Publications

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2021
S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

Kieti RM, Ogolla W. "Hedonic valuation of apartments in Kenya." Property Management. 2021;39(1):34-53. Abstract

Emerald Publishing Limited, UK.

Peter M. F. Mbithi, Judith S. Mbau, Nzioka J. Muthama, Hellen Inyega JKM, Kala JM. "Higher education and skills development in Africa: An analytical paper on the role of higher learning Institutions on sustainable development." Journal of Sustainability, Environment & Peace. 2021;4(2):58-73.
P.M.F. M, Mbau SJ, N.J. Muthama, Inyega H, Kalai JM. "Higher Education and Skills Development in Africa: An Analytical Paper on the Role of Higher Learning Institutions on Sustainable Development. ." Journal of Sustainable Environment and Peace, . 2021;2:55-70.
C. M, F. M, M. M, m O. "Human Resources Management Practices and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2021;8(9).
C. M, F. M, M. MOM. "Human Resources Management Practices, Employee Competence and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
Kitonyi PM, Segera DR. "Hybrid Gradient Descent Grey Wolf Optimizer for Optimal Feature Selection." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-33.
Ondicho TG, Irandu E. "Impact of Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic and Implications on Tourism Sector: The Experience in Kenya." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies. 2021;5(6):31-44.
Otiang E, Thumbi SM, Campbell ZA, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Impact of routine Newcastle disease vaccination on chicken flock size in smallholder farms in western Kenya." PLoS. 2021;16(3).
Makinya KJ, Wagacha JM, Odhiambo JA, Likhayo P, Edoh-Ognakossan K, Tefera T, Abass A, Mutungi C. "The importance of store hygiene for reducing post-harvest losses in smallholder farmers’ stores: Evidence from a maize-based farming system in Kenya." Journal of Stored Products Research. 2021;90(DOI:10.1016/j.jspr.2020.101757):101757.
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Nyamweya NN, Lumb PN, Mujyarugamba JC, Abuga KO. "Inactive Ingredients used in Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area." PJK. 2021;25(1):17-20. Abstract

Background: Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have become widely used products since the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus based COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to ethanol or isopropanol (the active ingredients of ABHS) and water, these products are formulated with a number of ingredients to optimize delivery, efficacy and safety as well as to provide consumer appeal. Despite the widespread use of ABHS, there is very limited information in the literature on the non-alcohol ingredients used in these products.
Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the inactive ingredients used in ABHS marketed in metropolitan Nairobi.
Methodology: ABHS products were randomly obtained from several locations at retail outlets within the Nairobi metropolitan region. The ingredients used in each ABHS were obtained from the product labels.
Results: The most common inactive ingredients based on percentage frequency of listing on product labels were glycerin (50%), fragrances (36%), carbomer (26%), triethanolamine (18%) and propylene glycol (17%). It was observed that some products incorporated additional antimicrobial agents and preservatives in the formulation. The fragrances and some of the preservatives used in the ABHS products are potential allergens. Incomplete or inadequate ingredient naming was noted for several products.
Conclusions: There is a need for ABHS manufacturers to fully disclose all raw materials used in ABHS products using standardized ingredient nomenclature. ABHS users need to be aware of potential allergens present in respective marketed products.

Li WM, Li Z, Luvembe AMO, Yang C. "Influence maximization algorithm based on Gaussian propagation model." Information Sciences. 2021;568:Pages 386-402. AbstractScience Direct

The influence of each entity in a network is a crucial index of the network information dissemination. Greedy influence maximization algorithms suffer from time efficiency and scalability issues. In contrast, heuristic influence maximization algorithms improve efficiency, but they cannot guarantee accurate results. Considering this, this paper proposes a Gaussian propagation model based on the social networks. Multi-dimensional space modeling is constructed by offset, motif, and degree dimensions for propagation simulation. This space’s circumstances are controlled by some influence diffusion parameters. An influence maximization algorithm is proposed under this model, and this paper uses an improved CELF algorithm to accelerate the influence maximization algorithm. Further, the paper evaluates the effectiveness of the influence maximization algorithm based on the Gaussian propagation model supported by theoretical proofs. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of a series of influence maximization algorithms. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows significant improvement in both effectiveness and efficiency.

