Publications

Found 3849 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Desc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is S  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R [S] T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
S
N K, F Y, S M, M N. "Strengthening capacity for sustainable livelihoods and food security through urban agriculture among HIV and AIDS affected households in Nakuru, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The promotion and support of urban agriculture (UA) has the potential to contribute to efforts to address pressing challenges of poverty, under nutrition and sustainability among vulnerable populations in the growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This may be especially relevant for HIV/AIDS-affected individuals in SSA whose agricultural livelihoods are severely disrupted by the devastating effects of the disease on physical productivity and nutritional well-being. This paper outlines the process involved in the conception, design and implementation of a project to strengthen technical, environmental, financial and social capacity for UA among HIV-affected households in Nakuru, Kenya. Key lessons learned are also discussed. The first has been the value of multi-stakeholder partnerships, representing a broad range of relevant experience, knowledge and perspectives in order to address the complex set of issues facing agriculture for social purposes in urban settings. A second is the key role of self-help group organizations, and the securing of institutional commitments to support farming by vulnerable persons affected by HIV-AIDS is also apparent. Finally, the usefulness of evaluative tools using mixed methods to monitor progress towards goals and identify supports and barriers to success are highlighted.

Whitworth JA, Kokwaro G, Kinyanjui S, Snewin VA, Tanner M, Walport M, Sewankambo N. "Strengthening capacity for health research in Africa.". 2008.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Strengthening Agricultural and Environmental Capacities through Distance Education and Locally Relevant Research: Proceedings of the Pan Commonwealth Forum of Distance Education, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, 2006.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2006. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Strength Properties of the East African Bamboo.Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-8 October, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Gichaga FJ, Sahu BK, Visweswaraiya TG, Atibu FS. "Strength of Red Coffee Soils in Kenya.". In: 8th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics, and Foundation Engineering. Kyoto, Japan; 1987.
Gichaga FJ. "Strength of Flexible Road pavements in Kenya.". In: International Symposium on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. The Norwegian Institute of Technology-Trondheim, Norway; 1982.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "Strength Characteristics of Concrete Mixes Containing Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA) as a Cementing Material.". In: The V Workshop on Diverse Uses of Concrete. Eldoret, Kenya; 2010.
Prof. Robert Rukwaro COEL&. "Streetscape Heritage for Sustainable Urban Development: A Case of Biashara Street in Nairobi City." LOCAL PAPERS. 2014;VOLUME 8 (NUMBER 8 November 2014).
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Street-Perrott, F.A., Barker, P., Eglinton, G., Ficken, K., Wooller, M.J., Swain, D.L., Huang, Olago, D.O. and Huang, Y. (2007) Late Quaternary changes in carbon cycling on Mount Kenya, East Africa: a landscape-ecological perspective based on lake-sedimen.". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26: 1838-1860.; 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Street-Perrott, F.A., Barker, P., Eglinton, G., Ficken, K., Wooller, M.J., Swain, D.L., Huang, Olago, D.O. and Huang, Y. (2007) Late Quaternary changes in carbon cycling on Mount Kenya, East Africa: a landscape-ecological perspective based on lake-sedimen.". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26: 1838-1860.; 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Street Vendors Shaping Urban Policy Change in Kenya: Prospects for Participatory Approach, IDS Discussion Paper (forthcoming).". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Street Children In Kenya: Voices of Children in search of a Childhood. With Kilbride, P. & Suda, Collette. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.". In: Gpg (Greenwood Publishers Group). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

Street Children in Kenya provides an in-depth examination of the experiences of street children in Nairobi, Kenya. Drawing from participant observations, individual and focus group interviews, the authors, Kilbride, Suda, and Njeru allow readers to confront the harsh realities, suffering, and survival skills of nearly 400 of the over 40,000 homeless children in Nairobi. These children are part of the over 110,000 children described by UNICEF as "in need of special protection" (GOK/UNICEF, 1998). Reflecting the anthropological and sociological backgrounds of the scholars, the book's initial chapters introduce the methodology and background for the study, including a description of the study's setting, Nairobi, and relevant information on the communities studied. The text also provides information on social and cultural issues affecting families (e.g., the weakening of family structures due to poverty, the impact of AIDS, and government sanctioned ethnic conflicts), which have contributed to the rapid rise in the number of children living and working on the street. Even though only one chapter is solely devoted to the narratives of the children, most chapters are infused with humanizing accounts and perspectives on the children's lives. A unique contribution of the study is its methodology, which involved giving older street children cameras to document their daily life, thus greatly personalizing the book, since the children were allowed to tell their own stories. A more traditional scholarly analysis is presented in the final chapter, which addresses policy implications, particularly with regards to long-term, culturally framed solutions to this complex and growing problem.

and Philip Kilbride, Collette Suda EN. Street Children in Kenya - Voices ofChildren in Search ofa Childhood. London: bergin & Garvey; 2000. Abstract

This book results from a cross-national and interdisciplinary research effort.
Although Collette Suda (C. S.), a rural sociologist, and Enos Njeru (E. N.), and
Philip Kilbride (P. K.), both anthropologists, were all academically trained in
the United States, we have benefited from an "insider" -" outsider" dialogue in
writing this book. C. S. and E. N., as Kenyans, kept our work closely grounded
in local language, cultural interpretations, and applied recommendations. P. K.
focused on ethnography as an "outsider," as non-Kenyans must do, and also
sought to coordinate our findings with comparative, cultural, and theoretical
concerns beyond the Kenyan scene. We operated, however, on some occasions
as insiders or outsiders given P. K.' s research on children and family in East
Africa since 1967 and E. N.'s and C. S.'s international travel, education, and
living experiences abroad. More details about our collaboration in research and
writing together are provided in the text.
Street children are often portrayed by the public and sometimes in
publications as a separate, socially distinct category of person. We have tried to
emphasize here social complexities that problemtize this simplistic view.
Following a holistic perspective, we have emphasized throughout the book how
street children in Kenya, in fact, live like other Kenyans, embedded, for
example, in similar institutions, informal work routines, cultural beliefs, and
family relations. Such involvements are not dissimilar in many respects from
others who make up the working poor in Nairobi. Still, street children do stand
apart as a distinct social category both in their own minds and that of the public
as well. We will consider reasons for this and which social characteristics seem
widely shared among street children. Throughout, however, while recognizing
commonalities, we attempt to emphasize the rich variation among children that
we discovered in our research.
In our book we seek to systematically provide information about street girls.
An awareness of difference and variation as our work progressed compelled us
to emphasize gender differences at every tum. We also wanted to highlight gender inasmuch as compared to boys, very little is published about street girls.
This is strikingly true in Kenya but, to a great degree, elsewhere in the world-as
well. We decided to incorporate a gendered analysis throughout the book rather
than providing separate chapters on girls. This decision was taken so as to
better put across the idea that there are commonalities among all street children
irrespective of gender differences. When all is said and done, boys and girls in
Kenya share a common label and many similar problems.
As part of our holistic perspective, we have taken special note of how the
current problem of street children in Kenya stands in sharp contrast to
indigenous derived practices and experiences associated with childhood in
Kenya. The street child is but a recent event in the culture history of Kenya.
Specifically, we have emphasized Kenyan family cultural beliefs and indigenous
practices as an interpretive framework not only because we believe this to be
relevant, but also inasmuch as family and gender issues themselves, apart from
street children, have occupied us prior to and throughout our work with street
children. For better or worse, we have tried here to relate social topics we know
the most about to the situation of street children. Only the reader can judge if
we have overstated our family-friendly interpretation and related practical
recommendations with which we conclude this book. We trust that most readers
will agree that family analysis is certainly relevant to a full understanding of
street children in Kenya. Whatever interpretive conclusions arise on this point,
we all hope that our descriptive materials about street children stand alone and
are informative in their own right.
Throughout our research and writing, we have followed research methods
that attempt to involve the voices of street children concerning events, beliefs,
experiences, and aspirations that they privilege in their own discourse about
themselves. Ethnography, focus group, and social survey converge around our
experience near research methodology. Overall, previous published materials in
Kenya have not systematically privileged children's voices in the multirnethod
sense that we have attempted here. Nevertheless, we have also set out
theoretical objectives and conceptual categories derived from our own
disciplinary, theoretical concerns and comparative understandings about street
children globally. Therefore, we will consider interplay between children's
voices and our theoretical framework as part of our discussion of methodology.
However, inclusion of street children's voices here is more than simply a
matter of epistemology. Our ultimate intention of being able to better suggest
some applied, practical recommendations to policy makers also compels us to
consider children's perspectives wherever possible. It is unlikely that many
policy recommendations concerning street children will get very far before
people first learn directly from the children about themselves. How best to
assist them is also something street children have thought about and about which
they have strong opinions. We end our book with policy recommendations that
take into account, but which are not limited to, the voices of those children
represented in our research. Weare hopeful that our recommendations, about social policy and applications of our research in Kenya will be of interest to all
of those thinking about applied solutions to what is, in fact, a global problem
concerning street children in many nations.
We use pseudonyms in this book for most individuals whom we encountered
in fieldwork. In particular, we have used real or invented nicknames for all
street children on the advice of street children who, themselves, use nicknames
to conceal their identities from the police. An exception is "Mama Ford," a
buyer of waste products from street boys who, after reading what we had written
about her with approval, requested that we give her real name, Josephine
Karanja, in publication.
We have also not published photographs so as to conceal the identities of
street children, most of whom are regularly under harassment from the police.
Moreover, most street children may want their past lives on the streets kept
private in the future. There is a rapid turnover on the streets such that as far as
the street children described here are concerned, all have left the streets or now
live in different locations in Nairobi. The wheel of field research and
publication grinds slowly; in our case, that has served our desire to protect the
identities of our informants as well as to become familiar with changes in their
lives over time.

