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Nguli. ENRAM&. "Policy Brief: Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential." ISBN 9966-948-18-x. (2004). AbstractWebsite

The health sector reforms that have hitherto taken place (including introduction of National Health Insurance Fund, free health services, cost-sharing, exemptions and waivers, etc) have all aimed largely at addressing affordability and access to health care services. Spending to promote access to health care is crucial, given also that Kenya is a signatory to the WHO Abuja Declaration. The latter requires member countries to spend at least 15 per cent of their national incomes (GDP) on health (Kenya spends 9 per cent). Many Kenyans therefore continue to have no access to or cannot afford to pay for their health care needs. It is due to the failures of the past programs, that the National Social Health Insurance Fund (NSHIF) was conceptualized for implementation, with a view to enabling more effective provision of health cover to all Kenyans, at both in- and out-patient service levels. In contrast to the private/commercial health insurance plans where premiums are actuary based (higher risk individuals pay more for their medical cover), a social health plan s contributions are based on members ability to pay but access to services depends on individuals health care needs, hence a socialized concept, with emphasis on community spirit of solidarity.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Social Health Insurance Scheme for all Kenyans: Opportunities and sustainability potential. Enos Njeru Robert Arasa & Mary Nguli. ISBN 9966-948-18-x.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP060/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 12, 2004. Gender aspects in HIV/AIDS infection and control in Kenya. Enos Njeru, Peter Mwangi and Mary Nguli.". In: ISBN 9966-948-77-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 13, 2004. Combating HIV/AIDS in Kenya: Priority setting and resource allocation. Christopher Onyango and Enos Njeru. ISBN 9966-948-06-6.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP059/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 7, 2004. Funding the fight against HIV/AIDS: Budgetary analysis of Kenya.". In: ISBN 9966-948-50-x. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

The Abuja Declaration, adopted at the Africa Union special summit on AIDS in 2001, called upon African governments to allocate 15% of their national budgets to health spending, with more emphasis on HIV/AIDS programmes. This commitment echoes the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS
(UNGASS), which calls for an increase in spending on HIV/AIDS programmes to US$ 7-10 billion by 2005. The declaration of commitment by the Africa Union calls for minimum spending that provides coverage of essential prevention, care, and mitigation services in an effort to reduce the spread of the epidemic. In Kenya,
despite the government's commitment to fight the pandemic, very little information is available on the actual expenditures on HIV/IDS activities. The objective of this study was to track HIV/AIDS expenditure and analyse the budget from an HIV/AIDS perspective. Understanding how the financial and other national resources
are used towards realization of the national objectives as outlined in the HIV/AIDS related strategic goals in each country, will help the planners to choose pertinent, useful and attainable interventions.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 8, 2004, The Sociology of Private Tuition. Indeje Wanyama and Enos H.N. Njeru.". In: ISBN 9966-948-87-2. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

This paper discusses the issue of private tuition mainly at primary educational
level within various contexts, including governance. The paper notes that even
though the practice ofprivate tuition has been in existence for quite some time,
very little, if any, research has been undertaken to explain its nature, extent and
implications for the education system. Besides, nothing is known about its overall
socio-economic setups at the international as well as the national levels.
Technically, private tuition is not allowed in Kenya. However, there is ample
evidence to show that the practice is taking place on a very large scale. The
most affected is the mainstream system, with some of its teachers engaging in
the practice. The emphasis on examination as a basis for staff recruitment and
promotion has further aggravated this problem. Indeed, even some Ministry of
Education, Science and Technology (MoES&T) officials - who are supposed to
articulate Government Policy on Education - take their children to private tuition
classes. This is because they too, have to equally compete for the limited places
at higher levels oflearning and this can only be achieved through good performance
in National Examinations. This paper focuses on the genesis of private
tuition and schooling in comparison to public education, as well as the factors
that sustain the behind-the-scenes private tuition system, leading to consumers
of education (pupils and parents) demanding for private tuition services, and
those that lead to producers (tutors, including teachers and other entrepreneurs)
producing and supplying the commodity - private tuition.
This study was limited to a desk review ofpertinent literature and selected key
informant interviews. The study's key findings indicate that socio-economic inequalities
continue to be pervasively manifest in the practice ofprivate tuition;
quality service is not guaranteed as long as private tuition continues to get no
official recognition; and while private tuition constitutes a serious financial burden
to the low income households, strong support for it comes from both parents
and students.
The study recommends urgent recognition ofthe integral role played by private
tuition in the management and delivery ofeducation services, hence strong evidence
that banning private tuition is unlikely to achieve the intended levels of
compliance, especially on the part ofthe producers and consumers. Such recognition
should therefore pave way for stakeholder dialogue between parents and
education managers, while incorporating the expertise and views of education
scholars, to improve equity in education financing without compromising quality.
It is further recommended that a study of a larger primary data-based scale be
carried out to facilitate an authoritative authentication of the findings, and, in
effect, be used to guide the way forward in terms of formulating an effective
policy on private tuition and related planning and implementation issues.

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 10, Issue 9, 2004. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Kenya. Enos Njeru & Urbanus Kioko.". In: ISBN 9966-948-16-3. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH, NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume 9, Issue 6, 2003. .". In: ISBN 9966-948-27-9. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Policy Brief: Volume Volume 9, Issue 5, 2003. The Role of Higher Education Loans Board in pro-poor management approaches to enhancing access to University Education in Kenya. By Njeru and Odundo.". In: ISBN 9966-948-15-5. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Policy Changes and the informal sector: A review.". In: Coughlin, P. and Ikiara G.K. (eds.) The Industrialization Dilemma, Heinemann Kenya Ltd., Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Dorothy McCormick, Winnie Mitullah. "Policy Experiences of Women in Kenyan Small Enterprise.". In: UNESCO Meeting on Women in the Informal Sector. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1995. Abstract

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Mitullah, W V; McCormick D. "Policy Experiences of Women in Kenyan Small Enterprise.".; 1995.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Policy from Below: Should the Experiences of Teachers Working in Hardship Areas in Rural Schools in Kenya Count?". In: Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) annual conference, Carlton University, Ottawa, 23-26 May 2009. Frontiers, 2011; 2009. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Riechi ARO, Mbiti DM, Kisilu B. Policy gaps and suggested strategies of enhancing access to early childhood development and education in Kenya. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research; 2006. Abstract
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W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Policy Impacts on Women and the Environment in Kenya in S. Khasiani (ed.).". In: African Women as Environmental Managers (ACTS) Press, Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Kasina, Muo; Nderitu JH. Policy Implementation And Its Economic Impact On Potato Marketing Value Chain In Kenya.; 2013. Abstract

Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are second in importance after maize in Kenya as food crop. It is grown mainly by small scale farmers in more than 100,000 ha country wide producing more than 1 million tonnes annually. The marketing value chain has been described as ineffective, with farmers getting far much lesser compared with other players. Recognizing this, the Government of Kenya developed laws in 2005 to streamline the chain and ensure farmers gain from the potato production. It also established some specific laws in 2008 to interpret the 2005 laws in target chain levels. This study was carried out between December 2009 and February 2010 to monitor implementation, enforcement and economic impact of legal notice no. 113 of 2008 of the Government of Kenya using formal questionnaires administered to traders and farmers in selected seven markets and regions. Information was also obtained from focused group discussions as well as stakeholder participation in a workshop. The findings show that traders and farmers are aware of the regulations but are not implementing them. Farmers had higher (97%) knowledge of regulations compared with traders (92%). The major reasons cited by farmers for not being able to implement the regulations included cartels, lack of storage facilities and information about the potato production costs and prevailing market prices at any given time. Calculations show that the contribution of potatoes to the Kenyan economy is 300% higher than what is in government records. This study provides more evidence of the effect of the legal notice on the potato marketing value chain in Kenya and policy recommendations to ensure enforcement of the regulations and streamline the potato value chain.

