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GUTO DRPETERSONMOMANYI. "Peterson M. Guto. Authored "Theory of Spectroscopy." The University of Nairobi Council; 2010.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN. "Peterson Obara Magutu, Isaac Meroka Mbeche, Onserio Nyamwange, Monica Nditu Mwove, "Formulation And Implementation Of Operation Strategies Used In Solid Waste Management: Case Study Of Nairobi City Council".". In: Presented at The 12th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference on Creating Global Economies through Innovation and Knowledge Published in Communications of the IBIMA (ISSN: 1943-7765) and IBIMA Business Review (ISSN: 19. IBIMA Publishing; 2009. Abstract

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The major purpose of this study was to document the operations strategy used in solid waste management, alongside the challenges facing implementation. This was a case study. Data was collected from fifty- (50) members and managers from the City Council of Nairobi and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The data was then summarized and presented in the form of proportions, tables and percentages.

The following findings were arrived at: First, the CEO and the employees do the formulation of the operations strategy as part of a planning process that coordinates operational goals with those of the larger organization. The annual objectives on solid waste management are well documented, which is inclusive of improving public health of the people; the environment; and maintain public cleanliness in order to keep public places aesthetically acceptable: by ensuring the proper storage, collection, transportation, safe treatment and disposal of solid waste. Secondly, the heads/managers feel that the current policies adequately support the institutions strategic plan. Thirdly, on the evaluation of the CCN's operations strategies used in solid waste management, it was also found that CCN has not invested on enough time and effort in analyzing environment capabilities and services to develop their operations strategy. On the other hand the CCN has not invested on enough time and effort in implementing its operations strategy. The internal strengths with the highest effect on CCN's competitive advantage, resulting from its operations strategy are: responsive employees in meeting customer needs, highly trained employees and quality control techniques. Lastly, the factors that have strongly limited sound waste management operations strategy implementation are the inability to formulate and implement sound solid waste management policies, inadequate treatment and disposal of solid waste and inadequate landfill disposal. The results have further used to come up with a model which exposes the integration of the operation strategies in solid waste management.

Keywords: Operation Strategy, Solid Waste Management and City Council

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN. "Peterson Obara Magutu, Isaac Meroka Mbeche, Richard Bitange Nyaoga, Onserio Nyamwange, Richard Nyaanga Ongeri, and Thomas Ogoro Ombati, "Quality Management Practices in Kenyan Educational Institutions: The Case of the University of Nairobi".". In: Presented at The 12th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference on Creating Global Economies through Innovation and Knowledge Management. Published in Communications of the IBIMA (ISSN: 1943-7765) and IBIMA Business Revi. IBIMA Publishing; 2009.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Petit PL, Haarlem JV, Poelman M, Haverkamp MC, Wamola IA.Bacteraemia in patients presenting with fever. East Afr Med J. 1995 Feb;72(2):116-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Feb;72(2):116-20. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
In three studies, in Ghana and Kenya, blood from 639 patients admitted with fever was cultured. Standard treatments were antimalarials (54-100%) and antibiotics (39-90%). According to the criteria in use, however, only 10-31% had malaria alone; of those who received antibiotics, 66% were diagnosed with malaria, gastrointestinal infections, post-operative recuperations, circulatory problems, central nervous system disorders or FUO, and did not need antibiotics at the first encounter. For those with wounds and abscesses (8%), generalised antibiotic treatment can also be questioned. Bacteraemia was found in 71 (11.3%) patients; in the HIV patients, however, 5 (23%) of 22 had bacteraemia. This is a minimum incidence, since culture techniques were not optimal for the isolation of fastidious microorganisms. The most prevalent organisms isolated were Salmonella, Klebsiella/Enterobacter and S. aureus. Resistance (intrinsic and extrinsic) in the Gram- bacteria was high: 31-100% were resistant to amoxycillin, 0-80% to cotrimoxazole, 15-95% to chloramphenicol and 9-15% to gentamicin. The need for cultures and sensitivity tests for patients with prolonged or undiagnosed fever is stressed. Specific treatment should be given only when infections, whether malarial or bacterial, have been positively diagnosed.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Petit PL, Wamola IA.Typhoid fever: a review of its impact and diagnostic problems. East Afr Med J. 1994 Mar;71(3):183-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Mar;71(3):183-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
A retrospective analysis was done on the diagnosis of typhoid fever based on clinical symptoms and available laboratory data over the last 16 years from rural areas of four African countries. This analysis concentrated on the reliability of diagnosis without cultures which cannot be performed in most rural hospitals due to lack of the necessary expertise and equipment. The analysis showed the problem to be increasing perhaps because of interaction of salmonella infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition and other infections together with neglected sanitary facilities and lack of clean water. The use of certain cardinal clinical symptoms combined with available laboratory tests were shown to enhance the diagnosis of typhoid fever, especially in vulnerable persons. In conclusion the paper suggests that using the approach followed to obtain this data in rural tropical areas one can confidently make a diagnosis of typhoid fever.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, A., Kenya: The African Medical Research Foundation in Case Studies of Non-formal Education by Distance and Open Learning, Commonwealth of Learning Vancouver, Canada and the British Development for International Development, UK (DFID) 2000,.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
This study documents the experience of the Distance Education Project of the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF), Kenya Country Office. The African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) is an independent, non-profit organisation founded in 1957. It is one of the few international Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs) based in Africa, with headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The Distance Education Project focuses on workers who have little or no access to any other form of continuing education. (Brye et al, 1990). As a result, their medical skills and capabilities often deteriorate which inevitably leads to poor service delivery. (DE Proposal to USAID, 1989/94). Some observations of the study were that: There seems to be a fairly wide geographical distribution of learners. However, a closer look reveals that learners seem to come in clusters from certain areas, especially where there is a larger health care facility. This suggests that information on availability of the AMREF courses is obtained by word of mouth rather than by an aggressive effort to advertise the project in areas with low enrolment. On the other hand, while the majority of learners stated that they find the courses relevant to their work, almost 20% indicated that the course they are taking is not directly related to their work. 30% of respondents stated that AMREF courses should be upgraded, recognised by employers and educational institutions and considered for promotions. Perhaps, if the courses offered by AMREF are aimed at a particular category of health worker and are so structured as to start from the basic training level, bringing the learner up to a higher level through a series of related courses, there would be a stronger case for recognition of the certificates. When planning an education programme, it is important to see it as a continuing programme, bringing a learner from a lower level to a higher level of learning. The respondents noted an increase in knowledge and acquired a variety of skills as a result of the completion of the AMREF DE course(s). Generally, DE learners learned about new medical conditions especially in the area of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), gained new skills in physical examination, refreshed their knowledge in areas previously studied and noted an increase in confidence in the workplace. One of the most common complaints amongst correspondence learners was that it took too long for course materials to be received after registration for a course. In addition, most active correspondence learners had not had an opportunity to meet with their tutors. Fifty five (55) learners from the sample population stated that they had never met their tutors. For distance learners who study alone, it is important to establish a system of quick response and promote a caring attitude to encourage learners to complete their course of studies. This is even more important in this case where face to face sessions have been discontinued.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, A., Report on the National Accreditation Workshop, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and UK Department for International Development (DFID), 2000.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Skills and Literacy Training for Better Livelihoods:A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Strengthening of Livelihoods with Literacy,Institute of International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association, Bonn, Germany.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER. "Petrography, mineral chemistry and thermobarometry of the Neoporoterozoic Mozambique belt rocks of Matuu-Masinga area, central Kenya. Proceedings of the International seminar UNESCO-IUGS-IGCP-368, Geological Survey of India Special Publication No. 57,pp.2.". In: Ist intern. Geol. Field conf. on Oban-Odudu Massif, S.E Nigeria Calabar Univer., Scientific Programme and Abstracts pp17-18. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
Nyambok IO. "Petrology and geochemistry of the alkaline intrusion, Jombo Hill, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractPetrology and geochemistry of the alkaline intrusion, Jombo Hill, Kenya

The field occurrence and the known immiscibility between silicate and carbonate melts suggest the Jombo alkaline intrusion and Mrima carbonatite intrusion have come from the same magmatic source. However, only the ijolite series apparently originated from a magma body at Jombo hill intrusion, while the feldspathoidal syenite series appears to have resulted from metasomatic alteration of the country rock-sandstone. The K/Rb ratios seem to indicate a mantle origin for the ijolites and a crustal one for the feldspathoidal syenites. The feldspathoidal syenite series were presumably formed by alkali metasomatism, resulting from magmatic fluid infiltration through intergranular movement. It is suggested that the partitioning of K and Na components in the metasomatizing fluid and solid feldspar phases at different temperatures, was the cause of two rock types – albite nepheline syenite and orthoclase nepheline syenite.

