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Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Kabange D, et.al. "Typology,management and smallholders farmer preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats(Capra hircus) in three agro-ecological zones in the D.R Congo." Journal of Applied animal research. 2021;(Submitted).
Simon PB, Joseph JO, Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka EM, Kabange D, Musale K, Ciza AM, Kizungu RV, Pelle R. "Typology, management and smallholder farmer-preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats (Capra hisrcus) in three agro-ecological zones in the Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2021;49(1):423-430.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "A Typical Actinobacillosis in an Adult Friesian Cow (2012). AG Thaiyah, JW Aleri, TO Abuom, CM Mulei.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012). Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012); 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Thaiyah AG, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011.
Aleri JW, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Actinobacillosis due to Actinobacillus lignieresi, has been reported in domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, horses and dogs (Carmalt et al., 1999; Kennerman et al., 2006; Muhammad et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2007). The causative agent is a gram-negative aerobic rod and a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants (Radostits et al., 2007; Smith, 2009). The most frequent clinical presentation is granulomatous or pyogranulomatous lesion of the tongue or subcutaneous tissues in the head and neck region. A typical manifestation of the disease have been reported affecting other body tissues / organs usually associated from lacerations, dehorning, nose-rings, intravenous injections and lymphadenitis (Aslani, et al., 1995; Holzhauer and Roumen, 2002). Outbreaks of the disease have also been reported (Campbell et al., 1975; Nakazawa and Azuma 1977). This paper outlines an atypical case of actinobacillosis of soft tissue swelling of the head in a cow without any exudation from the lesion, which is a challenge to confirming the etiological agent and treatment.

KD O. "Typhoid Ileal Perforation: A Review of a Rural District Hospital Experience." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(2):93-96.
Ojuka KD. "Typhoid Ileal Perforation: A Review of a Rural District Hospital Experience.". 2007. Abstract

Enteric fever is endemic in developing countries and frequently complicates with ileal perforation. Surgical intervention for the perforation is the usual treatment but attendant rate of postoperative complications high. It is unclear what the spec- trum of enteric fever perforations is in rural hospital practice in Kenya, where the diagnosis most often in intraoperative. To describe the surgical experience of typhoid perforations at a rural district hospital in Kenya. This was a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent laparotomies for peritonitis at the Kapenguria District Hospital in Kenya between April 2007 and October 2009. Data abstracted from patient files included demographics, presenting symptom, duration of symptoms, investigations (Widal and/or stool culture), operative management, complications, length of stay, and death. Widal test was indicative when titer was 1:160 for “O” antigen or above. Antimesenteric longitudinal perforation was assumed to be a complication of enteric fever. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.The results are presented in frequency tables, bar charts and pie charts. Of the 50 files retrieved with diagnosis of peritonitis, 21(42%) were found at operation to have had ileal perforations. Of these 15(71.5%) had resection and primary anastomosis, 2(9.5%) had refreshening and anastomosis (simple anastomosis) and 4 (19%) had ileostomy. Male to female ratio was 4:1, majority were aged 6-15 years (38.1%). Wound infection was 8(38.1%), enterocutaneous fistulae were 7(33.3%), while 7(33.3%) required second laparotomy and 4(19%) were referred due to complications which could not be managed at this level. Mortality was 3(14.3%) and average length of stay was 17days. Morbidity and mortality arising from typhoid ileal perforation is high in this environment making it a major challenge in a resource poor environment. Prevention by use of protocols is highly recommended

N. B. Mirza, I. A. Wamola ENMPBASJ. "Typhim Vi vaccine against typhoid fever: A clinical trial in Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 1995;72(3):162-164.
Omangi HG. Types of Communication.; 2009.
Omangi HG. Types of Communication.; 2009.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Typen von Wissen .". In: In: Tilo Weber & Gerd Antos (eds.). Arten von Wissen. Frankfurt, M.: Peter Lang. 13. Peter Lang; 2009. Abstract
with Gerd Antos (eds.). Series: Transferwissenschaften 7.
Mutua M, Kinuthia W, Otieno NE, Muriuki JM, Lange CN, Muchai M, Ingrisch S, Oyieke H, Lampe KH. "Type specimen of the insect order Coleoptera in the scientific collection of the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.". Submitted. Abstract
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Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Rodrigues AJ, Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Okello OW. Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology.; 1994.
Mutiso VM. "Type I (Hannis - Steinthal) Capitellar Fracture: Case Report.". 2007. Abstract

Capitellar fractures of the elbow present with pain and swelling of the elbow following a fall on an outstretched arm and are rare injuries comprising 0.5-1% of all elbow fractures (1). This is a case report of an adult female who sustained this injury following a fall on her outstretched arm. CT scans revealed a Type I capitellar fracture of the right elbow. Open reduction and internal fixation was done with a functionally good result. Because of the cartilaginous nature of the capitellum humeri these injuries are easily missed on radiography. One must have a high index of suspicion especially when elbow movement is noticeably restricted. These injuries are discussed and the literature reviewed. Although controversial, treatment is mainly operative. One should carefully review radiographs of patients who present with injuries of the elbow with pain, swelling and markedly restricted joint range of motion and whose mechanism of injury(fall on an outstretched arm) is consistent with capitellar fracture. CT scans often clinch the diagnosis. Type I fractures may be treated conservatively but Type II injuries require operative intervention.

Otieno CF, Otieno CF, Omonge EO, AMAYO AA, Njagi E. "Type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and aetiologic types, theraphy and quality of glycaemic control of ambulatory patients.". 2008. Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with multiple causes revolving around beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and enhanced hepatic glucose output. Clinical judgement based on obesity status, age of onset and the clinical perception of residual beta cell insulin secretory function (hence insulin-requiring or not), has been used to determine therapeutic choices for each patient. Further laboratory testing of the clinically defined type 2 diabetes unmasks the various aetiologic types within the single clinical group. Objective: To determine the aetiological types of the clinically defined type 2 diabetic patients, their chosen therapies at recruitment and the quality of glycaemic control achieved. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Diabetes out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Results: A total of 124 patients with clinical type 2 diabetes were included, 49.2% were males. The mean duration of diabetes in males was 26.09 (20.95) months and that of females was 28.68 (20.54) months. The aetiological grouping revealed the following proportions: Type 1A-3.2%, Type lB-12.1%, LADA-5.7%, and "true" type 2 diabetes 79.0%. All the patients with Type IA were apparently, and rightly so, on "insulin-only" treatment even though they did not achieve optimal glycaemic control with HbAlc % = 9.06. However the study patients who were type IB and LADA were distributed all over the treatment groups where most of them did not achieve optimal glycaemic control, range of HhAc of 8.46 -10.6%. The patients with "true" type 2 were also distributed all over the treatment groups where only subjects on 'diet only' treatment had good HbAlc of 6.72% but those in other treatment groups did not achieve optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c, 8.07 - 9.32%. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where clinical judgement alone does not adequately tell the various aetiological types apart without additional laboratory testing of C-peptide levels and GAD antibody status. This may partly explain the inappropriate treatment choices for the various aetiological types with consequent sub-optimal glycaemic control of those patients.

Tirop LJ. "Type 1 Diabetes in Kenya: Treatment Options and Emerging Trends." African Journal of Diabetes Medicine. 2013;21:32-36.ajdm_nov_pp_32-36.pdf
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Tyndal MW, Ronald AR, Agoki E, Malisa W, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S, Plummer FA Increased Risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 among Uncircumcised Men Presenting with Genital Ulcer Disease in Kenya Clin. Inf. Dis 23: 449-53 .". In: Inf. Dis 23: 449-53 1996. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A ten-year retrospective review of laboratory detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid was undertaken using past laboratory and clinical records at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 1462 India-ink tests were carried out, 76 (5.2%) of these tested positive for C. neoformans. An increasing number of clinical requests for India-ink test mirrored by increasing number of patients with immunological disorders were noted over the study period although no obvious trend emerged in the detection pattern of C. neoformans. The use of a more sensitive test such as the latex agglutination technique is suggested.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "TYLOR, W.D., SRIVASTAVA, K.K., OYEJIDE, A., KANYARI, P.W.N., NGATIA T.A., MBAABU- MATHIU, P. ( 2002). Evaluation of causes of chick mortality in small holder ostrich farms in Alabama. School of Veterinary Medicine Annual Symposium,.". In: Kellog's Conference Centre, Alabama USA March 6th to 9th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
Kemoli AM, Opinya GN, van Amerongen WE, Mwalili S. "Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restoration treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cement and post restoration meals consumed." J Paediatr Dent. 2011;33(3):546-551. Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations.
Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary molars by trained operators and assistants using 3 GIC brands. The materials’ mixing/placement times, the room temperature and the postrestoration meal consumed by the subjects were documented. The restorations were evaluated soon after placement and after 2 years by trained and calibrated evaluators.
Results: After 2 years, approximately 31% of the restorations had survived. There were no statistically significant differences in the survival rate of the restorations in relation to the GIC brands. The postrestoration meal consumed, which was of “hard consistency,” was associated with significantly lower survival rate of the restorations.
Conclusions: The survival rate of the proximal restorations was not significantly affected by the glass ionomer cement brands used, but was significantly influenced by the consistency of the next meal consumed by each child.