Nyandega IA, Gurong T, Okello P, Ongoma V. "Influence of Convective Coupled Equatorial Kelvin Waves on March-May Precipitation over East Africa." Geogrophica Pannonica. 2021;25(1):24-34.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi M, Kalai JM. "INFLUENCE OF ISO 9001 STANDARDS ON QUALITY OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES IN UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA: A CASE OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION PROGRAMME OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Wangai M M, Inyega JO, M M, JM. K. "Influence of ISO 9001 standards on quality of academic programmes in universities in Kenya: a case of bachelor of education programme of the University of Nairobi." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2(2):34-48.. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of ISO 9001 standards on quality of academic programmes in universities in Kenya: a case of university of Nairobi." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Ndung'u M, Ngatia LW, Onwonga RN, Mucheru-Muna MW, Fu R, Moriasi DN, Ngetich KF. "The influence of organic and inorganic nutrient inputs on soil organic carbon functional groups content and maize yields." Heliyon. 2021;7(8):e07881.
T H, W KI, G. MR. "The Influence of Parental Incomes on Internal Efficiency of Public Primary Schools in Western Province-Rwanda." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2021;26(6):06-16.
Musyoki J, J.A O. "Influence of Principals Inspirational Influence on Students Performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 2. 2021;26(2279-0837):10.9790/0837-2605094760.
Musyoki, J.M., Kalai JM, Okoth UA, Okumbe JA. "Influence of Principals’ Inspirational motivation on Students‟ Performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP) . 2021;2(1):109-132.
Shikokoti H, Okoth UA, Chepkonga S. "Influence of Teacher delocalization policy on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Kakamega County, Kenya ." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;26(5):38-46.
Wangai MM, Inyega J, Mugambi M, Kalai J. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai M M, Inyega J, M M, J. K. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. . 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai, M.M., Inyega, H. N., Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of total quality management and knowledge management on quality of university academic programmes: a literature review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(1):1-14.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Influences of Community Participation on School Infrastructure Policy Implementation and Performance of Construction Projects. ." Open Journal of Social Sciences. 2021;2021(9):173-187.
Kaua CG, Thenya T, Mutheu JM. "Informal Microfinance and Rural Households’ Climate Variability Resilience: Analysis of their Contribution and Determinants in Tharaka South Sub-county, Kenya. ." Journal of the Kenya National Commission for UNESCO. . 2021;Vol. 1( (1) ):pp 109-144.
Makori EO, Connie B. "Information Profession in Digital Transformation and Development: Future Directions.". In: Handbook of Research on Knowledge and Organization Systems in Library and Information Science. Pennsylvania: IGI Global; 2021.
Owuor KO, Machani MG, Mukabana WR, Munga SO, Yan G, Ochomo E, Afrane YA. "Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;3(16):e0240771.
Karamshetty V, DeVries H, Wassenhove LVN, Dewilde S, Minnaard W, Ongarora D, Abuga K, Yadav P. "Inventory Management Practices in Private Healthcare Facilities in Nairobi County." Prod. Oper. Manag.. 2021;31(2):828-846. Abstract

Universal health coverage (UHC) is an integral part of the United Nations sustainable development goals. The private sector plays a prominent role in achieving UHC, being the primary source of essential medicines for many people. However, many private healthcare facilities in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) have insu_cient stocks of essential medicines. At the same time, these same facilities carry excessive quantities of certain drugs, leading to obsolescence. This suggests poor inventory control. To propose potential remedies it is vital to fully understand the underlying causes. In semi‐structured interviews with managers of private healthcare facilities in Nairobi, we asked them about their 1) inventory control systems, 2) inventory control skills, 3) time/human resource constraints, 4) budget constraints, 5) motivations for inventory control, and 6) suppliers. Our results suggest that the problems are driven by resource limitations (budget and time/human resources), managerial issues (relating to skills and systems), and market mechanisms that limit overage and underage costs. Unavailability at the supplier level and motivations for inventory control are relatively minor issues. We posit that the key causes are interlinked and stem from wider issues in the market and regulatory environment. Our results challenge prevalent beliefs about medicine supply chains in LMICs and lead to alternative hypotheses. Testing these hypotheses could improve our understanding of inventory management in private healthcare facilities and aid progress in achieving UHC.

Barasa NW, Njoroge KD, MBUYA TO. "An investigation of the effects of extraction and brushing variables on the properties of hedge sisal fibers using a raspador." Journal of Natural Fibers. 2021:In Press. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2020.1870641

Natural fibers have emerged as an important component in the development of composite materials because of their mechanical properties. The properties are highly influenced by environmental conditions and processing techniques. This variability makes their usability in reinforcement unpredictable. There are satisfactory attempts to quantify the variation of the properties with environmental conditions. However, the quantification of how the properties vary with processing methods is unsatisfactory. This study, therefore, investigated and quantified the effects of processing variables on the properties of sisal fibers using a raspador. The raspador was designed, fabricated, and utilized in processing sisal fibers. Processing variables such as gap size, number of extraction and brushing elements, and drum speed were investigated. The mechanical properties were determined based on ASTM C1557 standard. High correlation coefficients were found between fiber properties and the processing variables. The brushing process, mostly ignored in many cases, improved the properties of the sisal fibers.

Moturi CA, Kosgei AK. "Is Kenya ready to Leverage Blockchain Technology in Horticulture Traceability?" Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(1):59-60.
Mokaya TK, Omosa LK, Ogunah J, Nyamato GS. "Isolation and Characterization of Secondary Metabolites from Cola minor Stem Extracts." Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 2021;5(4):621-625.
Ongeri BO. "Issues of Public Debt Management in countries-A Kenyan experience." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2021;8(2).
R T. "Jinamizi la Malezi.". In: Utashi wa Dola na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Oxford University Press ; 2021.
Prof Henry Mutembei, Dr Michael Okoti DKODBKDCL’aho. Kenya Climate Smart Research for Sustainable Agriculture and Livelihoods. Naivasha Resort: Wold Bank and Kenya Government; 2021.
Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., Mbugua J. K., Kinyua A. P., Kairigo P.K., Onyatta JO. "Kinetic Modelling of Microbial Fuel Cell Voltage Data from Market Fruit Wastes in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Chemistry (IJSRCH) . 2021;6(5):25-37.
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
I C, P S, B N, M M, JA O’o. "Laparoscopic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: detection of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues, fluids, and surgical smoke." Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2021;406(4):1007-1014. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are still concerns over the safety of laparoscopic surgery in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients due to the potential risk of viral transmission through surgical smoke/laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of currently available literature to determine the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in abdominal tissues or fluids and in surgical smoke.