Waema TM, Waema TM. "Policy Implications of the Relationship Between ICT Access and Usage and Well-being: A Case Study of Kenya." African Journal of Science,Technology, Innovation and Development (AJSTID). 2011;3(3):30-56.
Barasa L. "Policy initiatives to promote women’s access to higher education in Kenya.". In: C. Sehoole, & J. Knight ed., Internationalization of African Higher Education - Towards Achieving the MDG's (pp. 93-113). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers; 2013.
Mohammed-Katerere, J.C., Mafuta, C., Abdulla, A., Ali, O.M.M., Mwaura F, and Sithole B. "Policy Options for Africa (Chapter 9).". In: In UNEP (2012) – Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) Environment for the Future We Want. Nairobi: UNEP; 2012.
Karugia JT,; Ndirangu L;, Nyangito H;, Suri T. "Policy Options for Agriculture Growth in Kenya."; 2010.
Ochoro WE. "Policy options for developing countries in the context of international trade: an overview.". In: International Trade Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 1983.
Gathagu TW, Agwata JF. "POLICY OPTIONS FOR ENHANCING WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN MANAGING WATER RESOURCES IN KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Development Research. 2014;Vol. 4(Issue, 5):1048-1055. Abstractjournal_paper-ijdr.pdf

The important role that women play in the management of water resources has been recognized in
various parts of the world. This is because they play a significant role in accessing water for
various uses such as washing, cooking, watering of crops and livestock rearing. Their effective
participation in water management is however influenced by existing policy, institutional and
legal frameworks. In this study, the various policies that enhance women’s participation in water
resources management in Kajiado County of Kenya were evaluated from the perspective of
relevance, value and limitations. This was done with a view to suggesting practical measures to
ensure the women’s important and critical roles are properly captured in the proposed policies on
water resources management in the County and elsewhere in the country. The findings show that
although the existing policies, legal and institutional frameworks are fairly comprehensive in
addressing women’s roles in the management of water resources, the policies do not, however,
directly and adequately address women’s issues and concerns in water resources management in
the County.

Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Policy Options for Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Hydropower Development in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development-. 2019;2(1):127-140.
Sihanya B, Juma C. Policy options for scientific and technological capacity-building.; 1993. AbstractWebsite

The ability of policies on biodiversity prospecting to contribute over the long term to economic development, conservation and the equitable sharing of genetic resources is examined. Consideration is given to: national innovation policy and biodiversity, the linkage of biotechnology to biodiversity, biotechnology transfer, technology assessment, and blind alleys and windows of opportunity. The discussion underlines that biodiversity prospecting will not contribute much to developing countries unless it helps them accumulate technological capacity through training programmes and technology development through scientific innovation. In order that national biotechnology policies enhance biodiversity prospecting much attention needs to be paid to human resource development, technological innovation, legal and institutional reforms, biotechnology regulation and intellectual property management. The experiences of INBio (Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute), a pilot technology transfer project, are discussed

Asingo PO. "Policy Salience and Voter Turnout: An Analysis of Contemporary US Presidential Elections." Baker Center Journal of Applied Public Policy . 2008;2(1(Fall)):52-67 .policy salience.pdf
and Njeru PAEOHN. POLICY-BASED APPROACHES TO POVERTY REDUCTION IN KENYA: STRATEGIES AND CIVil SOCIETY ENGAGEMENT. Nairobi: UNDP; 2005. Abstract

The critical challenge facing Kenya is to raise the rate of economic growth to levels
incorporating broad-based improvement in the standards of living and well-being of Kenyans
in order to reduce poverty which has increased rapidly in the recent past (PRSP, 2000).
Kenya's economic growth rate declined dramatically from an average of 6.6% in 1970s to
4.2% in 1980s to an average 2.1% in the 1990s. The living conditions of the vast majority
of Kenyans are deteriorating rapidly. There is a marked increase in the number of people
unable to access clean water, clothing, shelter, health services and education. Unemployment
is a problem in Kenya. Average unemployment is at 23%, and is even higher for youth that
drop out of school and for women, averaging 25% in both cases (Chune, 2003). Government
services in many cases are no longer available. Growing disparities in access to services have
further undercut the living conditions of low-income households. School enrolments, infant
mortality and life expectancy have deteriorated (UNDp, 2002).
Kenya's economic objectives of growth, poverty reduction and improved resource utilization
and access have remained essentially the same since independence. The quest for sustainable
socio-economic development has however been a challenging endeavor, influencing some
policy shifts. The strident call has basically centred on poverty reduction, inclusion of those
excluded from the enjoyment of the benefits of economic growth and the redistribution of
productive resources. What have consequently changed are the strategies to achieve the
objectives of sustainable human development focusing on improving the quality of life of the
majority poor.
Poverty reduction broadly defined requires processes that help people to improve their
capabilities and functioning, that enable them to take charge of their affairs (Gondi, 2005).
Kenya has come up with many poverty reduction policies since independence, most of which
have had little success. The previous pre-1990s povertyreduction policies erroneouslyassumed
that the benefits of rapid growth of key sectors such as industry, service and agriculture would
automatically trickle down to all sectors of society. So more effort was injected into improving
economic performance (export incentive, agricultural food processing, etc.), at the expense
of promoting societal welfare enhancing projects. For example, some policies like the rural
and informal sector development did not receive the much-needed political will and required
resource allocation, to be effective.
87

and Timammy JHR. "Politeness among the Swahili of Mombasa: A family perspective." Mwanga wa Lugha - Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi . 2018;2(2412-6993):35-53 .
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Politeness Among the Swahili of Mombasa:A Family Perpective." Burji Baraton University Journal. Forthcoming.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Politeness Phenomena: A case of Kiswahili Honorifics." in Swahili Forum( SwaFo). 2010.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Political and Economic Reforms in Kenya: The Business Community's Perspectives.". In: La Revue Politique Africane Journal, Vol. 56. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1994. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Political and Election Violence in Kenya’ ."; 2001.
Nyangena W, R.S.Maya, Gupta J. "Political and Practical Constraints to Joint Implementation in Kenya.". In: Joint Implementation: Carbon Colonies or Business Opportunities? Weighing the odds in an information vacuum. Southern Centre for Energy and Environment; 1996.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "The political career of electoral process in Kenya: From the colonial period to the present: A framework for analysis, IED.". In: A framework for analysis, IED 1996. uon press; 1996. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
Kanyinga K. "Political Change In Kenya 1991 - 2002.". In: Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Political Culture and Liberalization in Kenya, 1986-1999," in Mushi, S., Mukandala, R., and Yahya-Othman, S., (eds.), 2004, Democracy and Social Transformation in East Africa, Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2004. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Political currents in african Literature.". In: Delivered at machakos T.T.C. ON 18TH June .1975. Elsevier; 1975. Abstract
n/a
joshua Kivuva. "the political dynamics of regional disparities, economis inequalities and marginalization and regional disparities in Kenya .". In: FES workshop on marginalization and regional disparities in kenya.; 2011.
Maluki P. "The political Economy of a Diplomatic Mission.". In: The political Economy of a Diplomatic Mission. Nairobi; 2012.
Kanyinga K. "Political Economy of Agriculture Policy Making in Kenya .". In: Preparatory regional research project on political economy of agriculture policies in Africa. Nairobi; 2011.
Ikiara GK. "Political economy of cash transfers In Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