Key words: cariolo gy, dental material s/biomaterial s, dental education

Kemoli AM, Opinya GN, van Amerongen WE. "Two-year survival of glassionomer sealants placed as part of proximal ART restorations." E Afr Med J. 2010;87(9):375-381. Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate after 2 years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (GIC)
sealants placed in primary molars of 6-8 year-olds and as part of proximal ART
restoration.
Study design: A longitudinal clinical study.
Setting: Matungulu/Kangundo rural divisions, Machakos district.
Participants: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from rural Kenya received sealants as
part of proximal restorations placed in primary molars using the atraumatic restorative
treatment (ART) approach. Trained operators, using the ART approach, placed the
proximal restorations and the sealants using Fuji IX, Ketac Molar Easymix and Ketac
Molar Aplicap, together with rubber dam and cotton roll tooth-isolation methods.
Evaluation to determine the survival of the sealants was done soon after placement
(within 2 hours of placing them) and after 2 years. The data were analyzed using SPSS
14.0 computer programme, and the survival results related to the materials and the
isolation-methods used.
Results: The 2-year cumulative survival of the sealants was 10.9%, and the survival of
the sealants was not significantly affected by the GIC material brand and the toothisolation method used. However, slightly more sealants survived when Fuji IX and rubber dam tooth-isolation method were used.
Conclusion: The two-year survival rate of the sealants was poor and was not
significantly influenced by the GIC material or the tooth-isolation method used.

Kemoli AM, Opinya GN, van Amerongen WE. "Two-year survival of glass ionomer sealants placed as part of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations.". 2010. Abstract

To evaluate after two years, the survival rate of glass ionomer cement (GIC) sealants placed in primary molars of six to eight year-olds and as part of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restoration. DESIGN: A longitudinal clinical study. SETTING: Matungulu/Kangundo rural divisions, Machakos district, Kenya. SUBJECT: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from rural Kenya received a sealant as part of a proximal restoration placed in a primary molar using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. RESULTS: The two-year cumulative survival of the sealants was 10.9%, and the survival of the sealants was not significantly affected by the GIC material brand and the tooth-isolation method used. However, slightly more sealants survived when Fuji IX and rubber dam tooth- isolation method were used. CONCLUSION: The two-year survival rate of the sealants was poor and was not significantly influenced by the GIC material or the tooth-isolation method used.

Cheryl R;L, Shirley W;, Flatt MS;, La Jolla CA;, Karanja N;, Cynthia T;, Nancy SE. "Two-Year Results From a Multi-Site Randomized Trial of a Commercial Weight Loss Program."; 2010. Abstract

Commercial weight loss programs may contribute to efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity, although evidence of efficacy and effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is critical in evaluating the likelihood of sustained benefits. The Jenny Craig (JC) program involves individualized diet and exercise counseling (provided either in-person at community-based sites or by telephone), prepackaged foods and a low-energy density diet. The aims of this study are (1) To test, in a multi-site randomized controlled trial, whether the JC Centre-based and/or JC Direct (telephone-based) interventions promote greater weight loss and maintenance of that loss in overweight or obese women over a 24-month period compared to usual care (UC) conditions; and (2) To describe the effect of the program (vs. UC conditions) on selected biochemical factors, cardiopulmonary fitness, quality of life (QOL) and eating attitudes and behaviors. At randomization, participants (n=442) were 44(10) (mean[SD]) yrs, with BMI 33.8(3.4) kg/m2, weight 92.1(10.7) kg, and waist circumference 108.6(9.6) cm. Two-year data are available for 91% of study participants (n=406), and weight loss is - 8.1(8.6), -6.7(9.3), and -2.2(7.4) kg for the JC Centre- based, JC Direct, and UC groups, an average weight reduction of -8.7%, -7.3%, and -2.4% of initial weight, respectively. The proportion of women at highest risk (CRP>3 mg/L) in the JC arms decreased significantly from 53% at enrollment to 33% at two years, but was unchanged in the UC arm. Interim analysis also shows the JC intervention to promote favorable changes in lipid, leptin and carotenoid levels, and improved cardiopulmonary fitness

Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, F.G. M. "A two-Year Audit of the Occurrence and characteristic of cranio-Maxillofacial Firearm injuries at a Major Teaching Hospital in Nairobi." Afr. journal of Oral Health Schience. 2008.
Odhiambo WA, W GS, Macigo FG, Chindia ML. "A two-year audit of the occurrence and characteristic of Cranio-lviaxillofacial firearm injuries at a major hospital in Nairobi.". 2008. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of firearm injuries (FAI) involving the cranio-maxillofacial region among patients admitted at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the largest national referral and University of Nairobi teaching hospital in Kenya. There were 42l patients admitted with FAI, 48; (11.4%) of whom had sustained a significant injury to the cranio-rnaxillofacial region. The age of those injured ranged from 5 to 56 years with a mean age of ]O.5years and the age f,lTOUp most affected was ]0-39 years (29.2%). Seven (14.58%) of the patients admitted with craniofacial injuries died of their wounds, translating to one death for every seven patients admitted with injury to the craniofacial area.

Peng B, Zhang Y, Cheng TCE, Lü Z, Punnen AP. "A two-individual based path-relinking algorithm for the satellite broadcast scheduling problem." Knowledge-Based Systems. 2020;196:105774. Abstract
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O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Two year neurological outcomes of Very Low Birth Weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Two year neurological outcomes of Very Low Birth Weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2006. Abstract

Department of Nutritional Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous study identified a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin B-12 intakes, this study examined whether plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with dietary sources of the vitamin at baseline and could be increased by supplementation with animal source foods (ASF). The 4 experimental groups in 503 school children were: 1) control (no food provided); 2) githeri (a maize and bean staple with added oil); 3) githeri + meat (githeri + minced beef); or 4) githeri + milk (githeri + milk). Feedings were isocaloric. Dietary data were collected at baseline, and biochemical data at baseline and after 1 and 2 y of feeding. Baseline plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 193.6 +/- 105.3 pmol/L and correlated with % energy from ASF (r = 0.308, P < 0.001). The odds ratio for low plasma vitamin B-12 (<148 pmol/L), which occurred in 40% of children, was 6.28 [95% CI: 3.07-12.82] for the lowest vs. highest ASF intake tertile (P < 0.001). Feeding ASF (meat or milk) greatly reduced the prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001). The high prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in these children is predicted by a low intake of ASF, and supplemental ASF improves vitamin B-12 status.

PMID: 17311959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Two unusual rotenoid derivatives, 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2006;67:988-91. AbstractWebsite

Abiy Yenesew; John T Kiplagat; Solomon Derese; Jacob O Midiwo; Jacques M Kabaru; Matthias Heydenreich; Martin G Peter

The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified. The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.

Yenesew A. "Two unusual rotenoid derivatives, 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2006;67:988-991. Abstractpaper_40_yenesew_et_al_derris-phyto-2006.pdf

The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified.
The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.

DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "Two unusual rotenoid derivatives, 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified. The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.
Yenesew A, Kiplagat J, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Kabaru JM, Heydenreich M, Peter MG. "Two unusual rotenoid derivatives 7a-o-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol and spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone, from the seeds of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2006;67:988-991.
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes." East Afr Med J. 1978;55(8):373-9.
Gripenberg U, Saarinen I, Bwibo NO, Oduori ML, Grayburn JA, Awori NW, Wasunna AE, Kinuthia DM. "Two true hermaphrodites with XX chromosomes.". Submitted.
Pellé R, Graham SP, Njahira MN, Osaso J, Saya RM, Odongo DO, Toye PG, Spooner PR, Musoke AJ, Mwangi DM, Taracha E, Morrison IW, Weir W, Silva JC, Bishop RP. "Two Theileria parva CD8 T cell antigen genes are more variable in buffalo than cattle parasites, but differ in pattern of sequence diversity." PLoS ONE . 2011;29(6(4)):e19015.
Ochieng JW, Shepherd M, Baverstock PR, Nikles G, Lee D, Henry RJ. "Two sympatric spotted gum species are molecularly homogeneous." Conservation Genetics. 2010;11(1):45-56.2010_ochieng_et_al_coge.pdf
Juma G, Thiongo M, Dutaur L, Rharrabe K, Marion-Poll F, Ru LB, Magoma G, Silvain J-F, Calatayud P-A. Two sugar isomers influence host plant acceptance by a cereal caterpillar pest. PO Box 62000 Nairobi, Kenya:: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, ; 2012.abstracts_juma.pdf
Ottieno JAM, Patel MS. "Two stage woth unequal a-prior probabilities." Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods. 1984;13(6):761-779 . AbstractFull text link

This paper aims at working out economic groupscreening plans to sort out defective items from a population which consists of tems with unequal a-priori probabilities of being defective. It is shown that in the case of group-screening from a population with unequal a-priori probabilities of factors being defective, the number of obseruations needed on the average is considerably smaller than that required in the case of a population with factors having the same a-priori probability of being defective. Tables at the end give some group-screening plans as illustrations.
Keywords: Group-factors, Group-Screening Plans

