Bio

Prof. Mbugua Biography

Prof S K Mbugua’s Biodata – 2013
Prof S K Mbugua is a Professor in Food and Industrial Microbiology at the department of Food
Science, Nutrition and Technology, and holds a PhD in applied and industrial microbiology from
Cornell University, USA; MSc in Food Science and Technology from Federal Institute of
Technology (ETH) Switzerland and University of Nairobi and BSc in Agriculture from
University of Nairobi. He was the first indigenous Chairman of the department of Food Science,
Nutrition and Technology, and founder of the Food Research Office in the department for which

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Publications


Submitted

Muia, JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV.  Submitted.  Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

2014

Mbugua, PSK.  2014.  Food Safety in African Food Industries and its Management to meet EU’s Safety Standards – Case for Fish Industry in Kenya, 16 - 20 June, 14. ICFMH - African Workshop on Improving the Microbiological Safety of African Food Products Towards Local and Global Markets. , Accra, Ghana ghanafvcpresentation.ppt

2012

Nungo, RA, Okoth MW, Mbugua SK.  2012.  Nutrition Status of Children Under-Five Years in Cassava Consuming Communities in Nambale, Busia of Western Kenya. Abstract

A study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of under-five child population within cassava consuming community in Nambale of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio economic data, 24-hour food re-call and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used while Pearson’s Chi Square and correlation coefficient (R) were used to test for statistical associations. A total of 320 households with 232 children participated. The findings showed nutrition status of children to be poor (<−2 SD), 26.6% were stunted, 13.9% underweight, and 10.1% were wasting. Malnutrition had reached its peak during the third year affecting boys more than girls despite a high mean score (9.2) for household dietary diversity. The findings established cassava utilization to be high (94.3%) and mainly as “porridge, boiled roots and ugali”. Eight staples including cassava were used for weaning and 66.4% of the children were fed three times daily. Cassava utilization was not a determinant of child nutrition status. Age of child and education level of head of household had strong but negative influence on child nutrition status, (Pearson’s R = −0.207:−0.174) indicating >50% changes in stunting could not be attributed to age of child or education level of the head of household. Farm ownership was a strong positive determinant of nutrition status, Pearson’s R = 0.233. This study has established that cassava cushions hunger and there is need to improve nutrient content.

2011

2010

N, K, F Y, S M, M N.  2010.  Strengthening capacity for sustainable livelihoods and food security through urban agriculture among HIV and AIDS affected households in Nakuru, Kenya. Abstract

The promotion and support of urban agriculture (UA) has the potential to contribute to efforts to address pressing challenges of poverty, under nutrition and sustainability among vulnerable populations in the growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This may be especially relevant for HIV/AIDS-affected individuals in SSA whose agricultural livelihoods are severely disrupted by the devastating effects of the disease on physical productivity and nutritional well-being. This paper outlines the process involved in the conception, design and implementation of a project to strengthen technical, environmental, financial and social capacity for UA among HIV-affected households in Nakuru, Kenya. Key lessons learned are also discussed. The first has been the value of multi-stakeholder partnerships, representing a broad range of relevant experience, knowledge and perspectives in order to address the complex set of issues facing agriculture for social purposes in urban settings. A second is the key role of self-help group organizations, and the securing of institutional commitments to support farming by vulnerable persons affected by HIV-AIDS is also apparent. Finally, the usefulness of evaluative tools using mixed methods to monitor progress towards goals and identify supports and barriers to success are highlighted.

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2010.  Mapesa O J, S K Mbugua and S M Mahungu 2010; Sensory evaluation of dried beef strips treated with Acetic Acid, Brine and Monosodium Glutamate.Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34: pp 272 . Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34: pp 272 . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

2009

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2009.  Amenan A Yao; Carine Dortu; M Egounlety; C Pinto; E A Vinodh; M H Kostinek; Charles M A P Franz; W Holpzapfel; Samuel Mbugua; Moses Mengu and Phillipe Thonart 2009: Production of freeze-dried Lactic Acid Bacteria starter cultures for cassava fermentation . African Journal of Biotechnology, vol 8 (19) pp 4996 . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2009.  Kunyanga C N, Mbugua S K, Kangethe E K and J K Imungi 2009. Microbiological and acidity changes during traditional production of KIRARIO: - An indigenous Kenyan fermented porridge from green maize and Finger millets African Journal of Food, Agriculture, N. An indigenous Kenyan fermented porridge from green maize and Finger millets African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, vol 9 No 6 1419 . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