As a result of socio-economic and political challenges facing Kenya: 46% of the country‟s 38 million people are living below the poverty line; there are a rapidly growing number of orphans and vulnerable children - half of which have resulted from a HIV/AIDs pandemic which has hit the country in the last two decades; frequent droughts, and the recently unprecedented post-election violence following the disputed 2007 general elections, social protection programmes for the country‟s poor and vulnerable population have become increasingly important both economically and politically.
This study, using data and information obtained from government and donor representatives closely involved with Kenya‟s CT programmes and secondary data, examines Kenya‟s Social Protection Programmes with special focus on CT programmes.
Starting with a brief review of the prevailing poverty and economic conditions and challenges facing the country, the paper examines government attitude and attention towards Cash Transfer (CT) and non-cash social protection programmes; the evolution, coverage and other features of the existing CT programmes in the country; the roles of the government and development partners in the programmes; domestic and external influences in the establishment of the various social protection programmes; estimated costs of the required CT programmes and the affordability and sustainability of the programme in view of the prevailing economic conditions and capacities; and the political economy and the overall ownership of the implementation of CT programme in the country.
While Kenya has had a long history of implementation of non-cash transfer programmes, such as: food relief in the drought stricken areas; emergency and special programmes; school bursaries for needy children, and a wide range of other interventions, CTs are new, mainly in their pilot or early stages and have been in existence only in the last 5 years.
The existing CT programmes have a limited coverage of the targeted members in three programmes, viz the Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC), the Elderly and the Hunger Safety Net programme. With the on-going discussions to finalise the country‟s Policy on Social Protection and the Social Protection Strategy (2009-2012) and a large increase in government‟s financing of the CT programmes through national budget, the national coverage of these programmes is expected to rise substantially by 2012.
There are high prospects of enhancing and institutionalising CT and non-CT social protection programmes in the country‟s budgetary system in view of the broad political support the programmes have received from a wide spectrum of political actors in the country. The liberalisation of the country‟s political system in 1992 which ushered in a highly vibrant and competitive multi-party political environment, has favoured introduction and expansion of social protection initiatives, both cash and non-cash.
A number of donors, notably UNICEF, DFID, World Bank and SIDA played key technical and financial roles in the establishment of CT programmes in the country creating the perception that the programmes were donor driven and that the government was more in favour of non-cash interventions. With increasing government and public appreciation of CT programmes as an appropriate tool for reaching more effectively a special group of the population the extremely poor or hard-core poor, who cannot participate in productive economic activities, the government participation in financing the programmes has risen dramatically, in the last two years. The government is expected to shoulder the bulk of the required resources for these programmes in the coming years but with supplementary resources from willing development partners.
There is considerable consensus among the stakeholders that the CT programmes are affordable and sustainable even without external donors, so long as the programmes are expanded gradually, taking into account the capacity of the national economy to support the programmes at various levels. The successful implementation of much larger non-cash social protection programmes such as the Free Primary Education for 8 million pupils and Free Day Secondary Education and the Constituency Development Fund are generally taken as good indicators of the ability of the country to sustain CT programmes as long as political will is there.
Most of the stakeholders were of the view the CT programmes are too socially and politically sensitive to be heavily dependent on external support which was often determined by exogenous factors beyond the government‟s control.
Kenya‟s draft National Social Protection Strategy, estimates that the country could escalate the Cash Transfer Programme nationally to cover all the extremely poor consisting of the People with Disabilities (PWD), Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC), and Households with Older Persons above 65 years, at a total cost of approximately Ksh 12 billion annually (about 3.3% of the national budget), at a monthly cash “transfer” of Ksh 1,000 per household.

K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "The political economy of constitutional amendments in Kenya".". In: SAREAT - Nairobi. uon press; 1999. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
Nzuma, M.J. "The Political Economy of Food Price Policy in Kenya.". In: Food Price Policy in an Era of Market Instability. New York: Oxford University Press; 2015.
Nzuma JM. The Political Economy Of Food Price Policy: The Case Of Kenya.; 2013. Abstract

This paper evaluates Kenyas food price crisis over 2002.11 using a political economy approach. Kenya.s food prices have been high and volatile relative to world food prices. Moreover, domestic food markets are highly integrated while about 30 per cent of...........

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Political Economy of Poverty Reduction in Kenya.". In: Jointly with Arne Tostensen, Michelsea Institute. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Long J;, Kanyinga K. "The Political Economy of Reforms in Kenya: The Post-2007 Election Violence and a New Constitution." African Studies Review. 2012;55(1):31-51. AbstractWebsite

This article explores the package of “Agenda item 4” reforms
undertaken by the Kenyan government in the mediation process following
the 2007–8 postelection violence, including those relating to long-standing
issues over constitutional revision. It situates the previous lack of reforms
within Kenya’s political economy and demonstrates how political and economic
interests thwarted progress and produced the postelection crisis.
It also examines the more recent attempts to address reforms following
the signing of the National Accord and the creation of a power-sharing
government, and finds strong public support for constitutional revision.
It concludes that these pressures from below, along with a realignment of political interests and institutional change from power-sharing, helped support
reform.

Lund, JF; Carlsen HCP; TK; T. The political economy of timber governance in Ghana.; 2012.
Asingo PO. "The Political Economy of Transition in Kenya.". In: Politics of Transition in Kenya: From KANU to NARC. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation; 2003.Politics of Transition in Kenya
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "The Political Economy of Women's Work in Kenya: Chronic Constraints and Broken Barriers in Parvin Ghorayshi and Claire Belanger (Eds) (pp: 75-90).". In: Women, Work and Gender Relations in Developing Countries: A Global Perspective. Greenwood Press: Westport, connecticut. ISBN: 0-313-29797. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

MURIMI MRJAMESMAINA. "The Political Economy, Manipulation And Watershed Degradation In KENYA.". In: ISEE 2010 Advancing Sustainability in a Time of Crises. Murimi J.maina, Opiyo Romanus; 2010.
Njeru GR, Njoka JM. Political Ideology in Kenya.; 2007.Website
Njoka JM, Njeru GR. Political Ideology in Kenya.; 2007.Website
Njery G. "Political Institutions and Processes in Chronic Poverty." IDS Occasional Paper. 2009;73.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Political Leadership and the Crisis of Development in Africa: Lessons from Kenya",.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
R.M O. "Political part ies and their responsibility." CPK guest house, Nairobi; 1997.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Political Participation in Democratic Change from 1963 - 1993: which way forward for women?". In: Paper presented for the K.U.L.U Project in Denmark, on Strategy for Women Democracy and Human Rights, June 1993: also presented at a National Conference in preparation of the Global Beijing Women's Conference, Green Hills Hotel, Nyeri 10-13 June.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