Results: A total of 19 studies (15 case reports and 4 case series) comprising 29 COVID-19 patients were included. The viral RNA was positively identified in 11 patients (37.9%). The samples that tested positive include the peritoneal fluid, bile, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysate, duodenal wall, and appendix. Similar samples, together with the omentum and abdominal subcutaneous fat, tested negative in the other patients. Only one study investigated SARS-COV-2 RNA in surgical smoke generated during laparoscopy, reporting negative findings.

Conclusions: There are conflicting results regarding the presence of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues and fluids. No currently available evidence supports the hypothesis that SARS-COV-2 can be aerosolized and transmitted through surgical smoke. Larger studies are urgently needed to corroborate these findings.

"Learning to Positively Manage your Relationship with your Spouse." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(2):40-43.
Mavuti SK, Mbaria JM, Maina JG, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM. "Levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in farmed Oriochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2021;9(4):230-233.
Moturi C, Karuga E, Orwa D. "Leveraging Big Data Analytics." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021;DOI: 10.1504/IJBDM.2021.10036720. AbstractWebsite

This paper sought to study the extent to which telecoms within Kenya have adopted Big Data analytics to gain richer and deeper insights into their business dynamics in order to facilitate evidence decision making. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected from ten leading telecoms using semi-structured questionnaires. The study found that Big Data could stimulate the economic growth, advance the productivity and competitiveness of the telecoms, as well as generate enormous benefits for customers. The factors with the highest significant effect on the adoption of Big Data analytics were identified. The practical implication of this paper is an increased understanding on what elements can promote Big Data adoption by large telecom companies. The study is beneficial to telecoms companies and any other organisations that would be looking at adopting data driven decision making to sustain competitiveness within the present uncertain setting.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. "Lightweight Polymer–Nanoparticle-Based Composites.". In: Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstract

The increasing demand for eco-friendly materials in various fields including the construction industry has led to increased efforts toward the development of more materials to suit such fields. In this work, a specific review of polymer–nanoparticle-based composites is presented with an emphasis on the nano-silica reinforcements. A background on applications, processing methods, and state-of-the-art review of the subject is presented. It is noted that there is limited literature focusing on the recycling of polymers using silica nanoparticle-based reinforcements for the construction industry. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the direction for future research focus is presented.

Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Livelihood Diversification and Household Vulnerability to Climate Shocks in Rural Kenya." Climate Change and Development. 2021.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Long-term spatial-temporal temperature characteristics of a pastoral ecosystem in Kajiado County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(6):896-906.
Otieno, R.O, Kariuki, D.N., Wanjohi. "Loss of Pyrethrins Content during Drying of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium Flowers in Direct Sunlight." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2021;6(2):75-84.
S. R, M. P, V. O. "LP Fracturing: A Review on Waterless Fracturing Technology in Unconventional Reservoir." Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (JSAER). 2021;8(1):48-54.
Japheth NR, Rukwaro PR, Wachira-Towey IN. "Management of Steel Reinforcement Works Procedures Impact on the Health of Workers in Building Construction Sites Case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project management. 2021;Volume 5(1).
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø&. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya ." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8896604).
Mulei, I., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Nyaga, P. N., Mutoloki, Evensen. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021.
Ong’ang’a MA, Indangasi H, Kitata M. "Manipulation of Narrative Paradigm in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Wrestling with the Devil." Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies. . 2021;3(1).
Munyoki, J.M., Owino, J., Ndambuki VM. Marketing in Developing Economies: Theory, Practice, and Cases with Special Focus on Africa.. Exceller Books Press, India; 2021.
Chebet ON, Omosa LK, Subramanian S, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Mmari JO, Akutse KS. "Mechanism of Action of Endophytic Fungi Hypocrea lixii and Beauveria bassiana in Phaseolus vulgaris as Biopesticides against Pea Leafminer and Fall Armyworm." Molecules. 2021;26(26):htts://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185694.
MD Wanjere, Iraki XN, MO Ogutu, Kinoti M. "Mediating Role of Absorptive Capacity on the Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Local Firm’s Performance." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2021;6(5):256-263. Abstractmediating_role_of_absorptive_capacity_on_the_relationship_between_foreign_direct_investment_and_local_firms_performance.pdf

There is little documentation on the role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and performance of firms. This paper investigates the mediating role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya. The population of study comprised 100 companies registered with Kenya Association of Manufacturers that had over 10 percent foreign ownership as at the time of data collection in 2019. The respondents were the CEOs of organization or their designated officers. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect primary data. The respondent were required to indicate how the introduction of FDI impacted on organizations capital flow, advanced production technology, marketing expertise and management knowhow. They were also to indicate the extent their Organisation had invested in absorptive capacity and the effect absorptive capacity had on the relationship between FDI and local firm performance. Descriptive and inferential statistics were both used to analyze the data. The results revealed that absorptive capacity has statistically significant mediating effect on the relationship between FDI and firm performance. This imply that an incremental change in the absorptive capacity would generate growth in company’s performance. As such Kenyan and other sub-Sahara African countries government need to come up with polices geared to supporting improvement of firms absorptive capacities so as to spur the growth of their key sectors of the economy.

