Bio

Prof. S.M. Githigia

Prof. Samuel Maina Githigia is an Associate Professor in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology. He studied Veterinary Medicine (BVM) followed by Master of Science and Ph.D all from the University of Nairobi.. He joined Nairobi University as an assistant lecturer in September 1989. He was promoted to the position of lecturer in November 1991, Senior lecturer in May 2002 and Associate Professor in February 2016. He has taught Veterinary parasitology to undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Publications


2016

Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Jocelyn Davies, PKSGEOYMSBMMA.  2016.  Social Network Analysis provides insight in the Epidemiolgy of African Swine Fever. Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2016

2014

S. M. Githigia, C. Odhong, R.G. Wahome, Kiggundu. M, Helberg. N.  2014.  In Vitro Anthelminthic Effects of Crude Aqueous Extracts of Tephrosia Vogelii, Tephrosia Villosa and Carica Papaya Leaves and Seeds. African Journal of Biotechnology. 13(52)

2013

S. M. Githigia, M. Mutugi, P. G. Kareru, F. K. Njonge, R. Waihenya, Nyakundi. WO.  2013.  Assessment of herbal anthelmintics used by the farmers in Kirinyaga county, Kenya, for the treatment of helminthiosis in cattle.. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Vol. 7(29):2100-2104. Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess and validate the herbal anthelmintic remedies used by farmers in
Kirinyaga county, Kenya for the treatment of their cattle against gastrointestinal nematodes. The herbs
used were identified via questionnaire surveys through focused group discussions. The aqueous
extracts of plants used: Aspillia pluriseta, Vernonia lasiopus, Entada leptostachya and Erythrina
abyssinica were prepared and using dosage between 10 and 30%, the viability of infective strongyle
larvae were assessed for a period of 48 h. The results of the in vitro antihelmintic study indicated a high
to moderate anthelmintic activity for the tested extracts. E. leptostachya exhibited the highest in vitro
anthelmintic activity, while E. abyssinica had the lowest activity. The anthelmintic activity may have
been due to the presence of saponins in the herbal remedies. There was a positive correlation between
the saponin concentration and the anthelmintic activity of the extracts. In general, the in vitro
anthelmintic activity increased with the extract concentration for the medicinal plants examined.

Kagira, JM, Kanyari PN, Maingi N, Samuel Maina Githigia, Ng’ang’a C, Gachohi J.  2013.  Relationship between the Prevalence of Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Free-Range Pigs in Kenya. ISRN Veterinary Science. 2013 Abstractthe_relationship_between_the_prevalence_of_ectoparasites.pdf

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free-range pigs from 135 farms of Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. Data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. The ectoparasites found in the pigs were Haematopinus suis (96.1%), Sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%), and ticks (29.7%). The tick species included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (70%), Boophilus decoloratus (31%), and Amblyomma variegatum (12%). The occurrence of the infestations was associated with age, being highest in sows (S. scabiei) and finishers (ticks and H. suis). Male pigs had highest prevalences of H. suis and ticks, while female pigs had highest prevalence of S. scabiei. The prevalence of the parasitic infestations was significantly ( ) associated with their origin being either lower (H. suis and S. scabiei) or higher (ticks) in pigs originating from divisions with high rainfall. Housed pigs had significantly ( ) lower prevalence of H. suis and ticks than those from households without pig housing. It is concluded that the free-range pigs have high prevalence of ectoparasites, and effective control strategies focussing on improved animal husbandry and acaricide use should be implemented.

2012

Gachohi, J, Chege N’ang’a, Samuel Maina Githigia, Maingi N, Kanyari PN, Kagira JM.  2012.  Relationship between the prevalence of ectoparasites and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free range pigs from 135 farms of Busia District, Kenya. 306 pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. Data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. The ectoparasites found in the pigs were Haematopinus suis (96.1%), Sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%) and ticks (29.7%). The tick species included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (70%), Boophilus decolaratus (31%) and Amblyomma variegatum (12%). The occurrence of the infestations was associated with age, being highest in sows (S. scabiei) and finishers (ticks and H. suis). Male pigs had highest prevalences of H. suis and ticks, while female pigs had highest prevalence of S. scabiei. The prevalence of the parasitic infestations was significantly (p<0.05) associated with their origin being either lower (H. suis and S. scabiei) or higher (ticks) in pigs originating from divisions with high rainfall. Housed pigs had significantly (p<0.05) lower prevalence of H. suis and ticks than those from households without pig housing. It is concluded that the free-range pigs have high prevalence of ectoparasites and effective control strategies focussing on improved animal husbandry and acaricide use should be implemented.