WASWA AARONKUTUKHULU. Petrology and iron ore mineralization in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt rocks of Mutomo-Ikutha area, in Kitui county, S.E. Kenya. Nyamai DCM, Mathu PE, ICHANG'I DD, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2015. Abstractabstract.docxabstract.pdf

PETROLOGY AND TECTONO - METAMORPHIC SETTING OF IRON DEPOSITS IN THE MOZAMBIQUE BELT SEGMENT IN MUTOMO - IKUTHA AREA, SOUTH- EASTERN KENYA

Abstract
The study area is bounded by longitudes 380 4’E to 38020’E and latitudes 1048’S to 208’S in South Kitui within the Kitui County occupying about 100 Km2. This area can be accessed from Nairobi-Thika - Kitui ,Nairobi – Machakos-Kitui roads, or from Mombasa –Kibwezi – Ikutha – Mutomo road. Mineral deposits in Kenya occur in different geological settings, such as those associated with Tertiary rocks (Turkana sapphire deposit). Most of the mineral deposits like iron ore located within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt have not been properly evaluated in geological and metallogenical context. This work intends to relate, evaluate and scientifically place the geological framework of iron deposits in Mutomo – Ikutha area of Kitui County, Kenya to the specific events within the litho and tectonothermal evolution of the Mozambique mobile Belt. A thorough investigation of the major and minor geological structures as well as metamorphism will be elucidated in the project area on their role in the formation of iron deposits. The establishment and economic and scientific investigation of iron deposits in the study area for purposes of mining and wealth creation in the region is of great importance in this research work. The application of the research to exploration and development of artisanal mining in Kenya will be successful in terms of prospecting at the regional and scale, by determining the lithological, geochemical and tectonic controls for the mineralization.
The Mozambique Belt has a long and complex history, marked by a succession of major tectonothermal events. This belt runs from Egypt through, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and ends in Mozambique. The methods to be used to achieve the aim of this research will include; geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations. Preliminary investigation will be carried out using remote sensed data. Laboratory analysis will include X-ray florescence, X-ray defractometry, and electron Microprobe. The data obtained will be analyzed using Oasis montaj software, Matlab and any other relevant software. The updated geological and structural maps will be compiled using Arc GIS software. This study is expected to provide comprehensive understanding of the tectonothermal scenario and its associated economic mineralization in the Mozambique belt.

MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD, MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "Petrology and Tectonic Evolution of Archaean and Proterozoic Rocks of the Kakamega-Kapsabet Area, Ph.D. thesis, University of Nairobi, 338p.". In: Kenya and the Pare-Usambara Mts. N.E. Tanzania. Journ. Afr. Eath Sci. 30:10. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
Späth A, Le Roex AP, Opiyo-Akech N. "The petrology of the Chyulu Hills volcanic province, southern Kenya.". 2000. AbstractThe petrology of the Chyulu Hills volcanic province, southern Kenya

The Quaternary Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province is located more than 100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley. It consists of a large number of free-standing and coalesced volcanoes and cinder cones and numerous lava flows ranging in composition from nepheline-normative nephelinites, basanites, alkali basalts and hawaiites to orthopyroxene-normative subalkali basalts. In this paper, the authors briefly outline the geological setting of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, present a classification scheme for its lavas and describe their petrography. Mineral chemistry data for selected olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts are presented together with the bulk rock major element compositions of selected samples. The petrography, phenocryst chemistry and bulk rock composition of the typically primitive Chyulu Hills lavas are consistent with a differentiation history dominated by olivine control. A process of delayed olivine fractionation, combined with limited mantle olivine accumulation, is proposed to explain the considerable compositional variability observed among olivine phenocryst cores. A trend of decreasing degree of silica-undersaturation from the oldest lavas, erupted in the northern Chyulu Hills, to progressively younger lavas in the southern part of the province is explained as a result of an age progressive decrease in the depth of melt generation and a coincident increase in the degree of melting.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Petrology, geochemistry and evaluation of the heavy mineral deposits in Malindi and Uganga shore areas.". In: Marine Mining. Vol. 10, 337-351. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Petrology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Alkaline Rocks, Jombo Hill Kenya.". In: Acta Universities Upsaliensis Diss. Abstr.493. 14p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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Majanja J, Wamunyokoli F, Mpoke S, Bulimo WD. "PGF2α Synthase-Like Proteins are Expressed in Promastigotes of Old World Leishmania Species but not in New World Species." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(2):67-73.majanja_et_al._2014.pdf
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. "Ph.D Thesis entitled "The Valuation of Waterfront Properties Along the Coastline of Kenya.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1986. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Ph.D Thesis. Title: Coping with Malaria and Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) in Baringo District, Kenya: Implications for Disease Control, University of California, Los Angeles.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
FRANCIS DRNJUI. "Ph.D. Thesis entitled Fifth Order Rotatable Designs submitted to the University of Nairobi.". In: Kenya. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Ph.D. Thesis title .". In: Paper presented for APSK symposium 7th-8th March, 2001 Egerton University Njoro, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2001.
W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Ph.D. Thesis. Support Vector Machines: A critical empirical evaluation. School of Computing & Informatics, University of Nairobi, 2003.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2003. Abstract
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K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Ph.D. Thesis: "The Study of the effects of some Kenyan soils on the corrosion.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
OLIECH JS. "Phaeochromocytoma:14 cases seen and treated at Kenyatta National Hospital (5years)." Postgraduate Doctor(Africa). 1992;14(2). Abstract

A study of 14 proven cases of phaeochromocytoma operated on at the Kenyatta National Hosspital was done.The management problems and the difficulty in diagnosis is disscussed

Manani RO, Abuga KO, Chepkwony HK. "Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Clarithromycin Oral Dosage Forms Marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya." Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2017;85(2):20. Abstract

Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum semi-synthetic macrolide indicated for treatment of pneumonias, Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial and skin infections. The object of this study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of 14 generic clarithromycin products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya, to the innovator products, using in vitro dissolution profiles and similarity factors (f2). Further, dissolution profiles of four innovator formulations manufactured in different sites were compared. Fourteen clarithromycin tablets/capsules and four suspensions were subjected to assay and comparative dissolution runs at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8, for 60 and 90 min, respectively. All products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. However, significant differences were observed in their dissolution profiles. The non-compliance rates for tablets/capsules were 50% at pH 1.2, 33% at pH 4.5 and 50% at pH 6.8, while none of the four suspensions were compliant. Overall, only four (25%) products complied with the specifications for similarity factor. The results obtained indicate that a significant percentage of generic clarithromycin products are pharmaceutically non-equivalent to the innovator products, and that assay and single-point dissolution tests are insufficient demonstration of equivalence between the generic and innovator products.