Pokhariyal GP;, Mahasi J. "Two Stage Interest Rate Pass Through In Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Interest rate volatility is a major concern for emerging economies due to its crippling effects on the economy. There is wide ranging disconsensus on the effectiveness and speed of various tools. This paper proposes timely monetary policy mediation to curb interest rate volatility through the determination of the total time taken for the effects of monetary policy instruments to transmit to via the interest rate channel to market rates. A change in the Central Bank Rate (CBR) will trigger a corresponding change in intermediate variables (Treasury bill (Tbill), Repurchase agreement (REPO) and Interbank rates) in the first stage of transmission. The second stage measures the transmission from the intermediate variables to market rates. The study uses an Auto Distributed Lag (ADL) specification parameterized as an Error Correction Model (ECM) with primary data coming from Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). The results indicate it takes 7 days for monetary policy adduced shocks to transmit from CBR to REPO, 3 months from CBR to T-bill and 12 months from CBR to interbank for the l" stage. At the second stage it takes 3 months for the adduced shocks to transmit from interbank to market rates and 10 months from T-bill to market rates. The paper proposes that CBK considers alternative monetary policy transmission channels as well as adopting a hybrid approach to monetary policy control. The study is the first to measure the complete two stage interest rate pass-through in Kenya and will contribute the scarce but steadily growing pool of literature on the subject in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa. The study will aid economists in determining the appropriateness ofthe interest rate channel based on its speed

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Two relaxation Time Model for Orientational Motion of Molecules in a Gas Reservoir.". In: J. Chem. Phy. 64, 2212. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
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Marco M, Deyou T, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. Two pterocarpans from Millettia dura and Millettia micans.; 2017.paper_86_marco_et_al-2017.pdf
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two prenylated flavonones from stem bark of Erythrinna burtii.". In: Phytochemistry, 48, 8 1439-1443).; 1998. Abstract
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SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Two prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii." Phytochemistry. 2003;63(4):445-8. AbstractWebsite

Phytochemistry. 2003 Jun;63(4):445-8.

Two prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii.

Yenesew A, Irungu B, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich M, Peter MG.

From the stem bark of Erythrina burttii, a new isoflavone, 5,2',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavone (trivial name, 7-O-methylluteone) and a new flavanone, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-3'-(3-methylbutadienyl)-5'-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)flavanone (trivial name, burttinonedehydrate) along with three known isoflavonoids (8-prenylluteone, 3-O-methylcalopocarpin and genistein) were isolated. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii.". In: Phytochemistry, 63, 445-448.; 2003. Abstract
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Yenesew A., and B. Irungu, S. Derese MHPJOMMG. "Two prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii." Phytochemistry . 2003;63:445-448. Abstractpaper_32_yenesew_et_al_phyto_2003_63_445.pdf

From the stem bark of Erythrina burttii, a new isoflavone, 5,2′,4′-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavone (trivial name, 7-O-methylluteone) and a new flavanone, 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′-(3-methylbutadienyl)-5′-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)flavanone (trivial name, burttinonedehydrate) along with three known isoflavonoids (8-prenylluteone, 3-O-methylcalopocarpin and genistein) were isolated. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

Yenesew A., and J.O. Midiwo HPMMG. "Two prenylated flavanones from stem bark of Erythrina burttii." Phytochemistry. 1998; 48 :1439-1443. Abstractpaper_23_yenesew_et_al_phyto_1998_48_1439.pdf

From the stem bark of Erythrina burttii, two new flavanones were isolated and characterised as 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′,5′-di-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)flavanone (trivial name, abyssinone V-4′-methyl ether) and 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-3′-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbut-1-enyl)-5′-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)flavanone (trivial name, burttinone). In addition, seven known compounds were identified. Structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

Akimanya A, Midiwo JO, Matasyoh J, Okanga F, Masila VM, Walker L, Tekwani BL, Muhammad I, Omosa LK. "Two polymethoxylated flavonoids with antioxidant activities and a rearranged clerodanediterpenoid from the leaf exudates of Microglossa pyrifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2015;11:183-187.
Akimanya A, Midiwo JO, Matasyoh J, Okanga F, Masila VM, Walker L, Tekwani BL, Muhammad I, Omosa LK. "Two polymethoxylated flavonoids with antioxidant activities and a rearranged clerodane diterpenoid from the leaf exudates of Microglossa pyrifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2015;11:183-187.akimanya_et_al.pdf
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Two Phosphoglycoprotein (Phosvitins) from Kinixys erosa Oocyte. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 103B 1025 - 1031.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1992. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Ochieng’ SA, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Two novel lignans derivatives and two fusicoccane diterpenoids from whole plant of Hypoestes verticillaris (L.f.) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult." Phytochemistry Letters. 2019;30:194-200.omole_et_al_2019.pdf
Kokwaro JO. "Two new species of Meliola (Ascomyceetes) form Kenya." Fungal Diversity . 1999;2(153-157).
Mibey RK, Kokwaro JO. "Two new species and a new record of Balladyna from Kenya." Nova Hedwigia. 1998.
Mibey RK, Kokwaro JO. "Two new Graminicolous Meliolaeae from Kenya." African Journ. of Mycology & Biotechnology. 2001;9(3):1-4.
Derese S. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;36:80-85. AbstractWebsite

Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl.
Vaderament-A.Nchiozem-Ngnitedem, Leonidah Kerubo Omosa, Solomon Derese, PierreTane, Matthias Heydenreich, Michael Spiteller, Ean-Jeong Seo, Thomas Efferth

Investigations of the root extract of Dracaena usambarensis Engl. for anticancer principles led to the characterization of one new homoisoflavonoid, (3S)-3,4ʹ,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyhomoisoflavanone (1) and a new retrodihydrochalcone, 4ʹ,4-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (2) along with six previously reported compounds, including two homoisoflavonoids, 7-O-methyl-8-demethoxy-3-hydroxy-3,9-dihydropunctatin (3) and loureiriol (4); a phenolic amide, 3-(4ʹʹʹ-hydroxyphenyl)-N-[2ʹ-(4ʹʹ-hydroxyphenyl)-2ʹ-methoxyethyl]acrylamide (5); a spirostane, 25S-spirosta-1,4-dien-3-one (6) and two steroids, stigmasterol (7) and stigmasterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8). The structures of 1-8 were determined using spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 3 were achieved using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Using the resazurin reduction assay and doxorubicin as reference anticancer drug, 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity against drug sensitive CCRF-CEM but was inactive against all the other tested drug sensitive, resistance phenotypes and normal cells. The crude extract and 2-8 were inactive in the preliminary screening against CCRF-CEM and drug resistant CEM/ADR5000 cell lines. Interestingly, the activity of the standard drug, doxorubicin was comparable to those of inactive compounds against CEM/ADR5000 cells. Future studies should focus on structure modifications of 1-3, in order to obtain more potent analogues.

Nchiozem-Ngnitedem VA, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;36:80-85.alexe_et_al_2020_phytochemistry_letters.pdf
Nchiozem-Ngnitedema V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letter. 2020;36:80-85.alex_et_al_2020.pdf
Oketch-Rabah HA, Lemmich E, Dossaji SF, other autors +. "Two new Antiprotozoal 5-methylcoumarins from Vernonia brachycalyx." J. of Natural Products. 1997;60:458-461.Website
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Ochieng SA, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Two lignans derivatives and two fusicoccane diterpenoids from the whole plant of Hypoestes verticillaris (LF) Sol. Ex roem. & schult." Phytochemistry Letters. 2019;30:194-200. Abstract

Bioassay-guided screening of Hypoestes verticillaris whole plant CH2Cl2:MeOH (1:1) extract for anti-plasmodial activity yielded four new compounds: two lignans 2, 6-dimethoxysavinin (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-(7E)-7,8-dehydroheliobuphthalmin (2); and two fusicoccane diterpenoids: 11(12)-epoxyhypoestenone (3) and 3(11)-epoxyhypoestenone (4). The chemical structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques: UV–vis, IR, CD, 1D, 2D and MS. Two fractions (RAO-43B and RAO-43D) and the isolated compounds were tested for activity against CQ susceptible (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum parasite strains, in vitro and the IC50 values determined. While the whole extract and some resultant fractions displayed moderate activity, the isolated compounds exhibited mild anti-plasmodial activity against the both strains ranging from IC50 value of 328 μM in 1 to 93 μM in 3 against W2 strain.

ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two isoflavanones from stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii.". In: Phytochemistry, 55, 457-459.; 2000. Abstract
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Yenesew A., and J.O. Midiwo, M. Heydenreich SPDMG. "Two isoflavanones from stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii." Phytochemistry. 2000; 55: 457-459. Abstractpaper_25_yenesew_et_al_phyto_2000_55_457.pdf

From the stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii two new isoflavanones, (R)-5,7-dihydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxyisoflavanone (trivial name, (R)-2,3-dihydro-7-demethylrobustigenin) and (R)-5-hydroxy-2′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-2″,2″-dimethylpyrano[5″,6″:6,7]isoflavanone (trivial name, (R)-saclenone) were isolated. In addition the known compounds shinpterocarpin, 2,3-dehydrokievitone, abyssinone V, abyssinone V-4′-methyl ether, erythrinasinate and 4′-O-methylsigmoidin B were isolated. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Two Factor Theory of Motivation Revisited.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.; 1989.
Adhiambo C, Forney JD, Asai DJ, LeBowitz JH. "The two cytoplasmic dynein-2 isoforms in Leishmania mexicana perform separate functions." Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.. 2005;143(2):216-25. Abstract

Eukaryotic organisms with cilia or flagella typically express two non-axonemal or "cytoplasmic" dyneins, dynein-1 and dynein-2. Interestingly, we find that Leishmania mexicana is unusual and contains two distinct cytoplasmic dynein-2 heavy chain genes (designated LmxDHC2.1 and LmxDHC2.2) along with a single dynein-1 heavy chain (LmxDHC1). Disruption of LmxDHC2.2 resulted in immotile parasites that had a rounded cell body. Although they assume amastigote morphology, immunoblot analysis of these cells demonstrates protein expression consistent with the promastigote stage. Ultrastructural analysis revealed non-emergent flagella that lacked the paraflagellar rod and an axoneme with deficiencies in several components. We confirmed the absence of paraflagellar rod proteins PFR1 and PFR2. These results show that LmxDHC2.2 is required for flagellar assembly and also participates in the maintenance of promastigote cell shape. In contrast to the results with LmxDHC2.2, we were unable to generate homologous disruptions of LmxDHC2.1. This result suggests that, unlike LmxDHC2.2, LmxDHC2.1 is an essential gene in Leishmania. Together, these findings demonstrate that the two dynein-2 heavy chain isoforms in Leishmania perform distinct functions. The observation that the genomes of Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma brucei also contain two dynein-2 isoforms suggests that this unusual aspect of cytoplasmic dynein is a conserved feature of the kinetoplastids.

MAURI YAMBO. Two Bridges (Collection of Haiku).; Forthcoming. Abstract
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ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Two and a half year Review of some aspects of twin delivery at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: E.Afr. Med. J 62(11) 802.1985. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Two and a half year Review of some aspects of twin delivery at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: E.Afr. Med. J 62(11) 802.1985. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
Lin K-Q, Faria Junior PE, Bauer JM, Peng B, Monserrat B, Gmitra M, Fabian J, Bange S, Lupton JM. "Twist-angle engineering of excitonic quantum interference and optical nonlinearities in stacked 2D semiconductors." Nature communications. 2021;12:1-7. Abstract
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Othieno J. "Twin Cities care system assessment: process, findings, and recommendations.". 2007. Abstract

The Twin Cities Care system lacks services that are most needed in the later stages of HIV disease. Services in highest demand included housing, transportation, and translation; available translations services are generally limited to Somali, Oromo, and Amharic, the languages most widely spoken by the three largest African immigrant and refugee groups in the Twin Cities. The care system is not well-integrated, and most of the work of moving clients within the system is done by case managers and care advocates. The main technical competencies identified by providers as lacking are understanding mental health from the perspective of African-born people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and addressing sexual issues, especially with women. African providers with foreign certifications not recognized in the United States are not able to use their professional skills. African clients are not well-informed about HIV, and African women are more likely than men to seek and stay in care.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Twilight Years are the Years of Counsel and Wisdom", History and Culture in Western Kenya: The People of Bungoma District through Time, Edited by Simiyu Wandibba [Nairobi G.S. Were Press, 1982] 78 -90.". In: Nyange Publishers.; 1982. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Muli NL, Musyoka PK. "TVET Institutions, Devolved Governance and Youth Training and Employment in Kenya: Exploratory Perspectives.". 2013. Abstract

There is a substantial body of research literature that documents the critical role of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions in manpower development especially in emergent economies. While acknowledging the challenges that accompany many a TVET programme in these regions such as low efficiency and poor quality, the current discussion explores the potential synergies that could be mapped and harnessed between TVET institutions and structures of devolved governance in Kenya and how these synergies could be channelled toward youth training and employment in Kenya. Using Chapter Eleven [Devolved Government] of the Constitution of Kenya (2010) as a backdrop, the discussion identifies gaps in training for devolved governance that TVET institutions could exploit on the basis of the functions of county governments as outlined in Fourth Schedule of the Constitution. In particular, TVET institutions could fill the gaps in training for devolved governance in agriculture, natural resource management and environmental conservation, public health and emergency services, cultural activities and the management of public entertainment and amenities, county transport and public works, animal control and welfare, trade development and regulation, county planning and development, delivery of pre-primary education and childcare facilities, management of village polytechnics and home craft centres, and control of drugs and pornography. The operationalisation of county governments as per the Constitution requires a critical mass of well trained human resources in all these areas and these human resources don't have to be trained in tertiary institutions and/or universities, or be deployed from the national government for the long term. The discussion posits that a coordinated effort by TVET institutions to develop and offer training tailored toward ensuring that county governments meet their constitutionally delegated mandate provides immense opportunities for youth training and subsequent youth employment in Kenya - and possibly elsewhere

Ronoh K, Kamucha G, Oduol VK. "TV White Spaces in Africa: Trials and Role in Improving Broadband Access in Africa.". In: IEEE Africon. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; 2015.
and Anne Hellum IIPK-M. "TURNING THE TIDE: ENGENDERING THE HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER AND SANITATION." IELRC. 2015:32-80.
Osanjo L. "Turning Idea into Enterprise.". In: SSAFW Arts and Culture Fashion Seminar. Johannesburg, SA; 2008.
Gor S. "The Turn Towards Regional Trade Agreements: Is EAC Welfare Enhancing to Partner States? ." Journal of World Trad e Studies. 2011;2(1):43-51.
"TURN OF THE MONTH EFFECT: EVIDENCE FROM THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." African Management Review 2013. 2013. Abstract

This study sought to investigate if Turn of the Month effect exists at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. In carrying out the study, the days of the month were divided into two, the Turn of the Month (TOM) which included the last trading day of the month and the first three trading days of the following month. The other trading days of the month were categorized as Rest of the Month (ROM). The 20 share index was used as the sampling frame and the daily indices were used to compute the daily returns. Secondary data was obtained from the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) data base. The TOM coefficient was not significant to confirm TOM effect. It is therefore concluded that there is no TOM effect at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. It is equally recommended that the findings of this study should be used cautiously by the market regulator, NSE, stock brokers, investors and listed companies. The reason being, they could have been influenced by the size of the index used to compute the returns. That no TOM effect was found at NSE is not sufficient to conclude that the market is efficient.

ORIKU N O, J. WANJARE, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F. "Turn of The Calendar Effect On Stock Returns Of Firms Listed At Nairobi Securities Exchange International. Journal of Social Science and Economic Research ." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research. 2017;2(4):ISSN: 2455-8834.
Kitheka JU, Mavuti KM, Nthenge P, Obiero M. "The turbidity maximum zone in a shallow, well-flushed Sabaki estuary in Kenya." Journal of Sea Research. 2016;110:17-28.
Peng B, Mortazavi B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Li J, Ni G, Rabczuk T, Zhu H. "Tuning thermal transport in C 3 N monolayers by adding and removing carbon atoms." Physical Review Applied. 2018;10:034046. Abstract
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Ogeng’o JA, Maseghe P, Ongeti K, Obimbo M, Olabu B. "Tunica Adventitia of the Aorta is an Active Vascular Compartment." Anatomy Journal of Africa .. 2015;4(2):617-623. AbstractTunica Adventitia of the Aorta is an Active Vascular Compartment

The tunica adventitia has previously been regarded as a passive connective tissue covering that offers
only nutritive and physical support to the arterial wall. Recently, however, emphasis has been given to
its role in atherosclerosis. Although the normal structure may bear the anatomical basis of these
functions, microscopic anatomy of the tunica adventitia in normal arteries is seldom reported. These
data are important in understanding disease process and potential areas of intervention. The goat is a
suitable model for studying cardiovascular disease and the aorta is frequently afflicted by
atherosclerosis. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the structure of tunica adventitia of normal
aorta in goat. Materials for the study were obtained from abdominal aorta of 6 healthy young adult
male goats (capra hircus) age range 12 – 24 months. Fresh specimens from euthanized animals were
fixed in 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde, post fixed in 1% phosphate buffered osmium tetroxide
then embedded in durcupan. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate counterstained with
lead citrate and examined with electron microscope. Some specimens were processed routinely for
paraffin embedding and sectioning. They were stained with Mason’s Trichrome and Weigert
elastic/Van Gieson stains. The tunica adventitia was fibroelastic with numerous capillaries, arterioles
and multiple cell types. The cells were active fibroblasts, phagocytic, perivascular and endothelial cells
embedded in the fibrous stroma. These findings suggest that the tunica adventitia of the goat aorta is
a metabolically active vascular compartment. These features namely microvasculature and multiple cell
populations probably enable it to maintain structural and functional integrity and appropriately respond
to vascular injury.