D.M, L, Githigia S.M., P C, H.M. A, J.M K.  2012.  Manangement of bovine paillomatosis using an autogenous vaccine: A case study in Bukura Agricultural College, western Kenya. Biennial Scientific Conference. 8(12):39. Abstract

Bovine Papillomatosis is a papillomavirus infection in cattle characterized by presence of warts of various sizes on the body of the affected animals. The virus usually affects the epithelial cells of the skin causing hyperproliferative lesions. Six types of papillomavirus are involved where BVP-3, BVP-4 and BVP-6 types cause true pappilomas. Five cases of bovine papillomatosis were noted on Bukura Agricultural College farm where the diseases presented as dry cauliflower-like warts of varying sizes especially on the neck and shoulder regions. Some smaller warts were also found around the eyes. Diagnosis was based on the clinical signs. An autogenous bovine specific wart vaccine was prepared from the wart samples and administered subcutaneously three times at two weeks interval. T;he warts started regressing 28 days after the first vaccination (day0) and disappeared after 10 weeks. Based on the previous studies, this case study confirms that an autogenous bovine papillomavirus specific vaccine is a successful method of controlling bovine papillomatosis.

Samuel Maina Githigia.  2012.  PIG SECTOR REVIEW KENYA, December 2012. :1-50., NAIROBI: FAO LIVESTOCK COUNTRY REVIEWSfao_pig_sector_review_in_kenya1.pdf
MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2012.  Prevalence, intensity and spectrum of helminths of free range pigs in Homabay District, Kenya F O Obonyo, N Maingi, S M Githigia and C J Ng. Livestock Research for Rural Development 24 (3) 2012. 24(2): Elsevier AbstractWebsite

Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity and spectrum of helminths of free range pigs in Homabay District, Kenya. Faecal samples from 372 pigs were examined using the modified McMaster technique and post-mortem examination of 30 pigs carried out.

Out of the 372 pigs examined, 308 (83%) were excreting nematode eggs. The nematode eggs encountered were those of Strongyles (75%), Strongyloides spp (26.6%), Trichuris spp (7.8%), Ascaris spp (5.4%) and Metastrongylus spp (0.3%). Coproculture of Strongyle-type nematode egg positive faecal samples revealed the presence of Oesophagostomum spp (74%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (22%) and Trichostrongylus spp (4%). The post-mortem examination revealed presence of Hyostrongylus rubidus, Physocephalus sexalatus, Trichostrongylus axei, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomun dentatum, Trichuris suis and Metastrongylus pudendodectus. The highest prevalence of helminth infections was recorded in finishers (88%) and the lowest in adults (79%). The highest mean helminth egg per gram of faeces (epg) was recorded in adults (1,175) and the lowest was in piglets (526). Pigs from Riana division had the highest prevalence (91%) of infection and mean epg (1,109), while those from Asego Division had the lowest prevalence (50%) and mean epg (100). Female pigs recorded a higher mean epg (567) compared to males (416). Age had significant influence on infection with Strongyles (p = 0.04) with growers and finishers recording higher levels of infection than adults. Sex had significant effect on the prevalence of infections with Strongyles (p = 0.028) and Ascaris suum (p = 0.012) with females recording higher levels of infection than males. Division of origin of pigs had significant influence on the prevalence of infection with Ascaris suum (p = 0.000) and Strongyles (p = 0.000) with the mean epgs for Riana and Ndhiwa divisions being significantly higher than those of Pala Division. This study indicates that helminths are highly prevalent in the study area with low to moderate levels of infections and may be one of the contributing factors to low productivity. Therefore, there is need to formulate appropriate control measures for the parasites in order to increase livestock productivity.

2011

F. K. Mutua, C. E. Dewey, S. M. Arimi, S. M. Githigia, Schelling. E.  2011.  Indigenous pig management practices in rural villages of Western Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 23(144):1-15. Abstract

The management of indigenous pigs in rural villages of Busia and Kakamega district, Western Kenya, is discussed. Data on husbandry practices, challenges and farmers knowledge on T. solium taeniosis / cysticercosis were gathered using questionnaires administered in face-to-face interviews. Pigs were examined for cysticercosis using the lingual palpation method. Data were managed in Stata®.

