Publications

Found 4109 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is P  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O [P] Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
P
Njogu M, Muindi E, Muthomi J, Nyankanga R, Muchiri P. "Phytophthora infestans responses to stinging nettle extract, phosphoric acid and fungicides combination, in Kenya." Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science . 2014;2(9):128-134, .phytophthora_infestans_responses_to_stinging_nettle.pdf
Njogu M, Muindi E, Muthomi J, Nyankanga R, Muchiri P. "Phytophthora infestans responses to stinging nettle nextract, phosphoric acid and fungicides combination, in Kenya." Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science (DRJAFS) . 2014;2(9):128-134.
Omondi E.A, Ndiba P.K NPG. "Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB’s) in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth (E.Crassipes)." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research . 2015;4(5):147-156.
Were FH, Wafula GA, Wairungu S. "Phytoremediation Using Bamboo to Reduce the Risk of Chromium Exposure from a Contaminated Tannery Site in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2017;Vol. 7(16):12-25.
Faridah H Were, Wafula GA, Wairungu S. "Phytoremediation using bamboo to reduce the risk of chromium exposure from a contaminated tannery site in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2017;7(16):12-25. AbstractJournal of Health and Pollution

Description
Background. This study examines an intervention strategy to reduce the risk of chromium (Cr) exposure. It follows a previous Cr exposure investigation, which revealed that large volumes of Cr-contaminated waste were burnt on site. The study site had a long history of land-based waste disposal since 1994.
Objective. The potential for phytoremediation using bamboo species to restore Cr-contaminated soil was evaluated.
Methods. Chromium levels and physico-chemical properties of the tannery and control soils were analyzed before transplanting six different bamboo species. Translocation, bio-concentration and bioaccumulation factors of the species were assessed for phytoremediation capabilities.
Results. Chromium levels in the tannery soils ranged from 1337.0 to 3398.0 mg/kg dw. The chromium levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control soils (0.20 to 2.34 mg/kg dw) and …

Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Meguro S, Hayashi H, Mathenge S, Kiboi S, Miyawaki A. "A PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE MONTANE FORESTS OF CENTRAL KENYA FOR THEIR CONSERVATION." Abstracts of EcoSummit 2007——Ecological Complexity and Sustainability——Challenges & Opportunities for 21st Century's Ecology. 2007.
Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Amugune BK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from Dombeya torrida (J. F. Gmel). ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(2):44-48.
Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, J.W.Mwangi, B.K.Amugune, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from Dombeya Torrida (J.G GMEL)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(2):1-9.abstract.pdf
Maima AO, Thoithi GN, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2008;11:52-54.
Maima AO, Thoithi GN, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretumjragrans F. Hoffm.". 2008. Abstract

Two sterols, b-sitosterol and stigmasterol, were isolated from the stem bark of combetrum fragrans~ The, identity.of'.these.compounds was established by spectral analysis.

Maima AO, Thoithi GN, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretumjragrans F. Hoffm.". 2008. Abstract

Two sterols, b-sitosterol and stigmasterol, were isolated from the stem bark of combetrum fragrans~ The, identity.of'.these.compounds was established by spectral analysis.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Piantadosi A, Panteleeff D, Blish CA, Baeten JM, Jaoko W, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J (2009) HIV-1 neutralizing antibody breadth is affected by factors early in infection, but does not influence disease progression. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Piantadosi A, Panteleeff D, Blish CA, Baeten JM, Jaoko W, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J (2009) HIV-1 neutralizing antibody breadth is affected by factors early in infection, but does not influence disease progression. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
Omuga DB. "Pica Practices of Pregnant Women in Nairobi Kenya." Journal College of Medicine. 2009;14(1):24-32. Abstract

Aim: To establish the prevalence of pica behaviour during pregnancy; to identify the substances commonly ingested and their prevalence; and to determine the characteristics of women who reported practicing pica.

Method: Was descriptive, cross sectional study involving use of questionnaire administered in interview format. Study was conducted at Pumwani Maternity Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Participants included a convenience sample of 1071 ante natal women with a mean age of 28.1 (+_ 7.3) years. Subjects were selected based on availability, accessibility, and willingness to participate in the study.

Results: Seven hundred and ninety three (74.0%) participants reported practicing pica regularly on a daily basis. Pica prevalence categorised by substances ingested was as follows: soft stones (odowa), 89.8%; soil, 61.2%; and others, 9.6% and no pica, 26.0%. Majority of women who reported practicing pica (62.5%) ingested more than one substance. Most women who practiced pica reported having experienced strong cravings prior to ingestion of pica items, childhood pica, pica before pregnancy, pica in previous pregnancy and a history of pica in family members and significant others in the community.

Conclusions: Pica prevalence was significantly high among the subjects indicating that pica in pregnancy might be more common and widespread in Kenya than health care providers assume or observe. There is no need to routinely screen pregnant women for pica during antenatal visits as this will provide a more systematic and a less expensive way of establishing its epidemiologic status. A nationwide investigation of pica prevalence is also recommended in order to establish possible health consequences of pica on mother and child.

Rayya. "Picha ya Hadaa.". In: Sina Zaidi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers; 2011.
Akama MK, W GS, Chindia ML. "Pierre Robin Syndrome: case report.". 2000. Abstract

A case of a female neonate with Pierre Robin Syndrome with frequent cyanotic episodes and feeding difficulties which could not be adequately managed by positioning and oral airway placement is presented. Tongue-anterior mandible fusion procedure was performed with satisfactory results

Samuel Maina Githigia. PIG SECTOR REVIEW KENYA. NAIROBI: FAO LIVESTOCK COUNTRY REVIEWS; 2012.fao_pig_sector_review_in_kenya1.pdf
Singh L, Silim SN, Baudoin JP, Kimani PM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Pigeon pea(Cjanus cajan(L.) Millspuagh in“Crop Production in Tropical Africa.". 2010.
Bebora LC, Bii CC, Waitindi HK. "Pigeon-Frequented Areas, Garbage Piles and Dog Faeces as Possible Sources of Candida and Cryptococcus Infections for Humans and Animals.". 2005. Abstract

A study was carried out to establish the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species in two pigeon-frequented areas; garbage piles from two separate sites in Nairobi, and dog faeces from Small animal clinic, University of Nairobi, Kabete. The sampling included both solid materials and air. Potato Dextrose agar, CHROMagar and urea media were used for isolation and characterization of these yeasts. Various species of Candidaand Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated in numbers ranging from 104 to 105 colony forming units per gramme or per 2-minute exposure to air; from both pigeon-frequented areas and garbage sites. Cryptococcus was isolated more than Candida species in pigeon-frequented areas, while the reverse was the case for garbage sites, both for solid and aerial samples. The dog faeces yielded Candida organisms mainly. The presence of these yeasts in both solid samples and air highlights the possibility of these areas, which are frequently traversed by humans and animals (including chickens and other birds), as being possible sources of infection for humans and animals. Aerial contamination means the organisms can be disseminated far and wide easily.