2008

Mathara, JM;, Schillinger U, Kutima PM, Mbugua SK, Guigas C, Franz C, Holzapfel WH.  2008.  Functional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk products in Kenya.. Abstract

Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya. Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells at 0.3% oxgal varied from 30% to 80%. In vitro adhesion to the mucus-secreting cell line HT 29 MTX and binding capacity to extracellular protein matrices was demonstrated for several strains. The four strains tested in a simulated stomach duodenum passage survived with recovery rates ranging from 17% to 100%. Strains were intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics tested. From these in vitro studies, a number of Lb. plantarum strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk showed probiotic potential. The strains are good candidates for multifunctional starter culture development.

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2008.  Mathara J.M., U. Schillinger, P.M. Kutima, S.K. Mbugua and W.H. Holzapfel 2008 Functional Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Maasai Traditional Fermented Milk Products in Kenya. Current Microbiology vol 56: (4), 315 . Current Microbiology vol 56: (4), 315 . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2008.  Carine Dortua,b, Amenan A. Yaoa, Cristina Pintoc, Vinodh A. Edwardc, Melanie Kostinekd, Charles M.A.P. Franzd, Willhelm Holzapfeld, Moutairou Egounletye, Samuel Mbuguaf, Moses Mengug, Philippe Thonarta, b 2008; Use of Lactobacillus strains to start cassav. International J of Food Microbiology vol 128: (2) 258 . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

2006

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2006.  Information management strategies for small and medium agrofood Enterprises wit n special reference to maize, cassava and milk processors in Kenya.. CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2006.  Characterization and Technological Properties of predominant Lactic acid bacterial from fermentation cassava for selection as starter cultures. Submitted to the International Journal of Food Microbiology.. Current Microbiology vol 56: (4), 315 . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

2005

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2005.  Development of /therapeutic Feeding Porridge ration: Part B; Application of lactic fermentation and amylolytic enzymes, Submitted to Ecology of Food and nutrition journal, USA.. CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2005.  Development of therapeutic feeding porridge rations for the clinically malnourished: Part A; Substitution of extrusion cooking with lactic fermentation. Submitted to Ecology of Food and nutrition Journal, USA.. CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2005.  Enumeration and identification micro flora in Suusa, a Kenyan traditional fermented camel milk product. Lebensm . CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2005.  Problems constraining factors and coping by small scale processors of maize and cassava in Kenya, and implications for policy. Submitted to Food polity journal, 2005.. CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

2004

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2004.  The nutritive value of the wild tree foods in Turkana district Northern arid Kenya, and their role in food security and human welfare development. Submitted to Ecology of Food and malnutrition Journal, USA.. CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2004.  The contamination of Kenyan lager beers with fusariyum mycotoxins. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, U.K. vol 110. No 3 227 . CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2004.  Quality assurance of marketed milk in Kenya. Kenya veterinary Journal volume 27: 55 . CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2004.  Isolation, identification and characterization of the dominary micro organisms of Kule naoto: the Maasai traditional fermented milk in Kenya. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol 93: (3), pp 269 27, 2004. CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2004.  The technological and functional properties of lactic microflora in fermentation of Mursik, a Nandi fermented milk product in Kenya. Submitted to the International Dairy Journal, Canada.. CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

2003

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2003.  The pasting behaviours of lactic-fermented and dried Uji (an East African sour porridge). J.Sci. Food Agric. 83: 1412 . CTA Annual seminar on the . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2003.  Business dynamics, Problems, Constraints and Coping by Agro food Enterprises; A case for Maize and Cassava in Kenya. Food Africa,. International Working Meeting. Sponsored by INCO2, E.C. Frame work V and International Foundation for Science (IFS), 5 . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

2002

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2002.  Application of Lactic fermentation and amylolytic enzymes in the Development of therapeutic feeding porridges in Africa,. 6th International Seminar on Traditional African Fermented Foods, Sponsored by European Union, Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) and CSIR . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