Qureshi ZP, Sartor O, Xirasagar S, Liu Y, Bennett CL. "Pharmaceutical fraud and abuse in the United States, 1996-2010.". 2011.
Mr. KAHONGE ANDREWMWAURA. "Pharmaceutical Management of Malaria Medicines Survey in Kenya (President.". In: Research for Sustainable Development and Institutional Capacity Building.; 2009. Abstract
       
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants. Contraception. 1996 Sep;54(3):153-7.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1996 Jan-Feb;7(1):65-70. uon press; 1996. Abstract
Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1 postpartum. Infants of nine mothers, who did not receive DMPA, served as controls. Blood samples were collected from treated mothers on days 44, 47, 74, 124, 128, and 130 postpartum for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) measurements. Four-hour urine collections were obtained from all 22 infants in the morning on days 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 53, 60, 67, 74, 88, 102, 116, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, and 137. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), unconjugated testosterone, and unconjugated cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum MPA and urinary MPA metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). No MPA metabolites could be detected in the urine of the infants from the DMPA-receiving mothers. Hormonal profiles in the urine samples were not suppressed in comparison with those of the control infants. The present study demonstrates that DMPA, administered to the mother, does not influence the hormonal regulation of the breast-fed normal male infant.
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Gakuya G;, Koros DW;, Ogara WO;, Wagate C. "Pharmacoepidemiology And Bioprospecting Of Herbal Medicines In Three Districts In Kenya."; 2008.
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Gakuya G;, Koros DW;, Ogara WO;, Wagate C. "Pharmacoepidemiology And Bioprospecting Of Herbal Medicines In Three Districts In Kenya."; 2008.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "PHARMACOGENETICS OF DRUG METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN THE LUO, KIKUYU AND MAASAI ETHINIC POPULATIONS OF KENYA.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. MN Oluka, A Matimba,AN Guantai, C Masirembwa, BH Estambale; 1981. Abstract

ere is great heterogeneity in the way individuals and populations respond to medications in terms of both host toxicity and efficacy. It is now well recognized that genetic differences in drug metabolism and disposition as well in drug target receptors could have an even greater influence on the efficacy and toxicity of medications. A Wide range of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are subject to genetic polymorphism. The genotype-phenotype relationship is particularly important for drugs with narrow therapeutic index where slight changes in plasma levels can result in serious toxicity or lack of efficacy. While Caucasian and oriental populations have benefited from the intense interest in the field of pharmacogenomics, there still exists a wide gap in this knowledge on African populations. Hence, the main objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and frequency of allelic variants of polymorphic DME in three major ethnic populations in Kenya.

Gatuma AK. A Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Investigation Of The Poisonous Principle(s) Of Elaeodendron Buchananii (Loes.) Loes.; 1977. Abstract

A pharmacognostical investigation of Elaeodendron buchananii
(Loes.) Loes. has been undertaken. Phytochemical and pharmacological
properties of the active (poisonous) principles of the plant
have also been studied.
The pharmacognostical investigation of the plant involved identifying
features of the different parts of the plant using photographic
and macroscopic methods .
Results of the screening tests of the different parts of the
plant for the active constituents indicated the presence of chemical
compounds with a, b-unsaturated 6- lactone ring, possibly cardiac
glycosides. Investigation of a suitable solvent system for the extraction
of these compounds was undertaken. Of the different parts
of the plant examined for active principles , the leaves were found
to contain the highest percentage of the chemical compounds with <,
(3- unsaturated 0-- lactone ring. Isolation and purification of the
active principle(s) from the original crude plant extracts involving
the removal of pigments, tannins! resins and excess lead has been
described. Crystellisat ion of the isolated gycoside from a suitable
solvent system and the subsequent study of some of the physical l and
chemical properties of the isolated compound has been described.
From the elemental analysis and the molecular weight of the
isolated compound the molecular formula of t he compound has been
determined as C32H47011. Using the infra-red, ultraviolet, nuclear
magnetic resonance and mass spectra$ a partial molecular structure
has been suggested.
The isolated compound has been reacted with Kedde reagent and
the resulting coloured complex has been examined to see whether it
obeys Beer - Lambert law. The calibration curve obtained has been
used to determine the percentage recovery of the isolated compound
in the leaves of the plant.
The pharmacological study of the isolated compound has also
been undertaken. This study involved the investigation of the
effects of the isolated compound on the blood pressure of anaesthetised
rat and the effect of the compound on the isolated perfused
rabbi t heart.
Suggestions for further work as regards pharmacognostical investigation
of the plant together with ascertaining the exact structural
formula of the compound has been proposed.

Kokwaro GO. "Pharmacokinetic basis of nifedipine-digoxin interaction: a commentary.". 1995. Abstract

Elevation of plasma digoxin levels following concurrent administration of nifedipine have previously been reported. The mechanism for this interaction has not been fully explained, but may include a reduction in volume of distribution of digoxin and/or reduction in the renal or non-renal clearance of digoxin by nifedipine. The end result is probably an elevation of plasma concentrations of free (pharmacologically active) digoxin, which may lead to manifestation of side effects of digoxin. This communication highlights the possible pharmacokinetic basis of the reported digoxin-nifedipine interaction.

Kokwaro GO, Marsh K, Edwards G, Otieno GO, Muchohi SN, Crawley J, Newton CRJC, Ogutu BR. "Pharmacokinetics and anticonvulsant effects of diazepam in children with severe falciparum malaria and convulsions.". 2002. Abstract

Convulsions are a common complication of severe malaria in children and are associated with poor outcome. Diazepam is used to terminate convulsions but its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been studied in this group. Accordingly, we carried out a comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (i.v.) and rectal (p.r.) diazepam. Twenty-five children with severe malaria and a convulsion lasting >5 min were studied. Sixteen children received diazepam intravenously (i.v.; 0.3 mg kg−1) and nine rectally (p.r.; 0.5 mg kg−1). Plasma diazepam concentrations were measured by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The duration of convulsions, depth of coma, respiratory and cardiovascular parameters were monitored.   Median maximum plasma diazepam concentrations of 634 (range 402–1507) ng ml−1 and 423 (range 112–1953) ng ml−1 were achieved at 5 and 25 min following i.v. and p.r. administration, respectively. All patients except three (one i.v. and two p.r.) achieved plasma diazepam concentration >200 ng ml−1 within 5 min. Following p.r. administration, plasma diazepam concentrations were more variable than i.v. administration. A single dose of i.v. diazepam terminated convulsions in all children but in only 6/9 after p.r. administration. However, nine children treated with i.v. and all those treated with p.r. diazepam had a recurrence of convulsions occurring at median plasma diazepam concentrations of 157 (range: 67–169) and 172 (range: 74–393) ng ml−1, respectively. All the children in the i.v. and four in the PR diazepam group who had recurrence of convulsions required treatment. None of the children developed respiratory depression or hypotension.   Administration of diazepam i.v. or p.r. resulted in achievement of therapeutic concentrations of diazepam rapidly, without significant cardio-respiratory adverse effects. However, following p.r. administration, diazepam did not terminate all convulsions and plasma drug concentrations were more variable.

