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O DROPEREALFRED. "Pius Yanda, Shem Wandiga, Richard Kangalawe, Maggie Opondo, Dan Olago, Andrew Githeko, Tim Downs, Robert Kabumbuli, Alfred Opere, Faith Githui, James Kathuri, Lydia Olaka, Eugene Apindi, Michael Marshall, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugambi, Edward Kirumira, Robin.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Oredo J. "The Pivotal Role of ICT in Green Buildings." MANAGEMENT July (2019).
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Place and Placelessness: The role of setting in Kiswahili Literature, Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, SWAHILI FORUM, Vol VI, 1999.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Ongoro TN. "Place and Role of Asian Direct Investment in Africa." Eurasian International scientific-Analytical Journal. Forthcoming.
Olali T. "The Place and Thematic Function of a Panegyric in Swahili Society: The Case of Sufi al-Busiri's Kasida ya Hamziyya.". In: Rethinking Eastern African Literary and Intellectual Landscapes. New York: World Press; 2011.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Place of Action Research in the Writing of Fiction: Reflections on Kovu la Moyoni.". In: Action Research conference MMUST(PROCEED).; Forthcoming.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The Place of African Religion and Culture in Kenya's Education in Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. I No. 4.".; 1987. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "The Place of Ethno Methodology in the Study of oral Literature.' In O. Okombo and J. Nandwa (Eds), Reflections on Theorie and Methods in Oral Literature. Nairobi KOLA.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1992. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
Munayi S. "The Place of Special Olympics at the University-The Need for Advocacy.". In: . 9th Biennial Conference of the African Association for health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. Kyambogo University; 2011.
Katete G. "The Place of Spoilers in Peace Processes in Sudan." African journal of Political Science and International Relations. 2012;6(8):167-180.georgekatetepaper.pdfarticle1381824969_onyango.pdf
T
K MRMBOBUMATHEW. "THE PLACE OF THE MILIANGOS CASE IN ANGLO-AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE: Unpublished paper for LL.M Degree Course, Georgetown University, Washington D.C,.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1992. Abstract
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P
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "The Place of the Teacher in Development in the 21st Century. A Paper Presented at the Annual AUTWA Meeting held at Siaya FTC on 31st December 2001, Afrovision Lecturer Services No. 2, Nairobi.". In: A Paper Presented at the Annual AUTWA Meeting held at Siaya FTC on 31st December 2001, Afrovision Lecturer Services No. 2, Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
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MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato, P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (2005) The Impact of Agro-Forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices on the poor in Western Kenya. Research Report No. 142. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. pp. 61-80.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2005. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato; P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (2003) The Impact of Agro-forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices on the Poor in Western Kenya. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division. IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 160. Washington, D.C.: Internation.". In: Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Geo-Socio-Economics Study Report. Submitted to the Communications Commission of Kenya and the International Development Research Centre. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato; P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Agro-forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices and Poverty in Western Kenya. In: M. Adato & R. Meinzen-Dick [Eds.] Agricultural Research and Poverty: Economic and Social Impacts in Six C.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
Obel AO. "Placebo - controlled trial of potassium supplements in black patients with mild essential hypertension." ournal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 1989;14(2): 294-296.
Ogeng’o JA, Obimbo MM, Zhou Y, McMaster MT, Cohen CR, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Ong’ech J, Fisher SJ. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2019;80(1):94-102. Abstractplacental_structure_in_preterm_birth_among_hiv-positive.pdfWolters Kluwer Health, Inc

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant
morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest
that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection,
use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the
mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to
determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental
changes that could contribute to PTB.
Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIVpositive
women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had
preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at
gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational
age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal
HIV serostatus.
Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly
associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032),
anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane
infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010).
Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with
immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of
HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant
fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast
delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction
in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.
Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART
are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that
contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests
that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia.
Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate
the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for
decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.
Key Words: preterm birth, term birth, placenta, HIV, ART

Obimbo MM, Y Z, MT MM, CR C, Z Q, J O’ech, JA O’o, SJ F. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2019;80(1):94-102. AbstractWebsite

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental changes that could contribute to PTB.

Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIV-positive women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal HIV serostatus.

Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032), anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010). Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.

Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia. Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.

Nyongo AD, Gichangi PB. "Placental weights: do they have clinical significance?" East Afr Med J. 1991;68(3):239-40.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Places to Stand on: Travel Essays of Margaret Laurence.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 14 (2004-2005): 17-21. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Placing Livelihood Framework At the Heart of Slum Upgrading (1st National Conference by Kenya Ministry of Science and Technology KICC-Nairobi).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Ongaro J, Shapiro B. "Planarity stratification of Hurwitz spaces.". 2014.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Plane Table Surveying. Geography Technicques II.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G.M.N, M.O, J.M.O. "Planned Organizational Change Consequent to Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption." International Journal of Recent Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences . 2015;Vol. 2(Issue 4):23-28.planned_organizational_change-496-2.pdf
Ogola JM, Ogutu M, Nyori GM. "Planned Organizational Change Consequent to Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption." International Journal of Recent Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences. 2015;Vol. 2, Issue 4.
ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "PLANNING AND DESIGN OF A PILOT PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRACK NETWORK IN NAIROBI, KENYA, 78th Annual Meeting, January 10 -14 1999, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, USA.". In: 78th Annual Meeting, January 10 -14 1999, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, USA. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Mbindyo JM. Planning for effective rural communication and development in Kenya,. Institute for Communication Research, Stanford University; 1978.
and Another FM. "Planning for Neutral Money Supply in African Economies with Special Application to Kenya." The Indian Economic Journal. 1993;41(1).
OBIERO DRSAMUELV. "Planning for Non-Motorized Transport as a Sustainable Transport System in Nairobi: A paper presented at the International Conference on Re-Appraising the Urban Planning Process as an Instrument of Sustainable Urban Development and Management, UNCHS (Habit.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Planning for PPM-DOTS implementation in urban slums in Kenya: Knowledge, attitude and practices of private health care providers in Kibera slum, Nairobi. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 9 (4): 403-408.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Tuberculosis Foundation; 2005. Abstract
Planning for PPM-DOTS implementation in urban slums in Kenya: Knowledge, attitude and practices of private health care providers in Kibera slum, Nairobi. Tuberclosis and Lung Disease 9 (4): 403-408.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Planning for Sustainable Human Settlement: Shelter and Improved Urban Livelihood (Conference Paper-WCAEBE-Birmingham UK).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Planning Future Cities". Report and Proceedings of Workshop on Future Means Cities - Do Cities Have Future? Evangelical Academy Loccum. Germany pp 185 - 190.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
Sifuma J, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK, Thomas DB. "Planning irrigation cropping systems.". 1993. Abstract

Farmers of the Sagana irrigation project, Kenya, have identified fluctuating and low prices for their agricultural produce as their main constraint. This paper reports results from a study carried out to identify an alternative cropping system that could be used to optimize their returns by harvesting their crops when the market price is highest. The study shows that there is a complex interaction of factors affecting the selection of a cropping system: climatic, water requirements, marketing and farmer preferences. It also illustrates how proper planning of the cropping calendar can reduce irrigation water requirements and maximize project benefits.