M MRNJOKAJOHN. "Street Children and Employment Opportunities. In Obudho R.A. Environment and Development Kenya. Kenya National Academy of Sciences (KNAS) Public Lecture Series.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Njeru E, Njoka J. "Street Children and Employment Opportunities.". In: Environment and Development in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya National Academy of Sciences; 1999. Abstract

Although there is a general realization that there are "people" in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is, however, changing with the emergence of the "birth" and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the. streets. The phrases "street children" refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. We often distinguish between children on streets and children a/the streets. While the children on the streets may have a "home" to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the
end of the day.
The street children have actually been there for as long as the urban centres existed probably due to the social and physical characteristics of the urban centres in which the duality of outcome is apredominant feature (Gichuru, 1993). Thus the modem urban centre has always been aplace ofpoverty and riches, chaos and order, squalor and splendour, development and underdevelopment. Street children have, however, not been viewed so much as a problem until recently following the unprecedented urban growth. Although the street children phenomenon is not unique to urban areas of the LDCs, the phenomenon has become so widespread in some urban centres that there has been a mushrooming of organizations whose activities are mainly centred around rehabilitation ofthe street children. Many studies indicate that the street children phenomenon is not only increasing but is also becoming widespread and affecting millions ofchildren (Grant et. aI., 1989; Gichuru, 1993; ICIHI, 1986 and Suda, 1994).
The number ofstreet children increased from 15 in 1969 to nearly 500,000 in 1994 (Gichohi, 199~). This number is expected to rise to 7 million by the year 2000, if we were to base our calculation on the rate of 10 % increase per annum. In addition, many street children are becoming children a/the streets and we are now increasingly talking of street families and street gangs. Most of the street children are in the urban areas. This chapter argues that the street children phenomenon is born out of consequences of the unprecedented rate of urbanization process which leads to unemployment, poverty and cultural loss. This culminates in the devaluation of the child who has, therefore, to fend for him/herself from the streets.

Mwisukha A, Omotayo OO, Gitonga ER. "Streamlining the selection Process of Sports teams: A Presentation of Valuable tips." East African Journal of Physical Education, Sports Science, Leisure and Recreation Management. 2003;1(2):100-105.
undefined. "Streamline and standardize part-time lecturers’ terms." Daily Nation, August 17, 2019:32.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Stream flow regionalization using discordancy and heterogeneity measure statistics.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2001. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Opere AO, Mutua FM, Ogallo LA. "Stream flow regionalization using discordancy and heterogeneity measure statistics." Journal of African Meteorological Society . 2002;5(2):71-76.
Odada E, Steffen W, Leinfelder R, Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Williams M, et al. "Stratigraphic and Earth System approaches to defining the Anthropocene." Earth's Future. 2016;4(8):324-345. AbstractFull Text

Stratigraphy provides insights into the evolution and dynamics of the Earth System over its long history. With recent developments in Earth System science, changes in Earth System dynamics can now be observed directly and projected into the near future. An integration of the two approaches provides powerful insights into the nature and significance of contemporary changes to Earth. From both perspectives, the Earth has been pushed out of the Holocene Epoch by human activities, with the mid‐20th century a strong candidate for the start date of the Anthropocene, the proposed new epoch in Earth history. Here we explore two contrasting scenarios for the future of the Anthropocene, recognizing that the Earth System has already undergone a substantial transition away from the Holocene state. A rapid shift of societies toward the UN Sustainable Development Goals could stabilize the Earth System in a state with more intense interglacial conditions than in the late Quaternary climate regime and with little further biospheric change. In contrast, a continuation of the present Anthropocene trajectory of growing human pressures will likely lead to biotic impoverishment and a much warmer climate with a significant loss of polar ice.

Wabwire B, Saidi H. "Stratified Outcome Evaluation of Peritonitis." Afr Surg . 2014;11:29-34.
Dabasso BH, Wasonga OV, Irungu P, Kaufmann B. "Stratified Livestock Production Adds Value to Pastoral Cattle: Evidence from the Drylands of Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.. 2019;67(2019):101-113.
Bulle Hallo Dabasso, Oliver Vivian Wasonga PIBK. "Stratified cattle production in pastoral areas of Kenya: Existing forms, driving factors and management practices." Applied Animal Husbandry & Rural Development. 2018;11. Abstract
n/a
Mugambi-Nturibi E, Otieno CF KTOOGOAK. "Stratification of persons with diabetes into risk categories for foot ulceration." East Afr Med Journal. 2009;86(5):233-239. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Patients with diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of lower extremity complications as compared to their non-diabetic counterparts.
OBJECTIVE:
To study risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer disease and stratify patients with diabetes into risk categories for foot ulceration.
DESIGN:
Cross-sectional descriptive study over five months period.
SETTING:
Diabetic outpatient clinic, at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
SUBJECTS:
Two hundred and eighteen ambulatory subjects with diabetes mellitus without active foot lesions.
RESULTS:
The prevalence of previous foot ulceration was 16% while that of previous amputation was 8%. Neuropathy was present in 42% of the study subjects and was significantly associated with age, male gender, duration of diabetes, random blood sugar, systolic blood pressure and the presence of foot deformity. Peripheral arterial disease was present in 12% and showed significant association with male gender. Foot deformities were observed in 46% of study subjects and were significantly associated with age, male gender, and presence of neuropathy. Subsequently 57% were categorised into IWGDF group 0--no neuropathy, 10% were placed in group 1--neuropathy alone, 16% were put in group 2--neuropathy plus either peripheral arterial disease or foot deformity and 17% were placed in risk group 3--previous foot ulceration/amputation.
CONCLUSION:
More than one third (33%) of diabetic patients were found to be at high risk for future foot ulceration (IWGDF groups 2 and 3). Published evidence exists that shows improved outcomes with interventions targeting individual patients with diabetes at high-risk of foot ulceration. Long term prospective studies to determine outcomes for the different risk categories should be carried out locally.

Mugambi-Nturibi E, Otieno CF, kwasa TO, Oyoo GO, Acharya K. "Stratification of persons with diabetes into risk categories for foot ulceration.". 2005. Abstract

Patients with diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of lower extremity complications as compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To study risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer disease and stratify patients with diabetes into risk categories for foot ulceration. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over five months period. SETTING: Diabetic outpatient clinic, at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighteen ambulatory subjects with diabetes mellitus without active foot lesions. RESULTS: The prevalence of previous foot ulceration was 16% while that of previous amputation was 8%. Neuropathy was present in 42% of the study subjects and was significantly associated with age, male gender, duration of diabetes, random blood sugar, systolic blood pressure and the presence of foot deformity. Peripheral arterial disease was present in 12% and showed significant association with male gender. Foot deformities were observed in 46% of study subjects and were significantly associated with age, male gender, and presence of neuropathy. Subsequently 57% were categorised into IWGDF group 0--no neuropathy, 10% were placed in group 1--neuropathy alone, 16% were put in group 2--neuropathy plus either peripheral arterial disease or foot deformity and 17% were placed in risk group 3--previous foot ulceration/amputation. CONCLUSION: More than one third (33%) of diabetic patients were found to be at high risk for future foot ulceration (IWGDF groups 2 and 3). Published evidence exists that shows improved outcomes with interventions targeting individual patients with diabetes at high-risk of foot ulceration. Long term prospective studies to determine outcomes for the different risk categories should be carried out locally.