Kokwaro G, Ogutu BR, Muchohi SN, Otieno GO, Newton CR. "Pharmacokinetics and clinical effect of phenobarbital in children with severe falciparum malaria and convulsions.". 2010. Abstractpharmacokinetics_and_clinical_effect_of_phenobarbital_in_children_with.pdf

Phenobarbital is commonly used to treat status epilepticus in resource-poor countries. Although a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) is recommended, this dose, administered intramuscularly (i.m.) for prophylaxis, is associated with an increase in mortality in children with cerebral malaria. We evaluated a 15-mg kg(-1) intravenous (i.v.) dose of phenobarbital to determine its pharmacokinetics and clinical effects in children with severe falciparum malaria and status epilepticus. Methods: Twelve children (M/F: 11/1), aged 7-62 months, received a loading dose of phenobarbital (15 mg kg(-1)) as an i.v. infusion over 20 min and maintenance dose of 5 mg kg(-1) at 24 and 48 h later. The duration of convulsions and their recurrence were recorded. Vital signs were monitored. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phenobarbital concentrations were measured with an Abbott TDx FLx fluorescence polarisation immunoassay analyser (Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic Division, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Simulations were performed to predict the optimum dosage regimen that would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 15 and 20 mg l(-1) for 72 h. Results: All the children achieved plasma concentrations above 15 mg l(-1) by the end of the infusion. Mean (95% confidence interval or median and range for Cmax) pharmacokinetic parameters were: area under curve [AUC (0, infinity)]: 4259 (3169, 5448) mg l(-1).h, t(1/2): 82.9 (62, 103) h, CL: 5.8 (4.4, 7.3) ml kg(-1) h(-1), Vss: 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) l kg (-1), CSF: plasma phenobarbital concentration ratio: 0.7 (0.5, 0.8; n= 6) and Cmax: 19.9 (17.9-27.9) mg l(-1). Eight of the children had their convulsions controlled and none of them had recurrence of convulsions. Simulations suggested that a loading dose of 15 mg kg(-1) followed by two maintenance doses of 2.5 mg kg(-1) at 24 h and 48 h would maintain plasma phenobarbital concentrations between 16.4 and 20 mg l(-1) for 72 h. Conclution:Phenobarbital, given as an i.v. loading dose, 15 mg kg(-1), achieves maximum plasma concentrations of greater than 15 mg l(-1) with good clinical effect and no significant adverse events in children with severe falciparum malaria. A maintenance dose of 2.5 mg kg(-1) at 24 h and 48 h was predicted to be sufficient to maintain concentrations of 15-20 mg l(-1) for 72 h, and may be a suitable regimen for treatment of convulsions in these children

Ogutu BR, Newton CR, Muchohi SN, Otieno GO, Edwards G, Watkins WM, Kokwaro GO. "Pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of phenytoin and fosphenytoin in children with severe malaria and status epilepticus.". 2007. Abstract

Status epilepticus is common in children with severe falciparum malaria and is associated with poor outcome. Phenytoin is often used to control status epilepticus, but its water-soluble prodrug, fosphenytoin, may be more useful as it is easier to administer. We studied the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of phenytoin and fosphenytoin sodium in children with severe falciparum malaria and status epilepticus. METHODS: Children received intravenous (i.v.) phenytoin as a 18 mg kg-1 loading dose infused over 20 min followed by a 2.5 mg x kg(-1) 12 hourly maintenance dose infused over 5 min (n = 11), or i.v. fosphenytoin, administered at a rate of 50 mg x min(-1) phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE; n = 16), or intramuscular (i.m.) fosphenytoin as a 18 mg x kg(-1) loading dose followed by 2.5 mg x kg(-1) 12 hourly of PE (n = 11). Concentrations of phenytoin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), frequency of seizures, cardiovascular effects (respiratory rate, blood pressure, trancutaneous oxygen tension and level of consciousness) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity were monitored. RESULTS: After all routes of administration, a plasma unbound phenytoin concentration of more than 1 microg x ml(-1) was rapidly (within 5-20 min) attained. Mean (95% confidence interval) steady state free phenytoin concentrations were 2.1 (1.7, 2.4; i.v. phenytoin, n = 6), 1.5 (0.96, 2.1; i.v. fosphenytoin, n = 11) and 1.4 (0.5, 2.4; i.m. fosphenytoin, n = 6), and were not statistically different for the three routes of administration. Median times (range) to peak plasma phenytoin concentrations following the loading dose were 0.08 (0.08-0.17), 0.37 (0.33-0.67) and 0.38 (0.17-2.0) h for i.v. fosphenytoin, i.v. phenytoin and i.m. fosphenytoin, respectively. CSF: plasma phenytoin concentration ratio ranged from 0.12 to 0.53 (median = 0.28, n = 16). Status epilepticus was controlled in only 36% (4/11) following i.v. phenytoin, 44% (7/16), following i.v. fosphenytoin and 64% (7/11) following i.m. fosphenytoin administration, respectively. Cardiovascular parameters and MCA blood flow were not affected by phenytoin administration. CONCLUSIONS: Phenytoin and fosphenytoin administration at the currently recommended doses achieve plasma unbound phenytoin concentrations within the therapeutic range with few cardiovascular effects. Administration of fosphenytoin i.v. or i.m. offers a practical and convenient alternative to i.v. phenytoin. However, the inadequate control of status epilepticus despite rapid achievement of therapeutic unbound phenytoin concentrations warrants further investigation

Muchohi SN, Obiero K, Newton CR, Ogutu BR, Edwards G, Kokwaro GO. "Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of lorazepam in children with severe malaria and convulsions.". 2008. Abstract

To investigate the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) lorazepam (LZP) in children with severe malaria and convulsions. METHODS: Twenty-six children with severe malaria and convulsions lasting > or =5 min were studied. Fifteen children were given a single dose (0.1 mg kg(-1)) of i.v. LZP and 11 received a similar i.m. dose. Blood samples were collected over 72 h for determination of plasma LZP concentrations. Plasma LZP concentration-time data were fitted using compartmental models. RESULTS: Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] LZP concentrations of 65.1 ng ml(-1) (50.2, 107.0) and 41.4 ng ml(-1) (22.0, 103.0) were attained within median (95% CI) times of 30 min (10, 40) and 25 min (20, 60) following i.v. and i.m. administration, respectively. Concentrations were maintained above the reported therapeutic concentration (30 ng ml(-1)) for at least 8 h after dosing via either route. The relative bioavailability of i.m. LZP was 89%. A single dose of LZP was effective for rapid termination of convulsions in all children and prevention of seizure recurrence for >72 h in 11 of 15 children (73%, i.v.) and 10 of 11 children (91%, i.m), without any clinically apparent respiratory depression or hypotension. Three children (12%) died. CONCLUSION: Administration of LZP (0.1 mg kg(-1)) resulted in rapid achievement of plasma LZP concentrations within the reported effective therapeutic range without significant cardiorespiratory effects. I.m administration of LZP may be more practical in rural healthcare facilities in Africa, where venous access may not be feasible.

Obel AO. "Pharmacokinetics in medicine.". 1982.
Nyamweya NN, Gurley BJ, Breen P, Light KE. "Pharmacokinetics of cocaine and metabolites following intragastric administration to ten-day-old rat pups.". 1998. Abstract

Fetal cocaine exposure is a major problem resulting from the illicit use of cocaine by pregnant women. Studies examining the prevalence of cocaine use during pregnancy estimate usage ranges from 5-17% (I). Although no definitive syndrome has been defined, prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with decreased birth weight and size, brain injury and congenital anomalies (2).

Juma FD, Koech DK, Kasili EG, Ogada T. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan African children with lymphoma.". 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophisphamide have been extensively discussed in adult man.A few studies have been done to compare the pharmacokinetics of this important anticancer agent in children and adults of a comparable population

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan African children with lymphoma. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Jul;18(1):106-7.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Jul;18(1):106-7. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

Juma F, Ogada T. "Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide in Kenyan Africans.". 1983. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide was studied in 10 Kenyan Africans with Hodgkins lymphoma. The mean +/- s.d. elimination half-life (t1/2) was 7.5 +/- 1.38 h. The mean +/- s.d. volume of the central compartment (V1) was 0.35 +/- 0.12 l/kg and the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.64 +/- 0.06 l/kg. The microconstants k21, k12 and k10 were 1.81 +/- 0.84 h-1, 1.90 +/- 1.080 h-1 and 2.05 +/- 0.86 h-1 respectively (mean +/- s.d.).