Majority of the farmers were aged 30-50 years (44%), and were mostly women (69%). Years of pig keeping experience was higher in Kakamega (11.4±8.7) than it was in Busia (6.3±5.6) (P<0.05). Pork (31%) and beef (51%) were the most preferred meat types in the villages. Families owned an average of 0.94±0.81 hectares of land. The mean number of pigs owned per farm was 5.0 (±3.4), 1.8 (±1.2) and 1.5 (±0.9) for the pre-weaned, growing and adult pig categories, respectively. Constraints faced by the farmers included feeding (65%), diseases (46%), fewer breeding boars (60 %), poor profits (61%) and conflicts with neighbours (53%). Parasite control was poor. The majority of farmers (73%) had no pig house. These farmers either lacked skills to build the houses (11%; 23/209) or had no money to purchase construction materials (45%; 93/209). Tethering of pigs was frequent (>50%) during the planting (91%; 263 / 290), growing (90%; 263 / 290) and crop harvesting seasons (78%; 227 / 290). Prevalence of pig cysticercosis was 4.5%. Piglets were significantly cheaper in Busia (Ksh 509±57) than in Kakamega (Ksh 777±174) (P<0.05). Indigenous pig management in Western Kenya is reportedly poor. Improved knowledge coupled with changes in local husbandry practices would improve productivity, increase family incomes and safeguard the community from potential health risks associated with pig rearing.

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2011.  Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. 1. Kagira, J.M.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Githigia,S.M.; Maingi,N.: Nganga, J.C.; Gachohi, J.M.. Trop Anim Health Prod (August 2011). : Elsevier AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Nematode infections are a serious constraint to pig production, especially where free range pig keeping is practiced. This study investigated the epidemiology of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs from 135 farms were sampled for faeces that were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces using the McMaster technique. The nematode eggs were also identified to genus and species based on morphology. A questionnaire on risk factors was also administered to the pig owners. The overall prevalence and mean nematode EPG were 84.2% and 2,355, respectively. The nematode eggs were identified as those belonging to Oesophagostomum spp. (75%), Strongyloides ransomi (37%), Ascaris suum (18%), Metastrongylus spp. (11%), Trichuris suis (7%) and Physocephalus sexalatus (3%). The prevalence of nematodes was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the amount of rainfall in the division of the pigs' origin (all nematodes except S. ransomi). The prevalence of nematodes was also associated with the age of the pigs. A lower burden of nematodes was associated (p < 0.05) with a history of deworming (A. suum) and the provision of night housing (S. ransomi and Metastrongylus spp.). In conclusion, this study has provided information on nematode infections and the associated risk factors for free range pigs in Busia District, which can be used when

2010

S.M, G, Kagira. J.M, Ng’ang’a. J.C, Kanyari. P.W.N, Maingi. N, J.M. G.  2010.  Prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoa and association with risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya. National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases.. 20:1-9. Abstract

The current study investigated the occurrence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) protozoa and associated risk factors in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. A total of 306 pigs from 135 farms in 6 Divisions were sampled for feces, which were analysed for parasites using direct smear and McMaster floatation methods. Associations between the occurrence of the parasites and explanatory variables (sex, age, division of origin and rainfall) were undertaken using ANOVA, chi-square and Pearson’s correlation statistics. The following gastrointestinal protozoan parasites were identified: Entamoeba spp. (87%), Balantidium coli (64%), Tritrichomonas suis (42%) and Coccidia spp (33%). The mean coccidial oocysts per gram (OPG) of all the sampled pigs was 1,276 (range = 0-28,000 OPG) and the proportions of the species included: Eimeria debliecki (40%), E. suis (26%), E. porci (16%), E. scabra (13%) and E. polita (5%). There was negative correlation between the amount of rainfall in the division of pig origin and prevalence of Eimeria spp, Tt. suis, and Entamoeba spp, but a positive correlation with prevalence of B. coli. The prevalences of Eimeria spp., Entamoeba spp. and Tt. suis were higher in males than females; but it was only the sex-differences for Tt. suis which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The prevalences of Tt. suis in sows were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of growers and piglets. It was concluded that GIT protozoan parasites of economic and zoonotic significance occur in pigs in the study area and effective control strategies should be implemented.