Al-Azawi A, Cenev Z, Tupasela T, Peng B, Ikkala O, Zhou Q, Jokinen V, Franssila S, Ras RHA. "Tunable and Magnetic Thiol–ene Micropillar Arrays." Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 2020;41:1900522. Abstract
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A MRKABURIAHF. "Tuna fish infection with protozoa, subphylum mycosporeay as aesthetic case. Bull. Anim. Hlth and Production Afric. 1993.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1993. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET. "Tumwesigye C, Msukwa G, Njuguna M, Shilio B, Courtright P, Lewallen S. Inappropriate enrollment of children in schools for the visually impaired in east Africa. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2009 Jun;29(2):135-9.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2009. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many visually impaired children can learn to read print with appropriate training and simple visual aids. This may allow them to attend normal schools and to be integrated into society, which has lifelong benefits. Yet, in Africa, many visually impaired children are enrolled in special schools and taught only Braille. The purpose of this analysis was to document the extent of inappropriate enrollment of visually impaired children in special schools and annexes for the blind in four African countries. METHODS: Schools were selected through a population-proportional-to-size method so that they would represent all children attending special schools in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. Children were examined by ophthalmologists trained in standardised methods to determine visual acuity and the cause of decreased acuity. RESULTS: Of 1062 children examined in special schools and annexes for the blind, 361 (34%, 95% CI 31.2, 36.8) had visual acuity >or=6/60; the most common cause of visual impairment was retinal disease. Of the 120 children with normal vision (>or=6/18), 69 (57.5%) had two normal eyes, 21 (17.5%) had an obvious ocular disfigurement in the fellow eye and 10 (8.4%) had had successful cataract surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In these countries, many children are placed inappropriately in special schools and annexes for the blind. The reasons are multiple and to rectify the situation will require advocacy and cooperation between ministries of health and education.

PMID: 19460267 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bjerregaard B, Okoth-Olende CA, Gatei D, Bal IS, Jensen H. "Tumours of the nose and maxillary sinus. Ten year survey from Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

Between 1976-1985, 127 cases of malignant tumours of the nose and maxillary sinus were seen at the Department of Human Pathology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Cancer of the nose and maxillary sinus was a common diagnosis accounting for 0.8 per cent of all malignancies. Despite this, the incidence was low probably because the rural Kenyans have difficulty in gaining access to the oncology facilities in Nairobi. Incidence rates standardized to world population per 100,000 persons-years were 0.16 for males and 0.12 for females. Clinical information showed that malignancy should be expected in patients with swelling of the cheek and involvement of the orbit. Compared with Denmark the proportion of undifferentiated carcinomas was significantly higher in Kenya. The well known fact that anaplastic carcinoma of the postnasal space is causally associated with the Epstein Barr virus makes it tempting to suggest that anaplastic carcinoma of the nose and maxillary sinus may also be of viral aetiology.

Morris MR, Gentle D, Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Gupta K, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Kishida T, Yao M, Teh B, Latif F, Maher ER. "Tumor suppressor activity and epigenetic inactivation of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2/SPINT2 in papillary and clear cell renal cell carcinoma." Cancer Res.. 2005;65(11):4598-606. Abstract

Following treatment with a demethylating agent, 5 of 11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines showed increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2/SPINT2/Bikunin), a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that regulates HGF activity. As activating mutations in the MET proto-oncogene (the HGF receptor) cause familial RCC, we investigated whether HAI-2/SPINT2 might act as a RCC tumor suppressor gene. We found that transcriptional silencing of HAI-2 in RCC cell lines was associated with promoter region methylation and HAI-2/SPINT2 protein expression was down-regulated in 30% of sporadic RCC. Furthermore, methylation-specific PCR analysis revealed promoter region methylation in 30% (19 of 64) of clear cell RCC and 40% (15 of 38) of papillary RCC, whereas mutation analysis (in 39 RCC cell lines and primary tumors) revealed a missense substitution (P111S) in one RCC cell line. Restoration of HAI-2/SPINT2 expression in a RCC cell line reduced in vitro colony formation, but the P111S mutant had no significant effect. Increased cell motility associated with HAI-2/SPINT2 inactivation was abrogated by treatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospholipase C-gamma inhibitors, but not by an inhibitor of atypical protein kinase C. These findings are consistent with frequent epigenetic inactivation of HAI-2/SPINT2, causing loss of RCC tumor suppressor activity and implicate abnormalities of the MET pathway in clear cell and papillary sporadic RCC. This information provides opportunities to develop novel targeted approaches to the treatment of RCC.

Maher ER, Latif F, Teh B, Yao M, Wiesener MS, Banks RE, Gupta K, Maina EN, Abdulrahman M, Gentle D, others. "Tumor Suppressor Activity And Epigenetic Inactivation Of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type 2/SPINT2 In Papillary And Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.". 2005. Abstract
n/a
Maher ER, Latif F, Teh B;, Yao M, T K, Wiesener MS, Banks RE, Gupta K, Maina EN, Abdulrahman M, Gentle D, Morris MR. "Tumor Suppressor Activity And Epigenetic Inactivation Of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type 2/SPINT2 In Papillary And Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.". 2006. Abstract

Following treatment with a demethylating agent, 5 of 11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines showed increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2/SPINT2/Bikunin), a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that regulates HGF activity. As activating mutations in the MET proto-oncogene (the HGF receptor) cause familial RCC, we investigated whether HAI-2/SPINT2 might act as a RCC tumor suppressor gene. We found that transcriptional silencing of HAI-2 in RCC cell lines was associated with promoter region methylation and HAI-2/SPINT2 protein expression was down-regulated in 30% of sporadic RCC. Furthermore, methylation-specific PCR analysis revealed promoter region methylation in 30% (19 of 64) of clear cell RCC and 40% (15 of 38) of papillary RCC, whereas mutation analysis (in 39 RCC cell lines and primary tumors) revealed a missense substitution (P111S) in one RCC cell line. Restoration of HAI-2/SPINT2 expression in a RCC cell line reduced in vitro colony formation, but the P111S mutant had no significant effect. Increased cell motility associated with HAI-2/SPINT2 inactivation was abrogated by treatment with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospholipase C-gamma inhibitors, but not by an inhibitor of atypical protein kinase C. These findings are consistent with frequent epigenetic inactivation of HAI-2/SPINT2, causing loss of RCC tumor suppressor activity and implicate abnormalities of the MET pathway in clear cell and papillary sporadic RCC. This information provides opportunities to develop novel targeted approaches to the treatment of RCC.

Morris MR, Gentle D, Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Gupta K, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Kishida T, Yao M, Teh B, others. "Tumor suppressor activity and epigenetic inactivation of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2/SPINT2 in papillary and clear cell renal cell carcinoma." Cancer research. 2005;65:4598-4606. Abstract
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A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Tumbo-Oeri AG, Omwandho CA. Cellular and molecular interactions in HIV infections: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):249-53. w.; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To review the cellular and molecular interactions between HIV and the host immune system that lead to full-blown AIDS. DATA SOURCES: Published reports on HIV/host interaction during a fifteen year period beginning from 1987. STUDY SELECTION: Only those studies involving humans and non-human primates were selected. The studies included original articles and state-of-the-art reviews covering in vivo and in vitro findings. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: This article presents a critical review of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIV infection and their relationship to the onset of AIDS. CONCLUSION: HIV has elaborated diverse and somewhat complicated mechanisms for the subversion and evasion of the host immune defence strategies. These include escape through mutation, prolonged latency of the infection, masking of the viral envelope proteins, down-regulation of MHC-I and up-regulation of the Fas-ligand on infected cell surfaces. This review enhances our understanding of HIV/AIDS disease and presents a basis on which management strategies could be developed.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Tumbo-Oeri AG, Omwandho CA, Muchiri JM. Possible immunological basis for recurrent spontaneous abortions: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Nov;78(11):586-9. .; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

Otieno SPV, Muchiri P. Tujichunge. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2006.
Jerono P. Tugen Word order-A Minimalist Perspective. MACEDONIA: EGALITE; 2012.
Jerono P. "Tugen Noun Classification .". In: Nilo Saharan Issues and Perspectives . Cologne: Rudiger Kopper Verlag; 2018.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Tudor Jackson: The Law of Kenya".". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1992. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Tuberculous meningitis–diagnostic problems. East Afr Med J . 1979 Dec; 56 ( 12 ): 646-50 . No abstract available. PMID: 544261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1979 Dec; 56 ( 12 ): 646-50 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1979. Abstract

No abstract available

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Tuberculosis of the Thoracic Spine Managed by Trans-thoracic Decompression, Rib-grafting and Chemotherapy.". In: The African Journal Of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Oliwa JN, Karumbi JM, Marais BJ, Madhi SA, Graham SM. "Tuberculosis as a cause or comorbidity of childhood pneumonia in tuberculosis-endemic areas: a systematic review." Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3(3):235-43. Abstract

Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide, with most cases occurring in tuberculosis-endemic settings. Studies have emphasised the potential importance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in acute severe pneumonia in children as a primary cause or underlying comorbidity, further emphasised by the changing aetiological range with rollout of bacterial conjugate vaccines in high mortality settings. We systematically reviewed clinical and autopsy studies done in tuberculosis-endemic settings that enrolled at least 100 children aged younger than 5 years with severe pneumonia, and that prospectively included a diagnostic approach to tuberculosis in all study participants. We noted substantial heterogeneity between studies in terms of study population and diagnostic methods. Of the 3644 patients who had culture of respiratory specimens for M tuberculosis undertaken, 275 (7·5%) were culture positive, and an acute presentation was common. Inpatient case-fatality rate for pneumonia associated with tuberculosis ranged from 4% to 21% in the four clinical studies that reported pathogen-related outcomes. Prospective studies are needed in high tuberculosis-burden settings to address whether tuberculosis is a cause or comorbidity of childhood acute severe pneumonia.