K PROFNDELEJOHNSON. "The pharmacokinetics of netilmicin by J.K. Ndele. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Volume 15 No. 1 42-48 1990.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Volume 15 No. 1 42-48 1990. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
The present studies were designed and carried out to determine if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in the regulation of erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression and stimulation of Epo production in the hepatocellular (Hep 3B) cells. Hep 3B cells were incubated with varying concentrations of H2O2 for periods of 6 hours or 24 hours. In other experiments Hep 3B cells were incubated for 24 hours with or without increasing concentrations of catalase and in the presence of H2O2. Culture medium levels of Epo were determined and quantitation of Epo mRNA was also made. The results indicate that H2O2 increases the levels of Epo mRNA and Epo hormone production in Hep 3B cells, and that catalase, the specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, inhibits Epo production in these cells. Based on these findings, it is concluded that H2O2 takes part in the signal transduction mechanisms in Epo production. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken to find out the source of the hydrogen peroxide in the hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Kokwaro GO, Indalo AA, Taylor G. "Pharmacokinetics of oxamniquine in rabbit and rat.". 1996. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of the schistosomicidal agent oxamniquine (6-hydroxmethyl-2-isopropylaminomethyl-7-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetra hydroquinoline) were studied in 8 (4 male, 4 female) New Zealand White rabbits and 5 female Wistar rats, following intravenous administration (15 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters (mean +/- SD) in the rabbit and rat, respectively, were as follows: plasma clearance, 65.5 +/- 33 and 17.2 +/- 5.7 ml/min/kg; steady-state volume of distribution, 7.9 +/- 4.5 and 2.1 +/- 0.5 l/kg; terminal elimination half-life, 1.8 +/- 0.3 and 1.8 +/- 0.9 h. Oxamniquine appeared to be widely distributed in both species, although significantly higher in the rabbit. Similarly, plasma clearance was significantly higher in the rabbit. Using reported estimates of liver blood flow and fractions excreted unchanged in urine of the rabbit and rat, calculations based on blood clearances indicated that oxamniquine has a low hepatic extraction ratio (0.2) in the rat and an intermediate hepatic extraction ratio (0.6) in the rabbit. From separate experiments, however, hepatic extraction appeared to be low in the rabbit, suggesting that oxamniquine disposition is probably broadly similar in both rabbit and rat

A DRINDALOANNE. "Pharmacokinetics of oxamniquine in rabbit and rat.Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of the schistosomicidal agent oxamniquine (6-hydroxmethyl-2-isopropylaminomethyl-7-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetra hydroquinoline) were studied in 8 (4 male, 4 female) New Zealand White rabbits and 5 female Wistar rats, following intravenous administration (15 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters (mean +/- SD) in the rabbit and rat, respectively, were as follows: plasma clearance, 65.5 +/- 33 and 17.2 +/- 5.7 ml/min/kg; steady-state volume of distribution, 7.9 +/- 4.5 and 2.1 +/- 0.5 l/kg; terminal elimination half-life, 1.8 +/- 0.3 and 1.8 +/- 0.9 h. Oxamniquine appeared to be widely distributed in both species, although significantly higher in the rabbit. Similarly, plasma clearance was significantly higher in the rabbit. Using reported estimates of liver blood flow and fractions excreted unchanged in urine of the rabbit and rat, calculations based on blood clearances indicated that oxamniquine has a low hepatic extraction ratio (0.2) in the rat and an intermediate hepatic extraction ratio (0.6) in the rabbit. From separate experiments, however, hepatic extraction appeared to be low in the rabbit, suggesting that oxamniquine disposition is probably broadly similar in both rabbit and rat.
Lees P;, Maitho TE;, Millar JD;, Taylor JB. "Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in Welsh Mountain ponies."; 1982.
Muchohi SN, Kokwaro GO, Maitho TE, Munenge RW, Watkins WM, Edwards G. "Pharmacokinetics of phenytoin following intravenous and intramuscular administration of fosphenytoin and phenytoin sodium in the rabbit.". 2002. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare plasma phenytoin concentration versus time profiles following intravenous (i.v) and intramuscular (i.m) administration of fosphenytoin sodium with those obtained following administration of standard phenytoin sodium injection in the rabbit. Twenty-four adult New Zealand White rabbits (2.1±0.4 kg) were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone (30 mg/kg) followed by i.v or i.m administration of a single 10 mg/kg phenytoin sodium or fosphenytoin sodium equivalents. Blood samples (1.5 ml) were obtained from a femoral artery cannula predose and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after drug administration. Plasma was separated by centrifugation (1000 g; 5 min) and fosphenytoin, total and free plasma phenytoin concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Following i.v administration of fosphenytoin sodium plasma phenytoin concentrations were similar to those obtained following i.v administration of an equivalent dose of phenytoin sodium. Mean peak plasma phenytoin concentrations (Cmax) was 158% higher (P=0.0077) following i.m administration of fosphenytoin sodium compared to i.m administration of phenytoin sodium. The mean area under the plasma total and free phenytoin concentration-time curve from time zero to 120 min (AUC0−120) following i.m administration was also significantly higher (P=0.0277) in fosphenytoin treated rabbits compared to the phenytoin group. However, there was no significant difference in AUC0−180 between fosphenytoin and phenytoin-treated rabbits following i.v administration. There was also no significant difference in the mean times to achieve peak plasma phenytoin-concentrations (Tmax) between fosphenytoin and phenytoin-treated rabbits following i.m administration. Mean plasma albumin concentrations were comparable in both groups of animals. Fosphenytoin was rapidly converted to phenytoin both after i.v and i.m administration, with plasma fosphenytoin concentrations declining rapidly to undetectable levels within 10 min following administration via either route. These results confirm the rapid and complete hydrolysis of fosphenytoin to phenytoin in vivo, and the potential of the i.m route for administration of fosphenytoin delivering phenytoin in clinical settings where i.v administration may not be feasible.

Mbaria JM, Mitema ES, Maitho TE. "The pharmacokinetics of pyrethrins in lactating and non-lactating ewes after oral and subcutaneous administration.". 2009. Abstract

Pyrethrins were administered orally and subcutaneously (SC) at 150 mg/kg body weight to 10 lactating and non-lactating ewes in a cross over experimental design. A gas chromatographic method was used for analysis of Pyre-thrins in serum and milk samples from the experimental animals. The disposition curves were bi-exponential after first-order absorption and fitted 1 and 2 compartmental models. The maximum plasma concentration (Crnax) of Pyrethrins following oral and SC administra¬tion was 0.08 fig/ml and 0.1} fig/ml respectively with the corresponding time to maximum concentrations (Trnax) being 1 hr and 2 hrs respectively. At 48 hours, serum Pyrethrins levels were below the limit of detec¬tion of 0.005 fig/ml. Absorption was significantly higher for SC route compared to oral routes (p<0.05) but half¬lives (11/2B) were not significantly different for the two routes (p>0.05). The mean residence time (MRT) was 9.7 hours. Total clearance was 4,337 and 3,180 litres/ kg/hr for oral and SC routes respectively. Pyrethrins were secreted in milk at levels of up to 0.005 fig/ml. It was concluded that in ewes, Pyrethrins are rapidly absorbed after orally and SC, widely distributed and eliminated from the body within 24 hours, Secretion into milk occcurs in ewes but the residues in milk are too low to toxic effects in humans.

