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Mwonjoria JJ, Ngereanwa JJ, Kariuki HN, Githinji CG, Sigina MN, Wambugu SN. "Ethno medicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of solanum incanum (lin.)." International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology (IJPT). 2014;2(2):17-20.abstract-mwonjoria_et_al_2014.docx
Mwangi PW, Wambugu S, Kariuki DK, Mbugua PM, Kanui TI. "Antinociceptive activities of the ethanolic extracts of ocimum kilimandscharicum baker ex gürke and ocimum kenyense ayob. ex a.j. paton leaves.". 2012. Abstract

Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum kenyense are two closely related species endemic to Kenya. They find wide application in a diverse array of medicinal applications, including pain relief. The present investigation was carried out to study their antinociceptive activity using the radiant tail-flick test in mice. At 100, 200, 400 and 800 (mg/kg Bwt) dosages, the ethanolic leaf extracts of both O. kilimandscharicum and kenyense exhibited statistically significant antinociceptive activities (p < 0.01), in a dose dependent manner. The experimental results obtained in this study therefore validate the traditional uses of these plant species as analgesics. Further, this study provides a springboard into future phytochemical and pharmacological studies of these plant species.

Dahlin J, Kanui T, Wambugu SN, Abelson KSP. "The suspended formalin test: A method designed for studying formalin-induced behaviour in the Speke's Hingeback Tortoise (Kinixys spekii)." Scandinavian Journal of Animal Science. 2012;39(1):11-15. Abstractjoakim_dahlin-_suspended_formalin_test_-tortoise.pdf

The present study aimed to develop a method for testing pain-related behaviour induced by formalin in the Speke’s hingeback tortoise (Kinixys spekii). These animals retract their head and limbs into their shell when approached, making behavioural testing almost impossible. It was found that suspending the animals in the air, facing away from the observer, made the animals keep their limbs out of the shell. Subcutaneous injection of formalin induced easily identifiable and quantifiable behaviours that lasted for 20 minutes. Contrary to the biphasic effect of formalin observed in rats and mice, the response in tortoises was monophasic. The suspended formalin test may be useful for studying nociceptive mechanisms in tortoises, which in turn will be important for a further understanding of the nociceptive system in reptiles as well as in mammals.

Mwangi PW, Kanui TI, Kariuki DK, Mbugua PM. "Suppression of nociception by Ocimum masaiense root extract involves.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The members of genus Ocimum find wide application in traditional medicine. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the probable mechanisms of antinociceptive action of chloroform/ethanol extracts of Ocimum masaiense roots. The extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction. The mechanism of action experiments involved administration of various blockers along with the extract in the formalin test. Data was analyzed using Kruksal Wallis test. The extract possessed significant antiknociceptive activity in the formalin test. Atropine, enhanced while Ketamine, Capsaicin and Naloxone significantly inhibited the antinociceptive activity in the early phase. Only capsaicin had a significant inhibitory effect on the antinociceptive activity of the extract in the late phase among the substances tested. Based on the findings it is postulated that the extract mediates its antinociceptive activity via a complex interplay of various neurotransmitter syste-ms which may be mediated both centrally and peripherally.

WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Wambugu SN, Towett PK, Kiama SG, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixy’s spekii.". 2009. Abstract

Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixy’s spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg⁄ kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg⁄ kg) and naloxone (5 mg⁄ kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 lL) were studied in the Speke’s hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 ± 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg⁄ kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg⁄ kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg⁄ kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals

Wambugu SN;, Towett, P.K.;, Kiama SG;, Abelson KSP;, Kanui TI. "Composition Of Nociceptive Afferents In The Trigeminal Nerve In The Marsh Terrapin (pelomedusa Subrufa).".; 2008.
Maloiy⁎ GMO, Kanui TI, Towett PK, Wambugu SN, Miaron JO, Wanyoike MM. "Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility inEast African ruminants." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A . 2008;151(2):185-190.abstract-maloiy_et_al..docx
Wambugu SN;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Kiama SG;, Abelson K. "Nociception In Tortoises: The Formalin, Hot-plate And Acetic Acid Instillation Tests."; 2008.
Kipkemoi TP;, Wambugu SN;, Joakim D;, Kiama SG;, Kanui TI. "Laboratory management of captive hingeback tortoises."; 2007.

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