Mugambi-Nturibi E, Otieno CF, kwasa TO, Oyoo GO, Acharya K. "Stratification of persons with diabetes into risk categories for foot ulceration.". 2009. Abstract

Patients with diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of lower extremity complications as compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To study risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer disease and stratify patients with diabetes into risk categories for foot ulceration. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over five months period. SETTING: Diabetic outpatient clinic, at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighteen ambulatory subjects with diabetes mellitus without active foot lesions. RESULTS: The prevalence of previous foot ulceration was 16% while that of previous amputation was 8%. Neuropathy was present in 42% of the study subjects and was significantly associated with age, male gender, duration of diabetes, random blood sugar, systolic blood pressure and the presence of foot deformity. Peripheral arterial disease was present in 12% and showed significant association with male gender. Foot deformities were observed in 46% of study subjects and were significantly associated with age, male gender, and presence of neuropathy. Subsequently 57% were categorised into IWGDF group 0--no neuropathy, 10% were placed in group 1--neuropathy alone, 16% were put in group 2--neuropathy plus either peripheral arterial disease or foot deformity and 17% were placed in risk group 3--previous foot ulceration/amputation. CONCLUSION: More than one third (33%) of diabetic patients were found to be at high risk for future foot ulceration (IWGDF groups 2 and 3). Published evidence exists that shows improved outcomes with interventions targeting individual patients with diabetes at high-risk of foot ulceration. Long term prospective studies to determine outcomes for the different risk categories should be carried out locally.

Marston E, Weston V, Jesson J, Maina E, McConville C, Agathanggelou A, Skowronska A, Mapp K, Sameith K, Powell JE, Lawson S, Kearns P, Falciani F, Taylor M, Stankovic T. "Stratification of pediatric ALL by in vitro cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical response." Blood. 2009;113(1):117-26. Abstract

The molecular basis of different outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains poorly understood. We addressed the clinical significance and mechanisms behind in vitro cellular responses to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks in 74 pediatric patients with ALL. We found an apoptosis-resistant response in 36% of patients characterized by failure to cleave caspase-3, -7, -9, and PARP1 by 24 hours after IR and an apoptosis-sensitive response with the cleavage of the same substrates in the remaining 64% of leukemias. Resistance to IR in vitro was associated with poor early blast clearance at day 7 or 15 and persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) at day 28 of induction treatment. Global gene expression profiling revealed abnormal up-regulation of multiple prosurvival pathways in response to IR in apoptosis-resistant leukemias and differential posttranscriptional activation of the PI3-Akt pathway was observed in representative resistant cases. Importantly, pharmacologic inhibition of selected prosurvival pathways sensitized apoptosis-resistant ALL cells to IR in vitro. We suggest that abnormal prosurvival responses to DNA damage provide one of the mechanisms of primary resistance in ALL, and that they should be considered as therapeutic targets in children with aggressive disease.

Stankovic T, Taylor M, Falciani F, Kearns P, Lawson S, Powell JE, Sameith K, Mapp K, Skowronska A, Agathanggelou A, others. "Stratification of pediatric ALL by in vitro cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical response.". 2009. Abstract
n/a
N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "Strathmore College Training Manual for the course, .". In: (Journal of the Marketing Students Association). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
AOSA E. "'Strategy: Customer or Competitor Supremacy?". In: Marketing Review. Kisipan, M.L.; 2010. Abstract

n/a

Bagire V, AOSA E, Awino ZB. "The Strategy-Resource Configurations and Performance Implications in Non-Governmental Organizations." Crown Research In Education. 2012;2(3):105-112.
AOSA E, V.Bagire, Awino ZB. "The strategy – resource configurations and performance implications in Nongovernmental Organizations." Crown Research in Education. 2012; 2(3): 105-112. Abstractthe_strategy_-_resource_configurations_and_performance_implications_in_non_governmental_organization.pdf

Configurations are composed of organizational elements that render certain outcomes collectively rather than individually. This study set out to establish the implications of strategy and resource configurations on performance of Nongovernmental organizations. We tested for strategy with the sub variables of resources as predictors of performance in the tangible and intangible sub domains. Using interaction terms, results revealed that different configuration settings rendered into various performance outcomes. Strategy –tangible resource models had high coefficients but were not significant in predicting tangible, intangible and main performance. On the contrary strategy – intangible resources were significant with other domains save with intangible performance. The three way interaction term was not significant although with high prediction power across the performance variables. We conclude that configuration approach offers promise in better understanding of the performance of NGOs. The study outcomes have rich insights for both scholars and practitioners. We recommend further empirical examinations of strategy elements in the NGO sector.
Key words: Strategy, Resources, Configurations, Performance, Nongovernmental organizations, Intangible
resources, Tangible resources

Karingithi M.G., Aosa E., K. O, Njihia J. M., and Mose J. M. "Strategy Typology, Organizational Factors and Performance of Freight Forwarding Companies in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review,. 2020;10(1):1-10.
Tomedi A, Mwanthi MA, Tucker K. "A strategy to increase the number of deliveries with skilled birth attendants in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To increase the number of deliveries with skilled birth attendants (SEAs) in Kenyan health facili¬ties, with assistance from traditional birth attendants (TBAs). MetllOds: In the Yatta district of Kenya, TEAs were recruited to attend meetings in which they were encouraged to educate pregnant women about the importance of delivering in health facilities; they were offered a small stipend for each pregnant woman they brought to a facility for SBA delivery. The primary outcome was the percentage of prenatal care patients who delivered at intervention health facilities compared with control facilities. Results: During the year preceding the intervention, 102/524 (19.5%) and 413/2068 (20.0%) prenatal care patients had SBA deliveries at intervention and control facilities, respectively, During the t-year study period, 217/440 (49.3%) prenatal care patients delivered at intervention health facilities and 415/1995 (20.8%) delivered at control facilities (P

ogolla K, Awino ZB, Ogutu M. "Strategy Structure Environment Linkage and Corporate Performance: A conceptual Overview ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):101-113.
Machuki VN. "Strategy Implementation: Practices and Challenges in a Multidivisional Company (The Case of Cooper Motors Corporation, Kenya)." LAP Lambert Academic Publishing AG & KG. ISBN: 978-3-8443-1275-1; 2011. Abstract
n/a
T. M, J.M. N. "Strategy for Water Resources Management in Relation to Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations." presentation in the Hydropredict 2010 20-23 September 2010, Prague, Czech Republic.; 2010. Abstract
n/a
Kiplagat D. STRATEGY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION AND ADOPTION OF E-PROCUREMENT IN KENYA PUBLIC SECTOR. Wausi D, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Forthcoming. Abstract

There is strong consensus among researchers and practitioners regarding the strategic importance of developing efficient purchasing techniques to increase transparency and fairness, reduce corruption, ensure competitiveness and reduce costs. An increasing number of government authorities are adopting e-procurement solutions to reap the above stated benefits (Panayiotou et al., 2004). E-procurement is the process of purchasing goods and services electronically , and can be defined as “the use of integrated (commonly web-based) communication systems for the conduct of part or all of the purchasing process; a process that may incorporate stages from the initial need identification by users, through search, sourcing, negotiation, ordering, receipt, payment and post-purchase review” (Presutti,2003).

In this research proposal I propose to comprehensively study through explorative case study five successful cases of e-procurement in the public sector in Korea, Australia, Italy, Ireland, Philippine's and use their experiences, challenges and strategies employed to come up with a multi-disciplinary framework for the successful implementation and adoption of e-procurement in the public sector in Kenya. In this research critical successes factors (CSFs) and diffusion of innovation theory will be used in the study. Explorative case study and qualitative research design methodology will be used in this research study although aspects on the attitude of the intended users will be analyzed quantitatively.

KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "A strategy for strengthening the service urban centers in Kenya: Case Study of Maseno, Karatina and Athi River.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "A strategy for strengthening the service urban centers in Kenya: Case Study of Maseno, Karatina and Athi River.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
Ogollah Kennedy P. "Strategy and Structure Linkages and The Performance Of Commercial Banks In Kenya ." Africa Management Review. 2015;5(1):48-61.
Obiero, A. KOJM & UA. "Strategies used in maintaining students’ discipline in Public secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya, ." , International journal of social science and economic research. 2018;3(11).
Antonine Obiero, Jeremiah Kalai UO. "Strategies Used in Maintaining Students' discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). . 2018;3(11):6346-6366.
Chantada GL, Qaddoumi I, Canturk S, Khetan V, Ma Z, Kimani K, Yeniad B, Sultan I, Sitorus RS, Tacyildiz N, Abramson DH. "Strategies to Manage Retinoplastoma in Developing Countries.". 2011. Abstract

Survival of retinoblastoma is >90% in developed countries but there are significant differences with developing countries in stage at presentation, available treatment options, family compliance, and survival. In low-income countries (LICs), children present with advanced disease, and the reasons are socioeconomic and cultural. In middle-income countries (MICs), survival rates are better (>70%), but there is a high prevalence of microscopically disseminated extraocular disease. Programs for eye preservation have been developed, but toxicity-related mortality is higher. Although effective treatment of microscopically extraocular disease improved the outcome, worldwide survival will be increased only by earlier diagnosis and better treatment adherence.