2001

Karuri, EE, Mbugua SK, Karugia J, Wanda K, Jagwe J.  2001.  Marketing Opportunities for cassava based products: An Assessment of the Industrial Potential in Kenya. Abstract

Since the era of development aid in Africa, research efforts have been focused on increasing agricultural productivity mainly through improved technology at the farm level. In spite of such programs, rural household incomes have largely remained low thereby perpetuating the relatively higher poverty level with all its negative consequences notably, low savings, low investment, low productivity and low incomes. It has now been increasingly realized that real benefits to rural communities are going to come from forward linkages of rural producers to more stable and higher value industrial markets. In turn industry too stands to benefit from increased rural household incomes in terms of higher effective demand for industrial products. Therefore, this report presents findings on the current state of the Kenyan market for starch, starch-based adhesives and high quality cassava flour for industrial purposes. An assessment of the potential for locally made cassava-based products to substitute for existing raw materials has also been attempted. KEY FINDINGS The total market for starch-based products in Kenya is estimated to be over 12,000 MT per annum. A bigger portion, about 60%, goes into the brewery industry. Other major consumers include paperboard, paper and the food sector. Native maize starch dominates the market for starch. This is mainly produced locally. Modified starches are not significant. Cassava starch has the potential to substitute maize starch in the paperboard industry. Some of the industry in this sector had used cassava starch before which they found preferable. However, use was discontinued due to inconsistency in quality and erratic supply. The manufacturing costs are high in the local scene because of inefficiencies in the production chain. At the moment production and supply of cassava starch is low and not timely. This was attributed to higher costs of local production, poor infrastructure and low raw material production The potential use of cassava in animal feeds has not been exploited in Kenya. This is mainly due to lack of information especially in terms of the processing steps and the rate of substitution of cassava for maize in the commercial animal feeds.

2000

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  2000.  Effect of drying Lactic Fermented Uji (an East African Sour Porridge) on some carboxylic acids. J.Sci.Food Agric. 80: 1854-1858, 2000.. 6th International Seminar on Traditional African Fermented Foods, Sponsored by European Union, Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) and CSIR . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

1999

J. N, K, S.K. M.  1999.  Production of Concentrated "Mala" Cultures for Direct VAT Inoculation by Small Scale 'Mala' Manufacturers in East Africa.. Abstract

The production of Mala (a mesophilic cultured sour milk), by manufacturers processing less than 500-3000 litres per day In Kenya, Uganda and Tanzanla is faced with problems of unavailability good quality culture, and lack of skills and appropriate equipment for propagation of conventional liquid cultures aseptically. Studies to produce concentrated "Mala" cultures for direct VAT inoculation were therefore carried out, using buffered and unbuffered skim milk. whey and tryptone media. The cells obtained were then concentrated by the centrifugation, and subsequently resuspended in skim milk for studies of their "Mala" production functionalities. The functionality characteristics analysed Included activity, aroma production and effect on mala physio-chemical and sensory characteristics. Buffered whey produced the highest growth, leading to concentrated culture with highest viable cells. The concentratien precess through centrifugation had significant effeet on both the aromabacter proportions and diacetyl production but decreased the culture activity by about 10%. This declined in culture activity was however recovered by pre-incubation of the culture prior to direct VAT Inoculatton. The concentrated culture produced mala with insignificant difference organotetically from that produced by conventional liquid cultures in quantity 200 times as much. This means that 500 ml. concentrated culture can successfully ferment 100 litres of milk to mala, compared to equivalent amount of 2-3 litres of conventional liquid culture. KEY WORDS: Concentration; Mala cultures; Direct-Vat Inoculation.

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  1999.  Production of concentrated . 6th International Seminar on Traditional African Fermented Foods, Sponsored by European Union, Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) and CSIR . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

1998

KURIA, PROFMBUGUASAMUEL.  1998.  Food products prepare in Africa from ICTISAT mandate crops and scope for improved utilization. ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics). 1998. Biotechnology in tropical crop improvement: In the proceedings of the. International Biotechnology Workshop 12 . : The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010 Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.

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