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Publications


2012

Masu, SM, Gichunge H, K'AKUMU OA.  2012.  Component ratios of new building costs in Nairobi: a contractors' perspective. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Purpose - The aim of this paper is to use the case study of Nairobi in Kenya in order to fill the gap of knowledge on the component ratios of new building costs that has been missing from international literature. Design/methodology/approach - Using survey methodology that considered firms of contractors registered and operating in Nairobi Kenya, the paper compares its findings rendered in terms of percentage ratios: with theoretical propositions (e.g. Wood), with past studies (e.g. Knowles) and with practice guidelines in Kenya. Findings - Overall it finds that there is no significant change in percentage component ratios considered from past studies and practice guidelines in Kenya leading to the conclusion that the building industry has not undergone any significant technical change during the periods under study, i.e. 1980·2006. " Research limitations/implications - The study is limited by the fact that it only manages to capture the contractors' views of the component ratios. Contractors may be inclined to hide their profits which can be a sensitive issue in the Kenyan market, which as a developing economy, may be riddled with corrupt practices such as tax evasion and imperfect business competition. However, the issues raised here can be used as base information for further studies on the topic. Additionally an analysis of variance was performed on the data to ascertain its credibility. Second, the data used to argue the paper's case is partially dated but remains usefuL The trend shows that there has been no significant change in the composition of component ratios hence the data remains relevant to date. Practical implications - The paper's findings would be useful to international readers especially now that international contractors are bidding for work in Kenya. The data would give these contractors a glimpse into the structural composition of building cost components in Nairobi. Originality/value - The paper's original contribution concerns the component ratios of building costs that has been neglected in the existing literature. In Kenya some work had been done by Knowles, but this was restricted to officeblock buildings only, while this paper considers all buildings as shown in Table V.

2011

Masu, SM.  2011.  Technical evaluation process and challenges. Abstract

Evaluation (Defined) This is the process by which the best evaluated tenderer is selected for award of a contract from among all the tenders received. It is done by the Evaluation Committee (otherwise known as the Technical Evaluation Committee) within a period of 30 (thirty) days after the opening of tenders. Where two separate committees (the Technical Evaluation Committee and the Financial Committee) are appointed, the technical evaluation shall be done within 30 days after the opening of Tenders and the Financial Evaluation shall be done within 5 days after the completion of the Technical Evaluation. The evaluation shall be done using the procedure and criteria set out in the tender documents. The committee is normally appointed by the chief executive of the procuring entity to carry out the Technical Evaluation.

2009

Masu, SM, Mutuku RN.  2009.  Drivers for change in the built environment and their implications in construction management curricula at African universities. AbstractWebsite

The paper explains the context of built environment in relation to construction management and identifies the drivers of change as globalization, technology and competition. Specific drivers for change in the built environment and their impacts in the training of professionals within the built environment are described. Implications for construction management curricula in universities are explored including an examination of the construction management curricula in universities in African countries and in some overseas commonwealth countries. A review of the various construction management programmes offered in selected African Universities is carried out in order to understand their implications in the construction management curricula. There is a description of a modern trends in construction project procurement models and their incorporation in construction management training programmes. The paper highlights and compares how construction management curricula responds to current change drivers in the built environment. The paper concludes by recommending the adoption of new trends in construction management training programmes. It concludes by suggesting that there should be an improved exchange of knowledge between researchers and practitioners and how these research processes need to be modified to serve the needs of practitioners and society through relevant training and curriculum development in the construction industry.

2008

Masu, SM.  2008.  Specifying Construction Materials and emerging trends of new products”. The 2nd International Civil Engineering conference on Civil Engineering and sustainable development. 23rd to 25th September 2008. Conference proceedings. Held at SUN N’ SAND HOTEL MOM. Abstract

The term specifications (usually plural) is defined (Webster's Unabridged Dictionary) as "A written or printed description of the work to be done, forming part of the contract and describing qualities of material and mode of construction and also giving dimensions and other information not shown in the Drawings". But the Dictionary description will not suffice, Rosen, H.J (1967). As we explore the full meaning of the Term, we discover many areas solely within the province of the specifications which extend far beyond a mere elaboration of the drawings. For example, the specifications alone, as a contract document prepared by the Architect, set forth legal requirements, Insurance requirements, bidding procedures, alternates, options, subcontractor limits, and inspection and testing procedures. In many instances design decisions cannot be shown on the drawings, and the specifications are the only vehicle through which these design considerations may be transmitted to the contractor. Specifications are written for use by the Estimator in the contractors office who will procure the materials and equipment described in the specifications. They are also written for the project representative or inspector, who must be given a document which will aid him in supervising and directing the work. They are written for the owner, who would like to know what he is buying and what he is entitled to receive. They are written for the sub-contractors, so that each can readily discern the scope of his contract. They are written for the manufacturers of building materials and equipment, so that the grade and type are clearly defined with respect to the many variations they may manufacture.

2006

Masu, SM.  2006.  An Investigation into the Causes and Impact of Resource Mix Practices in the Performance of Construction Firms In Kenya: A Case Study of the Building Construction Firms in N ai r o bi. . Abstract

There is evidence that construction projects performance in Kenya is poor. Time and Cost performance of projects in Kenya are poor to the extent that, over 70% of the projects initiated are likely to escalate in time with a magnitude of over 50%. In addition over 50% of the projects are likely to escalate in cost with a magnitude of over 20%. Studies have shown that, although cost performance was not better, time performance was comparatively the worst. Australian studies on construction time performance showed that performance was affected by construction management team, project scope and projects complexity.

1996

MASU, DRSYLVESTER.  1996.  CASLE / IQSK7 ISK Eastern African Regional Seminar July 23 - 26, 1996. Theme Vision of Surveying Profession in the third millenium Easter Africa Context.. journal. : Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
MASU, DRSYLVESTER.  1996.  First Regional Conference on Construction Project Management - Eastern Africa Context: Theme: Innovation and Efficiency in the utilisation of Project Resources. Eastern Africa context - held at Garden Hotel, Machakos, Kenya - November,20-23, 19S6.. journal. : Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

1995

MASU, DRSYLVESTER.  1995.  Cost models in life cycle cost methodologies with particular reference to Roof covering materials.Construction review Journal Referred by Prof. Ivor H. Seeley Vol. 6 / No. 2 Februar^March, 1995; and Vol. 6/ No.3 April / May, 1995. journal. : Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

1994

MASU, DRSYLVESTER.  1994.  African Architecture and Planning in the 21st century. The challenge of our time November, 24-25, 1994.. journal. : Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

1993

MASU, DRSYLVESTER.  1993.  Professional practice in changing times held on October 29 - 30, 1993. journal. : Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

1992

MASU, DRSYLVESTER.  1992.  The Role of Institutional Framework: The Assembler and other participant in the construction industry in Kenya. Part !1 & 11. Referreed by Prof. Ivor H. Seeley.. journal. : Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
MASU, DRSYLVESTER.  1992.  Building & Construction Review: Vol. No. 2 and No. 1 Jan / Feb. 1992 pages 33- 34; Vol. 2 and No. 1 March / April 1992. Pages 29 - 35. journal. : Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
MASU, DRSYLVESTER.  1992.  25 Exhibition and seminar of Architectural Association of Kenya on May 26 -29, 1992. journal. : Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

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