Indalo AA, Kokwaro GO. "Pharmacokinetics of temazepam in male surgical patients.". 1995. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of temazepam, the 3-hydroxy1 derivative of diazepam, were studied in nine male surgical patients (age: 28-57 years; weight: 55-87 kg) who had ingested single 40 mg doses, 4 hours prior to minor surgical procedures. Peak plasma temazepam concentrations were achieved rapidly (within 1 h post drug administration) and the estimated volume of distribution (mean: 1.13 1/kg), total clearance (mean: 1.6 ml/min/kg) and terminal elimination half-life (mean: 8 hours) were comparable to previously reported values in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between volume of distribution and either weight or age, and between clearance and age. These findings are broadly consistent with previous reports from studies in healthy subjects. Temazepam can therefore be used as a premedicant in patients requiring minor surgery; the concomitant anaesthetic agents administered and the surgical procedures have no effects on temazepam pharmacokinetics

A DRINDALOANNE. "Pharmacokinetics of temazepam in male surgical patients.East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):483-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):483-5. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1995. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of temazepam, the 3-hydroxy1 derivative of diazepam, were studied in nine male surgical patients (age: 28-57 years; weight: 55-87 kg) who had ingested single 40 mg doses, 4 hours prior to minor surgical procedures. Peak plasma temazepam concentrations were achieved rapidly (within 1 h post drug administration) and the estimated volume of distribution (mean: 1.13 1/kg), total clearance (mean: 1.6 ml/min/kg) and terminal elimination half-life (mean: 8 hours) were comparable to previously reported values in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between volume of distribution and either weight or age, and between clearance and age. These findings are broadly consistent with previous reports from studies in healthy subjects. Temazepam can therefore be used as a premedicant in patients requiring minor surgery; the concomitant anaesthetic agents administered and the surgical procedures have no effects on temazepam pharmacokinetics
Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Sinei KA, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological acitivities of Synadenium Compactum.". 1994.
W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological acitivities of Synadenium Compactum. Submitted to International Journal of Pharmacognosy. J.W. Mwangi, K.J. Achola, K.A. Sinei, and Rahab W. Munenge. (1994).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Gardenia Jovis Tonantis. (International Journal of Pharmacognosy 1995 Vol. 33, No, 3, pp. 250 -252.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological activities of gardenia jovis-tonantis.". 1994. Abstract

A methanol extract derived from Gardenia jovis-tonantis showed bronchodilator activity isolated guinea pig trachea. The extract also showed cardiorelaxant activity isolated rabbit heart and caused a rapid fall ill diastolic pressure ill anaesthetised rats

Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia.". 1997. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia." International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1997;35(1):60-62. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Gutenburgia cordifolia (1996) International Journal of Pharmacognosy ,Vol. 35, No.1, pp. 60-62.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Gutenburgia cordifolia (1996) International Journal of Pharmacognosy ,Vol. 35, No.1, pp. 60-62. K.J. Achola, J.W. Mwangi, K.A. Sinei, R.W. Munenge and A.M. Mwaura.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of lantana Trifolia on isolated Guinea pig trachea and rat Phrenic nerve diaphram. International Journal of Pharmacognosy (1996) Vol. 34 No. pp. 273-276. K.J. Achola, and Rahab W. Munenge.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Munenge RW, Achola KJ, Indalo AA. "Pharmacological activities of pistia stratiotes.". 1997. Abstract

The pharmacologic activities of Pistia stratiotes were studied. Calcium channel blocking activity of a methanol extract of the whole plant was demonstrated using isolated segments of rabbit jejunum and confirmed via inhibition by pretreatment with verapamil. Additionally, the plant extract exhibited dose-related bronchodilating activity on isolated guinea pig trachea and neuromuscular blocking action, which was also dose-related. The plant extract caused a decrease in blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. After a 10 μg dose of the extract, systolic and diastolic blood pressures fell by 18% and 10%, respectively. Further doses of the plant extract produced slight decreases in blood pressures in anaesthetised rats. The systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures before the extract were all significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those following the administration of the extract

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Pistia stratiotes. (1997). K.J. Achola, A.A. Indalo and Rahab W. Munenge. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. Vol. 35, No. 4 pp.1-5.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Psiadia punculata. International Journal Pharmacognosy. 1997 Vol. 35, No. 1-5.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Vernonia glabra. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. (1996) Vol. 34, No. 2 pp. 141 - 144).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Vernonia glabra. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. (1996) Vol. 34, No. 2 pp. 141 - 144). K.J Achola, J.W. Mwangi, A.M. Mwaura and Rahab W. Munenge. (1996).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activity of Oxalis corniculata. International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 1995, Vol. 33, No. 3 pp. 247 - 249.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Tarkang PA, Okalebo FA, Siminyu JD, Ngugi WN, Mwaura AM, Mugweru J, Agbor GA, Guantai AN. "Pharmacological evidence for the folk use of Nefang: antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of its constituent plants." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;15:174. Abstract2015_-_pharmacological_evidence_for_the_folk_use_of_nefang.pdf

Background: Nefang is a polyherbal anti-malarial composed of Mangifera indica (MiB and MiL; bark and leaf),
Psidium guajava (Pg), Carica papaya (Cp), Cymbopogon citratus (Cc), Citrus sinensis (Cs) and Ocimum gratissimum (Og) (leaves). Previous studies have demonstrated its in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities, antioxidant properties and safety profile. This study aimed at evaluating the antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the constituent plants of Nefang which are relevant to the symptomatic treatment of malaria fever.
Methods: Antipyretic activities were determined by the D-Amphetamine induced pyrexia and Brewer’s Yeast induced hyperpyrexia methods. Anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method. Antinociceptive activities were determined by mechanical nociception in the tail pressure and thermal nociception in the radiant heat tail flick and hot plate methods. Data was analysed using the one way ANOVA followed by Neuman-Keuls multiple comparison test.
Results: Best percentage inhibition of induced pyrexia (amphetamine/brewer’s yeast; p < 0.05) was exhibited by Cc (95/97) followed by Og (85/94), MiL (90/89), MiB (88/84) and Cs (82/89). Cc and Og exhibited comparable activities to paracetamol (100/95). Anti-inflammatory studies revealed paw edema inhibition (%) as follows (p < 0.05): Indomethacin (47), MiL (40), Cp (30), MiB (28) and Og (22), suggesting best activity by MiL. Antinociceptive studies revealed significant (p < 0.01) pain inhibition (%) as follows: Paracetamol (97), Og (113), MiL (108), Pg (84) and MiB (88). Og and MiL exhibited the best activities.
Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the constituent plants possess biologically active compounds with antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These activities are essential in the symptomatic treatment of malaria fever, thereby justifying the folk use of Nefang. This would be useful in its subsequent development for clinical application.
Keywords: Medicinal plants, Nefang, Pharmacological effects, Antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory, Antinociceptive
activities

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological properties of extracts from the stem bark of Syzygium guineese on the ileum and heart of lab. Rodents. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 4. No. 1 Feb. 1997. Pp.43-45.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Malele RS, Moshi MJ, Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological properties of extracts from the stem bark of Syzygium, guineense on the ileum and heart of laboratory rodents.". 1999. Abstract

A methanol extract of syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mglml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ~g lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre¬drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ~gwhen the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%,36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on" rabbit isolated ileum supports tbe folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities

Coscia L, Causa P, Giuliani E, Nunziata A. "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1436-42. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Coscia L, Causa P, Giuliani E, Nunziata A. "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1436-42. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological properties of root and aerial part extracts of Ageratum conyzoides on isolated ileum and heart. A. K. Achola, Rahab W. Munenge, A.M. Mwaura (Fitoterapia Vol. LXV, No. 4 1994).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K.Maloba, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE)." East Afric. J. Bot. 2(1): 279-289. 2011.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
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Omosa-Manyonyi G, Mpendo J, Ruzagira E, Kilembe W, Chomba E, Roman F, Bourguignon P, Koutsoukos M, Collard A, Voss G, Laufer D, Stevens G, Hayes P, Clark L, Cormier E, Dally L, Barin B, Ackland J, Syvertsen K, Zachariah D, Anas K, Sayeed E, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Fast P, Priddy F. "A Phase I Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Adjuvanted HIV-1 Gag-Pol-Nef Fusion Protein and Adenovirus 35 Gag-RT-Int-Nef Vaccine in Healthy HIV-Uninfected African Adults." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5):e0125954. Abstract

Sequential prime-boost or co-administration of HIV vaccine candidates based on an adjuvanted clade B p24, RT, Nef, p17 fusion protein (F4/AS01) plus a non-replicating adenovirus 35 expressing clade A Gag, RT, Int and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) may lead to a unique immune profile, inducing both strong T-cell and antibody responses.