Mwangi AN, Njogu PM, Maru SM, Njuguna NM, Njaria PM, Mathenge AW. "Meloxicam emulgels for topical management of rheumatic diseases: Formulation development, in vitro and in vivo characterization." Saudi Pharmaceut. Jour. 2021;29(4):351-360.
Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Kerubo JO, Muthumbi AWN, Onyari JM, Robertson-Andersson D, Kimani E. "Microplastics pollution in the sediments of creeks and estuaries of Kenya, western Indian Ocean." African Journal of Marine Science. 2021;43(3):337-352. AbstractAfrican Journal of Marine Science

Description
Microplastic pollution has been recognised as a global threat in marine environments and a danger to prey, predators and humans. Yet, there have been few studies in the western Indian Ocean, specifically along the Kenyan coast, which makes it difficult to estimate the extent of such pollution in the region. This is the first study on microplastics (MPs) in the sediments within creeks and estuaries (Tudor, Port Reitz and Mida creeks) on the Kenyan coast. In January/February and September 2018 sediment samples were collected for MPs analysis. The concentration of MPs differed between the sampling seasons and was distinctively higher in the second sampling season across particle sizes, suggesting that there were more MPs from larger terrestrial discharges due to increased runoff. The concentrations of total MPs, and the occurrence of different sizes, shapes and colours, were established under a microscope …

Irene Wakio Mwakesi, Wahome RG, Ichang’i DW. "Mining Impacts on Society: A Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021;11(11):986-997.
P.K N. "Mitigating Engineering Profession Regulatory Gaps." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(2):73-74.
Purity MJ, Opere AO, Mutemi JN, Mutua FM. "Modeling climate change impacts on water resources in the upper tana catchment of Kenya." J. Meteorol. Relat. Sci. . 2021;in press.
Gatimu J, Gakuu C, Ndiritu A. "Moderating Influence of Contextual Determinants on Relationship between Monitoring and Evaluation Practices and Performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. Public Administration Research journal Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021).". 2021. Abstract

Effective monitoring and evaluation practices is widely known to help improve performance, the quality and effectiveness of planning and decision making and achievement of results. This is because monitoring focuses on the implementation process and progress towards the achievement of project objectives. Despite the Kenya Government’s effort to promote County Maternal Health programmes through legal frameworks such as the county integrated monitoring and evaluation practices tool, and while there is empirical evidence that monitoring and evaluation practices contributes to enhanced performance, actual performance of county health sector across Kenya remains poor. The purpose of the study was to establish moderating influence of contextual determinants on the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health programmes in Kenya. The paradigm that is suitable for this study is pragmatism. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted 8 regional blocks in Kenya (Central,, Western Coast, Eastern, Rift Valley, North Eastern, Nyanza, Nairobi) where one county from each block was selected. From these counties the target population was 1165 respondents including Medical officers, Clinical Officers, Trained Community health workers, Nurses, County Health Management Team and County Delivery Unit officers from level 4 and 5 hospitals. Sampling procedure for this study was guided by the research design which is descriptive survey design. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain 282 respondents from which information was obtained for this study. The research instruments that were used for data collection are: a self-administered structured questionnaire and interview guides. Descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques were used in this study. Regression was conducted for testing the study hypothesis. The research established that there was a strong correlation between the performance of county maternal health programmes and contextual determinants (r=0.638, p=0.000<0.05). The study found that after introduction of contextual determinants into the relationship, and the interaction term in model 2 increased the R square by 0.08. This implies that the interaction between contextual determinants and monitoring and evaluation practices explains 8.0% variations in performance of county maternal health programmes. The study concluded that contextual determinants significantly moderate the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. The study recommends investing in robust and dynamic technical coordination platforms that can sustain the agenda for change. and at all levels is necessary to ensure the sustainability of M&E reforms in the health sector.

Makau CM, Towett PK, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Modulation of nociception by amitriptyline hydrochloride in the Speke’s hinge‐back tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)." Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021;early view. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are limited studies on the utilization of analgesics in testudines.
Management of pain in reptiles is by use of analgesics generally used in other vertebrate species. Evidently, some analgesics considered to be generally effective in
reptiles are not effective in certain reptile species.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociceptive behaviour in Speke's hinge-back tortoise.
Methods: Twenty-four adult Speke-hinged tortoises weighing 500–700 g were used.
The effects of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociception were evaluated using the
formalin, capsaicin and hot plate nociceptive tests. Amitriptyline was administered
intracoelomically at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg.
Results: The higher doses of amitriptyline hydrochloride caused an increase in nociceptive behaviour (time spent in hindlimb withdrawal) on the formalin and capsaicin
nociceptive tests, suggesting a potentiating effect. However, the doses used had no
significant change in nociceptive behaviour on withdrawal response in the hot plate
test.
Conclusions: The study showed that amitriptyline hydrochloride which is widely used
in management of neuropathic pain potentiates nociceptive effects in the formalin
and capsaicin nociceptive tests in the Speke's hinge-back tortoise. The hot plate test,
which previously has not been reported in these animals, gave results not in line
with the other tests and therefore more testing and validation of the test is required.
Amitriptyline modulates chemical and thermal pain differently

Masika SJ, Muchemi GM, Okumu TA, Mutura S, Zimmerman D, Kamau J. "Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in olive baboons and vervet monkeys in Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2021;17(1):385.
Gatimu J, Gakuu C, Ndiritu A. "Monitoring and Evaluation Practices and Performance of County Maternal Health Programmes October 2021European Scientific Journal 17(37):39 DOI:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n37p39.". 2021. Abstract

The study sought to establish the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health programmes in Kenya. The combined monitoring and evaluation practices included planning for M&E, stakeholder engagement, capacity building for M&E, and M&E data use. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. To obtain 282 respondents, stratified random sampling was used. A self-administered structured questionnaire was the study's research instrument. Using descriptive narratives, qualitative data was analyzed within specific themes. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using measures of central tendencies and measures of dispersion. Regression was conducted for testing the study hypotheses. Data was presented using frequency tables. The study found that stakeholders’ engagement in M&E and capacity building for M&E influenced the performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. The study also found that the respondents agreed that planning for M&E and the data management for M&E. This implied that the combined monitoring and evaluation practices influence performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya.The study found a strong correlation between the performance of county maternal health programmes and combined monitoring and evaluation practices. The study concluded that combined planning for M&E monitoring and evaluation practices influenced the performance of county maternal health programmes. The study suggests that management develop an effective methodology as well as raise awareness of M&E activities for the success of the project. The study also suggests that human resources issues such as workers charged with monitoring and evaluation ought to have technical capabilities, and roles and duties of monitoring and evaluation personnel should be outlined at the start of projects. To ensure M&E sustainability health sector reforms, investments in strong and vibrant technical harmonization platforms that can sustain the change agenda at all times and every required level.