Khamala CP, Okeyo-Owour JB. "Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) varietal response to insect podborer infestation in Kenya.". 1980. AbstractPigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) varietal response to insect podborer infestation in Kenya.

In field trials with (a) determinate and (b) indeterminate pigeon pea cv., pod damage by Heliothis armigera, Pardasena virgulana and Melanagromyza obtusa and seed yield losses ranged from 37% and 23% in an early-flowering cv. of (b) to 64% and 52% in a late-flowering cv. of (b), resp

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Pigeonpea breeding: Objectives, experiences and strategies for Eastern Africa. Pages 21-33. In: Silim, S., G. Mergeai and P.M. Kimani (eds) . Pigeonpea: Status and potential in Eastern and Southern Africa . Patancheru, India, ICRISAT and Gembloux Universi.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Wasamba P. Pilgrim. Nairobi; 2010.a_pilgrim.pdf
Oludhe C. Pilot Application Projects.; 2005.
SD G, D P, Linden A AG, E B, J.F C, SR F, P J, M K, M L, F L, MA M, E O'F, S O, R R, F A. "A pilot comparison of standardized online surgical curricula for use in low- and middle-income countries." JAMA Surg. 2014;149(4):341-316.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K, Jane B, Owiti L, Kimani F. Pilot Project on the best Practices in the Management, Structures and Processes of Constituency Development Fund (CDF). Nairobi: Collaborative Center for Gender and Development (CCGD); 2007.
Tina LD, Omoni G, Lee K, WAKASIAKA S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.". 2013. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills. an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis. 92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed. e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

omoni DG. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi." Midwifery. 2013. Abstracta_pilot_quasi-experimental_study_to_determine_the_feasibility_of_implementing_a_partograph_e-learning_tool_for_student_midwife_training_in_nairobi.pdf

Midwifery. 2013 Mar 4. pii: S0266-6138(12)00183-0. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2012.10.003. [Epub ahead of print]
A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.
Tina Lavender D, Omoni G, Lee K, Wakasiaki S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M.
Source

Jean McFarlane Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Electronic address: tina.lavender@manchester.ac.uk.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.
DESIGN:

an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis.
FINDINGS:

92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed.
KEY CONCLUSION:

e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lavender T, Omoni G, Lee K, Wakasiaki S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi." Midwifery. 2013;29(8):876-84. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.

Masese L, McClelland RS GWSKN-AJOLRBAKRGJF. "A pilot study of the feasibility of a vaginal washing cessation intervention among Kenyan female sex workers." Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89(3):217-22.
Ndinya-Achola JO KA, McClelland RS, Gitau R, G W, J S, F K, L1 M, Lester R, Richardson BA, A. K. "A pilot study of the feasibility of a vaginal washing cessation intervention among Kenyan female sex workers.". 2012.document1.pdf
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Pilozzi, A., A.M. Siani, Palmieri, S., N. J. Muthama, Cross-relationship between a long series of rainfall and other parallel series of various meteorological parameters.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Contemporary Climatology, Brno, August, 1994. Eastern and South African Journal; 1994. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Pinckney T.C. & P.K. Kimuyu. Land Regisration in East Africa: Good, Bad or Unimportant? Journal of African Econmies 3:1.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
research theories for high school students
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Pinner RW, Onyango FE, Perkins BA, Mirza N,Mbori-Ngacha DA, Reeves M, DeWitt W, Njeru E, Agata NN, Broome CV. Epidemic meningococcal disease in Nairobi, Kenya - 1989. J Infect Dis 1992;166:359-364.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1989. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Pinner, R.W., Onyango, F., Perkins, B. A., Mirza, N.B., Ngacha, D.M., Reeves, M., DeWitt, W., Njeru, E., Agata, N.N., Broome, C.V. and the Kenya/CDC Meningitis study KNjeru cv 9 group. Epidemic Meningococcal Disease in Nairobi, Kenya, 1989. J. Infect. Dis.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 1992; 166:359-364. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Tabuti JRS, Majaliwa MGJ. "Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:12. Abstract
n/a
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Piot P, Colebunders R, Laga M, Ndinya-Achola JO, Vander Groen G, Plummer FA.AIDS in Africa: A Public Health Priority. J. Virol. Method, 17: 1 - 10, 1987.". In: J. Virol. Method, 17: 1 - 10, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Piot P, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ngugi EN, Simonsen NJ, Cameron DW, Taelman H, Plummer FA. Heterosexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS 1: 199 - 206, 1987.". In: Heterosexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS 1: 199 - 206, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Piot P, Plummer FA, Rey M, Ngugi E, Rouzioux C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Veracauteren G, D'Costa LJ, Laga M, Nsanze H, Fransen L, Haase D, Van der Groen G, Brunham RC, Ronald AR, Brun-vezinet F,Retrospective Seropidemiology of AIDS virus infection in Nairobi pop.". In: J. Inf. Dis. 155 (6): 1108 - 1112, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
Nilsson D, Nyanchaga EN. "Pipes and Politics: A century of change and continuity in Kenyan urban water supply." Journal of Modern African Studies. 2008;46 (1):133-158.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Piracy.". In: Piracy, maritime security and the environment in the Eastern African coast. Continental Resort, Mombasa; 2010.
Wambua PM. "Piracy.". 2010.Website
Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Pitfalls of the Adversarial System in Criminal Justice'.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Mwang’ombe NJM, Kiboi JG, Kitunguu PK, Musau CK. "Pituitary Surgery At The Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2013. Abstract

