Coast E, Hennink M, Hutter I, Nzioka C, Puri M. "Qualitative research in demography: a review of the last decade.". In: Sixth African Population Conference. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2011.
Cochran DG. "Excreta analysis on additional cockroach species and the house cricket." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1976;53(1):79-81.
de Cock, K. M; Hodgen LSLRAN; JE;. "Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Kenya: an assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).". 1985. Abstract

Sera from 124 adult Kenyan patients with chronic splenomegaly and from 93 geographically matched controls without splenomegaly were tested for evidence of Schistosoma mansoni infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ova of S. mansoni were detected on stool or rectal snip examination in 23.4% of all patients, whereas 57.3% had a positive ELISA. All patients with parasitological or histological evidence of schistosomal infection had a positive ELISA, and a negative test reliably excluded schistosomiasis. On the basis of liver histology, 23 patients (18.5%) were considered to have hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, of whom 17 (73.9%) had a positive stool or snip. The ELISA was positive in 47.5% of cases of non-schistosomal splenomegaly, and in 52.7% of apparently normal controls. This high seropositive rate in the latter two groups emphasizes that schistosomal infection does not signify disease, and limits the diagnostic value of the test in individual cases of splenomegaly. Marked tribal and, therefore geographical, differences were noted in the prevalence of infection.

Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. Child Welfare in Developing countries ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC ; 2010.
Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Child Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction. Chapter 1 in Cockburn J. and J. Kabubo-Mariara (Eds.).ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6.". In: Child Welfare in Developing countries. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC; 2010.
Cockerill FR. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-first informational supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); 2011. Abstract
n/a
Coddens A, Verdonck F, Mulinge M, Goyvaerts E, Miry C, Goddeeris B, Duchateau L, Cox E. "The possibility of positive selection for both F18(+)Escherichia coli and stress resistant pigs opens new perspectives for pig breeding." Vet. Microbiol.. 2008;126(1-3):210-5. Abstract

F18(+)Escherichia coli infections causing post-weaning diarrhoea and/or oedema disease are a major cause of economic losses in pig industry. To date, no preventive strategy can protect pigs from F18(+)E. coli infections. One of the most attractive approaches to eliminate F18(+)E. coli infections is the selection for pigs that are resistant to F18(+)E. coli infections. However, this strategy was not believed to be favourable because of reports of genetic association with the stress-susceptibility gene in the Swiss Landrace. To investigate this potential association more thoroughly, 131 randomly selected Belgian hybrid pigs were genotyped for both the F18(+)E. coli resistance alleles (FUT1(A)) and the stress-susceptibility alleles (RYR1(T)) and their association was investigated by determining the linkage disequilibrium. This linkage disequilibrium (LD=-0.0149) is close to zero and does not differ significantly from 0 (likelihood ratio test chi(1)(2)=1.123, P=0.29), demonstrating no association between the FUT1(A) and RYR1(T) alleles. Furthermore, only a small fraction (4.6%) of the Belgian pigs was found to be resistant to F18(+)E. coli infections. Our results suggest that selection for F18(+)E. coli resistant pigs might be an attractive approach to prevent pigs from F18(+)E. coli infections, unlike to what has previously been postulated.

Cohen M, Kosgei RJ, Rerimoi A, Mamlin J. "The Emerging Problem of Coronary Heart Disease in Kenya ." East African Medical Journal . 2003;80(6):293-297.the_emerging_problem_of_coronary_heart_disease_in_kenya.pdf
Cohen JE, Montero A, Israel ZH. "Prognosis and clinical relevance of anisocoria-craniotomy latency for epidural hematoma in comatose patients." Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 1996;41:120-122. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Cohen CR, Koochesfahani KM, Meier AS, Shen C, Karunakaran K, Ondondo B, Teresa Kinyari, Mugo NR, Nguti R, Brunham RC. "Cohen C.,Koochesfahani K..,Meier A.,Shen C.,Karunakaran K.,Ondondo B.,Kinyari T.,Mugo N.,Nguti R., Brunham R. Immunoepidemiologic Profile of C. trachomatis Infection: Importance of hsp 60 and IFγ. JID 2005;192:591-599 ." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005;192:591-599. AbstractWebsite

Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.