"Mr Hassler: The Hassle and Pain of being a Male Bachelor." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):36-41.
FW N, K O, A A, J O, GW A. "Multiple Cytokines Elevated in Patients with Keloids: Is It an Indication of Auto-Inflammatory Disease?" J. Inflam Res. 2021;14(7):2465-2470. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Inflammation seems to play a major role in the pathophysiology of keloids. However, the role of cytokines in keloid pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated with only a few cytokines studied. We undertook this study to compare various cytokines in patients with keloids and a control group of patients without keloids nor family history of keloids so as to determine which cytokines are elevated and could thus be critical in keloid formation.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with keloids and a control group of those without. Patients in both groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Their plasma was analyzed for both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines using the Bio-flex ElisaTM method. Comparisons of cytokines means in both groups were done using Student's t-test.

Results: A total of 84 participants with 42 participants in each group were followed during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age ranges were similar with a mean of 29.6 years. A total of 28 cytokines were assayed. Statistically significant differences were noted in 15 of the 28 cytokines assayed with 11 being elevated more in keloid patients with only four in the non-keloid forming group. Among elevated cytokines in keloid patients were granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factors, interleukins 4, 6 and 13.

Conclusion: Patients with keloids have significantly higher cytokines compared with non-keloid forming patients. This finding suggests that keloid formation could be influenced by multiple inflammatory cytokines, an indication that the patient's immune system could play a role in keloid formation akin to auto-inflammatory disease.

Wakhungu CN, Okoth S, Wachira P, N.A O. "Mycotoxins contaminating herbs and spices in Africa: A review." African Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;3(3):10-28.
Murungi MK, M.Muloi D, Muinde P, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akoko J, Fevre EM, Rushton J, Alarcon P. "The Nairobi Pork Value Chain, Mapping and Assessment of Governance, Challenges and Food Safety Issues." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.581376).
Obino VK. "Natural Gas Hydrates: Technical Review and Prospects in Asia." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2021;10(01):290-299.
Ochora DO, Kakudidi E, Namukobe J, Heydenreich M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Mwakio EW, Andagalu B, Roth A, Akala HM, Wong VKW, Yenesew A. "A new benzophenone, and the antiplasmodial activities of the constituents of Securidaca longipedunculata fresen (Polygalaceae)." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-9. AbstractView Website

Description
Extracts from Securidaca longipedunculata showed antiplasmodial activities against reference clones and clinical isolates using SYBR Green I method. A new benzophenone, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzophenone (1) was isolated and characterized along with seven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzophenone (2); 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (4), benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (5), 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzophenone (7) and 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (8). Compounds 1 and 2 showed ex vivo antiplasmodial activities (IC50 28.8 μM and 18.6 μM, respectively); while 5 and 8 showed in vivo activities (IC50 19.7 μM and 14.5 μM, respectively) against D6 strain. In a cytotoxicity assay, all the extracts (with an exception of the MeOH extract of the leaves) and pure compounds were not toxic to the …

Dufitumukiza, A., Wanjala, G., Khatete I. "Nine year basic education policy interventions and students’ enrolments rates at lower secondary level: A lesson from Rwanda." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies, . 2021;2(1):94-112.
Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu: C. "Non Central Gamma Frailty with Application to Life Term Assurance Data." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2021;67( 2):237-253.
Mugambi MM, Miriti GM. "Nurturing the Industrial Economy through Enterprise Education:The Case of Kenyan Universities.". In: Handbook of Research on Nurturing Industrial Economy for Africa’s Development. Hershey: IGI-global; 2021.
AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
Eddy PO, Olweny CO, Mukabana WR. "Nutritive value of common housefly (Musca domestica) prepupae reared on broiler by-products as source of animal feed." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(10):1330-1335.
Osoro EM, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Sediments from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(1):274-286. Print ISSN: 2395-1990 | Online ISSN : 2394-4099. doi : https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRSET218148.
Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are linked to adverse health effects that includethyroid hormone disruption, neuro-developmental deficit, abnormal pregnancy, and potential carcinogens. This study was aimed at assessing the concentrationsof selected Polybrominated diphenyl ether compounds in water of Nairobi River. Water samples were collected by grab method from nine sites along the river andanalysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled withmass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethersresidue in water ranged from< 0.0009 to 72.89±6.15 ng/L. The dominantcongeners were 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexabromodiphenylether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 6-penta-bromodiphenyl ether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexabromodiphenylether and 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 6′-hexa-bromodiphenyl. The highest meanconcentration of 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether was 72.89±6.15 ng/L, 2, 2′, 3, 4, 4′-penta-bromodiphenyl ether was 14.08±0.68 ng/L, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 6-pentabromodiphenylether was 43.67±1.47 ng/L, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexa-bromodiphenylether was 24.78±2.49 ng/L, and 2, 2′, 3, 4, 4′, 5′, 6-hepta-bromodiphenyl ether was11. 75±0.97 ng/L. Consequently, as these compounds are known to bioaccumulatein fatty tissues, continued use of the river water poses a health risk toanimals and humans due to contamination across the food chain.