John Maina Kagira, N. Maingi, GSM.  2010.  Characteristics of Pig trade in Low Income settings in Busia District, Kenya. Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 27(1):27-35. Abstract

The characteristics of markets for free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya were determined using retrospective analysis of veterinary records, key informant interviews and questionnaire survey. A total of 8,377 pigs were slaughtered between 2001 and 2005, which accounted for 27% of all the livestock slaughtered and inspected by the government officers. Loss of fetuses was recorded for 13% of slaughtered pigs and the loss was attributed to ignorance on pregnancy diagnosis. Although most of the money (82%) generated by the veterinary department arose from meat inspection fees, constraints including limited personnel and lack of enough vehicles were observed. The marketing system comprised of farmers, middlemen, slaughter-slab owners and butchers, while the government played the role of meat inspection. Majority of the butchers were males (94%) with a mean age of 39 (range: 21-74) years. The majority (63%) had a primary school level of education. The average net income per annum for each butcher was 887 USD and the profit earned per pig was 3.8 USD. The major constraints which affected the butchery business included conflicts with regulatory authorities, high government levies, erratic number of slaughter pigs mainly due to African Swine Fever (ASF) and poor mode of transportation. There is a need to address these constraints especially the control of ASF, reduction in levies and provision of incentives to improve pig trade in Busia District.

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2010.  Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya John M. Kagira & Paul W. N. Kanyari & Ndicho Maingi & Samuel M. Githigia & J. C. Ng. Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:865. 42:865-873.: Elsevier AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Free-range pig farming is common amongst the small-scale farmers in western Kenya. In order to determine the characteristics of this type of production system, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on farm characteristics and management was collected from 182 farmers in Busia District. The mean farm size was one acre, while the mean number of pigs per farm was 3.6. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income (98%) and majority were of cross breed variety (64%). The production systems included farrow to weaner (12%), porker to finisher (36%), and mixed (46%). Sixty five percent (65%) of the pigs were tethered and housing was not provided in 61% of the farms. Most of the feeds were sourced locally. Lack of castration and delayed weaning of pigs was observed on 49% and 30% of the farms, respectively. The main production constraints included pig diseases (81%) and high cost or lack of feed (81%). Haematopinus suis infestations and worm infections were considered to be the most important diseases by 71% and 55% of the farmers, respectively. Farmers had moderate knowledge on parasitic disease diagnosis with 31% and 62% not having a history of either deworming or spraying pigs with acaricides, respectively. Marketing constraints were common amongst the farmers and included poor prices and inadequate market information. In conclusion, the production system was characterized as low-input with an income objective. Future research and development approaches should focus on the integration of free-range farmers into the country's market chains through access to extension services.

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2010.  Prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoa and association with risk factors in free range pigs in Kenya Kagira, J.M.; Githigia,S.M.; Nganga, J.C.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Maingi,N.; Gachohi, J.M.. Journal of Protozoology Research 20, 1-9.. 20:1-9.: Elsevier AbstractWebsite

The current study investigated the occurrence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) protozoa and associated risk factors in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. A total of 306 pigs from 135 farms in 6 Divisions were sampled for feces, which were analysed for parasites using direct smear and McMaster floatation methods. Associations between the occurrence of the parasites and explanatory variables (sex, age, division of origin and rainfall) were undertaken using ANOVA, chi-square and Pearson’s correlation statistics. The following gastrointestinal protozoan parasites were identified: Entamoeba spp. (87%), Balantidium coli (64%), Tritrichomonas suis (42%) and Coccidia spp (33%). The mean coccidial oocysts per gram (OPG) of all the sampled pigs was 1,276 (range = 0-28,000 OPG) and the proportions of the species included: Eimeria debliecki (40%), E. suis (26%), E. porci (16%), E. scabra (13%) and E. polita (5%). There was negative correlation between the amount of rainfall in the division of pig origin and prevalence of Eimeria spp, Tt. suis, and Entamoeba spp, but a positive correlation with prevalence of B. coli. The prevalences of Eimeria spp., Entamoeba spp. and Tt. suis were higher in males than females; but it was only the sex-differences for Tt. suis which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The prevalences of Tt. suis in sows were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of growers and piglets. It was concluded that GIT protozoan parasites of economic and zoonotic significance occur in pigs in the study area and effective control strategies should be implemented.

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2010.  Seroprevalence of cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free range pigs in Kenya Kagira, J.M.; Maingi,N.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Githigia,S.M.; Nganga, J.C.; Gachohi, J.M.. Journal of Helminthology. 84:398-403.: Elsevier AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging zoonosis with public health and economic importance. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the disease in free-range pigs on 182 smallholder farms in Busia District, Kenya. The survey households were selected using a snowballing technique. Serum samples were obtained from 284 pigs of all ages at farm level and 37 pigs from slaughter slabs in the study area. The samples were analysed for the presence of cysticercus antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors for porcine cysticercosis on the study farms. At pig level, the total number of pigs testing positive were 11, resulting in a seroprevalence of 4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-6.2%), while the farms with a positive pig were 9% (95% CI: 3.9-14.1%). All pigs examined in the slaughter slab survey were seronegative. The distribution of possible risk factors for porcine cysticercosis that were observed at farm level was as follows: free-range pig keeping (100%), history of human taeniosis infection in a family (51%), slaughtering of pigs at home (20%), lack of meat inspection (15%) and absence of latrines (15%). The only significant (χ2 = 4.4, P = 0.034, odds ratio (OR) = 3.8) risk factor associated with the occurrence of cysticercosis was lack of latrines at household level. The study shows that porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya and thus control measures need to be instituted.