Introduction: Surgical extirpation of pituitary lesions and can be performed by craniotomy or trans-sphenoidal approaches. This could be for pituitary ablation, excision of pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, suprasellar meningiomas and other types of tumors of the sellar region. Despite this being a common neurosurgical procedure there is a paucity of data on the local Kenyan experience and outcomes following pituitary surgery. Study Design and Site: A retrospective study at the Kenyatta National Teaching and Referral Hospital, Nairobi. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical presentation, management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery for pituitary lesions at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Patients and Methods: Following ethical approval, patients’ records were retrieved and assessed for clinical and radiologic features of pituitary lesions, surgical treatment and post operative outcome. All the data was coded and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Frequencies and means were computed for description of the various variables and the association between categorical variables calculated using Chi-square test while comparison of mean values was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test (ANOVA). Results: A total of 65 patients were included with 39 (60%) female and 26 (40%) male patients. The mean age was 36.88 years (+ 14.689) and majority of the patients (55%) were aged between 26 and 45 years. The most common presentation were visual disturbances reported by 57 (87.7%) of the patients having reduction in visual acuity, while 37 (56.9%) had bitemporal hemianopia. Amenorrhea and primary infertility were reported by 11 (16.9%) patients while 14 (21.5%) and 8 (12.3%) had galactorrhea and gynecomastia respectively. Ten patients (15.4%) had acromegalic features of hypergnathia and acral enlargement of hands and feet. Sixty two (95.4%) patients were operated during the study period and of these 28 (45.2%) by the transphenoidal approach as opposed to 34 (54.85%) by craniotomy. The pterional trans-sylvian approach was the most common of the transcranial hypohysectomies accounting for 17 (50%) patients, while 15 patients (44.1%) were operated by the subfrontal approach and two patients were operated via midline inter-hemispheric approach.2nd Bi-ennual International Scientific Conference 2013, Nairobi Kenya 29 Majority (96.4%) of trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomies were by sub-labial incision. Fifty (76.9%) of the patients had good functional outcome while 11 (16.9%) and 4 (6.2%) suffered moderate and severe disability respectively. Patients’ age (p=0.0029), duration of symptoms prior to surgery (p=0.0018) and surgical management versus conservative (p=0.001) significantly affected patient outcome. There was no statistically significant difference in outcome between patients of different sex (p=0.058) or the type of operation performed (p=0.191). Conclusion: Transsphenoidal and trans-cranial approaches are effective and safe treatment strategies for pituitary lesions with low morbidity, mortality and recurrence rates. With the paradigm shift towards more trans-sphenoidal and particularly endonasal approaches, additional prospective studies are required to assess clinical and endocrinological outcomes.

O DROPEREALFRED. "Pius Yanda, Shem Wandiga, Richard Kangalawe, Maggie Opondo, Dan Olago, Andrew Githeko, Tim Downs, Robert Kabumbuli, Alfred Opere, Faith Githui, James Kathuri, Lydia Olaka, Eugene Apindi, Michael Marshall, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugambi, Edward Kirumira, Robin.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Oredo J. "The Pivotal Role of ICT in Green Buildings." MANAGEMENT July (2019).
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Place and Placelessness: The role of setting in Kiswahili Literature, Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, SWAHILI FORUM, Vol VI, 1999.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Ongoro TN. "Place and Role of Asian Direct Investment in Africa." Eurasian International scientific-Analytical Journal. Forthcoming.
Olali T. "The Place and Thematic Function of a Panegyric in Swahili Society: The Case of Sufi al-Busiri's Kasida ya Hamziyya.". In: Rethinking Eastern African Literary and Intellectual Landscapes. New York: World Press; 2011.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Place of Action Research in the Writing of Fiction: Reflections on Kovu la Moyoni.". In: Action Research conference MMUST(PROCEED).; Forthcoming.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "The Place of African Religion and Culture in Kenya's Education in Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, Vol. I No. 4.".; 1987. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "The Place of Ethno Methodology in the Study of oral Literature.' In O. Okombo and J. Nandwa (Eds), Reflections on Theorie and Methods in Oral Literature. Nairobi KOLA.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1992. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
Munayi S. "The Place of Special Olympics at the University-The Need for Advocacy.". In: . 9th Biennial Conference of the African Association for health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. Kyambogo University; 2011.
Katete G. "The Place of Spoilers in Peace Processes in Sudan." African journal of Political Science and International Relations. 2012;6(8):167-180.georgekatetepaper.pdfarticle1381824969_onyango.pdf
T
K MRMBOBUMATHEW. "THE PLACE OF THE MILIANGOS CASE IN ANGLO-AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE: Unpublished paper for LL.M Degree Course, Georgetown University, Washington D.C,.". In: Proceedings: Workshop in Curriculum Development in Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Nairobi. pp. 143-147. ICTP. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1992. Abstract
n/a
P
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "The Place of the Teacher in Development in the 21st Century. A Paper Presented at the Annual AUTWA Meeting held at Siaya FTC on 31st December 2001, Afrovision Lecturer Services No. 2, Nairobi.". In: A Paper Presented at the Annual AUTWA Meeting held at Siaya FTC on 31st December 2001, Afrovision Lecturer Services No. 2, Nairobi. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato, P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (2005) The Impact of Agro-Forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices on the poor in Western Kenya. Research Report No. 142. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. pp. 61-80.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2005. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato; P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (2003) The Impact of Agro-forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices on the Poor in Western Kenya. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division. IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 160. Washington, D.C.: Internation.". In: Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Geo-Socio-Economics Study Report. Submitted to the Communications Commission of Kenya and the International Development Research Centre. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato; P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Agro-forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices and Poverty in Western Kenya. In: M. Adato & R. Meinzen-Dick [Eds.] Agricultural Research and Poverty: Economic and Social Impacts in Six C.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
Obel AO. "Placebo - controlled trial of potassium supplements in black patients with mild essential hypertension." ournal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 1989;14(2): 294-296.
Ogeng’o JA, Obimbo MM, Zhou Y, McMaster MT, Cohen CR, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Ong’ech J, Fisher SJ. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2019;80(1):94-102. Abstractplacental_structure_in_preterm_birth_among_hiv-positive.pdfWolters Kluwer Health, Inc

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant
morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest
that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection,
use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the
mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to
determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental
changes that could contribute to PTB.
Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIVpositive
women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had
preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at
gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational
age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal
HIV serostatus.
Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly
associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032),
anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane
infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010).
Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with
immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of
HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant
fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast
delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction
in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.
Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART
are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that
contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests
that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia.
Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate
the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for
decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.
Key Words: preterm birth, term birth, placenta, HIV, ART

Obimbo MM, Y Z, MT MM, CR C, Z Q, J O’ech, JA O’o, SJ F. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2019;80(1):94-102. AbstractWebsite

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental changes that could contribute to PTB.

Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIV-positive women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal HIV serostatus.

Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032), anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010). Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.

Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia. Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.

Nyongo AD, Gichangi PB. "Placental weights: do they have clinical significance?" East Afr Med J. 1991;68(3):239-40.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Places to Stand on: Travel Essays of Margaret Laurence.". In: Margaret Laurence Review 14 (2004-2005): 17-21. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Placing Livelihood Framework At the Heart of Slum Upgrading (1st National Conference by Kenya Ministry of Science and Technology KICC-Nairobi).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Dimba EAO. "Plan of radiotherapy management of head and neck cancer." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86. Abstract
n/a
Ongaro J, Shapiro B. "Planarity Stratification of Hurwitz Spaces." Canadian Mathematical Bulletin. 2015;58, DOI=10.4153/CMB-2015-015-x:596-609. Abstract

n/a

E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Plane Table Surveying. Geography Technicques II.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
G.M.N, M.O, J.M.O. "Planned Organizational Change Consequent to Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption." International Journal of Recent Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences . 2015;Vol. 2(Issue 4):23-28.planned_organizational_change-496-2.pdf
Ogola JM, Ogutu M, Nyori GM. "Planned Organizational Change Consequent to Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption." International Journal of Recent Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences. 2015;Vol. 2, Issue 4.
ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "PLANNING AND DESIGN OF A PILOT PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRACK NETWORK IN NAIROBI, KENYA, 78th Annual Meeting, January 10 -14 1999, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, USA.". In: 78th Annual Meeting, January 10 -14 1999, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, USA. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Mbindyo JM. Planning for effective rural communication and development in Kenya,. Institute for Communication Research, Stanford University; 1978.
and Another FM. "Planning for Neutral Money Supply in African Economies with Special Application to Kenya." The Indian Economic Journal. 1993;41(1).
OBIERO DRSAMUELV. "Planning for Non-Motorized Transport as a Sustainable Transport System in Nairobi: A paper presented at the International Conference on Re-Appraising the Urban Planning Process as an Instrument of Sustainable Urban Development and Management, UNCHS (Habit.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Planning for PPM-DOTS implementation in urban slums in Kenya: Knowledge, attitude and practices of private health care providers in Kibera slum, Nairobi. Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 9 (4): 403-408.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Tuberculosis Foundation; 2005. Abstract
Planning for PPM-DOTS implementation in urban slums in Kenya: Knowledge, attitude and practices of private health care providers in Kibera slum, Nairobi. Tuberclosis and Lung Disease 9 (4): 403-408.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Planning for Sustainable Human Settlement: Shelter and Improved Urban Livelihood (Conference Paper-WCAEBE-Birmingham UK).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Planning Future Cities". Report and Proceedings of Workshop on Future Means Cities - Do Cities Have Future? Evangelical Academy Loccum. Germany pp 185 - 190.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
Sifuma J, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK, Thomas DB. "Planning irrigation cropping systems.". 1993. Abstract

Farmers of the Sagana irrigation project, Kenya, have identified fluctuating and low prices for their agricultural produce as their main constraint. This paper reports results from a study carried out to identify an alternative cropping system that could be used to optimize their returns by harvesting their crops when the market price is highest. The study shows that there is a complex interaction of factors affecting the selection of a cropping system: climatic, water requirements, marketing and farmer preferences. It also illustrates how proper planning of the cropping calendar can reduce irrigation water requirements and maximize project benefits.

WAFULA DRKHATETEIBRAHIM. "Planning of Education in kenya: Which Way.". In: MOI UNIVERSITY. Association of Africa Universities; 2005. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "PLANNING OF PILOT PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRACK NETWORK IN EAST NAIROBI, CODATU VIII, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998.". In: CODATU VIII, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
n/a
ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "PLANNING OF PILOT PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRACK NETWORK IN EAST NAIROBI, CODATU VIII, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998.". In: CODATU VIII, Cape Town, South Africa, 21-25 September 1998. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
n/a
D. OJ,, J.N Kiiru, O.M. Olanya, and D.O. Ukuku, Imungi J, Nyankanga RO. "Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars." Subtropical Agriculture and Environments. 2016;( 67:):1-12.Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars.pdf
Kabaru JM, Yenesew' A. "Plant derived larvicides as a tool to manage malaria in Kenya.". 2003. AbstractPlant derived larvicides as a tool to manage malaria in Kenya

Malaria remains a serious parasitic disease killing over one million people annually. One of the strategies to manage the malaria problem is to control the population of mosquito at larval or adult stages of their life cycle. However with. the appearance of insect resistance to conventional insecticides together with the growing environmental concern on the use of many synthetic insecticides, in particular halogenated compounds such as DDT, the search for effective and environmentally friendly insecticidal agents is intensifying. In this effort some East African plant extracts and pure compounds have been tested for larvicidal activities (Muwangi and Mukiama, 1988; Mwangi and Rembold, 1988; Gikonyo et aI., 1998).

PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Plant essential oils with promising antifungal activity.". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 77(6): 319-322. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Narla RD. "Plant extracts and antagonistic fungi as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in management of fungal diseases of tomato.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Plant Genetic Resources in Africa's Renewal: Policy, Legal and Programmatic Issues under the New Partnership for Africa's Development IPGRI, Nairobi 2003 (With Kent Nnadozie, Dan Kiambi, John Mugabe & Kwesi Attah-Krah).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Nicholas Otieno, Richard D Lally, Samuel Kiwanuka, Andrew Lloyd, David Ryan, Kieran J Germaine DDN. "Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates." Frontiers in Microbiology. 2015;6:745.
Ndiritu M, Nyikal R, Boa E. "Plant health rallies as an extension tool in small-scale farming in Kenya." CABI Study Brief . 2016;12. AbstractWebsite

Kenya has consistently reported new and serious disease and pest problems on key crops over the
years, often associated with substantial crop yield losses. In just the last six years, for example, maize
lethal necrosis – a disease responsible for crop losses valued at about US$ 4.1 million in 2014 alone –
and tomato leaf miner entered and got established in the country. For small-scale farmers, who make
up 80% of the farming community and contribute 25% of the GDP, an attack by such diseases could
spell doom for their income and food supply. Decisive action is needed to prevent new pests and
diseases from spreading and becoming established. Also, other well-established crop pests and
diseases regularly cause major crop losses. Farmers need help to take preventative measures and
avoid costly and often less effective treatments after the problem has entered the crop. Extension
campaigns can play a critical role in controlling crops pests and diseases by acting as a source of
timely information. One such approach, plant health rallies, has been embraced in Kenya, though so
far on a limited scale. In 2015 the University of Nairobi and Plantwise undertook a study in parts of
Kenya among 150 farmers and 27 extension staff in five counties to get a picture of extension
campaigns in crop health and to understand how the role of plant health rallies could be enhanced in
delivering a comprehensive service to farmers. The study focused on maize lethal necrosis, mango
fruit fly, Napier grass stunt, tomato leaf miner and wheat stem rust, all which have the potential for high
economic impact.

Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;DOI 10.1007/s40858-016-0114-4.
Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractSpringerLink

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractFull Text

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12.
Maundu JN, Kimenju JW, Muiru WM, Wachira PM, Gichuru EK. "Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated With Coffee in Kenya and Factors Influencing their Occurrence, Abundance and Diversity." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(3):120-129.
"Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated With Coffee in Kenya and Factors Influencing their Occurrence, Abundance and Diversity." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(ISSN 2225-093X ):ISSN 2224-3208 .
W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean in Kenya and the effect of Meloidogyne infection on bean nodulation. African Crop Science Journal 7:503 .". In: Proceedings of 5th of African Crop Science Conference. Lagos Nigeria. Ogutu J.O; 1999. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
Maitai CK. "Plant poisoning in childhood ." Medicus. 1983;1:10-11.
Kyule MD. "Plant remains from a Sirikwa culture site at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru. Nyame Akuma 36: 8-10 1991, , USA." Nyame Akuma (Publication of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists).. 1992;36:8-10.Website
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, S MJ. "Plant species composition and diversity depending on piospheres and seasonality in the southern rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes, 6(1), 16.. 2017;6(1):16.
Ruto WKS, Kinyamario JI, Ng'etich NK, Akunda E, Akunda E. "Plant Species Diversity and Composition of Two Wetlands in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

Two wetlands (Hyena and Nalogomon) in the Nairobi National Park were investigated by comparing plant composition in and around their immediate vicinity. The most common aquatic plant species in the Hyena wetland was Cyperus dives while in the Nalogomon wetland was Typha domingensis. The terrestrial vegetation surrounding Hyena wetland dominated by while that of surrounding Nalogomon wetland was the grass Hyparrhemia rufa. It was also noted that Hyena Dam waters were colonized by aquatic weeds, namely Gunnera perpensa, Enhydra fluctuans and Ludwigia abyssinica, that were absent in Nalogomon wetland waters. This could have been due to eutrophication of the waters of Hyena Dam as it originated from human settlements (city estates) outside the park boundary.

and W.K.S. Ruto, J.I. Kinyamario N’etich AMNKEJK. "Plant Species Diversity and Composition of Two Wetlands in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya." Wetlands Ecology. 2012;6:07-15.abstracts.pdf
Stomeo F;, Wamalwa, M;,, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A;. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
Stomeo F;, Wamalwa M;, Harvey J;, Miano DW;, Boonham N;, Kilalo D;, Adams J;, Djikeng A. "Plant virome ecology in African farming systems: A genomics and bioinformatics framework for high-throughput virus detection and pathogen discovery."; 2013.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Plant-level Industrial Relations in Kenya. A Case Study Papar written for ILO/SIDO African Labour Relations Project G.K. Ikiara and S.N Momanyi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Kyule MD. "Plants remains from a Sirikwa culture site at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru." Nyame Akuma: Publication of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists. 1991;36:8-10. Abstract

This article reports a preliminary examination of plant remains and the tentative implications that have so far been deduced from them. The plant samples were acquired by archaeological excavations at one of the Hyrax Sirikwa sites within Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. Hyrax Hill has numerous prehistoric sites that represent occupations dating as far back as the Neolithic period. Several of the Neolithic sites have been studied (see Leakey 1945, Onyango-Abuje 1977, Merrick 1983). However, of specific relevance to this report are the Sirikwa culture sites that are found in a group throughout the lower northwestern portion of the hill. There are at least 13 of these Sirikwa occurrences comprising about 13 hollows and 13 mounds.

Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4(2):1075.
Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4:1075. Abstract
n/a
Kimata MD, Makawiti D, Dadzie S, Waindi EN. Plasma Cortisol, Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Levels in Human African Trypanosomiasis Patients from Western Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993.
Mbuthia JK, Amayo AA GP. "Plasma lipids in children with HIV at Gertrude’s Childrens Hospital Comprehensive CareCentre.". In: XIth International Conference of Paediatric Laboratory Medicine. Fortaleza, Brazil; 2008.
O PROFORINDADA. "Plasma Oestradiol .". In: E. A. Med. Journal, Vol. 55 No. 4 April 1978. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. "Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans.". 1977.
Okech MO, Orinda DA, Gatei DG, Wasunna AO. "Plasma oestradiol-17B and oestrogen receptors in mammary tumours among Africans." East Afr Med J. 1977;54(11):615-20.
Campbell MS, Kahle EM, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Kapiga S, Mujugira A, Mugo NR, Fife KH, Mullins JI, Baeten JM. "Plasma viral loads during early HIV-1 infection are similar in subtype C- and non-subtype C-infected African seroconverters." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(7):1166-70. Abstract

Recent data suggest that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C results in prolonged high-level viremia (>5 log10 copies/mL) during early infection. We examined the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and plasma viremia among 153 African seroconverters. Mean setpoint viral loads were similar for C and non-C subtypes: 4.36 vs 4.42 log10 copies/mL (P = .61). The proportion of subtype C-infected participants with viral loads >5 log10 copies/mL was not greater than the proportion for those with non-C infection. Our data do not support the hypothesis that higher early viral load accounts for the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa.

KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Plasma-Radiative Modelling and Characterisation of the Sliding Spark Discharge: Implications for Direct Dielectric Solid Trace Quantitative Spectroscopy.". In: J. Radiative & Quantit. Spectres. (In Press), 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
Kinyanjui P, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

Kinyanjui PN, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

Kinyanjui P, Bururia JM, Waiyaki PG, Kariuki SM, Karimi PN. "Plasmid Borne Resistance in Klebsiella Isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008. Abstractplasmid_borne_resistance_in_klebsiella_isolates_from_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Eighty six Klebsiella isolates from Kenyatta National Hospital and the Centre for Microbiology, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi were screened for resistance to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents and for their plasmid content. Plasmids were transferred into Esherichia coli K-12 and resulting transconjugants screened for resistance to the antimicrobial agents used on Klebsiella donors and for their plasmid content. Plasmids from the Klebsiella isolates were also transformed into Eschericia coli and transformants analyzed for resistance and plasmid content. Endonuclease restriction mapping was done to characterize the plasmids from Klebsiella isolates and their Eschericia coli transformants. Resistance was found to be plasmid borne and transmissible.

