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2009

Ayonga, DSODJ&.  2009.  Theoretical Underpinnings of Urban Sprawl; In search of a Universal Theory of the 21st Century Urban Management Challenge. Africa Habitat. , Nairobi: Africa Habitat Review Journal Abstract

Urban sprawl is a phenomenon which characterizes all urban spaces both in MDCs and LDCs. Managing the problems associated with urban sprawl, especially in LDCs, is, however, mind boggling, hence, the very reason why the theme of the world urban forum held in 2008 in Beijing city, China, read: cities without sprawl. In order to manage urban sprawl in a sustainable way, there is need to understand the factors which bring it about. In an effort to contribute to that understanding, this paper seeks answers to the questions: Do patterns of urban sprawl occur the same way in every city both in MDCs and LDCs? In other words, can urban sprawl be explained by use of a single and universal theory? The review of literature has established that patterns of peri-urban formation vary depending on the city-rural relationship at the rural-urban interface. In countries where the urban land use system is integrated with that of the rural, peri-urban formation takes the form of invasion and succession along the city-rural continuum. In countries where the rural and urban land use systems are dichotomized, peri-urban dichotomy. It is concluded, however, that there is no single theory to explain all forms of urban sprawl. The general consensus; however, is that urban sprawl is undesirable. A framework to predetermining desirable/ optimum patterns of peri-urban formation is conceptualized in this paper. What constitutes a universal theory that informs a desirable/optimum model is also conceptualized in this paper and termed here in as the integrated politico-social-economic optimizing model.

Key words: theoretical underpinings, urban sprawl, universal theory, management challenge, urban fringe.

Ayonga, DSODJ&.  2009.  Rural-Urban Dualism and Ineffective Land Use Control Instruments at the Rural- Urban Interface. Africa Habitat. , Nairobi: Africa Habitat Review Journal Abstract

Abstract

Hitherto, land use planning in Kenya was practiced in the colonial urban areas and the scheduled highlands but not in the African markets and rural reserves. This then created favorable land use patterns in the European settlements and unfavorable land use patterns in the African settlements. In the recent times, efforts have been made to introduce land use planning in the former African settlements in order to harmonize land use patterns in the country. However, effective land use planning within the former African settlements especially at the rural-urban interface has proved futile. Hence, the favorable spatial patterns in the former African settlements can still be observed during the era of post-colonial Kenya. This paper seek answers to the following question: why would land use control instruments which are fairly effective in the former European settlements become ineffective in the former African settlements especially at the rural-urban interface? Arising from the review of literature, it is concluded that overtime, the colonial settlements and the African settlements land use economies evolved to what can be considered as two composite land use systems. The two land use systems have variations in land use objectives, legal provisions, institutional frameworks and land delivery models. The variations in components between the former African rural land use systems and those of the colonial urban and scheduled areas system were not harmonized. Therefore, the European settlement area specific land use control instruments could not be effective in the former African land use system where the rural-urban interface is located.

Key words: rural-urban dualism ineffective control instruments, rural-urban interface

2008

2004

OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  2004.  Feasibility Studies in Transport. Input in the Transportation Policy Framework for Ministry of Transport, Kenya, April 2004.. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

2000

OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  2000.  Rural-Urban Linkages in Regional Development. A paper presented at 6th Africa Training Course on Local and Regional Development and Management, Nairobi, Kenya (2000). UNCRD.. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

1998

OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1998.  Rural Planning in Regional Development. A paper presented at the Fourth Africa Training Course on Local and Regional Development Planning and Management, Nairobi, Kenya (1998), United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD).. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1998.  Urbanization as a Component of Regional Development. A paper presented atFourth Africa Training course on Local and Regional Development and Management, Nairobi, Kenya (1998), UNCRD.. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1998.  Stakeholders in the Limelight: Principles of Actor-Centred Resources Management. Eastern and Southern Africa. Geographical Journal Vol. 8. Sept. 1998.. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

1997

OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1997.  Mobility Plan for Eldoret Town: SSATP, World Bank, January 1997.. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

1995

1994

OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1994.  Planning for Non-Motorized Transport as a Sustainable Transport System in Nairobi: A paper presented at the International Conference on Re-Appraising the Urban Planning Process as an Instrument of Sustainable Urban Development and Management, UNCHS (Habit. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

1993

OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1993.  The Study of the Development of Multimodal Transport Services in Kenya. United Nations Development Programme, Nairobi, November 1993.. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1993.  Role of Non-Motorized Transport Services in Nairobi: A paper to the Velocity Conference, Nottingham, U.K. September 1993.. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

1988

OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1988.  Para-Professionl Training For Human Settlements in Kenya. Which was incorporated in the Kenya National Paper entitled: A Systematic and Comprehensive Approach to Training for Human Settlements and a Systematic and Comprehensive Approach to Information for. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
OBIERO, DRSAMUELV.  1988.  Identification Process as a Factor in Project Implementation: Case studies from Kenya. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31.. : IBIMA Publishing Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

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