Oyieke J, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Mbayaki R, Musyoka R. "Strategies to improve HIV test acceptance and uptake of interventions in PMCT sites.". 2004. Abstract

HIV testing in the antenatal clinic is an entry point for interventions to prevent mother to child transmission. It is therefore crucial that all women learn their HIV status during pregnancy. The approach used may influence the uptake of testing. HIV testing at the Kisumu District Hospital was initially offered using and ‘opt-in’ approach whereby in-depth counseling is instituted and women are required to request for the test as a separate component of their care.

Oyieke J, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Mbayaki R, Mbayaki R. "Strategies to improve HIV test acceptance and uptake of interventions in PMCT sites.". 2004. Abstract

HIV testing in the antenatal clinic is an entry point for interventions to prevent mother to child transmission. It is therefore crucial that all women learn their HIV status during pregnancy. The approach used may influence the uptake of testing. HIV testing at the Kisumu District Hospital was initially offered using and ‘opt-in’ approach whereby in-depth counseling is instituted and women are required to request for the test as a separate component of their care.

Oyieke J, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Mbayaki R, Musyoka R. "Strategies to improve HIV test acceptance and uptake of interventions in PMCT sites.". 2004. Abstract

HIV testing in the antenatal clinic is an entry point for interventions to prevent mother to child transmission. It is therefore crucial that all women learn their HIV status during pregnancy. The approach used may influence the uptake of testing. HIV testing at the Kisumu District Hospital was initially offered using and ‘opt-in’ approach whereby in-depth counseling is instituted and women are required to request for the test as a separate component of their care.

Wamalwa H, Upadhyaya R, Kamau P, McCormick D. "Strategies of Kenyan firms: a case study of food processing firms in Nairobi." African Journal of Economic and Management Studies. 2019;10(4):507-520.
G.N K. Strategies of Improving Soil Fertility and Productivity booklet. Edited by Mary Ngechu, The University of Nairobi; 1992.
J.M K. "Strategies of improving academic performance at secondary school .". In: Stock taking: Moving or stuck school? Kyondoni Secondar school; 2011.
Origa J, Muthoni DM, Okuro GS, Wairimu MI. "Strategies influencing Competence in Soft Skills Development through Mathematics in Technical institutions in Kenya." International Journal if Innovative Research & Studies. 2013;2(4).
Origa JO, Muthoni DM, Gunga SO, Mutahi IW. "Strategies Influencing Competence in soft skills Development Through Mathematics in Technical Institutions in Kenya." International Journal if Innovative Research & Studies . 2013;2(4).Website
Onyango C, Unbehend G, Mewa EA, Mutahi AW, Lindhauer MG, Okoth MW. Strategies for the production of gluten-free bread from sorghum cassava flour blend. Dresden: TUDpress; 2013.trend_and_opportunities.pdf
Nyaga PN. "Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Eastern Africa.". 2009. Abstract

Although Uganda has many wetlands and lies on the migratory flyway for birds flying from Siberia through the Middle East and moving along the great Rift Valley to Southern Africa, it has not yet experienced avian influenza infection. However, the risks of exposure are extremely high given the fact that outbreaks have occurred and continue to occur in Egypt which lies directly along this flyway. It is therefore appropriate to assess the possible bio-security flaws that may arise in all the poultry sectors placing special emphasis on the more vulnerable poultry production systems of sectors 3 and 4. In this regard FAO has commissioned a biosecurity study of all the poultry production sectors in Uganda to identify the potential bio-security risks in order to lay a basis for developing effective control measures and provide guidelines for appropriate bio-security interventions. Bio-security principles are to be incorporated at the conceptual stage of each component of the poultry value chain and then during the actual implementation of the structures to carry out the business. Once these are in place, operational biosecurity principles are designed for the day to day simple procedures and practices which when applied prevent entry into or spread within a farm of disease agents, or the exit of the disease agent from infected premises. The operational protocols are summed up into three principles, namely: Isolation which involves procedures, practices, and manouvres to ensure that clean flocks remain free from disease agents and that disease agents remain confined in infected flocks and do not spread to other premises; Traffic control which includes signage to warn visitors that biosecurity protocols are being observed; controlling movement of stock, persons, goods, equipment and products into the clean farm and out of infected premises; and finally Sanitation, which involves methods that enable farmers to maintain farm houses, vehicles, implements and equipment, remain in a state of sustained cleanliness, and are disinfected. Thus, the flaws and strengths in any of these biosecurity issues were investigated throughout the poultry value chain in Uganda. The exposure to biosecurity risks was found to differ for the respective poultry sectors, as follows:

Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. "Strategies for Success: A case Study of Food Processing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: SAFIC ( Successful African Firms and Institutional change) Project Third Annual Workshop. Arusha, Tanzania; 2015.
Jerome K, James M, Vigheri N, Johnson K, Rockefeller E, Ivan R, Wilberforce T, Fina O. "Strategies for rehabilitation of banana fields infested with Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacrearum." Journal of Crop Protection. 2014;3(1):21-29.
Naidoo S, Dimba E, Yengopal V, Folayan MO, Akpata ES. "Strategies for Oral Health Research in Africa and the Middle Eastern Region." Adv. Dent. Res.. 2015;27(1):43-9. Abstractstrategies_for_oral_health_research_in_africa_and_the_middle_eastern_region_-_abstract.pdf

The highest burden of diseases worldwide is in low- and middle-income countries, but due to lack of capacity and inadequate infrastructure, research output from these countries is unable to address existing and emerging challenges in health care. Oral health research has particularly been hampered by low prioritization, resulting in insufficient development of this sector. There is an urgent need for research correlating oral health to upstream social and environmental determinants and promoting the common risk factor approach for prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Population-wide preventive measures for oral health care are more effective than purely curative approaches, especially for vulnerable groups who have limited access to information and appropriate health care. This article identifies priorities and proposes strategies for researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers for the initiation and sustenance of appropriate oral health care research. The proposed interventions are intended to promote collaboration, capacity building, and health advocacy. Local ownership in multinational research projects in low- and middle-income countries, complemented by skills transfer from high-income countries, is encouraged to ensure that regional health needs are addressed. Emphasis is placed on a shift toward translational research that has a direct impact on oral health care systems.

S N, E D, V Y, MO F, ES A. "Strategies for Oral Health Research in Africa and the Middle Eastern Region." Advances in Dental Research. 2015.
Naidoo S, Dimba E, Yengopal V, Folayan MO, Akpata ES. "Strategies for oral health research in Africa and the middle eastern region." Advances in dental research. 2015;27:43-49. Abstract
n/a
MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Strategies for Mitigating Drought-induced Resource Use Conflicts among Pastoralists of Northwestern Kenya. Climate change and conflict: Where to for conflict sensitive climate adaptation in Africa? EXPERT SEMINAR: 15 & 16.". In: ACCORD. Johannesburg, South Africa: Rangeland Ecology & Management; 2011. Abstract

800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

Ochukut SA, Oboko RO. "Strategies for Managing Cognitive Load and Enhancing Motivation in E-Learning." igi-global.com. 2021:17. Abstract

Cognitive load and motivation are two factors that have been established as mediators of learning. It has been established that learners who experience low cognitive loads and are highly motivated to succeed in learning. Since e-learning is becoming a very popular means of delivering learning, there needs to be established strategies to ensure that learners learn. This study sought to look at the various means that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load and enhance motivation through the analysis of literature. Use of metaphorical interfaces, hypertext, sequencing, and fading of learning content, use of transient information, and adaptation of the problem-solving support were the strategies that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load. Motivation has been enhanced through the use of motivational messages and adaptive navigational support and pedagogical agents.