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2010.  A survey of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale district, Kenya. Kamanja, I.T.; Githigia, S.M.; Muchemi, G.M. and Mwandawiro. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 7(1): Elsevier AbstractWebsite

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and possible public health importance of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale District. Abattoir surveys were carried out where the mesenteric veins of the carcasses were visually examined for the presence of adult S. bovis worms. Three abattoirs were visited. These were Ngombeni and Kwale slaughter houses in Matuga division and Mwambungo slaughter house in Msabweni division. Identification of S. bovis eggs was done after sedimentation of rectal faecal samples. A total of 492 samples from various divisions in the district were analyzed. Snails were sampled using the scooping method in the water bodies and digging in riverbeds. They were put in 24-well microtitre plates under the shade for at least two hours to induce shedding of cercariae. Stool and urine samples from school going children from Matuga Msabweni and Kinango divisions were analyzed for S. bovis eggs. The prevalence of S. bovis eggs as 16.9% while the prevalence of S. bovis adult worms was 25.1%. Snails of the genus Bulinus were recovered from the various water bodies. No S. bovis eggs were recovered from the stool samples. Eggs of S. haematobium were recovered from urine samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that the adult worms recovered from slaughtered cattle were S. bovis. It was concluded that S.bovis is prevalent in cattle in Kwale district. The water bodies were infested with the snail intermediate host.

2009

2007

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2007.  Palpable lingual cysts, a possible indicator of porcine cysticercosis in Teso District Western Kenya Mutua, F.K., Randoph, T.E., Arimi, S.M., Kitala, P.M., Githigia, S.M. Willingham, A.L. and Njeru, F.M. Journal of swine health and production July and August 2007, pp 206 . 15(4):206-212.: Elsevier AbstractWebsite

Summary
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of palpable lingual cysts in pigs in Western Kenya, a possible indicator of porcine cysticercosis, and to study the potential risk factors associated with this clinical finding.
Methods: During a cross-sectional survey, 316 randomly selected small-scale farms were visited, from which a case-control study of 31 case farms and 93 randomly selected control farms was constructed. Information on potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniosis was obtained using questionnaires administered via personal interviews.
Results: Farm prevalence of palpable lingual cysts was estimated at 9.8% (31 of 316) (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5%-13.1%). Total number of pigs testing positive was 33, resulting in a pig prevalence of 6.5% (95% CI, 4%-9%). Pigs were kept as a source of income (98%) and for home consumption (2%). Sources of pigs included local purchases (94%; 117 of 124), and purchases from Uganda (6%; seven of 124). Most farmers (95%; 118 of 124) kept their pigs on free range. Pork was sourced from local butcheries (85%) and home slaughtering (15%). Most households slaughtering pigs at home had their pork “inspected” by household friends (five of nine). Absence of latrines was more common in case households (42%; 13 of 31) than in controls (18%; 17 of 93) (P = .01; OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2%-8.55).
Implications: Palpable lingual cysts are prevalent in the locally raised pigs of Western Kenya. Further studies using more sensitive diagnostic tests are required to confirm the risk of porcine cysticercosis.

2006

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2006.  Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis/ taeniosis in three Divisions of Busia District, Kenya Githigia, S.M., Murekefu, K., Willingham, A.L. and Otieno, R.. . Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 54: pp 224 . 54:224-229.: Elsevier AbstractWebsite

abstract:
The prevalence of T. solium in pigs was studied by antemortem lingual examination of pigs, while the prevalence of risk factors for cysticercosis and taeniasis was determined by administration of a standard questionnaire to households in three divisions of Busia District. Antemortem lingual examination and palpation of 93 pigs in Township division, 138 pigs in Funyula division and 62 pigs in Bundalangi division (n=293 of various ages) showed that 8 (9%) in Township division, 21 (15%) in Funyula division and 2 (3%) in Bundalangi division (mean 10.5%) had cysts. Those practising home slaughter with no official meat inspection were 27, 44 and 33% households in the divisions, respectively. Previous tapeworm experience was found in 64, 96 and 36 of the households in the divisions, respectively. Those with active tapeworm infections composed 13.6, 11 and 9% of the households in the divisions, respectively. In conclusion, porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free range pigs in the three divisions of Busia District.