M DRSENERWADANIEL. "PLASMID MEDIATED ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN KLEBSIELA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM NEONATES IN A HOSPITAL WARD.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 1992. Abstract
Antibiotic neosensitab susceptibility to ten commonly used antibiotics was done on 65 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from neonates in a nursery ward. All the strains except one were resistant to one or more antibiotic, and more than 0% of the isolates were resistant of 4 or more antibiotics. The isolates carried 18 different antibiotic resistance determinants. The most frequent antibiotic resistance determinants carried by a single resistant isolate were those of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, ampicilin, and gentamicin which were found in 23 (35.3%) strains. The average number of antibiotic resistances per resistant strain was 4.there was no consistent relationship between plasmid profile group and antibiotic resistance pattern. A spontaneous loss of a 180 MDa plasmid by a resistant strain was accompanied by a loss of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and oxytetracyline.
Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya.". 2020;20(1):703. Abstractkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfWebsite

Treatment of gonorrhea is complicated by the development of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) to the antibiotics recommended for treatment. Knowledge on types of plasmids and the antibiotic resistance genes they harbor is useful in monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In Kenya, studies on gonococcal antimicrobial resistance are few and data on plasmid mediated drug resistance is limited. The present study characterizes plasmid mediated resistance in N. gonorrhoeae isolates recovered from Kenya between 2013 and 2018.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020;20. Abstract
n/a
Kimani SK, Ng’ang’a JK, DW Kariuki, Kinyua J, Kimani FT, Kiboi DM. "Plasmodium Berghei ANKA: Selection of Pyronaridine Resistance in Mouse Model." African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2014;8(6):111-117.plasmodium_berghei_anka-selection_of_pyronaridine_resistance_in_mouse_model.pdfacademicjournals
Nyamongo O, Mumo RM, Omwandho COA, Ochanda H. "Plasmodium DNA Encording Aplasmodium Falciparan Sera5 polypeptide Microbial Epitopes and Chemokin Genes Indicess Cross Species Protection in Mice and Olive Baboon.". In: International scientific conference. at Southern sun Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi; 2013.
Nyataya J, Waitumbi J, Mobegi VA, Noreddin A, El Zowalaty ME. "Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 gene deletions and their implications in malaria control." Diseases. 2020;8:15. Abstract

Malaria remains the biggest threat to public health, especially among pregnant women and young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical for effective case management and detection of drug resistance. Conventionally, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the tools of choice for malaria diagnosis. RDTs are simple to use and have been extensively used in the diagnosis of malaria among travelers to malaria-endemic regions, routine case management, and surveillance studies. Most RDTs target the histidine-rich protein (PfHRP) which is exclusively found in Plasmodium falciparum and a metabolic enzyme Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) which is common among all Plasmodium species. Other RDTs incorporate the enzyme aldolase that is produced by all Plasmodium species. Recently, studies have reported false-negative RDTs primarily due to the deletion of the histidine-rich protein (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) genes in field isolates of P. falciparum. Herein, we review published literature to establish pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions, the extent of these deletions in different geographical regions, and the implication in malaria control. We searched for publications on pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions and retrieved all publications that reported on this subject. Overall, 20 publications reported on pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions, and most of these studies were done in Central and South America, with very few in Asia and Africa. The few studies in Africa that reported on the occurrence of pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions rarely evaluated deletions on the flanking genes. More studies are required to evaluate the existence and extent of these gene deletions, whose presence may lead to delayed or missed treatment. This information will guide appropriate diagnostic approaches in the respective areas.

Albert O. Mala, Lucy W. Irungu, Josephat I.Shililu, Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles C. Mbogo, Joseph K. Njagi, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Githure JI. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:121.
IRUNGU LUCYW. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control. Malaria Journal. 2011;10(1):121.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Mala AO, Irungu LW, Shililu JI, Muturi EJ, Mbogo CC, Kiambo JK, Mukabana WR, Githure JI; 2011.
SA O, PF M, GJ S, J M, S K, GA O, HD. S. "Plasmodium falciparum: evaluation of a quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay to predict the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment of uncomplicated malaria.". 2005. AbstractFull text link

A quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) assay was employed to predict retrospectively the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children aged <6 years in an endemic region. Blood samples were collected at initial diagnosis and during follow-up. Mutation-specific nested PCR methods to analyse DHFR (Arg-59) and DHPS (Glu-540) mutations that are associated with SP drug resistance were applied. Parasite genotyping was performed to distinguish between re-infection and recrudescence. Eighty-six patients were recruited of which 66 were available for follow-up. Nine children were classified as early treatment failure, 13 cases were classified as late clinical failure, 32 as late parasitological failure, and only 12 children had an adequate clinical and parasitological response. DHFR and DHPS mutations conferring SP resistance were abundant in the Plasmodium population. Blood samples obtained 7 days after treatment were used to predict retrospectively the outcome of SP treatment. QT-NASBA was able to give a correct prediction of treatment outcome in 85.7% of the cases. Positive predictive value (PPV) of QT-NASBA case was 95% (95% confidence interval = 88.3-100) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 63% (95% CI = 39.5-86.5). In contrast, microscopy correctly predicted outcome in only 37.5% of the cases. PPV of microscopy was 100% (95% CI = 73.9-100) and the NPV was 25.5% (95% CI = 13.0-38.0). The analysis of a day 7 blood sample with QT-NASBA allows for the prediction of late clinical or parasitological treatment failure in the majority of the cases analysed in the present study.