P.W M, J.M M, M.W.K M, R.W N, N K, J.K M, E.M A, R.W M, R.E K. "Strategies for maintaining sweet potato nurseries free from insect vectors that spread Sweet potato Virus Disease.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference (ACSS).; 2007.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ,(ed.) DNK. "Strategies for Introducing English as the National/Official language in Namibia." English as the Official Language, Perspectives and Strategies. 1980;(4).
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Strategies for Effective Time Management. In Psychological Digest.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1990.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Strategies for Effective Time Management.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1990.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Strategies for Developing the Resources of the Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya: Introduction and an overview.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1983. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN. "Strategies for control of AIDS in Africa.". 1988. AbstractWebsite

Stratégies générales pour le contrôle de l'infection. Prévention primaire de la transmission sexuelle du HIV, stratégies pour la réduction de l'exposition des sujets sensibles. Contrôle des transmissions périnatales et parentérales

Nzuma JM, Waithaka M, Mulwa MR, Kyotalimye M, Nelson G. Strategies for Adapting to Climate change in Rural sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: IFPRI; 2010.
Habwe J. "Strategies and Challenges of Communicating Gender Issues in a non Gender Marking Language." Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Kerala. 2016;4(1):3-18.
Habwe JH, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Strategies and Challenges of Communicating Gender Information in a Non-Gender Marking Language: The Case of Kiswahili." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2015;4(1):3-18.
Kamau RN, Nzuve SNM. "Strategies Adopted to Manage Work-Related Stress Among Employees- a Case of Kenya Power." Social Science Research Network. 2015. AbstractSSRN

Williams and Huber (1986) defined stress as, “a psychological and physical reaction to
prolonged internal and/or environmental conditions in which individual’s adaptive capabilities
are over extended. They argue that stress is an adaptive response to conscious or unconscious
threat and can affect an individual emotional, physical, and social well being as well as pose a
threat to one’s health if not dealt with or managed well. In most organizations, employees
undergo stress due to factors within and without the work place, which affects their well being
and in turn affects their productivity and performance at the work place. Thus, each organization
should be keen on implementing stress management strategies to solve work-related stress.
The objective of the study was to determine the strategies for managing work-related stress
among the employees of Kenya Power. Kenya Power is a public limited liability company that
transmits, distributes and retails electricity to customers throughout Kenya. The study adopted
descriptive research design with the population of the study being 6,500 employees of Kenya
Power. The study used Krejcie and Morgan (1970) Table to determine a sample size of 361 employees. Primary data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. Data was then
analyzed using statistical package for social sciences and the findings presented in tables, pie
charts, percentages, mean and standard deviations.
The study found that stress management strategies employed at Kenya Power were at three levels
mainly; primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary stress management strategies used the ones
were provision of office space that ensured adequate air circulation and lighting and ensuring
that all the employees clearly understood their job descriptions. Secondary stress management
strategies were encouraging eating healthy diet and engaging in physical activities which are a
great protection against stress. Tertiary stress management strategies were found to be
development of wellness and fitness programmes, employee involvement in stress management
programmes, receiving supportive feedback and having opportunity to discuss issues affecting
their performance with the line managers.
The study recommended that the company further pursues stress management strategies that will
ensure that the employees work environment is conducive in order to ensure delivery on the
expected work outcomes

Henry M. "Strategic water towers management." Kenya Institute of Enviroment, Nairobi; 2016.
Maingi N;, Gichigi MN;, Munyua WK. "Strategic use of moxidectin or closantel in combination with levamisole in the control of nematodes of sheep in the highlands of central Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

The strategic use of moxidectin or closantel in combination with levamisole (LEV) to control gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the highlands of central Kenya was examined. Thirty Corriedale female lambs aged between 6 and 8 months were assigned to three treatment groups of ten lambs each. The three groups of lambs were set stocked on separate paddocks for the entire study period of 12 months. Lambs in Group 1 were dewormed strategically with moxidectin at 0.2 mg/kg body weight and those in Group 2 with closantel at 10 mg/kg body weight together with LEV at 7.5 mg/kg body weight. These strategic treatments were given 3 weeks after the onset of both the short and long rains and at the end of the long rainy season. The third group of lambs remained untreated (control group). Nematode infections in the treated groups of lambs and larval infectivity for the pastures on which the lambs were grazing were well controlled compared with the untreated control group. This resulted in higher weight gains and packed cell volume (PCV) in the treated lambs compared with the untreated lambs. These parameters were comparable between the lambs treated with moxidectin and those treated with closantel plus LEV. The estimated monitory benefit per animal from the control of gastrointestinal nematodes using moxidectin or closantel in combination with LEV when compared with animals in the control group were US dollars 26 and 25, respectively. It was concluded that worm control strategies for sheep in the study area, which are based on anthelmintic treatments during the rainy seasons, are effective. Due to the extended period during which pastures remain infective in the high rainfall central highlands of Kenya, anthelmintics with sustained action such as moxidectin or closantel may be most effective. On farms where resistance to the commonly used benzimidazoles or LEV groups of anthelmintics has developed, moxidectin or closantel may be used in helminth control programs for sheep.

Maingi N, Gichohi VM, Munyua WK, Thamsborg SM. "The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Naturally Acquired Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In The Kenya Highlands.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The strategic use of closantel, a narrow-spectrum salicylanilide anthelmintic against bloodsucking helminths, and of albendazole, a broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep was investigated on a farm in Nyandarua District in the highlands of Kenya. Thirty Corriedale female lambs aged between 9 and 12 months were assigned to three treatment groups of 10 lambs each. The three groups were set stocked on separate paddocks for 12 months. Lambs in group 1 (strategic treatment group) were treated with closantel and albendazole at the beginning and towards the end of the long rains (April and June, respectively) and towards the end of the short rains (December). During the intervening dry season, the lambs were treated with albendazole. Lambs in group 2 (suppressive treatment group) were kept `worm free' by regular deworming with albendazole at 3-weekly intervals for 12 months. The third group of lambs remained untreated (control group). Gastrointestinal nematode infections and pasture infectivity were well controlled in the case of the strategic treatment group. This resulted in higher weight gains, wool production, packed cell volume, and serum albumin and protein concentrations compared with the untreated control lambs. These parameters were comparable between the strategic treatment and the suppressive treatment groups of lambs. It was concluded that worm control strategies based on the epidemiology of the parasites and the sustained anthelmintic action of closantel in combination with broad-spectrum anthelmintics can provide effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the study area.

Nganga CJ. "Strategic use of anthelmintics in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in breeding ewes in a semi-arid area of Kenya.". In: 10th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Evusah MM. Strategic responses by the University of Nairobi to changes in the external environment. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Organizations are environment serving and environment dependent. The environment in which organizations operate is constantly changing with different factors influencing the organizations. Coping with the increasingly competitive environment has called on firms to rethink their strategies. Strategic responses ensure the survival of organizations at large and at the same time enhance relevance in the environment in which they serve. Theobjective of this study was to determine the strategies adopted by the University of Nairobi to changes in the external environment. An interview guide was used to collect primary data while secondary data were gathered from various publications of the University of Nairobi. The data collected was analysed using content analysis. The study findings indicate that the University of Nairobi faces various challenges from the external environment including increased competition from local and international universities, reduced capitation from the exchequer, low information technology integration, poaching of staff by other universities, high rate of poverty in the country, increased pressure to admit more students and inadequate budgetary allocation. The University of Nairobi has adopted various strategic responses to address these challenges which included expansion into new markets, product development, forming strategic alliances and collaborations with other universities, improving resource management and governance, increasing and diversifying the revenue base, upgrading and fully exploiting university assets and preparing a university strategic plan for the development and use of physical facilities. Other response strategies included promoting research, and consultancy activities, innovation and technology transfer. Following the findings from this study, the following recommendations are made. The management of the university of Nairobi should lead in providing leadership and direction required in formulating strategic responses, fine tuning strategic plan by the university to fit to environmental changes, ensuring a strategic fit between the strategies and the environment, promoting research, consultancy, innovation and technology transfer through developing and implementing appropriate research programmes and promoting relevant consultancy services, collaborating/partnering and forging strategic alliances with other universities both locally and internationally, market expansion and diversification.