WAFULA DRKHATETEIBRAHIM. "Planning of Education in kenya: Which Way.". In: MOI UNIVERSITY. Association of Africa Universities; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "PLANNING OF PILOT PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRACK NETWORK IN EAST NAIROBI, CODATU VIII, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998.". In: CODATU VIII, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
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ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "PLANNING OF PILOT PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRACK NETWORK IN EAST NAIROBI, CODATU VIII, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998.". In: CODATU VIII, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
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D. OJ,, J.N Kiiru, O.M. Olanya, and D.O. Ukuku, Imungi J, Nyankanga RO. "Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars." Subtropical Agriculture and Environments. 2016;( 67:):1-12.Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars.pdf
Kabaru JM, Yenesew' A. "Plant derived larvicides as a tool to manage malaria in Kenya.". 2003. AbstractPlant derived larvicides as a tool to manage malaria in Kenya

Malaria remains a serious parasitic disease killing over one million people annually. One of the strategies to manage the malaria problem is to control the population of mosquito at larval or adult stages of their life cycle. However with. the appearance of insect resistance to conventional insecticides together with the growing environmental concern on the use of many synthetic insecticides, in particular halogenated compounds such as DDT, the search for effective and environmentally friendly insecticidal agents is intensifying. In this effort some East African plant extracts and pure compounds have been tested for larvicidal activities (Muwangi and Mukiama, 1988; Mwangi and Rembold, 1988; Gikonyo et aI., 1998).

PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Plant essential oils with promising antifungal activity.". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 77(6): 319-322. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Narla RD. "Plant extracts and antagonistic fungi as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in management of fungal diseases of tomato.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Plant Genetic Resources in Africa's Renewal: Policy, Legal and Programmatic Issues under the New Partnership for Africa's Development IPGRI, Nairobi 2003 (With Kent Nnadozie, Dan Kiambi, John Mugabe & Kwesi Attah-Krah).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Nicholas Otieno, Richard D Lally, Samuel Kiwanuka, Andrew Lloyd, David Ryan, Kieran J Germaine DDN. "Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates." Frontiers in Microbiology. 2015;6:745.
Ndiritu M, Nyikal R, Boa E. "Plant health rallies as an extension tool in small-scale farming in Kenya." CABI Study Brief . 2016;12. AbstractWebsite

Kenya has consistently reported new and serious disease and pest problems on key crops over the
years, often associated with substantial crop yield losses. In just the last six years, for example, maize
lethal necrosis – a disease responsible for crop losses valued at about US$ 4.1 million in 2014 alone –
and tomato leaf miner entered and got established in the country. For small-scale farmers, who make
up 80% of the farming community and contribute 25% of the GDP, an attack by such diseases could
spell doom for their income and food supply. Decisive action is needed to prevent new pests and
diseases from spreading and becoming established. Also, other well-established crop pests and
diseases regularly cause major crop losses. Farmers need help to take preventative measures and
avoid costly and often less effective treatments after the problem has entered the crop. Extension
campaigns can play a critical role in controlling crops pests and diseases by acting as a source of
timely information. One such approach, plant health rallies, has been embraced in Kenya, though so
far on a limited scale. In 2015 the University of Nairobi and Plantwise undertook a study in parts of
Kenya among 150 farmers and 27 extension staff in five counties to get a picture of extension
campaigns in crop health and to understand how the role of plant health rallies could be enhanced in
delivering a comprehensive service to farmers. The study focused on maize lethal necrosis, mango
fruit fly, Napier grass stunt, tomato leaf miner and wheat stem rust, all which have the potential for high
economic impact.

Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;DOI 10.1007/s40858-016-0114-4.
Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractSpringerLink

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractFull Text

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12.
Maundu JN, Kimenju JW, Muiru WM, Wachira PM, Gichuru EK. "Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated With Coffee in Kenya and Factors Influencing their Occurrence, Abundance and Diversity." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(3):120-129.
"Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated With Coffee in Kenya and Factors Influencing their Occurrence, Abundance and Diversity." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(ISSN 2225-093X ):ISSN 2224-3208 .
W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean in Kenya and the effect of Meloidogyne infection on bean nodulation. African Crop Science Journal 7:503 .". In: Proceedings of 5th of African Crop Science Conference. Lagos Nigeria. Ogutu J.O; 1999. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
Maitai CK. "Plant poisoning in childhood ." Medicus. 1983;1:10-11.
Kyule MD. "Plant remains from a Sirikwa culture site at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru. Nyame Akuma 36: 8-10 1991, , USA." Nyame Akuma (Publication of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists).. 1992;36:8-10.Website
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, S MJ. "Plant species composition and diversity depending on piospheres and seasonality in the southern rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes, 6(1), 16.. 2017;6(1):16.
Ruto WKS, Kinyamario JI, Ng'etich NK, Akunda E, Akunda E. "Plant Species Diversity and Composition of Two Wetlands in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Two wetlands (Hyena and Nalogomon) in the Nairobi National Park were investigated by comparing plant composition in and around their immediate vicinity. The most common aquatic plant species in the Hyena wetland was Cyperus dives while in the Nalogomon wetland was Typha domingensis. The terrestrial vegetation surrounding Hyena wetland dominated by while that of surrounding Nalogomon wetland was the grass Hyparrhemia rufa. It was also noted that Hyena Dam waters were colonized by aquatic weeds, namely Gunnera perpensa, Enhydra fluctuans and Ludwigia abyssinica, that were absent in Nalogomon wetland waters. This could have been due to eutrophication of the waters of Hyena Dam as it originated from human settlements (city estates) outside the park boundary.

and W.K.S. Ruto, J.I. Kinyamario N’etich AMNKEJK. "Plant Species Diversity and Composition of Two Wetlands in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya." Wetlands Ecology. 2012;6:07-15.abstracts.pdf
Stomeo F;, Wamalwa, M;,, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A;. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
Stomeo F;, Wamalwa M;, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Plant-level Industrial Relations in Kenya. A Case Study Papar written for ILO/SIDO African Labour Relations Project G.K. Ikiara and S.N Momanyi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Kyule MD. "Plants remains from a Sirikwa culture site at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru." Nyame Akuma: Publication of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists. 1991;36:8-10. Abstract

This article reports a preliminary examination of plant remains and the tentative implications that have so far been deduced from them. The plant samples were acquired by archaeological excavations at one of the Hyrax Sirikwa sites within Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. Hyrax Hill has numerous prehistoric sites that represent occupations dating as far back as the Neolithic period. Several of the Neolithic sites have been studied (see Leakey 1945, Onyango-Abuje 1977, Merrick 1983). However, of specific relevance to this report are the Sirikwa culture sites that are found in a group throughout the lower northwestern portion of the hill. There are at least 13 of these Sirikwa occurrences comprising about 13 hollows and 13 mounds.

Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4(2):1075.
Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4:1075. Abstract
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Kimata MD, Makawiti D, Dadzie S, Waindi EN. Plasma Cortisol, Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Levels in Human African Trypanosomiasis Patients from Western Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993.
Mbuthia JK, Amayo AA GP. "Plasma lipids in children with HIV at Gertrude’s Childrens Hospital Comprehensive CareCentre.". In: XIth International Conference of Paediatric Laboratory Medicine. Fortaleza, Brazil; 2008.
O PROFORINDADA. "Plasma Oestradiol .". In: E. A. Med. Journal, Vol. 55 No. 4 April 1978. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. "Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans.". 1977.
Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. "Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans." East Afr Med J. 1977;54(11):615-20.
Campbell MS, Kahle EM, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Kapiga S, Mujugira A, Mugo NR, Fife KH, Mullins JI, Baeten JM. "Plasma viral loads during early HIV-1 infection are similar in subtype C- and non-subtype C-infected African seroconverters." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(7):1166-70. Abstract

Recent data suggest that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C results in prolonged high-level viremia (>5 log10 copies/mL) during early infection. We examined the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and plasma viremia among 153 African seroconverters. Mean setpoint viral loads were similar for C and non-C subtypes: 4.36 vs 4.42 log10 copies/mL (P = .61). The proportion of subtype C-infected participants with viral loads >5 log10 copies/mL was not greater than the proportion for those with non-C infection. Our data do not support the hypothesis that higher early viral load accounts for the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa.

KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Plasma-Radiative Modelling and Characterisation of the Sliding Spark Discharge: Implications for Direct Dielectric Solid Trace Quantitative Spectroscopy.". In: J. Radiative & Quantit. Spectres. (In Press), 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
Kinyanjui P, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

Kinyanjui PN, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

Kinyanjui P, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

M DRSENERWADANIEL. "PLASMID MEDIATED ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN KLEBSIELA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM NEONATES IN A HOSPITAL WARD.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 1992. Abstract
Antibiotic neosensitab susceptibility to ten commonly used antibiotics was done on 65 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from neonates in a nursery ward. All the strains except one were resistant to one or more antibiotic, and more than 0% of the isolates were resistant of 4 or more antibiotics. The isolates carried 18 different antibiotic resistance determinants. The most frequent antibiotic resistance determinants carried by a single resistant isolate were those of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, ampicilin, and gentamicin which were found in 23 (35.3%) strains. The average number of antibiotic resistances per resistant strain was 4.there was no consistent relationship between plasmid profile group and antibiotic resistance pattern. A spontaneous loss of a 180 MDa plasmid by a resistant strain was accompanied by a loss of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and oxytetracyline.
Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya.". 2020;20(1):703. Abstractkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfWebsite

Treatment of gonorrhea is complicated by the development of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) to the antibiotics recommended for treatment. Knowledge on types of plasmids and the antibiotic resistance genes they harbor is useful in monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In Kenya, studies on gonococcal antimicrobial resistance are few and data on plasmid mediated drug resistance is limited. The present study characterizes plasmid mediated resistance in N. gonorrhoeae isolates recovered from Kenya between 2013 and 2018.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020;20. Abstract
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Kimani SK, Ng’ang’a JK, DW Kariuki, Kinyua J, Kimani FT, Kiboi DM. "Plasmodium Berghei ANKA: Selection of Pyronaridine Resistance in Mouse Model." African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2014;8(6):111-117.plasmodium_berghei_anka-selection_of_pyronaridine_resistance_in_mouse_model.pdfacademicjournals
Nyamongo O, Mumo RM, Omwandho COA, Ochanda H. "Plasmodium DNA Encording Aplasmodium Falciparan Sera5 polypeptide Microbial Epitopes and Chemokin Genes Indicess Cross Species Protection in Mice and Olive Baboon.". In: International scientific conference. at Southern sun Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi; 2013.
D’alessandro U, Dujardin J-C, Laurent T, Overmeir CV, Nyachieo A. "Plasmodium falciparum genotyping by microsatellites as a method to distinguish between recrudescent and new infections.". 2005. Abstractatunga_nyachieo.pdf

In vivo tests for susceptibility to antimalarial drugs require molecular methods to distinguish recrudescence from new infection. The most commonly used DNA markers (merozoite surface proteins [MSPs]) are under immune selective pressure, which might lead to misclassification. We evaluated immunologically neutral microsatellite markers in blood samples collected during a drug efficacy trial in Rwanda. Fifty percent of the infections classified as recrudescent by MSP were classified as new by microsatellite markers. Reciprocally, 23.3% of infections classified as recrudescent by microsatellite markers were identified as new by MSP. In drug efficacy studies, microsatellite markers should complement MSP genotyping to distinguish a recrudescence from a new infection

Albert O. Mala, Lucy W. Irungu, Josephat I.Shililu, Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles C. Mbogo, Joseph K. Njagi, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Githure JI. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:121.
IRUNGU LUCYW. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control. Malaria Journal. 2011;10(1):121.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Mala AO, Irungu LW, Shililu JI, Muturi EJ, Mbogo CC, Kiambo JK, Mukabana WR, Githure JI; 2011.
SA O, PF M, GJ S, J M, S K, GA O, HD. S. "Plasmodium falciparum: evaluation of a quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay to predict the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment of uncomplicated malaria.". 2005. AbstractFull text link

A quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) assay was employed to predict retrospectively the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children aged <6 years in an endemic region. Blood samples were collected at initial diagnosis and during follow-up. Mutation-specific nested PCR methods to analyse DHFR (Arg-59) and DHPS (Glu-540) mutations that are associated with SP drug resistance were applied. Parasite genotyping was performed to distinguish between re-infection and recrudescence. Eighty-six patients were recruited of which 66 were available for follow-up. Nine children were classified as early treatment failure, 13 cases were classified as late clinical failure, 32 as late parasitological failure, and only 12 children had an adequate clinical and parasitological response. DHFR and DHPS mutations conferring SP resistance were abundant in the Plasmodium population. Blood samples obtained 7 days after treatment were used to predict retrospectively the outcome of SP treatment. QT-NASBA was able to give a correct prediction of treatment outcome in 85.7% of the cases. Positive predictive value (PPV) of QT-NASBA case was 95% (95% confidence interval = 88.3-100) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 63% (95% CI = 39.5-86.5). In contrast, microscopy correctly predicted outcome in only 37.5% of the cases. PPV of microscopy was 100% (95% CI = 73.9-100) and the NPV was 25.5% (95% CI = 13.0-38.0). The analysis of a day 7 blood sample with QT-NASBA allows for the prediction of late clinical or parasitological treatment failure in the majority of the cases analysed in the present study.

Mberu EK, Nzila AM, Nduati E, Ross A, Monks SM, Kokwaro GO, Watkins WM, Hopkins SC. "Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro activity of sulfadoxine and dapsone in field isolates from Kenya: point mutations in dihydropteroate synthase may not be the only determinants in sulfa resistance.". 2007. Abstract

We have determined the relationship between point mutations in the gene that encodes the sulfa target, dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and the chemosensitivity profile to sulfadoxine and dapsone in 67 isolates from Kilifi, Kenya. We assessed the presence of mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613 of dhps. The results showed that the dhps genotype had a strong influence on the sensitivity to sulfadoxine and dapsone, but that the correlation was far from perfect. Eleven isolates carried a wild-type dhps allele, but were resistant to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values >10 microg/ml), and 4/28 isolates were classed as sensitive to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values <10 microg/ml), but carried a triple mutant (436/437/613) allele of dhps. These data show that in low folate medium in vitro, the dhps genotype alone did not account completely for sulfadoxine or dapsone resistance; other factors such as the utilisation of exogenous folate must also be considered

Mberu EK, Nzila AM, Nduati E, Ross A, Monks SM, Kokwaro GO, Watkins WM, Hopkins SC. "Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro activity of sulfadoxine and dapsone in field isolates from Kenya: point mutations in dihydropteroate synthase may not be the only determinants in sulfa resistance.". 2007. Abstract

We have determined the relationship between point mutations in the gene that encodes the sulfa target, dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and the chemosensitivity profile to sulfadoxine and dapsone in 67 isolates from Kilifi, Kenya. We assessed the presence of mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613 of dhps. The results showed that the dhps genotype had a strong influence on the sensitivity to sulfadoxine and dapsone, but that the correlation was far from perfect. Eleven isolates carried a wild-type dhps allele, but were resistant to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values >10 microg/ml), and 4/28 isolates were classed as sensitive to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values <10 microg/ml), but carried a triple mutant (436/437/613) allele of dhps. These data show that in low folate medium in vitro, the dhps genotype alone did not account completely for sulfadoxine or dapsone resistance; other factors such as the utilisation of exogenous folate must also be considered

Kariuki MM, Kiaira JK, Mulaa FK, Mwangi JK, Wasunna MK, Martin SK. "Plasmodium falciparum: purification of the various gametocyte developmental stages from in vitro-cultivated parasites.". 2010. Abstract

Cultivated Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes reach maturity in vitro in approximately 14-16 days, during which they pass through five morphologically distinct developmental stages. Purification of the earlier developmental stages has not been previously reported. We have modified the standard discontinuous Percoll gradient method for the separation of stage IV and V gametocytes to obtain enriched preparations of those and the earlier P. falciparum gametocyte stages. In contrast to the stages II, III, and IV, the mature stage V gametocytes from our gradient readily transformed into gametes. Such preparations may be useful in research studies on the mechanisms that underlie gametocytogenesis.

Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Kilonzo BM. A Plastic Anaemia At The Kenyatta National Hospital During The Period 1973-1978.; Submitted. Abstract

A total of 54 patients were diagnosed and treated for plastic anaemia between July, 1973 to December 1978 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The sex distribution was equal. Most of the age groups were affected with the majority of Cases occurring in the young age groups.
Most tribes in Kenya were found not to be free from a plastic anaemia and there was a predominance of the disease amongst the Kikuyu tribe who lived in and around Nairobi.
Very few factors associated with actiology could. Be elicited and this was partially due to adequate histoties taken at the time of admission by the various physicians. Even though great difficulties are encountered in establishing an aetiologic role for a given agent, so that in large proportion of patients remains unexplained.
The presenting clinical features were those of anaemic haemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and infections resulting from leucopenia, all of which were observed in all the patients reviewed except for the 4 patients with pure red cell aplasia.
The other 50 patients had hypoplastic marrows. Confirmation of diagnosis was delayed due to initial blood transfusion given before peripheral blood film examination in most patients.
Massive blood transfusion was given to patients on remission. Although platelet concentrates are available and obviate the massive blood transactions, only very few patients received platelet infusions.
Corticosteroid and androgenic asteroids were administered but there was no laid down policy as to the protocol to be followed. Hence administration of these drugs was done in a haphazard manner with a big proportion of patients going without any steroid therapy. This may have accounted to a great extent, for the very poor remission rate noted.
Since it has been observed that pure red cell aplacia remits spontaneously, prolonged therapy of these patients should be pursued vigorously.
Most of the deaths encountered occurred during the first 4 months of admission and they were mainly due to complications of the disease process mainly infections, congestive cardiac failure and excessive haemorrhage.

Hsiao CF, Fukuda Y. "Plastic changes in the distribution and soma size of retinal ganglion cells after neonatal monocular enucleation in rats." Brain research. 1984;301:1-12. Abstract

Using the method of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells with HRP, we studied in adult rats the plastic changes in the retinogeniculate projections due to monocular enucleations shortly after birth. Four normal and 6 neonatally enucleated rats were used. In two of the normal and 4 of the enucleated rats a small amount of HRP was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and in 4 other rats massive injections were made into the optic tract near the LGd. Neonatally unilaterally eye-enucleated rats were characterized by an expanded distribution of ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells all over the retina of the remaining eye and by a densely packed distribution of these cells in the lower temporal retina in which area these cells have only a moderate density in normal rats. On the contrary, in the lower temporal retina of monocularly enucleated rats the incidence of contralaterally projecting ganglion cells was decreased. Soma areas of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells were measured for the peripheral crescent in lower temporal and lower nasal retinas. As compared with normal rats, neonatally enucleated rats had a larger mean soma area of ipsilaterally projecting cells and a smaller mean soma area of contralaterally projecting cells. This result was interpreted as suggesting that after neonatal monocular enucleation medium to large cells had changed their side of axonal projection from the contralateral to ipsilateral LGd.