Mberu EK, Nzila AM, Nduati E, Ross A, Monks SM, Kokwaro GO, Watkins WM, Hopkins SC. "Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro activity of sulfadoxine and dapsone in field isolates from Kenya: point mutations in dihydropteroate synthase may not be the only determinants in sulfa resistance.". 2007. Abstract

We have determined the relationship between point mutations in the gene that encodes the sulfa target, dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and the chemosensitivity profile to sulfadoxine and dapsone in 67 isolates from Kilifi, Kenya. We assessed the presence of mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613 of dhps. The results showed that the dhps genotype had a strong influence on the sensitivity to sulfadoxine and dapsone, but that the correlation was far from perfect. Eleven isolates carried a wild-type dhps allele, but were resistant to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values >10 microg/ml), and 4/28 isolates were classed as sensitive to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values <10 microg/ml), but carried a triple mutant (436/437/613) allele of dhps. These data show that in low folate medium in vitro, the dhps genotype alone did not account completely for sulfadoxine or dapsone resistance; other factors such as the utilisation of exogenous folate must also be considered

Mberu EK, Nzila AM, Nduati E, Ross A, Monks SM, Kokwaro GO, Watkins WM, Hopkins SC. "Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro activity of sulfadoxine and dapsone in field isolates from Kenya: point mutations in dihydropteroate synthase may not be the only determinants in sulfa resistance.". 2007. Abstract

We have determined the relationship between point mutations in the gene that encodes the sulfa target, dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and the chemosensitivity profile to sulfadoxine and dapsone in 67 isolates from Kilifi, Kenya. We assessed the presence of mutations at codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613 of dhps. The results showed that the dhps genotype had a strong influence on the sensitivity to sulfadoxine and dapsone, but that the correlation was far from perfect. Eleven isolates carried a wild-type dhps allele, but were resistant to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values >10 microg/ml), and 4/28 isolates were classed as sensitive to sulfadoxine (IC(50) values <10 microg/ml), but carried a triple mutant (436/437/613) allele of dhps. These data show that in low folate medium in vitro, the dhps genotype alone did not account completely for sulfadoxine or dapsone resistance; other factors such as the utilisation of exogenous folate must also be considered

Kariuki MM, Kiaira JK, Mulaa FK, Mwangi JK, Wasunna MK, Martin SK. "Plasmodium falciparum: purification of the various gametocyte developmental stages from in vitro-cultivated parasites.". 2010. Abstract

Cultivated Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes reach maturity in vitro in approximately 14-16 days, during which they pass through five morphologically distinct developmental stages. Purification of the earlier developmental stages has not been previously reported. We have modified the standard discontinuous Percoll gradient method for the separation of stage IV and V gametocytes to obtain enriched preparations of those and the earlier P. falciparum gametocyte stages. In contrast to the stages II, III, and IV, the mature stage V gametocytes from our gradient readily transformed into gametes. Such preparations may be useful in research studies on the mechanisms that underlie gametocytogenesis.

Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Xu X, Kyaw AKK, Peng B, Zhao D, Wong TKS, Xiong Q, Sun X, Heeger AJ. "A plasmonically enhanced polymer solar cell with gold–silica core–shell nanorods." Organic electronics. 2013;14:2360-2368. Abstract
n/a
Kilonzo BM. A Plastic Anaemia At The Kenyatta National Hospital During The Period 1973-1978.; Submitted. Abstract

A total of 54 patients were diagnosed and treated for plastic anaemia between July, 1973 to December 1978 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The sex distribution was equal. Most of the age groups were affected with the majority of Cases occurring in the young age groups.
Most tribes in Kenya were found not to be free from a plastic anaemia and there was a predominance of the disease amongst the Kikuyu tribe who lived in and around Nairobi.
Very few factors associated with actiology could. Be elicited and this was partially due to adequate histoties taken at the time of admission by the various physicians. Even though great difficulties are encountered in establishing an aetiologic role for a given agent, so that in large proportion of patients remains unexplained.
The presenting clinical features were those of anaemic haemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and infections resulting from leucopenia, all of which were observed in all the patients reviewed except for the 4 patients with pure red cell aplasia.
The other 50 patients had hypoplastic marrows. Confirmation of diagnosis was delayed due to initial blood transfusion given before peripheral blood film examination in most patients.
Massive blood transfusion was given to patients on remission. Although platelet concentrates are available and obviate the massive blood transactions, only very few patients received platelet infusions.
Corticosteroid and androgenic asteroids were administered but there was no laid down policy as to the protocol to be followed. Hence administration of these drugs was done in a haphazard manner with a big proportion of patients going without any steroid therapy. This may have accounted to a great extent, for the very poor remission rate noted.
Since it has been observed that pure red cell aplacia remits spontaneously, prolonged therapy of these patients should be pursued vigorously.
Most of the deaths encountered occurred during the first 4 months of admission and they were mainly due to complications of the disease process mainly infections, congestive cardiac failure and excessive haemorrhage.

Hsiao CF, Fukuda Y. "Plastic changes in the distribution and soma size of retinal ganglion cells after neonatal monocular enucleation in rats." Brain research. 1984;301:1-12. Abstract

Using the method of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells with HRP, we studied in adult rats the plastic changes in the retinogeniculate projections due to monocular enucleations shortly after birth. Four normal and 6 neonatally enucleated rats were used. In two of the normal and 4 of the enucleated rats a small amount of HRP was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and in 4 other rats massive injections were made into the optic tract near the LGd. Neonatally unilaterally eye-enucleated rats were characterized by an expanded distribution of ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells all over the retina of the remaining eye and by a densely packed distribution of these cells in the lower temporal retina in which area these cells have only a moderate density in normal rats. On the contrary, in the lower temporal retina of monocularly enucleated rats the incidence of contralaterally projecting ganglion cells was decreased. Soma areas of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells were measured for the peripheral crescent in lower temporal and lower nasal retinas. As compared with normal rats, neonatally enucleated rats had a larger mean soma area of ipsilaterally projecting cells and a smaller mean soma area of contralaterally projecting cells. This result was interpreted as suggesting that after neonatal monocular enucleation medium to large cells had changed their side of axonal projection from the contralateral to ipsilateral LGd.

Hsiao CF, Fukuda Y. "Plastic changes in the distribution and soma size of retinal ganglion cells after neonatal monocular enucleation in rats." Brain research. 1984;301:1-12. Abstract

Using the method of retrograde labeling of ganglion cells with HRP, we studied in adult rats the plastic changes in the retinogeniculate projections due to monocular enucleations shortly after birth. Four normal and 6 neonatally enucleated rats were used. In two of the normal and 4 of the enucleated rats a small amount of HRP was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and in 4 other rats massive injections were made into the optic tract near the LGd. Neonatally unilaterally eye-enucleated rats were characterized by an expanded distribution of ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells all over the retina of the remaining eye and by a densely packed distribution of these cells in the lower temporal retina in which area these cells have only a moderate density in normal rats. On the contrary, in the lower temporal retina of monocularly enucleated rats the incidence of contralaterally projecting ganglion cells was decreased. Soma areas of ipsi- and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells were measured for the peripheral crescent in lower temporal and lower nasal retinas. As compared with normal rats, neonatally enucleated rats had a larger mean soma area of ipsilaterally projecting cells and a smaller mean soma area of contralaterally projecting cells. This result was interpreted as suggesting that after neonatal monocular enucleation medium to large cells had changed their side of axonal projection from the contralateral to ipsilateral LGd.