OTIENO MROWUOCHESOLOMON. "Political Parties and Civil Society in Governance and Development: A Synthesis,(Co-author).". In: ISBN 9966-803-02-5. Peace Tree Network (PTN); 2002.
Bosire RM. Political Parties Index: Measuring Performance of Political Parties in Kenya. Nairobi: Fredrich Ebert Stiftung Foundation; 2011.
Njeru G. Political Patronage, Access to Entitlements and Poverty in Kenya. . Nairobi: Kenya Episcopal Conference- Catholic Justice and Peace Commission and Dan Church Aid. ; 2007.
Emma Oketch LFPM&. "Political Science and Ethics Vis-a Vis the Good of an Individual and the Common Good: A Comparison of Aristotles Ethics and his Politics.". In: Politics and the Common Good. Nairobi: Strathmore University; 2006.
C.A. Mumma- Martinon, Mwaura PL. "Political Violence In Kenya And Local Churches’ Responses: The Case Of The 2007 Post- Election Crisis." Faith And International Affairs, Institute For Global Engagement.Routledge Taylor And Francis Group. 2010;Vol. 8, :39-4.7.local_church_responses.pdf
Mumma- Martinon CA;, Mwaura FL. "Political Violence In Kenya And Local Churches’ Responses: The Case Of The 2007 Post- Election Crisis.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

In 27 December 2007, Kenyans went to the polls to e
lect their presidential, parliamentary, and
civic leaders. This general election was described
as replete with serious anomalies—a situation
that continues to raise serious doubts about the va
lidity of the electoral process. On 30 December
2007, after three days of uncertainty, the Electora
l Commission of Kenya (ECK) Chairman,
Samuel Kivuitu, announced Mwai Kibaki's re-election
amidst chaos. According to ECK, Kibaki
(Party of National Unity – PNU) won the presidentia
l election with 4,584,721 votes (46 percent),
against 4,352,903 (44 percent) garnered by Odinga (
Orange Democratic Party –ODM).
The whole process was less than transparent, castin
g doubt on the credibility of the electoral
outcome, especially the presidential election. The
majority of those involved—whether media,
civil society organizations, politicians, religious
institutions, leaders, even ordinary citizens—
were perceived as politically tainted, partisan, or
compromised. Many felt that the churches,
which prior to the referendum on the draft constitu
tion of 2005 were regarded as voices of reason
and moral authority, had failed in the 2007 electio
ns to provide visionary and unbiased
leadership. This essay discusses the background to
the violence and critically analyzes varied
church responses as well as the implications of the
se responses for political stability in Kenya

OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Politicised Land"; The Guardian, Special Supplement, December.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1979. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Politicized Ethnic Conflict in Kenya: A Periodic Phenomenon," in Abadalla Bujra and Abdel Ahmed (eds.), African Conflicts: Their Management, Resolution, and Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Addis Ababa DPMF/OSSREA.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2001. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Iraki XN. "The Politics and Economics of City Spaces: Parks, Trading Zones and Slums.". In: (Re)membering Kenya. ISBN NO: 978-9966-028-50-1. Nairobi: Twaweza Communication; 2014.
N. DRIRAKIW. "The Politics and Economies of City Spaces, Parks, Trading Zones and Slums, A paper presented at the Goethe Institute , Nairobi.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "The Politics and Economies of City Spaces, Parks, Trading Zones and Slums, A paper presented at the Goethe Institute , Nairobi.". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009. Abstract
n/a
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Politics and multi party democracy in Kenya,.". In: paper presented at the first regional confrrence on la ,Politics and Multi pary Democracy in East Africa, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania 17-21 October.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "Politics and Struggles for Access to Land: .". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "Politics and Struggles for Access to Land: .". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Politics and Struggles for Access to Land: .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Politics and Struggles for Access to Land: .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
Kanyinga K. "Politics and struggles for access to land: ‘grants from above’ and ‘squatters’ in coastal Kenya.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya and sub‐Saharan Africa generally, there has been little systematic discussion of post‐colonial struggles for land rights. Studies have ignored the fact that the ‘land question ‘ is not about production alone and have, thus, failed to assess its wider consequences for society. This raises questions about the current socio‐political dimension of the land question and the consequences of the interplay between the ‘land question ‘ and other changes under way in the country. This study addresses these questions by discussing popular struggles of access to land in the coastal region of Kenya where the land question has a distinct political history. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in Kilifi district, Coast provinces, between September 1995 and November 1996.

Oketch E, Francheschi L, Mimbi P. Politics and the Common Good. Nairobi: Strathmore University Press; 2007.
OWINO MISSOKETCHEMMA. "Politics and the Common Good (Editor).". In: Strathmore University Press, 2006. Kisipan, M.L.; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurs in up to one fourth of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Some of the factors implicated in its causation include hypergastrinaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs and, recently, Helicobacter pylori infection. Studies on the latter have been few, with none having been carried out in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings and to determine the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients with dyspepsia. STUDY DESIGN AND POPULATION: A prospective study of seventy seven consecutive patients with CRF and dyspepsia compared with consecutive age, sex and socio-economically matched seventy seven controls (no CRF) with dyspepsia. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the major referral and teaching hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: In both the study population and the controls, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out. H. pylori was tested for using the biopsy urease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori if they tested positive on both tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings at endoscopy and presence of H. pylori. RESULTS: Inflammatory lesions (gastritis, duodenitis) (42%) and duodenal ulcers (18.4%) were the commonest findings in the two groups combined. The prevalence of H. pylori in the 154 subjects studied was 54.5%. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients (53.2%) and the controls (55.8%) (p = 0.746). Patients with endoscopically proven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.3%) regardless of their renal function status. CONCLUSION: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF was due to multiple causes and over 50% were attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylon in dyspeptic CRF patients was similar to that in dyspeptic patients with normal renal function.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Politics and the Law: A Sampling o Pointers from the Bench.". In: Nairobi University Law Journal, Vol. 1:69. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
OTIENO MROWUOCHESOLOMON. "Politics in Kenya: A Perspective, (Co-author).". In: ISBN 9966-7029-02-5. Peace Tree Network (PTN); 2004.
Iraki XN. "The politics in sugar sector is more than meets the eye." The Standard, August 14, 2015.
"The Politics of Decentralization: Forests, Power and People." Discovery and Innovation. 2005;Volume 17 (1,2).
Nyabuga G. "Politics of East Africa.". New York: Oxford University Press; 2011. Abstract
n/a
S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "The politics of Global Sport: Politicization of sport in England and Kenya.". In: 8th Biennal Conference of I.S.C.P.E.S, Houston, June 12-18 1992. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Upadhyaya R. "The Politics of High Level of Adoption of Global Banking Standars in Kenya: "A Case of Alignment of Donor, Government and Banking Sector Interests".". In: Second Annual Workshop - LICs Navigating Global Banking Standards. Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford; 2017.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Politics of Land Rights in Kenya. A paper presented in .". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "The Politics of Naming and the Challenge for Recruiting and Retaining Teachers for Rural Remote Schools in Kenya.". In: Middle East and African Studies (MEAS) Conference, University of Alberta, 30 . Frontiers, 2011; 2009. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Politics of regime consolidation and entrenchment: Moi's foreign policy.". In: (IFRA) Nairobi. uon press; 1994. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
joshua Kivuva. "The Politics of Regional Disperities and Marginalization in Kenya.". In: Regional Disparities and Marginalization in Kenya. Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert-Stiftung; 2012.
Colin P, Kanyinga K. The Politics of Revitalising Agriculture in Kenya. Futures Agriculture Consortium; 2013.
Kanyinga K, Poulton C. "The Politics of Revitalising Agriculture in Kenya." Development Policy Review. 2014;32(S2):151-172.
J.N. M. The Politics of School Texts. The Struggle for the Literary Canon in Kenya. Saarbrucken, Germany: Verlag Dr. Muller; 2009.
Ng'ethe N. "Politics, ideology and the underprivileged.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