Tubadilishe Jinna . London: Oxford University Press ; 2020.
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Tsuma, V.T., Mbai, K., Gitonga, P., Ndurumo, S. and Wabacha, J.K. The fertility of acyclic and repeat breeder cows and heifers following gonabreed and estroplan treatment.". In: (Paper to be presented at the KVA workshop in Mombasa, Kenya, on the 24th to 26th April 2006). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2006. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Rojkittikhun, T. and Lundeheim, N. (1993). Peripheral plasma concentration of B-endorphin and cortisol in sows around weaning.". In: Proc. IV Int. Conf. On Pig Reprod. Missouri, USA,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Kindahl, H., Lundeheim, N. and Rojkittikhun, T. (1996). Endocrine changes during group housing of primiparous sows in early pregnancy. Acta Vet. Scand., 37: 481-490,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Kindahl, H. and Lundeheim, N. (1996). Effect of food deprivation during early pregnancy on endocrine changes in primiparous sows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 41: 267-278,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A., Forsberg, M. and Lundeheim, N. (1998). Plasma levels of progesterone and cortisol after ACTH administration in lactating primiparous sows. Acta Vet. Scand., 39: 71-76,.". In: Proc. Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nairobi, Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1995). Hormone profiles around weaning in cyclic and anoestrous sows. J. Vet. Med. A., 42: 153-163,.". In: Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1995). Cortisol and B-endorphin in peripheral circulation around weaning in primiparous sows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 37: 175-182,.". In: Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1994). Endocrine changes during grouping of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.". In: Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 501. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Lundeheim, N. (1994). Endocrine changes during fasting of primiparous sows in early pregnancy.". In: Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S., Madej, A. and Kindahl, H. (1994). Effects of fasting sows during early pregnancy on hormone patterns and embryonic survival. J. Reprod. Fertil. Abstract series No. 14. PP 27,.". In: Proc. 13th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bangkok, Thailand. PP 502. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T., Einarsson, S. and Madej, A. (1996). Adrenocortical activity and reproduction in primiparous sows. .". In: Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Tsuma, V.T. and Magnusson, U. (1992). Opsonic activity in mammary secretion and serum of gilts during the lactation period. J. Vet. Med. B., 39: 285-289,.". In: Proc. IV Int. Conf. On Pig Reprod. Missouri, USA,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Tsuma, V. T., Mbai, K., Gitonga, P. N., Abuom, T. O., Ndurumo, S. M.,Bwanga, C. O. (2006). Fertility of zero-grazed dairy cattle following hormone treatment and fixed-time artificial insemination.". In: KVA conference 2006,Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Tsigadi S.A., Abuom T.O. and Mbugua S. (2006). Hypospadia in a dog.". In: KVA conference 2006.Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
S. Mihok, D.A. Carlson, P. N. Ndegwa. "Tsetse and other biting fly responses to nzi traps baited with octenol, phenols and acetone." Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2007;21:70-84.Website
K MMO, RE C, G M, LM G, SM K. "Tsetse and Livestock Disease Situation in a Ranch and Surrounding Farms of Makueni District, Kenya." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2010;34:1-12.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Tsegaye, D., Muroki, N.M. and Kogi-Makau, Wambui. Food taboos among pregnant women in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev.: 12(1):45-49.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1998. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Tsegaye, D., Muroki, N.M. & Kogi-Makau, W. Food Aversions and Cravings During Pregnancy: Prevalence and Significance for Maternal Nutrition in Ethiopia. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol 19 no 1 1998: 20-26.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1998. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Sorensen JPR, Carr AF, Nayebare J, Diongue DML, Pouye A, Roffo R, Gwengweya G, Ward JST, Kanoti J, Okotto-Okotto J, van der Marel L, Ciric L, Faye SC, Gaye CB, Goodall T, Kulabako R, Lapworth DJ, MacDonald AM, Monjerezi M, Olago D, Owor M, Read DS, Taylor RG. "Tryptophan-like and humic-like fluorophores are extracellular in groundwater: implications as real-time faecal indicators.". 2020;10(1):15379. AbstractWebsite

Fluorescent natural organic matter at tryptophan-like (TLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF) peaks is associated with the presence and enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater. We hypothesise, however, that it is predominantly extracellular material that fluoresces at these wavelengths, not bacterial cells. We quantified total (unfiltered) and extracellular (filtered at < 0.22 µm) TLF and HLF in 140 groundwater sources across a range of urban population densities in Kenya, Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. Where changes in fluorescence occurred following filtration they were correlated with potential controlling variables. A significant reduction in TLF following filtration (ΔTLF) was observed across the entire dataset, although the majority of the signal remained and thus considered extracellular (median 96.9%). ΔTLF was only significant in more urbanised study areas where TLF was greatest. Beneath Dakar, Senegal, ΔTLF was significantly correlated to total bacterial cells (ρs 0.51). No significant change in HLF following filtration across all data indicates these fluorophores are extracellular. Our results suggest that TLF and HLF are more mobile than faecal indicator bacteria and larger pathogens in groundwater, as the predominantly extracellular fluorophores are less prone to straining. Consequently, TLF/HLF are more precautionary indicators of microbial risks than faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater-derived drinking water.

Kamau JM, Mwai A, Kinyanjui PW, Iraqi FA. "Trypanotolerance effect as a result of genomic imprinting in F murine population.". 2007. Abstract

African tsetse-fly transmitted trypanosomosis affects a wide range of wild and domesticated animal species. Trypanotolerance, the ability of some breeds to withstand the infection has been recognized and provides a sustainable option in animal production. While a genetic contribution, several behavioural traits are not in doubt, an attempt to find the responsible genes has proven to be complicated. One advance towards generating trypanotolerant animals has been the demonstration of an effective genetic im printing phenomenon in crossbred mice, similar to that observed following challenge. We report a novel reciprocal crossing strategy that exploits epistasis and heterosis in inbred mouse strains to identify imprinting effect controlling trypanosomosis using an F2 (129/ J x CS7BL/6) resource populations. The results indicate that genetic control for trypanotolerance is complicated and the identification of imprinting effect may provide new insights of introgressing trypanotolerance in livestock

Kamau JM, Mwai A, Kinyanjui PW, Iraqi FA. "Trypanotolerance effect as a result of genomic imprinting in F murine population.". 2007. Abstract

African tsetse-fly transmitted trypanosomosis affects a wide range of wild and domesticated animal species. Trypanotolerance, the ability of some breeds to withstand the infection has been recognized and provides a sustainable option in animal production. While a genetic contribution, several behavioural traits are not in doubt, an attempt to find the responsible genes has proven to be complicated. One advance towards generating trypanotolerant animals has been the demonstration of an effective genetic im printing phenomenon in crossbred mice, similar to that observed following challenge. We report a novel reciprocal crossing strategy that exploits epistasis and heterosis in inbred mouse strains to identify imprinting effect controlling trypanosomosis using an F2 (129/ J x CS7BL/6) resource populations. The results indicate that genetic control for trypanotolerance is complicated and the identification of imprinting effect may provide new insights of introgressing trypanotolerance in livestock

Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Wilson AJ;, Allonby EW;, Allonby EW. "trypanotolerance And Economics Among East African Goats Compared To Their Crosses With Two Exotic Breeds".".; 1982.
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Wilson AJ;, Allonby EW;, Allonby EW. "trypanotolerance And Economics Among East African Goats Compared To Their Crosses With Two Exotic Breeds".".; 1982.
OLE DRMAPENAYISAACM. "TRYPANOSOMOSIS AND HELMINTHOSIS IN CAMELS: COMPARISON OF RAN.". In: journal. EAEP; 2002.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF. "TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND THE CONSERVATION OF BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AT THE NGULIA RHINO SANCTUARY, TSAVO WEST NATIONAL PARK, KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
Tsetse polupations and trypanosome infections were monitored at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary to assess the impact of trypanosomiasis on rhinoceros. High densities of Glossina pallidipes were found near a permanent spring by the Ngulia escarpment; G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis were also present in lower numbers. Infection rates in G. pallidipes averaged 3.6%, with three times as many T. vivax as T. congolense infections. T. simiae and T. brucei were present at low frequency. DNA probes revealed that all mature T. congolense infections belonged to the savanna subgroup. G. pallidipes fed on many hosts, with most meals taken from bovides and elephants. Rhino account for one of the blood meals in a small sample taken from G. longipennis. During a time of low tsetse densities (dry season), we estimated that the wild host population was acquiring seven infections per km2 per day. At lower levels of challenge, an experimental rhino became infected with T. congolense. These results are discussed in terms of future plans for the repopulation of rhino in tsetse-infested areas in Kenya.   Keywords; epidemiology, disease, Glossina, parasitology, Trypanosoma
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF. "TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND THE CONSERVATION OF BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AT THE NGULIA RHINO SANCTUARY, TSAVO WEST NATIONAL PARK, KENYA.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1992. Abstract
Tsetse polupations and trypanosome infections were monitored at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary to assess the impact of trypanosomiasis on rhinoceros. High densities of Glossina pallidipes were found near a permanent spring by the Ngulia escarpment; G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis were also present in lower numbers. Infection rates in G. pallidipes averaged 3.6%, with three times as many T. vivax as T. congolense infections. T. simiae and T. brucei were present at low frequency. DNA probes revealed that all mature T. congolense infections belonged to the savanna subgroup. G. pallidipes fed on many hosts, with most meals taken from bovides and elephants. Rhino account for one of the blood meals in a small sample taken from G. longipennis. During a time of low tsetse densities (dry season), we estimated that the wild host population was acquiring seven infections per km2 per day. At lower levels of challenge, an experimental rhino became infected with T. congolense. These results are discussed in terms of future plans for the repopulation of rhino in tsetse-infested areas in Kenya.   Keywords; epidemiology, disease, Glossina, parasitology, Trypanosoma
Nasimolo, Kiama GMK. "Trypanosome Migration to the Brain.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Nasimolo. J. Kiama., S.Makanya. A. GKP k J. "Trypanosome Migration to the Brain .". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya; 2012. Abstract

The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.