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2006.  Accuracy of an anaemia-scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid Kenya and its potential for control of Haemonchus contortus infections. Ejlertsen, M.; Githigia, S.M.; Otieno, R.O. Thamsborg, S.M.. Veterinary Parasitology . 141(3 -4):291-301.: Elsevier AbstractWebsite

Abstract:
We tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the FAMACHA© chart) as a method for controlling Haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of Central Kenya. The objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart in identifying anaemic goats (PCV ≤ 18); (2) to quantify the proportion of goats left untreated at farm level when using the chart. On each of two farms, Small East African goats of various ages were allocated to two treatment groups; a FAMACHA© group (F1 (n = 34) and F2 (n = 31) on farms 1 and 2, respectively) and a control group (C1 (n = 34) and C2 (n = 30)). In F1 and F2 goats with a FAMACHA© score of 3, 4 or 5 were treated with anthelmintic after scoring. In C1 and C2 goats were treated every 4 weeks from 15 February to 20 July. Every 2 weeks all goats were scored with the FAMACHA© chart and weighed. Furthermore, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV) determination. H. contortus was found to be the predominant nematode on both farms. The mean FECs were higher on farm 1 compared to farm 2, while in contrast the mean PCV levels were lowest on farm 2. The latter was most likely due to the presence of Fasciola spp., flea and tick infections on farm 2. The accuracy of the chart was evaluated by using PCV as the gold standard for anaemia (PCV ≤ 18%). The mean percentage of false-negative scorings per sampling was 0.7% on farm 1 and 1.6% on farm 2, while the mean percentage of false-positive scorings was 9.7% and 21.4%, respectively. It is most likely that the accuracy of the chart was negatively affected by the concurrent parasite infections on farm 2. The mean proportion of untreated goats per sampling was 89% and 77% on farm 1 and farm 2. It was concluded that the FAMACHA© chart can be a valuable tool for decision-making in control of H. contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions, without morbidity or mortality unacceptable to the farmer. The application may further reduce the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by increasing refugia. However, caution should be taken under conditions where other anaemia-causing parasites are present (e.g. Fasciola spp. and ecto-parasites), since this possibly decreases the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart.

2005

MAINA, DRGITHIGIASAMUEL.  2005.  ). Prevalence of porcine Cysticercosis and risk factors for Taenia solium taeniosis in Funyula Division of Busia District Kenya. Githigia,S.M., Murekefu,K. and Otieno, R.O.. The Kenya Veterinarian . 29:37-39.: Elsevier AbstractWebsite

Ivan Gumula; Matthias Heydenreich, Solomon Derese; Isaiah O. Ndiege and Abiy Yenesew. Phytochemistry Letter, 2012, 150-154

2003

Phiri, IK, Ngowi H, Githigia S.  2003.  The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk. International Action Planning Workshop. 87(1):13-23. Abstract

Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in seven ESA countries. Most of the reported findings are based on surveys utilizing lingual palpation and post-mortem examination, however, some also used serological assays. In Tanzania, community-based studies on porcine cysticercosis indicate a prevalence of 17.4% in the northern highlands district of Mbulu and a prevalence range of 5.1 – 16.9 in the southern highlands.

In Kenya recent surveys in the southwestern part of the country where smallholder pig keeping is popular indicate that of 10 – 14% of pigs are positive for cysticercosis by lingual examination. Uganda has the most pigs in Eastern Africa, most of which are kept under stallholder conditions. Preliminary surveys in 1998 and 1999 at slaughterhouses in Kampala indicated a prevalence of porcine cysticercosis between 0.12 and 1.2%, however, a rural survey in northern Uganda in 1999 indicated 34 – 45%, of pigs slaughtered in selected villages were infected.

2002

Githigia, SM;, Murekefu K;, Ngesa SM;, Otieno RO.  2002.  The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors in Busia District, Kenya.

2001

Githigia, SM;, Willingham L;, Maingi N;, Boa ME.  2001.  Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya.
Githigia, SM;, Willingham L;, Maingi N;, Boa ME.  2001.  Porcine cysticercosis in Kenya.
Githigia, S, A W, Maingi N..  2001.  Cysticercosis in Kenya. The Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. (10):92-93. Abstract

There has been a decrease in the prevalence of cysticercosis (T. saginata and T solium) in Kenya since independence in the early 1960s. this has been due to improvement of hygiene, strict meat inspection procedures, public educational nd a ban on free range pig keeping.