What are the origins of Harambee? What is the meaning of Harambee and what is the place of the underprivileged in the context of the Harambee phenomenon, ideology, tradition, or whatever else it may be called. These are the main questions addressed in the present article. The author suggests that in the context of Harambee the place of the underprivileged is perhaps not to be sought in the so-called traditional roots of the phenomenon but rather in its more immediate predecessors whose politics led to the modern Harambee polity. This polity is basically a patron client polity in which Harambee serves as a quasi-ideology aimed at the maintenance of the status quo. Harambee is portrayed as having its roots in the traditional communal societies, however, because this is something with which the peasants can identify. Without the peasants, the patron-client state would be without the majority of its clients.

KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Politics, Religion and development.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1975. Abstract
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Mwega FM. "Politiques Intérieure et nouvelles disciplines de lÓMC: Expériences de quelques pays Africains.". In: Domestic Economic Policies and the New WTO Disciplines: Selected African Country Experiences.; 2004.
Lankinen A, Kiboi S. "Pollen Donor Identity Affects Timing of Stigma Receptivity in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): A Sexual Conflict during Pollen Competition?" The American Naturalist. 2007;170(6):854-863. AbstractWebsite

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Theory predicts that, during pollen competition, selection may favor a pollen trait that increases donor competitive ability at the expense of the female reproductive function. One such pollen trait could be manipulation of the onset of stigma receptivity. We evaluated the potential occurrence of this kind of sexual conflict by testing female control of the timing of stigma receptivity in the self-compatible annual Collinsia heterophylla. By performing one-donor crosses in the greenhouse, we found that differences in both recipients and pollen donors influenced when stigmas became receptive. Because we did not detect an interaction effect, our result suggests that some donors were consistently better than others at germinating pollen and siring seeds earlier. Unexpectedly, self-pollen was able to fertilize seeds earlier during floral development compared with outcross pollen. These results suggest that female control on timing of stigma receptivity is not complete in this species. In addition, fertilizations that occurred early during floral development resulted in fewer seeds than later fertilizations, possibly indicating a cost of lost control over the onset of receptivity. The ability of pollen donors to influence the timing of stigma receptivity might reflect a conflict between the sexual functions in C. heterophylla.

Kanyinga K. "Polls date not the problem, political parties are." Sunday Nation, January 15, 2012.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. ""Pollutants; Their Effects on Man, Vegetation and Material.". In: Post Kenya II 23 (). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1975. Abstract
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M.W. G, Mwaura F, Wamalwa J. "Pollution along the Altitudinal Gradient of the Likii River, Laikipia County, ." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, . 2019;7(1) :39-52.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Pollution Assessment in Nairobi River Basin. In P.F. Okoth and P. Otieno (ed.). pollution Assessment Report of the Nairobi River Basin, pp. 9-20. Africa Water Network/UNEP/Habitat.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, 3 (2): 24-33. December 2002. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract
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Onjala JO. "Pollution By Sugar Industries In Kenya The Damage to Communities along River Nyando.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

Water is a fundamental natural resource. It is indispensable for the welfare of human beings and their natural environment. It can mean life or death, prosperity or poverty, can even be the cause of conflict and war. However, per capita clean water availability continues to dwindle in Kenya due to problems of water catchment degradation, droughts and pollution of waterways of industries. Although localised and instantaneous environmental consequences of such devastation have received attention by journalists, scientists and regulators. The problems defined by lasting impact on the rural communities along degraded waterways pose challenges much of which remain to be addressed in Kenya. ..

The purpose of this study proposal is to determine the impact of water pollution by the Sugar industries along river Nyando. The study intends to investigate the local communities' dependence on water resourcesfrom Nyando river for drinking, washing, livestock, irrigation, fisheries,
recreation and other uses and how the current water

Financial assistance from Beijer Ecological Economics and Universi ty (Sweden) to develop this paper acknowledged.

Institute for of Gothernborg is gratefully

pollution affects them. Pollution of waterways affect the local villages drastically and the community's ability to adjust to alternative "cleaner" or "safe" water sources can impinge on household labour, time allocation, agricultural productivity, health, and may even change socio-economic status of households.

Assessing the costs of environmental degradation in rural areas is important in several ways. It defines the need for environmental planning and highlights the urgency for action to improve living standards. These assessments can also be a starting point for a country to revise its natural resource management strategy and build experience.

The proposed methods for the study will cover polluted and unpolluted segments using contingent valuation, defensive or averting expenditures, health status and expenditures, travel time, Hedonic price and loss of biodiversity. A theoretical validation to test consistency of household's behaviour within the restrictions of economic theory will be undertaken before making policy recommendations .

Mutai BK. "Pollution in environs of the City in the Sun-Nairobi." Weather and Climate Bulletin of the Kenya Meteorological Society. September - December 2011 Fourth Quarter (2011):6-7. Abstract

Study reveals shocking pollutant levels in the city. Excerpts from the GEF project draft report.

K MRKIRAGUFRANCIS. "Pollution of Rivers in Kenya A Matter of Concern Now Presented at the U.N. Headquarters - Gigiri - Kenya.". In: The Anthropological Prespective Held at the Second Pan African Association of Anthropologists Conference - Nairobi - Kenya. 1983; 1990. Abstract
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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Pollution Profile of Thika River.". In: Proceedings of 17th WEDC International Conference on Infrastructure, Environment, Water and People. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Dulo. "Pollution Threat of Solid Waste Dump Sites on Ground Water." Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2018;3(10):34-41.
Hattori M, Frazier J, Miles HT. "Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid): formation of ordered self-structures and interaction with poly(cytidylic acid)." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5033-45. Abstract

Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid) has in neutral solution a novel ordered structure of high stability. The 8-amino group permits formation of three hydrogen bonds between two residues along the "top", or long axis, of the purines. The usual hydrogen bonding protons and Watson-Crick pairing sites are not involved in the association. The bonding scheme has a twofold rotation axis and is hemiprotonated at N(7). Poly(8NH2G) is converted by alkaline titration (pK = 9.7) to a quite different ordered structure, which is the favored form over the range approximately pH 10-11. The bonding scheme appears to be composed of a planar, tetrameric array of guanine residues, in which the 8-amino group does not participate in interbase hydrogen bonding. Poly (8NH2G) does not interact with poly(C) in neutral solution because of the high stability of the hemiprotonated G-G self-structure. Titration to the alkaline plateau, however, permits ready formation of a two-stranded Watson-Crick helix. In contrast to the monomer 8NH2GMP, poly(8NH2G) does not form a triple helix with poly(C) under any conditions. The properties of the ordered structures are interpreted in terms of a strong tendency of the 8-amino group to form a third interbase hydrogen bond, when this possibility is not prevented by high pH.