Syka J. "Plastic {Changes} in the {Central} {Auditory} {System} {After} {Hearing} {Loss}, {Restoration} of {Function}, and {During} {Learning}." Physiological Reviews. 2002;82:601-636. AbstractWebsite

Traditionally the auditory system was considered a hard-wired sensory system; this view has been challenged in recent years in light of the plasticity of other sensory systems, particularly the visual and somatosensory systems. Practical experience in clinical audiology together with the use of prosthetic devices, such as cochlear implants, contributed significantly to the present view on the plasticity of the central auditory system, which was originally based on data obtained in animal experiments. The loss of auditory receptors, the hair cells, results in profound changes in the structure and function of the central auditory system, typically demonstrated by a reorganization of the projection maps in the auditory cortex. These plastic changes occur not only as a consequence of mechanical lesions of the cochlea or biochemical lesions of the hair cells by ototoxic drugs, but also as a consequence of the loss of hair cells in connection with aging or noise exposure. In light of the aging world population and the increasing amount of noise in the modern world, understanding the plasticity of the central auditory system has its practical consequences and urgency. In most of these situations, a common denominator of central plastic changes is a deterioration of inhibition in the subcortical auditory nuclei and the auditory cortex. In addition to the processes that are elicited by decreased or lost receptor function, the function of nerve cells in the adult central auditory system may dynamically change in the process of learning. A better understanding of the plastic changes in the central auditory system after sensory deafferentation, sensory stimulation, and learning may contribute significantly to improvement in the rehabilitation of damaged or lost auditory function and consequently to improved speech processing and production.

Huart C, Rombaux P, Hummel T. "Plasticity of the {Human} {Olfactory} {System}: {The} {Olfactory} {Bulb}." Molecules. 2013;18:11586-11600. AbstractWebsite

In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, particularly to its abilities of plasticity and its potential continuous neurogenesis throughout adult life. Although mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis have been largely investigated in animals, to some degree they remain unclear in humans. Based on human research findings, the present review will focus on the olfactory bulb as an evidence of the astonishing plasticity of the human olfactory system.

Huart C, Rombaux P, Hummel T. "Plasticity of the {Human} {Olfactory} {System}: {The} {Olfactory} {Bulb}." Molecules. 2013;18:11586-11600. AbstractWebsite

In the last years, an increasing interest has been paid to the olfactory system, particularly to its abilities of plasticity and its potential continuous neurogenesis throughout adult life. Although mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis have been largely investigated in animals, to some degree they remain unclear in humans. Based on human research findings, the present review will focus on the olfactory bulb as an evidence of the astonishing plasticity of the human olfactory system.

Mbuthia B, M OKGOGW. "Platelet Counts In patients with rheumatoid Arthritis. at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rhematol . 2013;1(1):8-12 .
Aluoch JR, JM M. "Platelet function in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Nairobi.". 1996. Abstract

From July 1990 to January 1991 we studied platelet functions in 55 indigenous Kenyan patients (23 males and 32 females) with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in steady state (SCASS) and in 20 (11 males and 9 females) SCA patients in vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis (VSCC). A control group of 50 healthy (23 males and 27 females) individuals matched for age and sex was also studied. Platelet aggregation time to ADP in SCASS (57.2 +/- 39.1) and in VSCC (31 +/- 11.1) were more prolonged (p < 0.05) compared to controls (12.7 +/- 5.2). It was also significantly more prolonged (p < 0.05) in VSCC than in SCASS. Platelet adhesiveness time was 31.1 +/- 13.7 seconds in SCASS, 30.9 +/- 11.1 in VSCC, and 37.7 +/- 13.0 in controls and was significantly lower in both SCA groups (p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. Clot retraction was 52.8 +/- 6.9 in SCASS, 53.6 +/- 10.7 in VSCC, and 45.9 +/- 8 in controls and was significantly higher in both SCA groups than in controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. We conclude that platelet function is deranged in indigenous Kenyan patients with SCA.

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Platelet functions in patients with meningococcal meningitis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Amayo EO, Kayima JK, Joshi MD.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Aug;79(8):405-7. East African Medical Journal.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
Dr Kayima JK. Platelet functions, plasma fibrinolytic activity And coagulation screen findings in africans with nephrotic syndrome without uraemia, as seen at the kenyatta national hospital (kne.; 1981. Abstract

In a nine months period,from March 1987 to November

1987, inc1usiv€, studies on p1ac21et functions, pla$ma fibrinolytic activity and coagulation screen were carried out in 40 patients (30 males and 10 females) with the nephrotic syndrome and 40 matches controls at the Kenyatta
National Hospital. The age range was S-Sl years, mean + SD

20.5+11.6.

patients had unchanged platelet counts and clot retraction compared to controls (p>O.OS), whereas platelet adhesiveness and platelet agg~egation to adenosine diphosphate U",DP) were significantly reduced among patients (P0.05) as well as between plasma fibrinogen concentration and total cholesterol (r=0.25, P>0.05).
It is concluded that our patients have a degree of hype-rcoagulability. Whether the factors for and against hypercoagulabiJ .ity compensate f cr each other in the causation of complications need to be verified. A larger populatibn and more detailed haemostatic study will in future be needed to cover more nephrotic patients in different areas of the country. It is also necessary to folIo w up ou r pat ient s f or complicat ions resul ting from
this hypercoagulable state, like thromboembolic events and

is.c!haemic heart diseas.e to find ou.t.. their pre...lence .

and

contr.ibutionto morbidity and mortality among Africans with

nephrotic syndrome.

J.SITUMA. "Plato: The arts and Social Order." International Journals of Arts and Commerce. 2014;3(6):134-142.
JALEHA MRSJEFWAJUDITHJAI. "A Play A Second Chance Presented to Secondary Schools Drama Festival National Finals.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mogambi H. "Please Pick My Call! University Students and Mobile Telephony in Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(11):120-132.

UoN Websites Search