Mpendo J, Mutua G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Nanvubya A, Anzala O, Karita E, Hayes P, Kopycinski J, Dally L, Hannaman D, Egan MA, Eldridge JH, Syvertsen K, Lehrman J, Rasmussen B, Gilmour J, Cox JH, Fast PE, Schmidt C. "A Phase I Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Electroporated HIV DNA with or without Interleukin 12 in Prime-Boost Combinations with an Ad35 HIV Vaccine in Healthy HIV-Seronegative African Adults." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(8):e0134287. Abstract

Strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans include i) co-administration of molecular adjuvants, ii) intramuscular administration followed by in vivo electroporation (IM/EP) and/or iii) boosting with a different vaccine. Combining these strategies provided protection of macaques challenged with SIV; this clinical trial was designed to mimic the vaccine regimen in the SIV study.

Chilengi R, Juma R AAMBLNASMWJMHPE. "A phase I trial to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of low-dose methotrexate as an anti-malarial drug in Kenyan adult healthy volunteers." Malar J. . 2011. Abstract

Previous investigations indicate that methotrexate, an old anticancer drug, could be used at low doses to treat malaria. A phase I evaluation was conducted to assess the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of this drug in healthy adult male Kenyan volunteers.
METHODS:

Twenty five healthy adult volunteers were recruited and admitted to receive a 5 mg dose of methotrexate/day/5 days. Pharmacokinetics blood sampling was carried out at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours following each dose. Nausea, vomiting, oral ulcers and other adverse events were solicited during follow up of 42 days.
RESULTS:

The mean age of participants was 23.9 ± 3.3 years. Adherence to protocol was 100%. No grade 3 solicited adverse events were observed. However, one case of transiently elevated liver enzymes, and one serious adverse event (not related to the product) were reported. The maximum concentration (C(max)) was 160-200 nM and after 6 hours, the effective concentration (C(eff)) was <150 nM.
CONCLUSION:

Low-dose methotraxate had an acceptable safety profile. However, methotrexate blood levels did not reach the desirable C(eff) of 250-400-nM required to clear malaria infection in vivo. Further dose finding and safety studies are necessary to confirm suitability of this drug as an anti-malarial agent.

"A phase I trial to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of low-dose methotrexate as an anti-malarial drug in Kenyan adult healthy volunteers." Malar J. . 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous investigations indicate that methotrexate, an old anticancer drug, could be used at low doses to treat malaria. A phase I evaluation was conducted to assess the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of this drug in healthy adult male Kenyan volunteers.
METHODS:

Twenty five healthy adult volunteers were recruited and admitted to receive a 5 mg dose of methotrexate/day/5 days. Pharmacokinetics blood sampling was carried out at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours following each dose. Nausea, vomiting, oral ulcers and other adverse events were solicited during follow up of 42 days.
RESULTS:

The mean age of participants was 23.9 ± 3.3 years. Adherence to protocol was 100%. No grade 3 solicited adverse events were observed. However, one case of transiently elevated liver enzymes, and one serious adverse event (not related to the product) were reported. The maximum concentration (C(max)) was 160-200 nM and after 6 hours, the effective concentration (C(eff)) was <150 nM.
CONCLUSION:

Low-dose methotraxate had an acceptable safety profile. However, methotrexate blood levels did not reach the desirable C(eff) of 250-400-nM required to clear malaria infection in vivo. Further dose finding and safety studies are necessary to confirm suitability of this drug as an anti-malarial agent.

Nyamai CM, Surapunt S, Itagaki K. "Phase relations in the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS Ternary Systems at 1473 K: Extraction of Zinc from sulfide ore using liquid copper as a reagent.". 2002. AbstractPhase relations in the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS Ternary Systems at 1473 K: Extraction of Zinc from sulfide ore using liquid

The use of liquid copper as a medium for zinc extraction has been used in the Warner Process as a method of processing zinc-lead sulphide ore. The recovery of zinc metal is based on the reaction: ZnS(s) + 2Cu(l) = Zn(g) + Cu2S(l) In this method, thermodynamic and phase equilibria investigations of the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS systems are of importance and form the basis for the liquid sulphide phase which appears as a product and is used as a solvent in the Warner Process. Phase relations in the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS ternary systems were determined experimentally at 1473°K to provide a fundamental basis for the new zinc smelting process. The results show that the solid solubility of ZnS in the two systems is very small (2 wt% to 3 wt% ZnS in FeS, 4 wt% ZnS in Cu2S for the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS system; less than 0.5 wt% ZnS in both PbS and Cu2S for the Cu2S-PbS-ZnS system). The Raoultian Activity Coefficient of ZnS in the liquid mixtures and the vapour pressure of zinc over the matte in both systems is relatively large (γ° = 7.7 - 15.8, Pzn(atm) = 0.088 - 1.026 for the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS system; γ° = 8.9 - 12.9, PZn(atm) = 0.075 - 0.214 for the Cu2S-PbS-ZnS system). On the FeS-ZnS join, the only phases detected are FeS and iron-rich sphalerite (Zn, Fe)S. The binary join mixture occurs at about 92 wt% FeS-8 wt% ZnS at 1473°K. Electron microprobe examination of the quenched samples indicate about 47 wt% to 48 wt% FeS in sphalerite and about 2 wt% to 3 wt% ZnS in the iron sulphide phase. On the Cu2S-ZnS join, microprobe analysis reveals that the maximum solubility is 4 wt% Zn in liquid Cu2S and 3.6 wt% Cu in solid ZnS. In the Cu2S-PbS-ZnS ternary system, microprobe analysis of the quenched samples indicate on average, 5 wt% ZnS in the liquid phase region. The only phases detected on the PbS- ZnS join are ZnS and PbS. The eutectic phase contains, on average, 13 wt% ZnS. The phase relationships, very low solid solubilities of zinc sulphide in the liquid mixtures of both Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS systems, coupled with the high Raoultian Activity Coefficient of ZnS as well as the high vapour pressure of zinc over matte all favour the partitioning of zinc metal into the vapour phase. This new process is cost effective and bypasses the expensive and tedious conventional technique of zinc production involving oxidation of the sulphide ore by roasting followed by a reduction process to extract the zinc. The results indicate that a new zinc smelting technology using the Warner Process would be more efficient and preferable over the traditional methods of zinc extraction.

MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER. "Phase relations in the Cu2S-FeS-ZnS and Cu2S-PbS-ZnS Ternary Systems at 1473 K: Extraction of Zinc from sulfide ore using liquid copper as a reagent. Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin (CIM) Vol, 95 pp. 129-132.". In: Ist intern. Geol. Field conf. on Oban-Odudu Massif, S.E Nigeria Calabar Univer., Scientific Programme and Abstracts pp17-18. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2002.
Monyonko NM. "The Phase Space Distributions and the Correspondence Principle.". 2006. AbstractThe Phase Space Distributions and the Correspondence Principle

An attempt is made to obtain a correspondence between the classical mechanics and the Wigner-type quantum mechanics by analyzing a particular solution to the quasiprobability operator equation. We have applied this solution to yield ground state energies in the case of an equilibrium distribution which is a limit ofa quantum distribution with the time coordinate tending to infinity. The presence of an arbitrary parameter in our solution is now explicitly fixed by the ground state energy that must be reflected in the solution to the generalized Fokker-Planck equation. An appropriate choice ofboundary conditions dictated by the quantum constraints now guarantee a unique solution to the equation of motion.