L C, M W, O L, M N, KM MI, Kaba M, et al. "One hundred years of zoonoses research in the Horn of Africa: A scoping review." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021;15(7).
Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET, Mwema FM, Tanya B. "Optimization of material removal rate in the CNC milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composites using the Taguchi technique." Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;44(1):1130-1132. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.11.229

This research paper focuses on the optimization of the input parameters used in the computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite. The efficiency and profitability of the cutting operation was assessed using the material removal rate (MRR). Finding the optimal and suitable parameters to use in the cutting of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite is crucial when it comes to increasing productivity without increasing the cost of production and machining time. Therefore, the Taguchi technique was utilized to optimize the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut used while focusing on their effects on the material removal rate. The analysis of the input parameters was carried out using the L9 Taguchi orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The finding showed that the optimal milling parameters for efficient productivity were; the cutting speed of 600 rpm, a feed rate of 200 mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8 mm. Additionally, the feed rate is the most contributing factor in affecting the material removal rate, followed by the depth of cut and lastly the cutting speed at 53%, 17 and 10% respectively.

Nyiranzeyimana G, Mutua JM, Mose BR, MBUYA TO. "Optimization of process parameters in fused deposition modelling of thermoplastics: A review." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(6):682-694. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000193

Among the several techniques for additive manufacturing (AM), fused deposition modelling (FDM) is widely used. Fused deposition modelling process uses a thermoplastic material, which is melted and then extruded layer by layer through a nozzle, in order to create a three-dimensional object. As a result of the default setting of process parameters provided by the manufacturers, produced parts normally have a poor surface finish, low mechanical properties, low dimensional accuracy, and increased residual stresses compared to the parts produced using conventional manufacturing processes like molding (casting). Qualities of fused deposition modelled (FDMed) parts are generally affected by process parameters including the layer thickness, extrusion temperature, build orientation, printing speed, raster angle, infill density, raster width, nozzle diameter, and air gap. Increasing infill density, printing temperature, and decreasing print speed and layer thickness lead to increase mechanical strength and improve the surface finish of the printed parts. The optimal process parameters are preferred to achieve superior properties of the parts. This paper reviews the optimal fused deposition modelling process parameters on part qualities for making the stability of used deposition modelled parts for use. Various process parameters are identified in order to obtain desirable qualities in the manufactured parts. Areas for future research are proposed.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, Obiko JO, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET. "The Optimization of the Surface Roughness of Milled Polypropylene + 60wt.% Quarry Dust Composite Using the Taguchi Technique." Advances in Material Science and Engineering. 2021;Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering:169-174. Abstracthttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-16-3641-7_20

This study is based on the optimization of the parameters that influence the computer numerical control (CNC) milling operation during the machining of polypropylene+60wt.% quarry dust composite. The input parameters studied are the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut. These input parameters were optimized using the Taguchi optimization technique with the output response taken into consideration was the surface roughness. An L9 orthogonal array (OA) was selected and formulated in a commercial software Minitab 19 based on three factors and three levels combination. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was analysed to give a combination of values of the input parameters that produced optimum results for surface roughness. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then conducted to determine the significance and percentage contribution of each parameter. From the results, the optimum values obtained were cutting speed of 1000 rpm, feeding rate of 120 mm/min and depth of cut of either 0.5 mm or 0.8 mm. The cutting speed had the highest contribution towards the surface roughness at 81.98%, followed by the depth of cut at 7.43% and the feed rate having the least contribution at 3.69%.

Odote C, Hassan R, Mbarak H. "Over promising while Under Delivering: Implementation of Kenya’s Community Land Act." AJLP &GS. 2021;Vol 4 (2):292-307.
O M, Ayah R, Muriuki R, Nyangaya J. Oxygen Access and Affordability in Health Facilities in Kenya.; 2021.
FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

"The Pacesetter in a Relationship." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(3):44-46.the_pacesetter_in_a_relationship.pdf
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Pattern and Clinical Presentation of Endometriosis Among the Indigenous Africans." J Gynecol Obstet . 2021;9(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the existence of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% in reproductive age women and its clinical manifestation of infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Despite of years of research, the causative factor and understanding of ambidextrous endometriosis pathology remains elusive, perplex and disconnected. Worldwide, there is clear documentation of prevalence of endometriosis in the development countries, however, the prevalence of endometriosis in most of black Africa is unknown. The current perspective is that indigenous African are rarely affected by endometriosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of endometriosis in indigenous African women with the primary outcome measure being the prevalence of laparoscopic visually diagnosed, histologically confirmed endometriosis and clinical presentation. Methodology: This was a prospective analytical cross-selection study in 2 hospitals in Nairobi city, Kenya. The sample size was 443 women and the duration of the study was from March 2018 to March 2021. The inclusion criteria was women aged at least 18 years up to 49 years undergoing laparoscopic surgery and willing to take part in the study. The patient’s history, clinical and laparoscopic findings and histological diagnosis were recorded and analysed using Social SPSS version 22.0. Results: The mean age of the 443 patients recruited was 33 years. The prevalence of histological confirmed endometriosis in indigenous Africans was 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a positive predictive value of 39%. Dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significant symptoms of endometriosis P<0.001. Nulliparous patients significantly had a risk of having endometriosis p<0.001. The patients with menarche at 13 years and below had a significant risk of having endometriosis p=0.001. Physical findings on clinical examination of adnexal tenderness and findings of nodules in the pouch of Douglas were significant in relation to endometriosis p<0.001. The most common site of the histological endometriosis implants were on the Pouch of Douglas (30%) and the most common form of endometriosis was superficial (43%). Conclusion: The prevalence of endometriosis in Indigenous Africa is 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had low a positive predictive value of 39%. Nulliparity, menarche at the age of 13 and below, dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significantly associated with endometriosis. The most common site for endometriosis is the of Pouch of Douglas whilst the most common form of endometriosis was superficial.