Hattori M, Frazier J, Miles HT. "Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid): formation of ordered self-structures and interaction with poly(cytidylic acid)." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5033-45. Abstract

Poly(8-aminoguanylic acid) has in neutral solution a novel ordered structure of high stability. The 8-amino group permits formation of three hydrogen bonds between two residues along the "top", or long axis, of the purines. The usual hydrogen bonding protons and Watson-Crick pairing sites are not involved in the association. The bonding scheme has a twofold rotation axis and is hemiprotonated at N(7). Poly(8NH2G) is converted by alkaline titration (pK = 9.7) to a quite different ordered structure, which is the favored form over the range approximately pH 10-11. The bonding scheme appears to be composed of a planar, tetrameric array of guanine residues, in which the 8-amino group does not participate in interbase hydrogen bonding. Poly (8NH2G) does not interact with poly(C) in neutral solution because of the high stability of the hemiprotonated G-G self-structure. Titration to the alkaline plateau, however, permits ready formation of a two-stranded Watson-Crick helix. In contrast to the monomer 8NH2GMP, poly(8NH2G) does not form a triple helix with poly(C) under any conditions. The properties of the ordered structures are interpreted in terms of a strong tendency of the 8-amino group to form a third interbase hydrogen bond, when this possibility is not prevented by high pH.

Marina M. "Polyaniline and Polythiophene Modified Electrodes in Energy Storage Units with Hydrocarbon Gel/Bentonite/Sodium Chloride as Electrolyte Gel." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):63-80. Abstract

In this paper we present results obtained for energy storage units developed using polyaniline and polythiophene modified electrodes. The voltage potential profiles for recharge/discharge are either linear or exponential. Nucleation over-potential has been observed in some profiles where there is a phase transition. It is observed that hydrocarbon gel: bentonite electrolyte mixtures yielded relatively high initial voltages and that, this voltage also depended on the hydrocarbon: bentonite ratio. The potential decay profile for potential at Vo, 3/4Vo, 1/2Vo and 1/3Vo yielded linear and exponential curves for various hydrocarbon:bentonite mixtures.
The capacity (C) were 0.0014 Ah, for the 2:1 energy unit and 0.00035 Ah for the 3:1 energy unit.
The electric storage density (ESD) for the 2:1 and 3:1 energy units were 4.7 × 10-4 Ah/g and 8.8 × 10-5 Ah/g
Key words: Electronically conducting polymers, Bentonite, Hydrocarbon gel, discharge profile

OMONDI PROFORATADUKE. "Polyaniline on acidified clay montmorillonite. Reactive Polymer.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 1993, 7(1), 53-60. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1999. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Pollution in Urban and Rural Settings’ Ambient Air in Kenya: An Insight into Concentration Levels, Compositional Profile and Seasonal Variation." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Air samples were collected from three urban and one rural sites in Kenya with the aim of establishing pollution levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. Forty-eight air Samples were collected by passive air sampling, Soxhlet extracted and analysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers residue in air ranged from≤ 0.9 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. The predominant congener was 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3 followed by 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5-penta-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.32±0.06 to 66.83±1.19 pgm− 3. Seasonal variations of the pollutants showed a high level of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in hot dry season in range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. Air samples from Dandora and Industrial area both from urban location recorded high concentrations of the analysed polybrominated diphenyl ethers compared with the air samples from the rural location.

PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls As Health Hazards Submitted to East African Medical Journal Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG; Mecha EO.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
S MKSOG. "Polycystic kidney disease in a patient with achondroplasia: case report." East African Medical Journal. 2003; 80(1):56 - 58. 2003. AbstractWebsite

Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a multisystem disease involving many organs. An association with other diseases such as tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau disease and Marfan syndrome have been previously described. We describe a 35 year old female with achondroplasia who developed polycystic kidney disease involving both kidneys and progressing to end-stage renal disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first such case described in the literature. We also delve, briefly, into the possibility of the genes and chromosomes involved in Marfan syndrome, polycystic kidney disease, tuberous sclerosis and achondroplasia playing a role in the co-occurrence of these entities.

Kariuki N, Karanja MN, MCLIGEYO SO. "Polycystic kidney disease in tuberous sclerosis complex: case report.". 1998. Abstract

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder characterised by seizures, mental retardation, cutaneous lesions and visceral harmatoma. We describe a 4 1/2-year old boy in whom in addition to the commonly described features of TSC, adult-type polycystic kidneys, a scantily reported occurrence, was an associated feature

MCLIGEYO SO, N K, MN K. "Polycystic Kidney in Tuberous Sclorosis complex- A case report." East African Medical Journal. . 1998;75(10):616-618. AbstractWebsite

This study was designed to determine whether there was any difference in the T-cell subset counts and serum immunoglobulin concentrations in patients with chronic renal failure as compared to normal controls. Ninety individuals participated in the study. These were divided into three groups as follows; (i) 30 subjects with normal renal function; (ii) 30 subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF)(creatinine clearance 10-50 mls/min), not requiring haemodialysis and; (iii) 30 subjects with end stage renal disease (creatinine clearance < 10 mls/min) on haemodialysis. The subjects in the three groups were matched for age and sex. In addition, it was ascertained that none of the subjects was on any medication or suffered from any ailment known to interfere with the immune system. The T-cell subset counts were carried out using flow cytometry while the serum concentration of immunoglobulins was measured using the radio-immunodiffusion method. Patients with CRF, whether on haemodialysis or not, had significantly lower lymphocyte counts as a proportion of total white cell count (19% and 19.2% respectively versus 39%) and low absolute CD4 cell counts per mm3 (337 +/- 94 and 449 +/- 116 respectively versus 891 +/- 360) and CD8 cell counts per mm3 (437 +/- 234 and 490 +/- 176 respectively versus 644 +/- 228) as compared to normals, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups with CRF. The CD4: CD8 ratios in the three groups studied were 1.487 +/- 0.233, 0.961 +/- 0.326 and 0.751 +/- 0.167 respectively, being significantly higher in normal controls than in any of the groups with CRF (p < 0.05) and in the group with CRF not requiring dialysis than in those requiring it (p < 0.05). The serum concentration of immunoglobulins in the two groups with CRF were similar to those in the group with normal renal function. It is concluded that CRF represents a state of immunodeficiency not significantly corrected by haemodialysis.

M.O O, Immaculate* M, P G, Baker P, G K, I I. "Polydisperse Low Diameter "Non-Toxic' Silver Nanoparticles Encapsulated by Rooibos Tea Templates." Nanohybrids. 2014;8:57-72.
Oyagi MO, Michira IN, Guto PM, Baker P, Kamau GN, Iwuha E. "Polydisperse low Diameter ‘Non-toxic’ Silver Nanoparticles Encapsulated by Rooibos Tea Templates." Nano Hybrids. 2014;8:57-72.
Boyle JH, Martins DJ, Pelaez J, Musili P, Kibet S, Kimani N, Kenfack D, Pierce NE. "Polygyny does not explain the superior competitive ability of dominant ant associates in the African ant‐plant, Acacia (Vachellia) drepanolobium)." Ecology and Evolution. 2018;8(3):1441-1450.
Boyle JH, Martins DJ, Pelaez J, Musili PM, Kibet S, Ndung’u SK, Kenfack D, N.E. P. "Polygyny does not explain the superior competitive ability of dominant ant associates in the African ant‐plant, Acacia(Vachellia) drepanolobium." Ecology and Evolution. 2018;8(3):1441-1450.
Nitta K, Yoneyama M. "Polymer concentration dependence of the helix to random coil transition of a charged polypeptide in aqueous salt solution." Biophys. Chem.. 1975;3(4):323-9. Abstract