We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.

Nthiwa DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi S, Gichimu BM. "Trypanosoma Infection Rates in Glossina Species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya." J Parasitol Res. 2015;2015:607432. Abstract

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G. pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs (proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR assay using internal transcribed spacer primers and individual trypanosome species were identified following agarose gel electrophoresis. Out of the 117 flies trapped in the area 39 (33.3%) were teneral while 78 (67%) were nonteneral. G. pallidipes constituted the largest percentage of 58% while G. longipennis were 42%. The overall trypanosomes infection rate in all nonteneral Glossina spp. was 11.53% with G. longipennis recording the highest infection rate of 23.08% while G. pallidipes had an infection rate of 5.77%. T. vivax was the most infectious (10.26%) compared to T. congolense (1.28%). Mean apparent densities were strongly positively correlated with infection rates (r = 0.95) confirming the importance of this parameter as an indicator of AAT transmission risk.

Kamundia PW;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mdegela RH;, Byarugaba DK;, Otieno RO. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.".; 2010.
Kamundia PW;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mdegela RH;, Byarugaba DK;, Otieno RO. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.".; 2010.
Kamundia PW;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mdegela RH;, Byarugaba DK;, Otieno RO. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.".; 2010.
PW K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, Njagi L W. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2010.2010-trypanosoma_infection_in_fish.pdf
"Trypanosoma brucei: a quick method for separating blood-stream trypomastigotes from infected blood by differential osmotic lysis.". 1982. Abstract

The degree of rat erythrocyte lysis and immobilization of Trypanosoma brucei in infected blood by buffered hypotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sources was studied. 2. At 0.3% sodium chloride solution 98% hemolysis of erythrocytes was achieved while 95% of the original bloodstream trypomastigotes survived and were found to be motile and viable for biochemical study. 3. Further increase in the concentration of sodium chloride above 0.3% revealed an increase in the immobilization of trypanosomes and a decrease in the erythrocyte hemolysis. 4. Bloodstream trypomastigotes have been prepared by differential osmotic lysis of infected blood in 0.3% sodium chloride solution and used for studying their metabolism.

Kihurani DO, Nantulya VM, Mbiuki SM, Mogoa E, Mbithi PMF. "Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". 1994.
Njogu RM, Kiaira JK. "Trypanosoma brucei brucei: the catabolism of glycolytic intermediates by digitonin-permeabilized bloodstream trypomastigotes and some aspects of regulation of anaerobic glycolysis.". 1988. Abstract

The production of pyruvate, glycerol and glycerol-3-phosphate by intact and digitonin-permeabilized Trypanosoma brucei brucei has been studied with glucose or the glycolytic intermediates as substrates. 2. Under aerobic conditions hexosephosphates gave maximal glycolysis in the presence of 40-60 micrograms digitonin/10(8) trypanosomes while the triosephosphates gave it at 20-30 micrograms digitonin/10(8) trypanosomes. 3. In the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid, and the glycolytic intermediates, permeabilized trypanosomes produced equimolar amounts of pyruvate and glycerol-3-phosphate and no glycerol. Under the same conditions, glucose catabolism produced glycerol in addition to pyruvated and glycerol-3-phosphate. 4. In the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid and ATP or ADP intact trypanosomes produced equimolar amounts of pyruvate and (glycerol plus glycerol-3-phosphate) with glucose as substrate. 5. A carrier for ATP and ADP at the glycosomal membrane is implicated. 6. It is apparent that glycerol formation is regulated by the ATP/ADP ratio and that it needs intact glycosomal membrane and the presence of glucose.

OLE DRMAPENAYISAACM. "Trypanocidal drug use in selected trypanosomes endemic areas in Kenya: a survey.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Ketri Annual Internal Scientific Review on 22nd - 26th June 1998, No. 66 Pp 28. EAEP; 1998.
Nthiw’a DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi SA, Gichimu BM. "Trypanasoma infection rates in Glossina species in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Parasitology Research . 2015; (607432):1-8.
"Evelyne A", undefined. "Truth-seeking in Kenya: Assessing the Effectiveness of the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission of Kenya." Africa Nazarene University Law Journal. 2013;1(1):133-164.
Otieno I. Truth Maintenance Systems. Manderick PB, ed. Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussels; 2001.abstract.pdf
Sobania WN. "The Truth be Told." Stereoscopic Photographs, Interview and Oral Tradition from Mount Kenya,” Journal of Eastern African Studies. 2007;Vo.1, 1-15.
Weke, Patrick; Davis Bundi Ntwiga and Kirumbu MK. "Trust Model for Social Network Using Singular Value Decomposition." Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems. 2016;14(3):296-302. Abstract

For effective interactions to take place in a social network, trust is important. We model trust of agents using the peer to peer reputation ratings in the network that forms a real valued matrix.
Singular value decomposition discounts the reputation ratings to estimate the trust levels as trust is the subjective probability of future expectations based on current reputation ratings.
Reputation and trust are closely related and singular value decomposition can estimate trust using the real valued matrix of the reputation ratings of the agents in the network.
Singular value decomposition is an ideal technique in error elimination when estimating trust from reputation ratings. Reputation estimation of trust is optimal at the discounting of 20 %.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB, Manene M, Mwaniki I. "Trust and Distrust: A Reputation Ratings Approach." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology (IARJSET). 2016;3(2):111-114. Abstract

Agents’ reputation ratings in a social network form a real valued matrix which is discounted with singular value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the trust and distrust levels of agents. SVD eliminates noise as future expected trust and distrust are based on current reputation ratings. A discounting of 20 percent is optimal, further discounting does not improve error reduction. Reputation and trust are closely related. Distrust is different from trust and reputation. Distrust is similar to trust negation; and trust is similar to distrust negation.

Ntwiga DB, Weke P, Manene M, Maniki I. "Trust and Distrust: A Reputation Ratings Approach." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2016;3(2):111-114. AbstractWebsite

Agents’ reputation ratings in a social network form a real-valued matrix which is discounted with singular
value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the trust and distrust levels of agents. SVD eliminates noise as future expected
trust and distrust are based on current reputation ratings. A discounting of 20 percent is optimal, further discounting
does not improve error reduction. Reputation and trust are closely related. Distrust is different from trust and
reputation. Distrust is similar to trust negation, and trust is similar to distrust negation

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Troubled to Death in Religion and Health by Kinot, H.W. and Getui, M. (eds.) Transafric Press, Nairobi.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Odhiambo T. "Troubled Love and Marriage as Work in Kenyan Popular Fiction." Social Identities. 2003;9(3):423-436.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. "Trost (eds.): Sage Publications, Thoursand Oaks. London New Delhi (2005) pp.3-24 - with Bert N. Adams.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "Tropical Urbanism with Riverrine Focus: Settlement Formation and Distribution in Lower Grand Falls, Upper Tana River Catchment in .". In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURE,Vol.1, No.1: 10-20, Published in Nigeria. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Tropical Meteorology II.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Tropical Meteorology I.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2005.
Olago D, Loomis SE, Russell JM, Verschuren D, Morrill C, Cort GD, et al. "The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum." Science advances. 2017;3(1):e1600815. AbstractFull text

The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on high-elevation temperature during past climate states. We present a 25,000-year temperature reconstruction from Mount Kenya, East Africa, which demonstrates that cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our data with paleoclimate simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models underestimate this lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than predicted.

PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Trophic Ecology of Some Common Juvenile Fish Species in Mtwapa Creek, Kenya.". In: Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 3, No. 2. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Trivedi HN, Plummer FA, ANZALA AO, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, Embree JE, Hayglass KT. Resistance to HIV-1 infection among African sex workers is associated with global hypo responsiveness in interleukin 4 production. FASEB J. 2001 Aug; 15(10):1795-7.". In: FASEB J. 2001 Aug; 15(10):1795-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
"A triumvirate blended learning method for embedded computational devices used in the Internet of Things: A case study.". In: 2017 2nd International conferences on Information Technology, Information Systems and Electrical Engineering ({ICITISEE}). {IEEE}; 2017. Abstract
n/a
Howard B;, Macfarlane WV;, Maloiy GMO. "Tritiated water in field studies of ruminant metabolism in Africa."; 1972.
Ongarora DSB, Thoithi GN, Kamau FN, Abuga KO, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Triterpenoids From the Stem Bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. (Sapindaceae).". 2009. Abstract

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data as friedelin and epifriedelinol.