Hsiao CF, Fukuda Y. "Plastic changes in the distribution and soma size of retinal ganglion cells after neonatal monocular enucleation in rats." Brain research. 1984;301:1-12. Abstract

Using the method of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells with HRP, we studied in adult rats the plastic changes in the retinogeniculate projections due to monocular enucleations shortly after birth. Four normal and 6 neonatally enucleated rats were used. In two of the normal and 4 of the enucleated rats a small amount of HRP was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and in 4 other rats massive injections were made into the optic tract near the LGd. Neonatally unilaterally eye-enucleated rats were characterized by an expanded distribution of ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells all over the retina of the remaining eye and by a densely packed distribution of these cells in the lower temporal retina in which area these cells have only a moderate density in normal rats. On the contrary, in the lower temporal retina of monocularly enucleated rats the incidence of contralaterally projecting ganglion cells was decreased. Soma areas of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells were measured for the peripheral crescent in lower temporal and lower nasal retinas. As compared with normal rats, neonatally enucleated rats had a larger mean soma area of ipsilaterally projecting cells and a smaller mean soma area of contralaterally projecting cells. This result was interpreted as suggesting that after neonatal monocular enucleation medium to large cells had changed their side of axonal projection from the contralateral to ipsilateral LGd.

Syka J. "Plastic {Changes} in the {Central} {Auditory} {System} {After} {Hearing} {Loss}, {Restoration} of {Function}, and {During} {Learning}." Physiological Reviews. 2002;82:601-636. AbstractWebsite

Traditionally the auditory system was considered a hard-wired sensory system; this view has been challenged in recent years in light of the plasticity of other sensory systems, particularly the visual and somatosensory systems. Practical experience in clinical audiology together with the use of prosthetic devices, such as cochlear implants, contributed significantly to the present view on the plasticity of the central auditory system, which was originally based on data obtained in animal experiments. The loss of auditory receptors, the hair cells, results in profound changes in the structure and function of the central auditory system, typically demonstrated by a reorganization of the projection maps in the auditory cortex. These plastic changes occur not only as a consequence of mechanical lesions of the cochlea or biochemical lesions of the hair cells by ototoxic drugs, but also as a consequence of the loss of hair cells in connection with aging or noise exposure. In light of the aging world population and the increasing amount of noise in the modern world, understanding the plasticity of the central auditory system has its practical consequences and urgency. In most of these situations, a common denominator of central plastic changes is a deterioration of inhibition in the subcortical auditory nuclei and the auditory cortex. In addition to the processes that are elicited by decreased or lost receptor function, the function of nerve cells in the adult central auditory system may dynamically change in the process of learning. A better understanding of the plastic changes in the central auditory system after sensory deafferentation, sensory stimulation, and learning may contribute significantly to improvement in the rehabilitation of damaged or lost auditory function and consequently to improved speech processing and production.

Huart C, Rombaux P, Hummel T. "Plasticity of the {Human} {Olfactory} {System}: {The} {Olfactory} {Bulb}." Molecules. 2013;18:11586-11600. AbstractWebsite

In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, particularly to its abilities of plasticity and its potential continuous neurogenesis throughout adult life. Although mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis have been largely investigated in animals, to some degree they remain unclear in humans. Based on human research findings, the present review will focus on the olfactory bulb as an evidence of the astonishing plasticity of the human olfactory system.

Huart C, Rombaux P, Hummel T. "Plasticity of the {Human} {Olfactory} {System}: {The} {Olfactory} {Bulb}." Molecules. 2013;18:11586-11600. AbstractWebsite

In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, particularly to its abilities of plasticity and its potential continuous neurogenesis throughout adult life. Although mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis have been largely investigated in animals, to some degree they remain unclear in humans. Based on human research findings, the present review will focus on the olfactory bulb as an evidence of the astonishing plasticity of the human olfactory system.

Mbuthia B, M OKGOGW. "Platelet Counts In patients with rheumatoid Arthritis. at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rhematol . 2013;1(1):8-12 .
Aluoch JR, JM M. "Platelet function in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Nairobi.". 1996. Abstract

From July 1990 to January 1991 we studied platelet functions in 55 indigenous Kenyan patients (23 males and 32 females) with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in steady state (SCASS) and in 20 (11 males and 9 females) SCA patients in vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis (VSCC). A control group of 50 healthy (23 males and 27 females) individuals matched for age and sex was also studied. Platelet aggregation time to ADP in SCASS (57.2 +/- 39.1) and in VSCC (31 +/- 11.1) were more prolonged (p < 0.05) compared to controls (12.7 +/- 5.2). It was also significantly more prolonged (p < 0.05) in VSCC than in SCASS. Platelet adhesiveness time was 31.1 +/- 13.7 seconds in SCASS, 30.9 +/- 11.1 in VSCC, and 37.7 +/- 13.0 in controls and was significantly lower in both SCA groups (p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. Clot retraction was 52.8 +/- 6.9 in SCASS, 53.6 +/- 10.7 in VSCC, and 45.9 +/- 8 in controls and was significantly higher in both SCA groups than in controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. We conclude that platelet function is deranged in indigenous Kenyan patients with SCA.

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Platelet functions in patients with meningococcal meningitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Joshi MD.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Aug;79(8):405-7. East African Medical Journal.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
Dr Kayima JK. Platelet functions, plasma fibrinolytic activity And coagulation screen findings in africans with nephrotic syndrome without uraemia, as seen at the kenyatta national hospital (kne.; 1981. Abstract

In a nine months period,from March 1987 to November

1987, inc1usiv€, studies on p1ac21et functions, pla$ma fibrinolytic activity and coagulation screen were carried out in 40 patients (30 males and 10 females) with the nephrotic syndrome and 40 matches controls at the Kenyatta
National Hospital. The age range was S-Sl years, mean + SD

20.5+11.6.

patients had unchanged platelet counts and clot retraction compared to controls (p>O.OS), whereas platelet adhesiveness and platelet agg~egation to adenosine diphosphate U",DP) were significantly reduced among patients (P0.05) as well as between plasma fibrinogen concentration and total cholesterol (r=0.25, P>0.05).
It is concluded that our patients have a degree of hype-rcoagulability. Whether the factors for and against hypercoagulabiJ .ity compensate f cr each other in the causation of complications need to be verified. A larger populatibn and more detailed haemostatic study will in future be needed to cover more nephrotic patients in different areas of the country. It is also necessary to folIo w up ou r pat ient s f or complicat ions resul ting from
this hypercoagulable state, like thromboembolic events and

is.c!haemic heart diseas.e to find ou.t.. their pre...lence .

and

contr.ibutionto morbidity and mortality among Africans with

nephrotic syndrome.