The helix to coil transition of poly(L-glutamic acid) was investigated in 0.05 and 0.005 M aqueous potassium chloride solutions by use of potentiometric titration and circular dichroism measurement. Polymer concentration dependence of the transition was observed in the range from 0.006 to 0.04 monomol/e in 0.005 M KG1 solution. The polymer concentration dependence can be interpreted by current theories of the transition of charged polypeptides and of titration curves of linear weak polyelectrolytes taking the effect of polymer concentration into consideration.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. Polymer-Silica Based Composites in Sustainable Construction: Theory, Preparation and Characterizations. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1201/9781003231936

This book presents the application of Polymer-Silica Based Composites in the Construction Industry providing the fundamental framework and knowledge needed for the sustainable and efficient use of these composites as building and structural materials. It also includes characterization of prepared materials to ascertain mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and analyses results obtained using similar methods. Topics such as life cycle analysis of plastics, application of plastics in construction and elimination of plastic wastes are also discussed. The book also provides information on the outlook and competitiveness of emerging composites materials.

Covers theory, preparation and characterizations of polymer-silica based composites for green construction.

Discusses technology, reliability, manufacturing cost and environmental impact.

Reviews the classification, application, and processing of polymer-silica composites.

Gives a deeper analysis of the various tests carried out on polymer-silica composites.

Highlights role of such composites in the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies

The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in civil engineering, built environment, construction materials, and materials science.

Tirop LJ. Polymer-surfactant stabilised drug nanoparticles. London: King's College London; 2012.
Kitaa, JMA MCMMJDWJMMAO, W N. "Polymerase chain reaction detection of Erlichia canis the causative agent of Canine Monocytic Erlichiosis in Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary. 2017;5:74-82. Abstract
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Prabhu RH, Patravale VB, Joshi MD. "Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted treatment in oncology: current insights." Int J Nanomedicine. 2015;10:1001-18. Abstract

Chemotherapy, a major strategy for cancer treatment, lacks the specificity to localize the cancer therapeutics in the tumor site, thereby affecting normal healthy tissues and advocating toxic adverse effects. Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional chemotherapy, which include undesirable biodistribution, cancer cell drug resistance, and severe systemic side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor site by virtue of their passive and ligand-based targeting mechanisms. Polymer-based nanomedicine, an arena that entails the use of polymeric NPs, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymersomes, polyplexes, polymer-lipid hybrid systems, and polymer-drug/protein conjugates for improvement in efficacy of cancer therapeutics, has been widely explored. The broad scope for chemically modifying the polymer into desired construct makes it a versatile delivery system. Several polymer-based therapeutic NPs have been approved for clinical use. This review provides an insight into the advances in polymer-based targeted nanocarriers with focus on therapeutic aspects in the field of oncology.

Prabhu RH, Patravale VB, Joshi MD. "Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted treatment in oncology: current insights." Int J Nanomedicine. 2015;10:1001-18. Abstract

Chemotherapy, a major strategy for cancer treatment, lacks the specificity to localize the cancer therapeutics in the tumor site, thereby affecting normal healthy tissues and advocating toxic adverse effects. Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional chemotherapy, which include undesirable biodistribution, cancer cell drug resistance, and severe systemic side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor site by virtue of their passive and ligand-based targeting mechanisms. Polymer-based nanomedicine, an arena that entails the use of polymeric NPs, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymersomes, polyplexes, polymer-lipid hybrid systems, and polymer-drug/protein conjugates for improvement in efficacy of cancer therapeutics, has been widely explored. The broad scope for chemically modifying the polymer into desired construct makes it a versatile delivery system. Several polymer-based therapeutic NPs have been approved for clinical use. This review provides an insight into the advances in polymer-based targeted nanocarriers with focus on therapeutic aspects in the field of oncology.

MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "PolymericAntioxidant from vernonia oil.". In: Mycromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2001, 202(13), 2790-2796. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "polymorphism in CD45 locus In African cattle.". In: Journal Of The Cameroon Academy Of Sciences Vol 2 Supplement (2002) 251-255. Springerlink; 2002. Abstract
The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures.
Dr. Molepo PKDN. "Polymorphism of calcium carbonate." FC.D. 1978.
Cheruiyot J, Ingasia LA, Omondi AA, Juma DW, Opot BH, Ndegwa JM, Mativo J, Cheruiyot AC, Yeda R, Okudo C, Muiruri P, Bidii NS, Chebon LJ, Angienda PO, Eyase FL, Johnson JD, Bulimo WD, Andagalu B, Akala HM, Kamau E. "Polymorphisms in Pfmdr1, Pfcrt and Pfnhe1 Genes are Associated with Reduced in vitro Activities of Quinine in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Western Kenya." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.. 2014. Abstractzac3737.pdf

In combination with antibiotics, quinine is recommended as the second-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, alternative first-line treatment for severe malaria and for treatment of malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy. Quinine has been shown to have frequent clinical failures and yet the mechanisms of action and resistance are not been fully elucidated. However, resistance is linked to polymorphisms in multiple genes including multidrug resistance 1 (Pfmdr1), chloroquine-resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and the sodium/hydrogen exchanger gene (Pfnhe1). Here, we investigated the association between in vitro quinine susceptibility with genetic polymorphisms in Pfmdr1codons 86 and 184, Pfcrt codon 76, and Pfnhe1 ms4760 in 88 field isolates from western Kenya. In vitro activity was assessed as the drug concentration that inhibits 50% of parasite growth (IC50) and parasite genetic polymorphisms were determined by DNA sequencing. Data revealed there was significant association between polymorphisms in Pfmdr1-86Y, -184F and Pfcrt-76T with quinine susceptibility; all with p < 0.0001. Eighty two percent of parasites resistant to quinine carried mutant alleles at these codons (Pfmdr1-86Y, -184F and Pfcrt-76T) whereas seventy four percent of parasites susceptible to quinine carried the wild type allele (Pfmdr1-N86, -Y184 and Pfcrt-K76). In addition, quinine IC50 of parasites with Pfnhe1 ms4760 3 DNNND repeats was significantly higher compared to those with 1 or 2 repeats (p = 0.033 and p = 0.0043 respectively). Clinical efficacy studies are required to confirm the validity of these markers and the importance of parasite genetic background.

Cheruiyot J, Ingasia LA, Omondi AA, Juma DW, Opot BH, Ndegwa JM, Mativo J, Cheruiyot AC, Yeda R, Okudo C, Muiruri P, Bidii NS, Chebon LJ, Angienda PO, Eyase FL, Johnson JD, Bulimo WD, Andagalu B, Akala HM, Kamau E. "Polymorphisms in Pfmdr1, Pfcrt, and Pfnhe1 genes are associated with reduced in vitro activities of quinine in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from western Kenya." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2014;58:3737-3743. Abstract
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Buoro IBJ, Kanui TI, Atwell RB, Njenga KM, Gathumbi PK. "Polymyositis associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in two dogs.". 1990. Abstract

Clinical, haematological, biochemical, electrophysiological and pathological features of two dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis and with concurrent signs of polymyositis are presented. Both dogs had a history of relatively acute onset, progressive tetraparesis, hyporeflexia and generalised muscle wasting. Skeletal muscles were atrophic and characterised histologically by plasmocytic, lymphocytic and immature lymph-oreticular cellular infiltrates with accompanying areas of necrosis. Histopathological similarities between ehrlichiosis and polymyositis are noted and a probable aetiological relationship is inferred.