Ongarora DSB, Thoithi GN, Kamau FN, Abuga KO, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Triterpenoids From the Stem Bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. (Sapindaceae).". 2009. Abstract

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data as friedelin and epifriedelinol.

Ongarora DSB, Thoithi GN, Kamau FN, Abuga KO, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Triterpenoids From the Stem Bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. (Sapindaceae).". 2009. Abstract

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data as friedelin and epifriedelinol.

Ongarora DSB, Thoithi GN, Kamau FN, Abuga KO, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Triterpenoids from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata Bak (Sapindaceae)." Ethiop. Pharm. J. . 2009;24:71-74.
Njenga1 LW, Njogu1 REN, Kariuki1 DK, AY1O, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Applications.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Lydia W. Njenga, Rachael E.N. Njogu, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes as Photoredox Catalysts in Organic Synthesis.". In: Oorgandagarna - Inorganic Days,. Nynäshamn, Sweden; 2017.
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "Tris(2-pyridyl) phosphine oxide; how C-H.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; 2004. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
JAMES PROFODEK. "The Trips Agreement: Its Nature and Impications, Paper Presented at the KIPRA Workshop, Nairobi Safari Park Hotel, September.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2000. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Thomas, TK; Masaba BCB; NZMOJTMC; BSR; R; C. "Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial.". 2011. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected pregnant women took zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine or nelfinavir from 34-36 weeks' gestation to 6 mo post partum. Infants received single-dose nevirapine at birth. Women were advised to breastfeed exclusively and wean rapidly just before 6 mo. Using Kaplan-Meier methods we estimated HIV-transmission and death rates from delivery to 24 mo. We compared HIV-transmission rates among subgroups defined by maternal risk factors, including baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. Among 487 live-born, singleton, or first-born infants, cumulative HIV-transmission rates at birth, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, and 24 mo were 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 5.7%, and 7.0%, respectively. The 24-mo HIV-transmission rates stratified by baseline maternal CD4 cell count <500 and ≥500 cells/mm(3) were 8.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.8%-12.0%) and 4.1% (1.8%-8.8%), respectively (p = 0.06); the corresponding rates stratified by baseline maternal viral load <10,000 and ≥10,000 copies/ml were 3.0% (1.1%-7.8%) and 8.7% (6.1%-12.3%), respectively (p = 0.01). None of the 12 maternal and 51 infant deaths (including two second-born infants) were attributed to antiretrovirals. The cumulative HIV-transmission or death rate at 24 mo was 15.7% (95% CI 12.7%-19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This trial shows that a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen from late pregnancy through 6 months of breastfeeding for PMTCT is safe and feasible in a resource-limited setting. These findings are consistent with those from other trials using maternal triple-antiretroviral regimens during breastfeeding in comparable settings.

Thomas TK, Masaba R, Borkowf CB, Ndivo R, Zeh C, Misore A, Otieno J, Jamieson D, Thigpen MC, Bulterys M, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Amornkul PN, Greenberg AE, Fowler MG. "Triple-antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastfeeding--the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study, Kenya: a clinical trial." PLoS Med.. 2011;8(3):e1001015. Abstract

Effective strategies are needed for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study was a single-arm open label trial conducted between July 2003 and February 2009. The overall aim was to investigate whether a maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen that was designed to maximally suppress viral load in late pregnancy and the first 6 mo of lactation was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective PMTCT intervention.

Oiye SO, Mwangi AM, Sehmi JJ. "Triple simultaneous stabilizing action of rosemary spice (Rosemarinum officinalis L.) in full-fat soya based flour rich in protein and β-carotene.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study aimed at demonstrating the stabilizing effect of up to 0.4%(wt/wt flour) of rosemary spice (Rosemarinum Officinalis L.) in a flour-based protein-rich product intended for young children. The flour was made of full-fat soya flour, meat (beef) powder, and carrot flour as β ...

Oiyeh SO, Mwangi AM, Imungi JK, Sehmi JJ. "Triple simultaneous stabilizing action of rosemary spice (Rosemarinum officinalis L.) in full-fat soya Based flour rich in protein and ß-carotene." African Journal of Food Science. 2009;3(5):125-130.
Okello JJ, Kirui OK, Gitonga Z. "A Triple Hurdle Analysis of the Use of Electronic-Based Agricultural Market Information Services: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Smallholder farmers’ access to markets has traditionally been constrained by lack of market information. The need to facilitate farmers’ access to markets has seen the emergence of many projects that employ electronic tools in the provision of market information services (MIS). This study used a triple hurdle analysis to examine the factors influencing farmer awareness of electronic based (e-based) MIS projects, the decision by smallholder farmers in Kenya to participate in such projects and the use of services they provide. It finds that the drivers of awareness, decision to participate in e-based projects and use of the use of e-based MIS various farmer, farm and location-specific characteristics as well as endowments with physical, financial, human, and social capital. It specifically finds that education, distance to market, membership to farmer organizations, household income and cell phone ownership affect both the decision to participate in e-based projects and the use of MIS services such projects offer. The study concludes that transaction costs and social, financial and human capital endowments play an important role in smallholder farmer participation in e-based projects and the use of e-based MIS. The study discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

de Vincenzi I. "Triple antiretroviral compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis during pregnancy and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (Kesho Bora study): a randomised controlled trial." Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11(3):171-80. Abstract

Breastfeeding is essential for child health and development in low-resource settings but carries a significant risk of transmission of HIV-1, especially in late stages of maternal disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of triple antiretroviral compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis in pregnant women infected with HIV.

Singh R, Patel V, Mureithi MW, Naranbhai V, Ramsuran D, Tulsi S, Hiramen K, Werner L, Mlisana K, Altfeld M, Luban J, Kasprowicz V, Dheda K, Abdool Karim SS, Ndung'u T. "TRIM5α and TRIM22 are differentially regulated according to HIV-1 infection phase and compartment." J. Virol.. 2014. Abstracttrim5a_and_trim22_are_differentially_regulated_according_to_hiv.pdf

The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5α and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5α, TRIM22 and type 1 interferon (IFN-1)-inducible MxA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, and in matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-1, select pro-inflammatory cytokines and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 compared to HIV-1 negative PBMCs (P < 0.05, all comparisons). PBMCs from chronic infection had lower levels of TRIM5α compared to primary infection or HIV-1 uninfected (both P = 0.0001). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5α (P = 0.0001) were noted in the CNS. There was negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMC and plasma viral load (r = -0.40, P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-1 and rarely pro-inflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5α and TRIM22 in cell type-dependent manner and knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-1 and specific cell types, and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral role and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo.Importance Interferon type I-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins to antiviral immunity in vivo and how their expression is regulated. We show here that TRIM5α and TRIM22, two prominent members of the family, have different expression patterns in vivo and that expression pattern depends on HIV-1 infection status and phase. Furthermore, expression differs in peripheral blood versus central nervous system anatomical sites of infection. Only TRIM22 expression correlates negatively with HIV-1 viral load but gene silencing of both proteins enhances HIV-1 infection of target cells. We report on subtle differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 gene induction by IFN-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes and neuronal cells. This study enhances our understanding of antiviral immunity by intrinsic antiviral factors and how their expression is determined.

Plummer FA, Luo M, Ball TB, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Tuff J, Lacap P, Price H. "A Trim5alpha Exon 2 Polymorphism is Associated with Protection from HIV-1 Infection in Pumwani Sexworker Cohort.". 2010. Abstract

The innate immune component TRIM5α has the ability to restrict retrovirus infection in a species-specific manner. TRIM5α of some primate species restricts infection by HIV-1, while huTRIM5α lacks this specificity. Previous studies have suggested that certain polymorphisms in huTRIM5 may enhance or impair the proteins affinity for HIV-1. This study investigates the role of TRIM5 polymorphisms in resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1 within the Pumwani sex worker cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. A group of women within this cohort remain HIV-1 seronegative and PCR negative despite repeated exposure to HIV-1 through active sex work. Design A 1 kb fragment of Trim5alpha gene, including exon 2, from 1032 women enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort was amplified and sequenced. SNPs and haplotypes were compared between HIV-1 positive and resistant women. Methods The TRIM5 exon 2 genomic fragment was amplified, sequenced and genotyped. Pypop32-0.6.0 was used to determine SNP and haplotype frequencies and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS-13.0 for windows. Results A TRIM5 SNP (rs10838525) resulting in the amino acid change from Arginine to Glutamine at codon 136, was enriched in HIV-1 resistant individuals (p=1.104E-05; OR:2.991; CI95%:1.806–4.953) and women with 136Q were less likely to seroconvert (p=0.002; Log Rank: 12.799). Wild type TRIM5α exon 2 was associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 (p=0.006; OR:0.279; 95%CI:0.105–0.740) and rapid seroconversion (p=0.001; Log Rank: 14.475). Conclusions Our findings suggest that a shift from arginine to glutamine at codon 136 in the coiled-coil region of TRIM5α confers protection against HIV-1 in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. Keywords: TRIM5α, Single nucleotide polymorphism, HIV-1, Sex Workers, Taxonomy-based Sequence Analysis, Disease Association, Disease Resistance

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