J.SITUMA. "Plato: The arts and Social Order." International Journals of Arts and Commerce. 2014;3(6):134-142.
JALEHA MRSJEFWAJUDITHJAI. "A Play A Second Chance Presented to Secondary Schools Drama Festival National Finals.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mogambi H. "Please Pick My Call! University Students and Mobile Telephony in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(11):120-132.
Lukhoba CW, Simmonds MSJ, Paton AJ. "Plectranthus : A review of ethnobotanical uses." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;103(1):1-24. Abstract

Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. The genus is plagued with numerous nomenclatural disharmonies that make it difficult to collate accurate data on the uses. The aim of this review is to gather together all ethnobotanical information on
Plectranthus and to map the data onto the most up-to-date phylogenetic classification in order to see if there are similar uses among related species and hence provide a framework for the prediction and exploration of new uses of species. The uses of 62 species of Plectranthus were mapped onto a current phylogeny based on DNA sequence data. The phylogeny reveals two major Clades, 1 and 2. The members of Clade 1 (corresponding to the formally recognized genus Coleus ) were richer in number and diversity of uses than members of Clade 2 (comprising the remaining species of Plectranthus
). The high incidence of synonymy can lead to problems in uncovering a species’ ethnobotanical profile. About 30% of all citations of Plectranthus use a synonym and most of the synonyms are attributed to 10 of the most used species, 9 of which are in Clade 1. Members of the ‘Coleus’ Clade are the most studied group both taxonomically and economically. The higher incidence of study may be as a result of the higher diversity of uses and the fact that species in Clade 1, such as Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus amboinicus andPlectranthus mollis, are geographically more widespread than those in Clade 2. Plectranthus species in Clade 1 are frequently used as medicines and are used to treat a range of ailments, particularly digestive, skin, infective and respiratory problems. Plectranthus
used as foods, flavours, fodder and materials are also mostly found in Clade 1. Monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and phenolics have been reported in species of Plectranthus. The abietane diterpenoids are the most diverse of the diterpenoids isolated from species of Plectranthus. The labdane diterpenoid, forskolin, occurs in Plectranthus barbatus and could explain some of the traditional uses of this species. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about the chemistry of other species of Plectranthus to explain their traditional uses.

Keywords: Plectranthus; Ethnobotanical uses; Coleus

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Pleomorphic Salivary Adenoma.". In: The Preliminary Program for First African and Middle-East IADR Federation Conference, September 27-29, 2005. SC Waweru, D.O. Awange, L.W. Gathece.; 2005. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Kyule MD, Ambrose SH, Noll MP, Atkinson JL. "Pliocene and Pleistocene sites in southern Narok District, southKenya." Journal of Human Evolution 1997, . 1997;32:A9-10. AbstractWebsite

Survey in southwest Kenya above the western margin of the Gregory Rift Valley since 1994 has led to the discovery of LSA, MSA, Acheulean and possible Oldowan occurrences, as well as fossil-bearing sites representative of the early Pliocene. A long sedimentary sequence of airfall and waterlain tuVs, fluvial and lacustrine sediments and paleosols is exposed in the region of the confluence of the Ewaso Ngiro, Narok, Seyabei, Ntuka and Olonganaiyo rivers. At Lemudongo, a total of 278 well-preserved fossil bones and teeth of a variety of species including carnivores, primates, suids, bovids, hippopotamids, crocodilians, hyracoids and rodents, were collected in one day along a 70 m area of sediment outcrop. Three potentially datable tuVs are stratified within this 6 m-thick fossil-bearing paleosol. The presence of Nyanzochoerus kanamensis suggests this locality is older than 2•5 m.y.a. Four Acheulean sites have low densities of handaxes and cleavers, mainly made on phonolite, basalt and quartz. None are clearly in primary context. Excavations at Ntuka River 3 have yielded a long sequence of new Early LSA microblade industries in discrete horizons that have high densities of well-preserved bones and teeth of equids, bovids, micromammals and humans. Paleosol stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis at this site demonstrate substantial environmental changes through time in the 7•5 m sedimentary section. In the Ntuka area, Late Quaternary sediments contain numerous in-situ early and late MSA and early LSA sites with well-preserved faunas, a penecontemporary fossil carnivore den site and other fossil-bearing sites with minimally fragmented faunas associated with low artefact densities. This provides a rare opportunity to compare faunal and lithic resource exploitation patterns through time during the Middle and Early Later Stone Age, and to compare faunal exploitation patterns of humans and carnivores on the same landscape.

Kyule MD, Ambrose SH, Noll MP, Atkinson JL. "Pliocene and Pleistocene sites in southern Narok District, southwest Kenya.". In: Paleoanthropology Society, 6th Annual Meeting. St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 1997.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plourde P, Pepin J, Agoki E, Ronald AR, Ombette J, Tyndall M, Cheang M, Ndinya-Achola JO, D'Costa LJ, Plummer FA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with Genital Ulcers. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 313 - 317, 1994.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 170: 313 - 317, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Plucking Standard Effects and the Distribution of Fatty Acids in the Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Leaves". Food Chemistry, 37, 27-35.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
"Plugging Generic Gaps by including the Kiswahili Literary Essay in the Kiswahili Secondary School Curriculum in Kenya ." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge Creative Research Studies. 2018;2(2):73-80.
Späth A, Le Roex AP, Opiyo-Akech N. "Plume-lithosphere Interaction and the Origin of Continental Rift-related Alkaline Volcanism - the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, Southern Kenya.". 1999. AbstractPlume-lithosphere Interaction and the Origin of Continental Rift-related Alkaline Volcanism - the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province