Ostenson RC, Fields BT, Nolan CM. "Polymyxin B and rifampin: new regimen for multiresistant Serratia marcescens infections." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.. 1977;12(6):655-9. Abstract

Polymyxin B and rifampin were given to 12 patients with multi-drug-resistant nosocomial Serratia marcescens infections. Eight cures were achieved; drug hepatotoxicity occurred once; one fatal suprainfection was encountered; and two patients died during therapy of causes related to severe underlying illnesses. Polymyxin B and rifampin were uniformly synergistic in vitro against the infecting strains and against 40 additional clinical isolates of S. marcescens.

O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Polynuclear Acetogenic Pigments in the Fruits of the Myrsinaceae.". In: Biochemiphysics (1993) (1,2), 115.; 1993. Abstract
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1. Mwangi J. W, P. Malii GL. "Polyphenols of Ximenia americana, uses in traditional medicine and antimicrobial activity." Fitoterapia. 1994;2(LXV):185.
Njeri KM. Polytechnic Graduates : what next?. Lambert; 2009.
Chohan BH, Tapia K, Merkel M, Kariuki AC, Khasimwa B, Olago A, Gichohi R, Obimbo EM, Wamalwa DC. "Pooled HIV-1 RNA Viral Load Testing for Detection of Antiretroviral Treatment Failure in Kenyan children.". 2013. Abstract

Pooled viral load (VL) testing with two different testing strategies was evaluated as a potential cost-saving method to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children receiving ART in a resource-limited setting. METHODS:: Archived samples collected from 250 HIV-1 infected children on first-line ART at various time-points post-ART initiation were evaluated for pooled VL testing using a minipool+algorithm strategy. Additionally, samples collected in real-time from 125 children on ART were assessed for virologic failure using a minipool strategy for pooled viral load testing. Virologic failure was determined as HIV-1 RNA viral loads >1500 copies/ml. RESULTS:: Minipool+algorithm strategy for pooled VL testing of archived samples had estimated viral failure of 13.6%, with a relative efficiency (RE) of 23.6% (95% CI; 18.5, 29.4), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 88%. This testing strategy would have resulted in 24% fewer assays needed, for a cost savings of $1,180 per 100 samples. The minipool strategy for pooled viral load testing of samples obtained in real-time yielded an estimated 23.2% of samples with viral failure and a RE of 8.0 % (95% CI; 3.9, 14.2); however had a minipool+algorithm pooling strategy been used the RE would increase to 20%. CONCLUSIONS:: The minipool+algorithm strategy for pooled VL testing to detect virologic failure in HIV-1 infected children on ART was determined to be relatively efficient in detecting virologic failure, had high NPV, with substantial cost savings. Pooling strategies may be important components of cost-effect strategies to reduce rates of viral failure and resistance, thus improving clinical outcomes.

Chohan BH, Tapia K, Merkel M, Kariuki AC, Khasimwa B, Olago A, Gichohi R, Obimbo EM, Wamalwa DC. "Pooled HIV-1 RNA Viral Load Testing for Detection of Antiretroviral Treatment Failure in Kenyan children.". 2013. Abstract

Pooled viral load (VL) testing with two different testing strategies was evaluated as a potential cost-saving method to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children receiving ART in a resource-limited setting. METHODS:: Archived samples collected from 250 HIV-1 infected children on first-line ART at various time-points post-ART initiation were evaluated for pooled VL testing using a minipool+algorithm strategy. Additionally, samples collected in real-time from 125 children on ART were assessed for virologic failure using a minipool strategy for pooled viral load testing. Virologic failure was determined as HIV-1 RNA viral loads >1500 copies/ml. RESULTS:: Minipool+algorithm strategy for pooled VL testing of archived samples had estimated viral failure of 13.6%, with a relative efficiency (RE) of 23.6% (95% CI; 18.5, 29.4), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 88%. This testing strategy would have resulted in 24% fewer assays needed, for a cost savings of $1,180 per 100 samples. The minipool strategy for pooled viral load testing of samples obtained in real-time yielded an estimated 23.2% of samples with viral failure and a RE of 8.0 % (95% CI; 3.9, 14.2); however had a minipool+algorithm pooling strategy been used the RE would increase to 20%. CONCLUSIONS:: The minipool+algorithm strategy for pooled VL testing to detect virologic failure in HIV-1 infected children on ART was determined to be relatively efficient in detecting virologic failure, had high NPV, with substantial cost savings. Pooling strategies may be important components of cost-effect strategies to reduce rates of viral failure and resistance, thus improving clinical outcomes.

Chepken K c, Muhalia A. "The Poor and the Mobile Related Spending ." International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR). 2011;5(1).
Kimenju JW, Mweke AN, Mutitu EW, Mutua GK. "Poor hosts of root knot nematodes and their application as rotation crops in okra production.". 2010. Abstract

The response of 21 different crop plants to a mixed population of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita, and their potential for use as nematode suppressive crops was evaluated in greenhouse and field experiments. Second stage juveniles (J2) were determined under each crop after extracting them from 200 cm3 soil. The reaction of the crops to root knot nematodes was classified as resistant, moderate or susceptible. Crops classified as resistant included maize, sorghum, millet, guwar and pigeonpea, which had galling indices ranging from 1.4-3.6. Cowpea ‘K80’ was rated as moderately resistant with a galling index of 4, while susceptible crops were greegram, cowpea ‘KKI’ and okra (control), with galling indices ranging from 5.6-7.4. Four crops (sweetcorn, babycorn, maize cv. Pioneer (Ph3253) and guwar) were selected from greenhouse tests for the field trials. The selection was based on their poor host status to root knot nematodes as well as relative acceptability to growers. These crops were then incorporated into a rotation programme with okra. Initial and final nematode (J2) numbers in the field was determined before planting and at the end of the season, respectively. Among the crops tested, the highest (44%) decline in nematode populations was recorded in plots under guwar and sweetcorn while the least (21%) was recorded under babycorn. In contrast, 441% increase in nematode numbers was recorded under continuous crop of okra. Okra was then sown in the plots previously grown with the selected nematode suppressive crops and the population of nematodes determined mid-season and at the end of the season. The severity of root knot nematodes on a crop of okra that followed sweetcorn was 3.3 compared to 8.6 in the control which as continuously under okra. This underscores the potential of rotating highly susceptible crops with poor hosts in the management of root knot nematodes

Wanjala C. "Popular Culture in East African Literature.". In: Urban Legends, Colonial Myths. Trenton: Africa World Press; 2007.
Osanjo L. "Popular culture, education and ubuntu in Kenya.". In: India Africa: A shared Future . University of Nairobi; 2011.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Popular Participation and Access to Basic Needs in Kenya," in Franklyn Lisk, (ed.), Popular Participation in Planning for Basic Needs (Aldershot: Gower Publishing Co.).". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Popular Participation in Planning at the Local Level," in D. K. Leonard, (ed.), Rural Administration in Kenya (Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1973).". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1973. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.

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