Karuma AN, JW N, PT G. "Pedology, A disappearing skill in Eastern Africa? A Review." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2021;24(2):65.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Perception of Head Teachers and District Education Officers (DEOs) on School Infrastructure Policy Governance in Somaliland." Universal Journal of Management . 2021;9(1):20-27.
Bessy Eva Kathambi * MHM’I. "PERCEPTIONS ON ACCELERATED TRANSITION TO RENEWABLE ENERGY IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International journal of Social Science. 2021;2(1):66-77.165-491-1-pb.pdf
A R, N MJ, K RE. "Performance Evaluation of Compressed Laterite Blocks Stabilised with Cement and Gum Arabic." International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration (IJATEE). 2021;Vol 8(83).
Too V, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JP. "PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE POPULAR SWRC MODELS AT DIFFERENT SOIL BULK DENSITY RANGES." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment (JEAE) . 2021;Vol 7(No. 2):40-48.
Too VK, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JPO. "Performance Evaluation of the Popular SWRC Models at Different Soil Bulk Density Ranges." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;published online (August 2021 ).
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, et.al. "Phenotypic traits,reproductive and milk performance of indigenous goats of south Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research. 2021;(Submitted).
Isaiah BM, Onyari JM, Omosa LK. "Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Composition and Antioxidant Potential of the Seed Kernel Oil of Oysternut (Telfairia pedata) Found in Kenya." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2021;32(1):46-56. AbstractEuropean Journal of Medicinal Plants

Abstract

Aim: Certain edible plant sources contain vegetable oils that have been under-exploited both commercially and in research. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, fatty acids composition, and antioxidant potential of the oil from the seed kernels of Telfairiapedata, which are used as food by the local population of Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya.

Materials and Methods: Telfairia pedata seeds were collected from farmers in the county of Tharaka-Nithi, Kenya. n-Hexane was used to extract the oil via soxhlet extraction. Standard laboratory protocols were used to characterize the oil’s physicochemical properties, while fatty acids composition and antioxidant potential were characterized using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, respectively.

Results: The seed kernels of Telfairia pedata yielded more than 66% of oil. The oil’s physicochemical properties were found to be within the Food and Agriculture Organization set limits and were as follows; moisture content (0.0592±0.0140%), peroxide value (0.9641±0.2021 meq O2/Kg), iodine value (23.0058±2.2473 gI2/100g) and acid value (0.6352±0.0330 mg KOH/g). Fatty acids such as myristic acid (14:0; 0.11%), palmitoleic acid (16:1n7; 0.13%), palmitic acid (16:0; 34.97%), margaric acid (17:0; 0.10%), linoleic acid (18:2n6; 48.46%), stearic acid (18:0; 15.33%), 10,13-octadecadienoic acid (18:2n5; 0.09%), 18-methylnonadecanoic acid (20:0; 0.68%), and behenic acid (22:0; 0.14%) were found in the oil. The antioxidant potential of the oil expressed in IC50 was found to be 18.05 mg/mL, in relation to that of ascorbic acid 2.406 mg/mL.

Conclusions: Telfairia pedata seed kernel oil can be economical to exploit commercially due to its relatively high yield. The determined properties of Telfairiapedata seed kernel oil present high nutritive value making the oil fit for edible applications.

Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, I M. "Phytochemical analysis and investigation of the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Croton dichogamus Pax crude root extracts." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021;2021:9.
Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Pollution in Urban and Rural Settings’ Ambient Air in Kenya: An Insight into Concentration Levels, Compositional Profile and Seasonal Variation." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Air samples were collected from three urban and one rural sites in Kenya with the aim of establishing pollution levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. Forty-eight air Samples were collected by passive air sampling, Soxhlet extracted and analysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers residue in air ranged from≤ 0.9 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. The predominant congener was 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3 followed by 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5-penta-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.32±0.06 to 66.83±1.19 pgm− 3. Seasonal variations of the pollutants showed a high level of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in hot dry season in range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. Air samples from Dandora and Industrial area both from urban location recorded high concentrations of the analysed polybrominated diphenyl ethers compared with the air samples from the rural location.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. Polymer-Silica Based Composites in Sustainable Construction: Theory, Preparation and Characterizations. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1201/9781003231936

This book presents the application of Polymer-Silica Based Composites in the Construction Industry providing the fundamental framework and knowledge needed for the sustainable and efficient use of these composites as building and structural materials. It also includes characterization of prepared materials to ascertain mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and analyses results obtained using similar methods. Topics such as life cycle analysis of plastics, application of plastics in construction and elimination of plastic wastes are also discussed. The book also provides information on the outlook and competitiveness of emerging composites materials.

Covers theory, preparation and characterizations of polymer-silica based composites for green construction.

Discusses technology, reliability, manufacturing cost and environmental impact.

Reviews the classification, application, and processing of polymer-silica composites.

Gives a deeper analysis of the various tests carried out on polymer-silica composites.