Geochemical data are presented for primitive alkaline lavas from the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province of southern Kenya, situated some 100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley. In addition to their primitive compositions, a striking and ubiquitous feature is a strong but variable depletion in K relative to other highly incompatible elements when normalized to primitive mantle values. Semi-quantitative models are developed that best explain the petrogenesis of these lavas in terms of partial melting of a source that contained residual amphibole (but not phlogopite). The presence of amphibole implies a source in the subcontinental lithosphere rather than the asthenosphere. It is suggested that the amphibole is of metasomatic origin and was precipitated in the lithospheric mantle by infiltrating fluids and/or melts derived from rising mantle plume material. A raised geotherm as a consequence of the continued ascent of the plume material led to dehydration melting of the metasomatized mantle and generation of the Chyulu Hills lavas. It is proposed that the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province represents an analogue for the earliest stages of continental rift initiation, during which interaction between a plume and initially refractory lithosphere may lead to the generation of lithospheric melts.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plummer FA, Laga M, Brunham RC, Piot P, Ronald AR, Bhulla V, Mati JY, Ndinya-Achola JO, Cheang M, Nsanze H. Post-partum genital tract infections in Kenya: Epidemiology Etiology and Risk Factor, J. Infect. Dis. 156: 92 - 98, 1987.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 156: 92 - 98, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plummer FA, Nagelkerke NJD, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Ngugi E. The importance of core groups in the epidemiology and control of HIV. AIDS 5(suppl.) S 169 - S 176, 1991.". In: AIDS 5(suppl.) S 169 - S 176, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Cameron DW, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK, Gakinya MN, Waiyaki P, Cheang M, Piot P, Ronald AR, Ngugi EN.Cofactors in male-female sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Infect. Dis. 163: 233 - 239, 1991.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 163: 233 - 239, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Chubb H, Slaney L, Kimata J, Bosire M, Ndinya-Achola JO and Ngugi EN.Epidemiologic evidence for the development of serovar specific immunity after gonococcal infection. J.,Slaney L Clin.Invest. 83: 1472 - 1476, 1989.". In: J.,Slaney L Clin.Invest. 83: 1472 - 1476, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
Jani PG. "Plummer Vinson Syndrome: Case report." East African Medical Journal. 2001;(78):332.
Kanyinga K. "Pluralism, Ethnicity and Governance in Kenya.". In: in Yash Ghai and Jill Cottrell, Ethnicity, Nationhood, and Pluralism: Kenyan Perspectives. Ottawa: Global Centre for Pluralism; 2013.
Else, Breval; Chiping W; JD; AY; KG; MS; FD; ACP. "PLZT Phases Near Lead Zirconate: 2. Determination by Capacitance and Polarization.". 2006.
Ogola EN, Machira BW, Joshi MD, Njeru E. "PM325 Cardivascular risk factors in young adult university students in Nairobi, Kenya." Global Heart. 2014;9(1). AbstractWebsite

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rapidly increasing in Africa due to epidemiologic transition. Many risk factors are acquired in chidhood and early adulthood. University students are exposed to multiple lifestyle influences. Understanding the dynamics of risk factors in this population provides a platform for early intervention.

Ogola EN, Machira BW, Joshi MD, Njeru E. "PM325 Cardivascular risk factors in young adult university students in Nairobi, Kenya." Global Heart. 2014;9(1). AbstractWebsite

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rapidly increasing in Africa due to epidemiologic transition. Many risk factors are acquired in chidhood and early adulthood. University students are exposed to multiple lifestyle influences. Understanding the dynamics of risk factors in this population provides a platform for early intervention.

Mutua G, Devonshire J, Kimenju J. "The Pochonia chlamydosporia Serine Protease Gene vcp1 Is Subject to Regulation by Carbon, Nitrogen and pH: Implications for Nematode Biocontrol.". 2012. Abstract

The alkaline serine protease VCP1 of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia belongs to a family of subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in infection of nematode and insect hosts. It is involved early in the infection process, removing the outer proteinaceous vitelline membrane of nematode eggs. Little is known about the regulation of this gene, even though an understanding of how nutrients and other factors affect its expression is critical for ensuring its efficacy as a biocontrol agent. This paper provides new information on the regulation of vcp1 expression. Sequence analysis of the upstream regulatory region of this gene in 30 isolates revealed that it was highly conserved and contained sequence motifs characteristic of genes that are subject to carbon, nitrogen and pH-regulation. Expression studies, monitoring enzyme activity and mRNA, confirmed that these factors affect VCP1 production. As expected, glucose reduced VCP1 expression and for a few hours so did ammonium chloride. Surprisingly, however, by 24 h VCP1 levels were increased in the presence of ammonium chloride for most isolates. Ambient pH also regulated VCP1 expression, with most isolates producing more VCP1 under alkaline conditions. There were some differences in the response of one isolate with a distinctive upstream sequence including a variant regulatory-motif profile. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the presence of nematode eggs stimulates VCP1 production by P. chlamydosporia, but only where the two are in close contact. Overall, the results indicate that readily-metabolisable carbon sources and unfavourable pH in the rhizosphere/egg-mass environment may compromise nematode parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. However, contrary to previous indications using other nematophagous and entomopathogenic fungi, ammonium nitrate (e.g. from fertilizers) may enhance biocontrol potential in some circumstances.

DR. CHUAH(MRS) MINSHING. "Pocs, T. T, Pocs, S., Chuah-Petiot, M.S., Malombe, I. & S. Masinde. 2007. East African Bryophytes. XXIV. Records from the dry lands of Kenya, with a description of Didymodon revolutus var. nov. africanus (Pottiaceae). Lindbergia 32: 33-39.". In: Poumon Coeur. 1983;39(3):159-62. uon press; 2007. Abstract
Pneumatocele, a special form of lung injury, is characterized by intrathoracic images of cavities detected on X-ray films. These cavities develop immediately after a trauma of the thorax, disappear rapidly and have a relatively favourable outcome.
Atoh F. "Poetic Aspects of the Kenyan Patriotic Music During the Moi Era .". In: Music in Kenya: Development, Management, Composition and Performance: A Tribute to Daniel T. Arap Moi. Nakuru: Kabarak University; 2010.
Amriika, V M. "The Poetics of Journeying and the Dilemma of Baggage in Moyez Vassanji’s No New Land and Amriika” J-STEM, J." ournal of Science, Technology and Education,. 2008;Vol. 2 Nos. 1&2, (ISSN. 1991-2889. ):Pp. 219-226.
Wanjala C. "Poetry in East Africa." Joliso. 1974;2(2):1-6.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Poets with Borrowed Overcoats Can Still Retain their Personality; A Brief Study on Reed in the Tide, Poems by John Pepper Clark, London Londman 1968", in Busara VI, 1, 39-42.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1974. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Maisori BM, Kinoti MW. "Point of Purchase Displays and Fixtures; Rationale for acceptance in Kenya Supermarkets." International Journal of Science and Business. 2018;2(2):153-181.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "A point prevalence study of gastrointestinal parasites in Burchell.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
Wambwa EN, Ogara WO. "A Point Prevalence Study of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Burchell\'s Zebra (Equus Burchelli Antiquorum) at Lewa Downs Ranch, Isiolo District Kenya.". 2002. Abstract