The prevalence of C. bovis decreased from 25% in the 1960s to 8.8% in the 1970s and to 1.1% in the early 1990s. the decline has been attributed in addition to the above to the take over of control of meat inspection in the country by the department of veterinary services from the ministry of health in 19;74. The training of meat inspectors was also centralized. Among the provinces , the prevalence has been highest in the Rift Valley which is a net exporter of animals to other provinces and this is where the pastoral communities are found. The infection seems to spread from this province.

Outbreaks of porcine cysticercosis (T.solium) were recorded in the early 1960s mainly among the free range pig farmers in the north western Rift Valley (Tranzoia) Kakamega and Busia. A government ban on free range pig raising in the country after independence and proper hygience led to a sharp devreas in cases of T> Solium.

Githigia, S, S. T, M L.  2001.  Effectiveness of grazing management in controlling GI nematodes in weaner lambs on pasture in Denmark. International Conference of the World Asociation for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. (18):118-119. Abstract

The problem of anthelmintic resistance calls for alternative control methods, including grazing management. Dose- and – move and move- only strategies of control methods were compared in this study.

In early May, 1999, 16 ewes with twin lambs (2-3 weeks old) were turned out on infected pasture. On 1st July, the lambs were allocated to 4 groups of 8 lambs and weaned to clean pasture. Two groups (dose – and –move) were treated with anthelmintics while the other two (move- only) were not treated. Each group was allocated to a separate paddock sampled every two weeks and set stocked until slaughter.

1998

S.M, G, Larsen M, Thamsborf SM, Nansen P.  1998.  The effect of duddingtonia Flagrans on naturally acquired ovine nematode infections. 23:106. Abstract

The ability of the nematode destroying fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (DSM 6703) to control naturally acquired ovine nematode infections was evaluated using four groups of 8 parasite-naïve lambs which were turned out on infected paddocks. Two groups (F1+2) received Duddingtonia flagrans mixed in 100 grams barley while the other two (C1 +2) received barley only. All groups remained set stocked until slaughter.

The faecal egg counts were comparable for the 2 treatments throughout the grazing period. Larval development of Ostertagia/Trichostrongylus spp. in faecal cultures was 1 – 28% in the fungal fed groups capred with 60-80% in the untreated groups(p-0.05). in September, pasture larval counts of Ostertagia spp. were 62% lower in the fungi fed groups compared with the untreated groups (p-0.05). Four parasite free lambs were introduced to each paddock in October o monitor any differences in pasture infectivity and slaughtered for worm counts after 3 weeks of housing. The total worm burden of traces on paddocks previously grazed by fungi-fed lambs was reduced 86% (p-0.05); geometric means) compared with control groups, while significant reductions were also seen in abomasal worm counts (6;8%; p-0.05).

Githigia, S.  1998.  Importance of gastrointestinal helminths to the livestock industy in Kenya. 141:72-77. Abstract

Gastrointestinal helminthes cause considerable losses to the livestock industry in Kenya. These losses are related to clinical parasitic gastroenterities leading to mortalities especially in lambs, kids, calves and poorly managed and malnourished adults. Greater losses occur due to sub clinical parasitic gastroenteritis leading to chronic production losses. These losses have been reported in all the agroecological zones of Kenya. Although most losses occur in the high rainfall areas, losses have also been reported in the dry and semi arid areas. These production losses are manifested as reduced weight gains, lower milk and wool production and in meat and organ condemnations.

The most common and economically important meatode Haemonchus contortus is causing high mortalilties in sheep and goats in Kenya (Njanja, 1985; Maingi 1991; Mwamachi et.al., 1993; Baker et. Al., 1993). In the coastal area, the Diani estate farm lost 81 out of 355 lambs due to helminthosis within a period of 6 weeks within one year. In the semi arid area of Marsabit, a survey of gastrointestinal helminthes of cattle under nomadic management showed that helminthosis was a major constraint to livestock production in this area. Haemonchus spp were the most important parasites (Omara-Opyene, 1985). Ulvund et.al., 1984) found that ewes and lambs grazing the cool highland pastures were heavily infected with gastrointestinal helminthes and had to be treated every 3 – 4 weeks through out the year. The animals lost considerable weight and H. contortus was the main helminth present.