Awino ZB. "Strategic Planning, Planning outcomes and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Study of Commercial Banks in Kenya .". In: International Conference and Carnival on Management System (InCaMs). Hotel Seri Malaysia, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia; 2012.
Awino ZB, Jemimah MM, Oeba LK. "Strategic Planning, Planning Outcomes and Organizational Performance – An Empirical Study of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Research Journal in Organizational Psychology and Educational Studies. 2013;1(5):266-271.
Kiliko J, Atandi B, Awino ZB. "Strategic planning in turbulent environment: A Conceptual View." DBA Africa Management Review. 2013;3(1):73-89.
Kiliko J;, Atandi B;, Awino Z. "Strategic planning in turbulent environment .". 2012.Website
Awino ZB. "Strategic Planning and Competitive Advantage of ICT Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." Business and Management Horizons. 2013;1(1):191-204.
Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Strategic Measures to curb Crime Rates in Nairobi.". In: International Jour. on World Peace, with R.K. Muthuri. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2003. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Munyoki JM. "Strategic Management(Being reviewed for publication).". University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

Aosa EA. "Strategic Management within Kenya Firms."; 2011. Abstractstrategic_management_within_kenya_firms.pdf

This study investigated strategic management practices within large, private manufacturing companies in Kenya. A total of 73 companies (both local and foreign) were surveyed. Personal interviews were conducted with top managers in all these companies. The findings revealed that large manufacturing companies had adopted strategic management. However, there were variations in the practices. Foreign companies were more involved and committed to strategic management than the local ones. The local companies (especially family ones) exhibited heavy financial orientation in their plans (cash flow projections and extended budgeting). Differences in organizational factors were cited as explanations for the observed
variations in strategic management practices.
Key words: Strategic Management, Firms, Development, Planning, Kenya

JOHN DRYABS. "Strategic Management Practices.". In: An Article in the Underwriter Journal. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2010. Abstract
A text book of Strategic Management for both undergraduate and graduate students. Case studies are drawn from East African Countries.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Strategic Management of Technology in Public Health Sector in Kenya and South Africa. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 81 No. 6: 279-286.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
Gaitho PR;, Awino; ZB, Kitiabi RK, Ogutu, S.O. "Strategic leadership and Service Delivery Of County Governments: The Kenyan Experience." The International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(11).
Gaitho; PR, Awino; ZB, R.K. K. "Strategic leadership and Service Delivery in African Context: Ethical Practices Influence the Relationship?". In: International Journal for Innovation Education and Research Papers.; 2018.
OLUOCH MF, NYAGOL MA, RABAH SA. "STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR MANUFACURING FIRMS IN WESTERN KENYA." International Journal of Research in Social Sciences. 2013;4(3):ISSN: 2249-2496.
Maingi N, Weda EH, Gichohi VM. "Strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the highlands of central Kenya.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of anthelmintic treatments given 3 weeks after the onset of rains to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the highlands of central Kenya was investigated. The study was carried out on a farm situated approximately 85 km north west of Nairobi in Nyandarua District of central Kenya. In May 1999, 35 Corriedale ram lambs aged between 8 and 10 months were eartagged, weighed and given albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg body mass. The animals were then allocated to three treatment groups. Three weeks after onset of both the short and long rains' season in November 1999 and April 2000 respectively, lambs in groups 1 and 2 were dewormed. Lambs in group 1 were given closantel at 10 mg/kg body mass in November and closantel plus albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg body mass in April. Lambs in group 2 were given albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg body mass on both occasions, while lambs in group 3 were maintained as the untreated controls. Nematode eggs per gram of faeces (epg) for lambs in the control group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the treated groups beginning from November, when the strategic treatments started. The levels of epg did not differ significantly between the two treated groups. Body mass for the treated groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for the control group from January 2000 until the experiment was terminated. The rainfall received in the study area in 2000 during the long rain season was inadequate and only occurred for a short period. The amount of herbage on pastures was therefore not adequate and all the study animals started losing mass from June 2000 until the experiment was terminated. The cumulative mass gain and amount of wool produced by the treated lambs during the study period did not differ significantly. There was therefore no difference in using either of the two drugs. It is concluded that, strategic anthelmintic treatments of sheep at the start of the wet season in the highlands of central Kenya is effective in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. To prevent high levels of re-infection during the season of the long rains (April to June), it is recommended that, during this season, a second treatment be given 5-6 weeks after the first one or at the start of the dry season.

Maingi N, Otieno RO, Gichohi VM, Weda EH. "Strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the highlands of central Kenya." Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2002;69(3):229-235.
Abea FBO. "Strategic Business Units (SBUs)." KASNEB Newsline. 2012;(October - December)(No. 4):3-8.
Abea FBO. "Strategic Business Units (SBUs)." KASNEB Newsline. 2012;October - December(Issue No. 4):Pg. 3-12.
Freeman, H.Ade; Rohrbach DA-OCD;. Strategic Assessments and Development Pathways for Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics.; 2002. Abstract

The agricultural economies of Africa have witnessed three major changes during the past 10 to 15 years that justify a reassessment of agricultural research priorities. First, liberalization of macroeconomic and trade policies has increased the relative importance of tradeables in the commodity mix. Second, agricultural input and product markets have expanded, broadening the range of livelihood strategies available to rural households. Finally, broader partnerships for technology development and dissemination are creating new opportunities. Many of Africa’s poorest and most food-insecure farmers live in semiarid areas. To survive in a harsh and variable environment, they pursue a range of livelihood strategies. Different households pursue different development paths. But almost all seek to diversify their income sources and investment strategies as a means to reduce risk and respond to changing market conditions. How can R&D agencies improve the payoffs to farmers’ investments? There are trade-offs between different alternatives – should the farmer spend her limited money looking for an off-farm job, or on livestock, or on a bag of fertilizer? It is hard to evaluate these trade-offs. But recent investment trends offer some clues on the trade-offs involved, and on how farmers’ investment decisions are influenced by changes in policy, technologies, and market conditions. In July 2002, ICRISAT sponsored a conference on Targeting agricultural research for development in the semi-arid tropics of sub-Saharan Africa to discuss how best to link technology development, market expansion, and agricultural growth in Africa’s semiarid tropics (SAT). This meeting • Examined and compared alternative growth paths for poverty alleviation and development of smallholder agriculture • Reviewed the market and institutional factors influencing technology adoption • Assessed the current stock of available technologies • Discussed institutional arrangements linking national and international research programs and the public and private sectors. The meeting concluded with a series of recommendations for better targeting of agricultural research to achieve faster development. This policy brief summarizes the discussions and outputs from the meeting.

Rambo CM. "Strategic Alliances and the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 1:56-76.
Iraki XN. "The Strange Economics of Class Society." The Standard, May 15, 2012.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "The Strange Bride ( A Translation of Grace Ogot's Miaha) Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya Ltd.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1988. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
Mukunya DM, Gatharu EM, Omunyin ME. "Strains of BCMV and their interaction with I-gene bean varieties.". 1986.
M. KD, M. MI. "Strain level metagenomic analysis of Nairobi Market fermented camel milk.". In: University of Nairobi, AGRO2019 conference and Exhibition. FOA,CAVS-University of Nairobi; 2019.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Strain and kinematic analysis of major tectonostratigraphic units from the Mozambique Belts of the Voi District, S.E.". In: Kenya and the Pare-Usambara Mts. N.E. Tanzania. Journ. Afr. Eath Sci. 30:10. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Strain and kinematic analysis of major tectonostratigraphic units from the Mozambique Belts of the Voi District, S.E.". In: Kenya and the Pare-Usambara Mts. N.E. Tanzania. Journ. Afr. Eath Sci. 30:10. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000. Abstract
n/a
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho COA, Mukwana S. "STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: assessment of the time period for successful analysis." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2016;6:261-269. Abstract
n/a
Gichaga FJ. "Storm Water Drainage Design for Roads.". In: TRRL/MOTC UON Highway Engineering Course. Nairobi; 1982.
Wasamba P. Storm. Nairobi; 2013.storm.pdf
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Storage studies on Sweetpotato roots: experiences with KSP20 cultivar. Acta Horticulturae 368, 441-452.ISBN 90 6605 236 8.International Society for Horticultural science.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Karuri EG;, Ojijo NKO. "Storage studies in sweet potato roots: experiences with KSP20 cultivar."; 1994. Abstract

Four sun-cured lots of sweet potato (cv KSP20) roots were stored under different conditions in the laboratory. One lot was stored in environmental cabinets operated at five temperature levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 29 °C. Two lots were stored in open wooden boxes, one filled with soil and the other saw-dust. A control sample was exposed to the ambient air in the laboratory. Objective physical and chemical indices were used to monitor quality changes in the stored roots. Although the storage time and temperature were important in influencing the quality of the roots, temperatures of 10 °C or lower and also higher than 15 °C were unsuitable for storage. At these temperatures sprouting rotting, pithiness, shrivelling or a combination of physiological factors became more important in quality deterioration. Subsequently, prolonged storage was possible only at 15 and 20 °C and also in saw-dust and soil cover. Roots stored in soil or saw-dust were as wholesome as those at 15 °C, save for the sprouting which depleted the dry matter content, and had a superior appearance. Exponential decay could predict both Vitamin C and beta-carotene loss. Reducing sugar developed in all samples but was highest in the saw-dust storage. Shrivelling through moisture loss was highest in the ambient air storage. Using the back-extrusion test, it was shown that there were no significant differences between boiled roots after 4 weeks of storage under all conditions