Cohen-Cory S, Escandón E, Fraser SE. "The cellular patterns of {BDNF} and {trkB} expression suggest multiple roles for {BDNF} during {Xenopus} visual system development." Developmental biology. 1996;179:102-115. Abstract

The temporal patterns of BDNF and trkB expression in the developing Xenopus laevis tadpole, and the responsiveness of retinal ganglion cells to BDNF, both in culture and in vivo, suggest significant roles for this neurotrophin during visual system development (Cohen-Cory and Fraser, Neuron 12, 747-761, 1994; Nature 378, 192-196, 1995). To examine the potential roles of this neurotrophin within the developing retina and in its target tissue, the optic tectum, we studied the cellular sites of BDNF expression by in situ hybridization. In the developing optic tectum, discrete groups of cells juxtaposed to the tectal neuropil where retinal axons arborize expressed BDNF, supporting the target-derived role commonly proposed for this neurotrophin. In the retina, retinal ganglion cells, ciliary margin cells, and a subset of cells in the inner nuclear layer expressed the BDNF gene. The expression of BDNF coincided with specific trkB expression by both retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells, as well as with the localization of functional BDNF binding sites within the developing retina, as shown by in situ hybridization and BDNF cross-linking studies. To test for a possible role of endogenous retinal BDNF during development, we studied the effects of neutralizing antibodies to BDNF on the survival of retinal ganglion cells in culture. Exogenously administered BDNF increased survival, whereas neutralizing antibodies to BDNF significantly reduced baseline retinal ganglion cell survival and differentiation. This suggests the presence of an endogenous retinal source of neurotrophic support and that this is most likely BDNF itself. The retinal cellular patterns of BDNF and trkB expression as well as the effects of neutralizing antibodies to this neurotrophin suggest that, in addition to a target-derived role, BDNF plays both autocrine and/or paracrine roles during visual system development.

Cohen-Cory S, Lom B. "Neurotrophic regulation of retinal ganglion cell synaptic connectivity: from axons and dendrites to synapses." The International journal of developmental biology. 2004;48:947-956. Abstract

This review highlights important events during the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), focusing on mechanisms that control axon and dendritic arborization as a means to understand synaptic connectivity with special emphasis on the role of neurotrophins during structural and functional development of RGCs. Neurotrophins and their receptors participate in the development of visual connectivity at multiple levels. In the visual system, neurotrophins have been shown to exert various developmental influences, from guiding the morphological differentiation of neurons to controlling the functional plasticity of visual circuits. This review article examines the role of neurotrophins, and in particular of BDNF, during the morphological development of RGCs, and discusses potential interactions between activity and neurotrophins during development of neuronal connectivity.

Coles GC, Bruce JI, Kinoti GK, Mutahi WT, Dias EP, & Katz N. "Drug Resistance in schitosomiasis." Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. . 1986;80:347.
Coles GC, Bruce JI, Kinoti GK, Mutahi WT, Dias LCS, Rocha RS, Katz N. "The potential for drug resistance in schitosomiasis. ." Parastology Today . 1987;3:349.
Coles GC, Mutahi WT, Kinoti GK, Bruce JI, Katz N. "Tolerance of Kenyan Schistosoma mansoni to oxamniquine." Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. . 1987;81:782-785.
Colin P, Kanyinga K. The Politics of Revitalising Agriculture in Kenya. Futures Agriculture Consortium; 2013.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Peter Auma Nyamanga, Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen Similarities between Human and Livestock Illnesses among the Luo in Western Kenya. Anthropology and Medicine, Vol. 13, No.1 pp.13-24, April 2006.". In: workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 2006.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Culture and Gender in Kenya:The Conceptual Connection and the Agenda for Change Mila Vol.4 1999, pp. 1 - 8.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (1) pp 66 - 75. A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. ISSN 0250-8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Comment on a chapter by Winnie Mitulla enttitled Urban Poverty and Gender Issues in Environment and Development in Kenya (Ed.) R.A. Obudho pp. 124 - 126.". In: Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Differential Participation of Men and Women in Production and Reproduction in Kakamega District" Implications for Equity. 0169-796X.". In: Journal of Developing Societies. Vol. V, Nos 3 and 4. pp. 234 244. Edited by K. Ishwaran and published by E. J. Bril, Leiden, The Netherlands. ISSN. European Psychiatric Journal; 1989. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Gender Disparities in the Kenyan Labour Market Implications for Poverty Reduction".". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 11:3, pp. 301 . European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Underlying Assumptions of the Dependency Perspective, the World System Theory and the Modes of Production Approach" Some Disjunctures in Thinking Globally and Acting Locally, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development Vol. 2.". In: Published by Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi, Kenya. ISSN 0251-0405. European Psychiatric Journal; 1992. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Gender Disparities in the Kenyan Labour Market: Implications for Poverty Reduction.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 11:3, pp. 301, 2002. European Psychiatric Journal; 2002. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

UoN Websites Search