Highlights role of such composites in the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies

The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in civil engineering, built environment, construction materials, and materials science.

Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu C. "Positive Stable Frailty Approach in the Construction of Dependence Life–Tables." s,Open Journal of Statistics. 2021;11( 1):506-523,.
Inyega JO, Arshad-Ayaz A, Naseem MA, Mahaya EW, Elsayed D. "Post-independence basic education in Kenya: an historical analysis of curriculum reforms." FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education. 2021;7(1):1-24.
Mwaura MN, Mukoya-Wangia S, Origa JO, Mbatia OLE, Chimoita EL. "Potential for Sustainable Urban and Peri-Urban Agricultural Practices in Nairobi County." Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2021;25(1):Nairobi Cou https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i1.4.potential_for_sustainable_urban_and_peri-urban_agricultural_practices_in_nairobi_county.pdf
Kulimushi SM, Muiru WM, Mutitu EW. "Potential of Trichoderma spp., Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens in the management of early blight in tomato." . Biocontrol Science and Technology. 2021;31(9):online.
Mutende R, Imonje RK, Akala W;. "Pre-service Science Teachers’ Integration of Constructivist Ideas in the Lecture Method." ; International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2021;20(6):277-298.
M.Cecilia O, Justine NM, Johanna W, Mats S, Piikki K. "Precision Agriculture for Resource Use Efficiency in Smallholder Farming Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review." Sustainability Journal. 2021;13:1158.
M.Justine N, Cecilia OM, Johanna W, Mats S. "Precision agriculture research in sub‐Saharan Africa countries: a systematic map." Precision Agriculture Journal. 2021.
Igizeneza A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Preliminary Study on Disinfectant Susceptibility/Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Slaughtered Village Free-Range Chickens in Nairobi, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2021;2021(Article ID 8877675):7.abstract2.pdf
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Kosgei PK, Bebora LC, Waiboci LW, Waringa N, Kiambi SG, Kitala PN. "Prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2021.abstract3.pdf
Cook EAJ, Gitahi N, de Glanville WA,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Prevalence and risk factors for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya." BMC Infect Dis . 2021;21(944).
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. 'Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels" Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo county, Kenya. Nairobi: lAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Muyodi MM, Oyoo GO, KAYIMA JK, Bhatt KM. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2021;14(2):72-80. Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity

Haubek D, Mullie T, Kemoli A, Lindholm M, Gjørup H, Nørregaard M-LM, Johansson A. "Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara." Pathogens. 2021;2021, 10,488.(2021, 10,488.):2021, 10,488.
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S A, GO O, E A, J K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):23-27. Abstractprofiles_of_vitamin_d_among_patients_with_ra_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
is an autoimmune, chronic debilitating
condition of undetermined cause. It
affects numerous extra- articular organ
systems. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone
synthesized in the skin by the action of
ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Active
vitamin D is important in the inhibition
of T cell proliferation and downregulation
of key inflammatory cytokines
responsible for the pathogenesis of RA.
There is growing evidence demonstrating
the association between vitamin D
insufficiency and higher incidence of RA
as well as increased severity of disease
and increased functional disability in RA
patients.
Objective: The purpose of this study
was to determine serum vitamin D levels
among patients with rheumatoid arthritis
at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
and its association with disease activity
and functional disability.
Design: This was a descriptive crosssectional
survey.
Methods: The study involved subjects
with RA at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
Consecutive sampling technique to
recruit patients with rheumatoid arthritis,
having met the 2010 American College
of Rheumatology/ European League
Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR)
classification criteria was selected. Ten
mls of peripheral blood was collected
from the recruited subjects to determine
serum vitamin D levels. Every participant
had their demographics, clinical history
and disease duration documented. Clinical
Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was used
to assess disease activity and severity. It
comprised of number of tender joint out
of 28 joints (T-28), number of swollen
joints out of 28 (S-28) global health
assessment score by both the physician
and the patient. level of disability was
determined by the standard Modified
Health Assessment Questionnaire
(MHAQ). Data analyzed was correlated
to determine their association with serum
vitamin D levels. SPSS version 21 was
used to analyze the data collected and this
entailed descriptive statistics, chi-square,
ANOVA and students’-test to compare
and correlate vitamin D levels with age,
duration of disease, CDAI score and
modified HAQ score in RA.
Results: Eighty one patients with a mean
age of 48.7 (SD 13.9), median of 48.0
(IQR 40.0-59.0) were evaluated. The
female to male ratio was 4:1. The mean
serum 25-VD concentration was 34.9ng/
ml (SD11.6). Thirty five participants
(43.2%) had insufficient vitamin D levels
(<30ng/ml), whereas 46 study participants
(56.8%) had sufficiency of vitamin D.
Majority of the patients 54 (67.5%) had
low disease activity. Fourteen subjects
17.5% had high disease activity and while
2.5% were on remission. Functional
disability was assessed using the modified
health assessment questionnaire. Thirty
eight participants (46.5%) demonstrated
no disability, 33.8% had mild disability
while 9% had severe disability.
Correlation between vitamin levels with
age, duration of disease, CDAI and HAQ
did not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is
high among patients with rheumatoid
arthritis with no correlation with age,
duration of disease, functional disability
and disease activity.
Key words: Rheumatoid arthritis,
Vitamin D, Disease activity, Functional
disability, Cytokines
Introduction

S1 A, GO O, E3 A, J4 K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. 2021;1(1):23-27.
Wabwoba, C.N, Mugambi M, Okoth UA. "Promoting acquisition of English Language Among Pupils through the Lens of Active learning." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(2):18-33.

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