W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Storage rots. Regional Training course on diagnostic Techniques in plant pathology.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 1996. Abstract
n/a
Wilson Karibe, Catherine Kunyanga JI. "Storability and Physico-Chemical Quality of Ready to Eat Bovine Tripe Rolls under Different Storage Conditions." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2018;7(8):370-382.
Kanyinga K. "Stopping the Conflagration: The Response of the Kenyan Civil Society to the post-2007 Election Violence.". In: South African Civil Society and Xenophobia. Johannesburg: The Atlantic Philanthropies; 2010.
Sihanya B. "Stopping reversal of Constitutional and Corporate Governance." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2016.
Sihanya B. "Stopping reversal of Constitutional and Corporate Governance." Advocate magazine, the Law Society of Kenya. 2016:52-53.
Kanyinga K. "Stopping a Conflagration: The Response of Kenyan Civil Society to the Post-2007 Election Violence." Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies. 2011;38(1):83-107.
Yamamoto LG, Morita SY, Boychuk RB, Inaba AS, Rosen LM, Yee LL, Young LL. "Stool appearance in intussusception: assessing the value of the term “currant jelly”." The American journal of emergency medicine. 1997;15:293-298. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ngugi RW;, Murinde V;, Green CJ. "Stock market development: What have we learned. .". 2004.Website
Ngugi RW, Murinde V, Green C, Green CJ, Kirkpatrick C, Murinde V, Elgar E. "Stock market development, in Finance and Development: Surveys of Theory Evidence and Policy." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
Samanta P. "Stock market development and economic growth in Africa.". In: ecture organized by IIDS.; 2005.
Ogot M, Aly S, Pelz R, Marconi F, Siclari M. "Stochastic versus gradient-based optimizers for CFD design.". In: 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.; 1996:. Abstract

Page 1. Copyright ©1996, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. AIAA Meeting
Papers on Disc, January 1996 A9618295, NAG1-1559, AIAA Paper 96-0332 Stochastic versus
gradient-based optimizers for CFD design Madara Ogot Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ Sherif
Aly Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ Richard B. Pelz Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ Frank Marconi
Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology and Development Center, Bethpage, NY Michael
Siclari Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology and Development Center, Bethpage, NY …

Sölkner J, Mulindwa H, Galukande E;, Wurzinger M, Ojango J;, Okeyo AM. "Stochastic simulation model of Ankole pastoral production system: Model development and evaluation.". 2011. Abstract

In the Ankole pastoral production system animals are grazed on pasture all year round. The cattle are not supplemented with conserved pasture or commercial feed except minerals. The large number of factors that influence production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of a pastoral production system was developed to provide a tool for developing and testing the system; for example, drying off animals early and supplement them for quick return on heat, testing the economic and ecological viability of the different stocking rates. The model links climate information, on a monthly basis, with dynamic, stochastic component-models for pasture growth and animal production, as well as management policies. Some of the component models were developed and published by other authors but are modified to suit the Ankole pastoral conditions. The model outputs were compared with on-farm data collected over 3 years and data collected for other on-farm studies in the region. The relative prediction error (RPE) values for body weight after weaning across both breeds ranged from 3% to 12% which is below the acceptable 20% and means that the model predicts post weaning growth with an average error of 7.5%. The model predicted pasture production and milk yield across seasons with relative prediction errors of 17.6% and 3.33%, respectively. The graph shapes of actual and predicted average daily milk yield as influenced by season (month of the year) were similar. Because pasture growth and milk production predictions were acceptable, economic predictions can be made using the model to test different management options such as seasonal breeding, alterations in lactation length and determination of appropriate off-takes and evaluation of economic viability of various stocking rates.

MUKESH DRKUMAR. "Stochastic Resonance in Bistable Systems, Lino Gwaki Wori-Baraja, N.M. Monyonko and Mukesh Kumar.". In: Int. J. of BiochePhysics, 51-65, V16, Nos 1&2. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2007. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
Gwaki DL, N.M.Monyonko, Kumar M. "STOCHASTIC RESONANCE IN BISTABLE SYSTEMS.". 2007. Abstract

The stochastic Resonance (also known as SR) a phenomenon in which the signal and the signal to noise ratio of a non linear device is maximized for a moderate value of noise intensity.It often occurs in bistable and excitable systems with subthreshold inputs.For lower noise intensities,the signal does not cause the device to cross threshold so little signal is passed through it.For large noise intensities,the output is domonated by the noise,also leading ,also leading to a low signal to noise ratio.
For moderate intensities,the noise allows the signal to reach threshold ,but the noise intensity is not so large as to swamp it.Thus,a plot of signal to noise ratio as a function of noise intensity shows an upside down 'U" shape.Theoretical ideas explaining and describing SR are discussed.Some revealing experimental data that places SR within the wider context of statistical physics has been reviewed and established.

Aly S, Ogot M, Pelz R, Marconi F, Siclari M. "Stochastic optimization applied to CFD shape design.". In: 12th Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference.; 1995:. Abstract

Simulated Annealing (SA), a stochastic optimization method, is applied to aerodynamic
shape design in which at least one CFD solve is required for each evaluation of the
objective function. A simple, short algorithm, SA is used as an outer loop and calls the CFD
solvers. It is found that objective functions which involve CFD in shape design, have small-
scale roughness due to discretization errors and incomplete convergence. SA is more robust
than the gradient-based methods, in the sense that the roughness creates difficulties for …

Ogallo LJ. "Stochastic Modelling of regional annual rainfall anomalies in East Africa." Journal of Applied Statistics. 1986;13(1):49-56.
Pelz RB, Ogot M. "Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design.". 1998. Abstract

The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

Ogot MM, ALAG SATNAM. "A STOCHASTIC METHODOLOGY FOR THE OPTIMAL ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS OF PLANAR MECHANISMS.". In: Advances in Design Automation, 1993: Presented at the 1993 ASME Design Technical Conferences, 19th Design Automation Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 19-22, 1993. Vol. 1. American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 1993:. Abstract
n/a
Aly S, Ogot M, Peltz R. "Stochastic approach to optimal aerodynamic shape design." Journal of Aircraft. 1996;33:956-961. Abstract

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) has be-gun to play an increasingly important
role in the aircraft industry because of its ability to produce detailed insights into complex
flow phenomena and its ease of parameterization, which can help identify the cause of weak
aerodynamic performance. Some of the earlier uses of CFD in the design process were
based on the cut-and-try approach. Here the designer iteratively modifies and evaluates a
design. 1 While considerable gains in aerodynamic performance can be achieved by this …

CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Stivanello E, Cavailler P, Cassano F, Omar SA, Kariuki D, Mwangi J, Piola P, Guthmann JP. Efficacy of chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kajo Keji county, Sudan.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2004 Sep;9(9):975-80. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Medecins Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland. elisasti@tin.it To provide advice on the rational use of antimalarial drugs, Medecins Sans Frontieres conducted a randomized, an open label efficacy study in Kajo Keji, an area of high transmission of malaria in southern Sudan. The efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) were measured in a 28-day in vivo study, with results corrected by PCR genotyping. Of 2010 children screened, 115 children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized into each group to receive a supervised course of treatment. Of these, 114, 103 and 111 were analysed in the CQ, SP and AQ groups, respectively. The overall parasitological failure rates at day 28 were 93.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 87.3-97.3] for CQ, 69.9% (95% CI 60.0-78.3) for SP, and 25.2% (95% CI 17.7-34.5) for AQ. These results provide important missing data on antimalarial drug efficacy in southern Sudan. They indicate that none of the drugs could be used in monotherapy and suggest that even in combination with artemisinin, cure rates might not be efficacious enough. We recommend a combination of artemether and lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria cases in Kajo Keji county.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia P, Njagi L, Nyaga P, Bwana M, Wahome RG, Margaret M, Wanzila K. "Stinging Nettle and Neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines in Indigenous Chicken in Kenya." Poultry Science journal. 2017;97:447-454.abstract.pdf
Bwana M, Njagi L, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Bebora L, Wahome M, Mutinda W, Kitala P. "Stinging Nettle and Neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines in Indigenous Chicken in Kenya." Poultry Science journal. 2017;97:447-454.
Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Cheserem EJ, Mueke S, Owende P, Ojanga NM, Karanja JG. "The sting of death: a case report of breaking bad news with maternal death." JOGECA. 2013;25(1):32-34.the_sting_of_death_a_case_report_of_breaking_bad_news_with_maternal_death.pdf
AB K, Kosgei RJ, JG K, EJ C, NM O, P O. "The sting of death: a case report of breaking bad news with maternal death." JOGECA . 2013;25((1)): 32-34.
Mibey RK, Okoth SA, Kimenju JW, Wachira PM. "Stimulation of nematode-destroying fungi by organic amendments applied in management of plant parasitic nematode.". 2009. Abstract

A screenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of cow manure, chicken manure and their combinations on nematode destroying fungi, nematode community and growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The amendments were applied at the rate of 5% w/w in all the treatments. Isolation of nematode destroying fungi was done using the soil sprinkle technique. Nematodes were extracted from soil using the modified Baermann technique. Tomato growth was estimated through plant height and dry weight. Application of the organic amendments resulted in significant differences (p≤0.05) in occurrence of nematode destroying fungi amongst the treatments. The nematode destroying fungi occurred at frequencies of 50, 29.4, 17.6 and 2.9% in soil amended with chicken manure, cow/chicken combination, cow manures and the control, respectively. Eight species of nematode destroying fungi were identified in this study. The fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (Fresenius) was most dominant fungus in all the treatments including control pots with an isolation frequency of 38.2%. Addition of organic amendments into the soil also resulted in an increase of bacterial and fungal feeding nematodes and reduction of plant parasitic nematodes. Specifically there was a 225, 96 and 62% increase in bacterial feeding nematodes and 391, 96 and 74% increase in fungal feeding nematodes in soil amended with chicken manure alone, combination of chicken and cow manure alone in that order. Numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes were 92% lower in soil treated with chicken manure compared to the control. Plant height and leaf widths were highest in plants treated with combination of cow and chicken manures. The plants mean dry weight were 6.6, 5.6, 2.0 and 1.5 in combination of chicken and cow manure, chicken manure alone, cow manure alone and control, respectively. This study has therefore, revealed that organic amendments stimulate the occurrence of nematode destroying fungi in the soil and also reduce plant parasitic nematodes. In addition, the combination of cow and chicken manure stimulates plant growth

Wachira PM, Kimenju JW, Okoth S, Mibey RK. "Stimulation of nematode destroying fungi by organic amendments applied in management of plant parasitic nematodes ." Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2009;8(2):153-159.
KIPKEMOI TOWETPHILEMON. "Stimulation of mu and delta opioid receptors induces hyperalgesia while stimulation of kappa receptors induces antinociception in the hot-plate test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). ." Brain Research Bulletin. 2006;71:60-68. AbstractScienceDirect

Abstract
The antinociceptive effects of highly selective mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE) and kappa (U-50488 and U-69593) opioid agonists were evaluated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in the naked mole-rat. A hot plate test set at 60 °C was used as a nociceptive test and the latency to the stamping of the right hind paw (response latency) was used as the end-point. DAMGO (5–10 mg/kg) and DPDPE (2.5–5 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant decrease in the mean response latency. Subcutaneous injection of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg) 24 h prior to the administration of DAMGO (5 mg/kg) also blocked the reduction in the response latency observed when DAMGO was injected alone. On the contrary, U-50488 (2.5–5 mg/kg) or U-69593 (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant increase in the mean response latency. These results showed that activation of mu or delta receptors caused hyperalgesia, whereas activation of kappa receptors caused antinociception in the hot plate test in naked mole-rat. This suggests that mu and delta receptors modulate thermal pain in a different way than kappa receptors in the naked mole-rat. It is not possible at the moment to point out how they modulate thermal pain as little is known about the neuropharmacology of the naked mole-rat.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Juma FD. "Stimulation of mu and delta opioid receptors induces hyperalgesia while stimulation of kappa receptors induces antinociception in the hot plate test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).". 2006. Abstract

The antinociceptive effects of highly selective mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE) and kappa (U-50488 and U-69593) opioid agonists were evaluated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in the naked mole-rat. A hot plate test set at 60 degrees C was used as a nociceptive test and the latency to the stamping of the right hind paw (response latency) was used as the end-point. DAMGO (5-10 mg/kg) and DPDPE (2.5-5 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant decrease in the mean response latency. Subcutaneous injection of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg) 24h prior to the administration of DAMGO (5 mg/kg) also blocked the reduction in the response latency observed when DAMGO was injected alone. On the contrary, U-50488 (2.5-5 mg/kg) or U-69593 (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant increase in the mean response latency. These results showed that activation of mu or delta receptors caused hyperalgesia, whereas activation of kappa receptors caused antinociception in the hot plate test in naked mole-rat. This suggests that mu and delta receptors modulate thermal pain in a different way than kappa receptors in the naked mole-rat. It is not possible at the moment to point out how they modulate thermal pain as little is known about the neuropharmacology of the naked mole-rat

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Stimulating smallholder investment in sustainable land management: Overcoming market, policy and institutional challenges.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Khisa, AM & Nyamongo IK. "Still living with fistula: an exploratory study of the experience of women with obstetric fistula following corrective surgery in West Pokot, Kenya. ." Reproductive Health Matters . 2012;Vol.20, (Issue 40):59-66. Abstract

Obstetric fistula is a complication of pregnancy that affects women following prolonged obstructed labour. Although there have been achievements in the surgical treatment of obstetric fistula, the long-term emotional, psychological, social and economic experiences of women after surgical repair have received less attention. This paper documents the challenges faced by women following corrective surgery and discusses their needs within the broader context of women's health. We interviewed a small sample of women in West Pokot, Kenya, during a two-month period in 2010, including eight in-depth interviews with fistula survivors and two focus group discussions, one each with fistula survivors and community members. The women reported continuing problems following corrective surgery, including separation and divorce, infertility, stigma, isolation, shame, reduced sense of worth, psychological trauma, misperceptions of others, and unemployment. Programmes focusing on the needs of the women should address their social, economic and psychological needs, and include their husbands, families and the community at large as key actors. Nonetheless, a weak health system, poor infrastructure, lack of focus, few resources and weak political emphasis on women's reproductive health do not currently offer enough support for an already disempowered group.

G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Stikans M.,. Gatari M.J., Lindgren E.S., .". In: J. Aerosol Sci. 29, suppl. 1: 747-748: 5th International Aerosol Conference, Scotland: 14-18 September 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Stigter, C.J., Mungai, D., Ong, C., Kinama, J.M and Otengi, S.B. (2004). Testing alley cropping contour in semi-arid areas on flat and sloping land: Soil and water conservation, competition, yields and economic factors. Experts for collection of case stud.". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Stigter, C.J., Kinama, J., Zhang, Y., Tunji, K.O., Zheng, D. Nawal, K.N and Ahmed. A. (2004). Agrometeorological services and information for decision makers: Some examples from Africa and China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Prod.". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2004. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Stigter, C.J., Kinama J.M.,Yengui Zhang, Tunji, K.O., Dawie Zeng., Nawal, K.N.Ahmed Abdalla. Agrometeorological Services and information for decision making: Some examples from Africa and China. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 60(5):327-330,2005.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Stigter, C.J., Kinama J.M.,Yengui Zhang, Tunji, K.O., Dawie Zeng., Nawal, K.N.Ahmed Abdalla. Agrometeorological Services and information for decision making: Some examples from Africa and China. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 60(5):327-330,2005.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Ndetei DM, Mutiso V, Maraj A, Anderson KK, Musyimi C, McKenzie K. "Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness among primary school children in Kenya." Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016;51(1):73-80. AbstractWebsite

Literature describing stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness by children in the developing world is lacking. Children's mental health issues in the Kenyan context are especially pertinent due to the increased likelihood of exposure to risk factors and the high prevalence of mental disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine socio-demographic factors associated with the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among Kenyan school children.

Odeny BM, Pfeiffer J, Farquhar C, Igonya EK, Gatuguta A, Kagwaini F, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie J, Bosire R. "The Stigma of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Both HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in Nairobi, Kenya." Breastfeed Med. 2016;11:252-8. Abstract

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) means giving only breast milk to an infant. Although it is the optimal mode of feeding for infants younger than 6 months, its prevalence is low in HIV-endemic regions. Extensive promotion of EBF for 6 months in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs could inadvertently result in stigma due to women's perceived association of EBF with HIV infection. In this qualitative study, we describe how stigma impacts the uptake of EBF among HIV-positive and -negative women.

Ndetei DM, Sartorius N, Khasakhala L, Ongecha-Owuor FA. "Stigma and Mental Disorders."; 2006.

UoN Websites Search