Burchell's Zebra ( Equus Burchelli Antiquorum) were sampled for gastrointestinal parasites at the Lewa Downs Game Ranch in Isiolo District between 4/7/95 and 11/7/95. The stomach, small intestines and abdominal cavity were searched for parasites. The parasites were identified to genus level but in some cases to species level. Feacal egg counts, hematology and serum biochemistry screening were also performed. All animals were infested with at least three genera of gastrointestinal parasites including at least one nematode genus. A total of nine genera were recovered representing eight families. These included six nematode families, Strongylidae, Strongylinae, Atractidae, Oxyuridae, Spiruridae, and Setaridae one cestode family, Anoplocephalidae and one family of the larvae of Gasterophilus bot flies, Gastrophilidae. The most prevalent families were Atracidae (100%) and Strongylinae (80%). The mean total worm burden was 78,764. The average of individual genera varied from 0-77,890worms. The average worm burdens were higher in females than in males. In comparing the mean total egg counts, there were generally higher egg counts in animals with higher worm burdens. Hematology results were within baseline values for Burchell's zebra. Blood biochemistry showed high levels of Alkaline Phosphatase, Creatine Kinase, Lactase dehydrogenase and Aspartate transaminase was partly attributed to exertion before death

Okoth C, Opanga S, Okalebo F, Oluka M, Kurdi AB, Godman B. "Point prevalence survey of antibiotic use and resistance at a referral hospital in Kenya: findings and implications. ." Hospital Practice. 2018.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Pointers to intervention domains for pastoral development in Eastern Africa. Book Chapter in Media handbook for reporting food security and drought in pastoral areas. Indigenous Information Network, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
C.K. M. "Poisoning Pattern." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2012;15(2):27-28.
Dzupire NC, Ngare P, Odongo L. "A Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data." Journal of Probability and Statistics. 2018;2018(1012647). AbstractA Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data

Rainfall modeling is significant for prediction and forecasting purposes in agriculture, weather derivatives, hydrology, and risk and disaster preparedness. Normally two models are used to model the rainfall process as a chain dependent process representing the occurrence and intensity of rainfall. Such two models help in understanding the physical features and dynamics of rainfall process. However rainfall data is zero inflated and exhibits overdispersion which is always underestimated by such models. In this study we have modeled the two processes simultaneously as a compound Poisson process. The rainfall events are modeled as a Poisson process while the intensity of each rainfall event is Gamma distributed. We minimize overdispersion by introducing the dispersion parameter in the model implemented through Tweedie distributions. Simulated rainfall data from the model shows a resemblance of the actual rainfall data in terms of seasonal variation, means, variance, and magnitude. The model also provides mechanisms for small but important properties of the rainfall process. The model developed can be used in forecasting and predicting rainfall amounts and occurrences which is important in weather derivatives, agriculture, hydrology, and prediction of drought and flood occurrences.

Pokhariyal GP. Pokhariyal.; 2013.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Pokhariyal G., C. Muturi, J. Hassanali, S. Kinyanjui;Simulation Model from Dental Arch Shapes. East African Medical Journal 81, 599-602 (2004).". In: East African Medical Journal 81, 599-602. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for dental arch shapes. DESIGN: Analysis of measurements of dental casts to determine a general second degree equation for the dental arches. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy and School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: The measurement of dental casts, 30 (15M and 15F) each from three Kenyan ethnic groups (Maasai, Kalenjin, Kikuyu), aged 12 years. RESULTS: The arches change their shapes from a parabola to an ellipse, governed by the boundary conditions at the position of the canine tooth, based on the general second degree equation for the conic sections. CONCLUSION: The simulation model graphically confirms the change from parabolic to elliptic shapes of dental arches with boundary conditions at the canine. This could be used to show the changes in dental arches for other ethnic groups.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Pokhariyal,G. & Hassanali, J.Regression and Simulation models for Human and Baboon Brain Parameters. Int. J. Morphol., 29(3):971-977, 2011.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. international Journal of Morphology; 2011. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
Akuon P, Xu H. Polar coded MQAM with no noise variance estimation for capacity and soft decision metric. Ile Maurice, Mauritius: IEEE Africon 2013; 2013.
Akuon P, Xu H. "Polar coded spatial modulation." IET Journal. 2014;vol. 8(no.9): pp.1459-1466.
Dorothy McCormick. ""Policies Affecting Kenyan Industrialisation, 1964-1994." In Njuguna Ng\.". In: Firm-Level Institutions in Small-Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi." Paper presented at Business Systems Workshop, Machakos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1999. Abstract

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Ndetei DM, Iipinge S, Dambisya YM, Loewenson R, Chimbari M, Munga M, Sibandze S, Lugina H. "Policies and incentives for health worker retention in east and southern Africa: Learning from country research.". 2009.
G.O O, N.M N. "Policies on Opioid Analgesics Hinder Management of Severe Pain Conditions in Kenya." The Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya . 2008;18(3):113-115.
Onjala J. "Policies towards Strengthening Cities as Engines of National Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Paper presented to an International Conference organised by UNCRD and UN-HABITA Forum for Mayors and Senior Urban Officials on Sustainable Urban Development and Management in Africa. UN Complex, Nairobi-Kenya 27-28 November 2013. UNEP, Gigiri Kenya; 2013.
Mwabu G, Kimenyi MS. "Policy Advice During a Crisis." Journal of Third World Studies. 2007;XXIV(2):11-26.
Njeri KM, Ligulu, Peter, McCormick, Dorothy. "Policy and Footwear in Kenya in McCormick.". In: Clothing and Footwear in Africa industrialization. Johannesburg: Africa Institute of South Africa; 2004.
Njihia JM. "Policy and Socio-Economic Contexts for IT Based Public Sector Reform in Postcolonial Developing Countries: The Contrived vs. the Actual." In: Papadopoulos T, Kanellis P, eds. Public Sector Reform Using Information Technologies: Transforming Policy into Practice . IGI Global; 2011:. Abstract
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D P, ZP Q, K L, MK K, GN G, Odawa FX, A O, O K, PK K, Kosgei RJ, AB K, PM N, O O. "Policy Brief - Increasing Caesarean Section rates among low risk women after introduction of free maternity services in a Kenyan National Referral Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):52-53.Website

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