1997

Githigia, S, Munyua WK, Willingham AL.  1997.  Helminth infections in goats on mixed farms in Central Kenya. (16):32-33. Abstract

A survey was undertaken to study the epidemiology and intensity of nematode infection among goats on eight randomly selected mixed farms in a coffee marginal area of Central Kenya.

Various age groups of goats were ear tagged and faecal sampled at the beginning of the study. They were treated with albendazole 10% at manufacturers recommended dose. These goats were faecal sampled fortnightly. Weights and blood for PCV and serum albumin were taken monthly.

The intensity of infection varied with age groups of the goats and the individual farms.

Fourteen days after treatment, the faecal egg counts were reduced to zero except one farm. Coprocultures revealed that Haemonchus contortus was the main nematode species infecting these goats. Cooperia curticei occurred in low numbers in a few farms.

1996

Githigia, SM, Okomo MA, Inyangala BA, Munyua SJ, Okeyo M, Otieno RL.  1996.  Prevalence and infection levels of helminths in goats at machanga Field station over a period of one year. Abstract

Helminthiasis in livestock is of considerable significance in a wide range of agroclimatic zones in Africa. It constitutes one of the most important constraints to small ruminant production. The widespread occurrence of infections at sub-clinical levels with internal parasites in grazing animals, the associated loss of production, the cost of anthelmintics and death of infected animals are some of the major concerns'. There is seasonal variation in the rate of infection by endoparasites depending on whether eggs passed in faeces develop into infective stages. Most· reports indicate high rates of transmission in the wet seasons". The level of pasture contamination can indicate to what degree animals are exposed to parasitic infections in different seasons+". This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and seasonal variations in infection levels of helminths in a flock of goats over a period of one year. The study was carried out at the University of Nairobi's Machanga field station adjacent to Kamburu dam, in the arid to semi-arid areas of Kenya. The annual rainfall was 680mm in 1993 and 783mm in 1994 with most of it falling during the short rains period (October to December). The area's vegetation consists of several varieties of browse plants and grasses. The study involved forty Small East African goats aged between 2 and 3 years which were bought from the surrounding farms and brought to the station in October 1993. They were eartagged for identification. They were faecal sampled in January and February (during the dry period), May and June (during the wet season -long rains) and October and November (during the wet season short rains) in 1994. Individual rectal faecal samples were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) using the modified MacMaster technique'". Magnesium Sulphate (Sp.Gr. 1.14) was used as the floatation fluid. Pooled feacal cultures were made and infective larva were identified using standard methods already described

1995

Githigia, SM, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC.  1995.  Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya..
Githigia, SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC.  1995.  Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya..
S.M, G, M.A O, B.O I, S.M T.  1995.  Economic important diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. International Conference of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary medicine. (8):60-61. Abstract

Goats are well adapted to the arid and semi arid areas as they are able to utilize feed resources which are otherwise unpalatable to other ruminants. A survey of diseases that limit goat production carried out in the semi-arid area of Embu District where goats are the main livestock enterprise. The mean annual rainfall is 750mm falling in two season April to June and October to December. The latter are heavier and more reliable.

Twenty five randomly selected farmers were interviewed on the prevalence of diseases that affect their goats nd any control measures they were taking, using a questionnaire also including land use number of goats. Other livestock kept, feed resources and water sources. Their average farm sizes was eleven acres.

The farmers identified eight diseases to be economically important as they caused losses through death or poor growth. Therse were. Helminthiasis, cowdriosis (heartwater,) pneumonia, ticks and fleas, mange, orf, footrot, and trypanosomiais in order of priority. They reported that helminthiasis caused about 46% deaths in kids less that six months and 20% deaths in adults every year. this was based on clinical signs observed before death. These were mainly diarrhea and emaciation despite enough feed been available. These signs occurred immediately after the onset of the rains and could be attributed to hypobiosis(Gatongi 1995).

S., G, M.A OM, B.O I, S.M T.  1995.  Prevalence of parasitic diseases of goats on small scale farms in Embu District – Kenya. Scandinavian society for parasitology. 5(1) Abstract

Goats are well suited for small holder farms in the arid and semi arid areas as they are able to utilize the limited feed resources.

A survey was carried out in a semi-arid area of Embu District, Kenya. 25 farmers each with minimum herd size of 10 goats were interviewed on disease problems affecting their goats using standard questionnaire. Faecal and blood samples were collected from a minimum of 10 goats (5 kids and 15 adults) from each farm and analyzed for helminth eggs, blood parasites and serology for cowdriosis (Western blot) in October 1994 during the short rains.

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