OBURU HILDAHBOCHERE. "PhD RESEARCH ON: ."; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
Gitao, C.G. "PhD supervision at University of Nairobi.". In: Carta Supervision workshop. Johannesburg, South Africa; 2018.
Kiplagat S. PhD Thesis on the Psychology of Natural Disasters. Guildford: University of Surrey; 2001.
Wang’ondu VW, Muthumbi A, Ann Vanruesel, Koedam N. "Phenology of mangroves and its implication on forest management: a case study of Mida Creek, Kenya." Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. 2017;16(2):41-51.
Wang’ondu V, Muthumbi A, Ann Vanruesel, Koedam N. "Phenology of mangroves and its implication on forest management: a case study of Mida Creek, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science . 2018;16 (2):41-51.
Ralwala AO. "Phenomenological epistemology as an indispensable component in the resolution of challenges encountered in the architectural production of urban space." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2017;11(11):1157-1175.
Soni S, Whittington J, Holland AJ, Webb T, Maina EN, Boer H, Clarke D. "The phenomenology and diagnosis of psychiatric illness in people with Prader-Willi syndrome." Psychol Med. 2008;38(10):1505-14. Abstract

Psychotic illness is strongly associated with the maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD) genetic subtype of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), but not the deletion subtype (delPWS). This study investigates the clinical features of psychiatric illness associated with PWS. We consider possible genetic and other mechanisms that may be responsible for the development of psychotic illness, predominantly in those with mUPD.

Gunga S, Ngesu L. The Phenomenology of Rioting. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K.,; 2010.
Akaranga SI, Ongong JJ. "The Phenomenon of Examination Malpractice: An Example of Nairobi and Kenyatta Universities." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2013;Vol.2 No.8(8):83-86.jep_vol_4_no._18_2013.pdf
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The Phenomenon of Intolerance and Its Impact on Christian - Muslim Relation in Kenya." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(8):105-121. AbstractWebsite

One of the common euphemisms today is: “Religion is inherently violent, the cause of all major wars in history”. The interlocutors accuse religion without remembering that the last two world wars were fought not on account of religion, but, because of other interrelated social, material and ideological factors, the chief of which being competition for scarce resources. Yet, when the observers cite the Crusades, the Inquisition and wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, not to mention the recent spate of terrorism committed in the name of religion, it is hard to belittle euphemism. Like religion, terrorism is difficult to define. Generally, however, it is a deliberate use of violence or threat of its use against innocent people, with the aim of intimidating them specifically or others into a course of action they could not otherwise take. Terrorism is fundamentally political, even when other motives-religious, economic or social are involved. It is about power, acquiring it or keeping it. This is probably why, the discussion of apparent tension between Christians and Muslims here in Kenya can hardly be discussed without due consideration of the role of Al Shabaab and Al Qaeda. The association of Islam with terrorism in the recent past first came to global attention with the assassination of Anwar Sadat in Cairo, the then president of Egypt. This wave of violence claiming religious justification became more rampant in the 1980’s finally culminating in the atrocity of September 11, 2001, in New York. Here in Kenya, there have been attacks against public institutions, bus stops and markets; an action of hostility which threatens amicable relationship between the two religions. This is why; critics of religion acknowledge that monotheism is prone to violence and intolerance. If however, there is one thing we can reliably predict about this century, it is that, an increasing share of Kenya’s people is going to identify with either Christianity or Islam. And, examples of disastrous accounts of conflict can hardly enhance amicable coherence even if done in the name of religion. To meet the challenges of our time and create a desirable Kenyan society, we need to accurately assess our religious affiliations. It is not enough to assume the nature of these two Abrahamic religious traditions and their roles in Kenya. The central question this paper asks and attempts to answer is: If religion can be used as an instrument of destruction, how come it has continued to survive as the most influential social phenomenon? To facilitate our discussion the paper adopts theories of Emile Durkheim and Myerson to explain the functional relationship between religion and violence; and cultural interpretation of violence. The paper therefore, examines the following three objectives:

Ambivalent nature of religion,
Existential justification for hermeneutic of suspicion and,
Abrahamic tradition: A basis for interfaith dialogue.
Keywords: terrorism, violence, religion, dialogue, suspicion, tradition and exegesis.

Ongong’a JJ, Akaranga SI. "The phenomenon of religious switching among University students: The case of Nairobi and Kenyatta Universities, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 (5):241-258.ijern__vol.1_no._5_may_2013.pdf
Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of staphylococcus aureus rom raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2013;3(3):87-98.
NJOROGE CECILIA, MANDE JOHNDEMESI, MITEMA SIMONERIC, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surgical patients and normal dogs." Bioteknologi Biotechnological Studies. 2018;15(1):13-25.
Njoroge CW, John D. Mande SME, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surgical patients and normal dogs." Bioteknologi Biotechnological Studies. 2018;15:13-25. Abstract
n/a
Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC, Dong T, Lohman-Payne B, Reilly M, Atzberger A, Taylor S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Mbori-Ngacha D, Rowland-J. "Phenotypic Characterization of HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells during Early and Chronic Infant HIV-1 Infection." BMC Infect Dis. 2011; 11: 259. Published online 2011 September 30. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-259. 2011. Abstractphenotypic_characterization_of_hiv-specific_cd8.pdf

Abstract
Although CD8+ T cells play an important role in the containment of adult HIV-1 replication, their role in infant HIV-1
infection is not as well understood. Impaired HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses may underlie the persistently high viral loads
observed in infants. We examined the frequency and phenotype of infant HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in 7 HIV-infected
antiretroviral therapy-naı¨ve infants during the first 2 years of life, using class I HLA tetramers and IFN-c-ELISPOT. The
frequency (0.088–3.9% of CD3+CD8+ cells) and phenotype (CD27+CD282, CD45RA+/2, CD57+/2, HLA-DR+, CD95+) of infant
HIV-specific CD8+ T cells were similar to reports in adults undergoing early infection. Unlike adults, at 23–24 months postinfection
a high frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells expressed HLA-DR (mean 80%, range 68–85%) and CD95 (mean 88%,
range 79–96%), suggesting sustained activation and vulnerability to apoptosis. Despite comparable expansion of HIVspecific
CD8+ T cells of a similar phenotype to adults during early infection, infant T cells failed to contain HIV-1 replication,
and remained persistently activated and vulnerable to apoptosis during chronic infection.

Mungai GW, Giovanonni JJ, Nyende AB, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Phenotypic characterization of selected African eggplant accessions collected from a number of African countries." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2016;6:1048-1058. Abstract
n/a
MEHRA KL, Singh CB, KOHLI KS. "Phenotypic diversity and breeding of forage cowpea."; 1970.
K. NGUGI and, MASWILI R. "PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY IN SORGHUM LANDRACES FROM KENYA." African Crop Science Journal,. 2010;18(4):165-173.phenotypic_diversity_in_sorghum_landraces_from_kenya.pdf
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, et.al. "Phenotypic traits,reproductive and milk performance of indigenous goats of south Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research. 2021;(Submitted).
Ogutu BR, Newton CR, Muchohi SN, Otieno GO, Kokwaro GO. "Phenytoin pharmacokinetics and clinical effects in African children following fosphenytoin and chloramphenicol coadministration.". 2012. Abstract

Some children with malaria and convulsions also have concurrent bacterial meningitis. Chloramphenicol is used to treat the latter whereas phenytoin is used for convulsions. Since chloramphenicol inhibits the metabolism of phenytoin in vivo, we studied the effects of chloramphenicol on phenytoin pharmacokinetics in children with malaria. METHODS: Multiple intravenous (i.v.) doses of chloramphenicol succinate (CAP) (25 mg kg-1 6 hourly for 72 h) and a single intramuscular (i.m.) seizure prophylactic dose of fosphenytoin (18 mg kg-1 phenytoin sodium equivalents) were concomitantly administered to 15 African children with malaria. Control children (n = 13) with malaria received a similar dose of fosphenytoin and multiple i.v. doses (25 mg kg-1 8 hourly for 72 h) of cefotaxime (CEF). Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, level of consciousness and convulsion episodes were monitored. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma phenytoin concentrations were determined. RESULTS: The area under the plasma unbound phenytoin concentration-time curve (AUC(0, infinity ); means (CAP, CEF): 58.5, 47.6 micro g ml-1 h; 95% CI for difference between means: -35.0, 11.4), the peak unbound phenytoin concentrations (Cmax; medians: 1.12, 1.29 micro g ml-1; 95% CI: -0.5, 0.04), the times to Cmax (tmax; medians: 4.0, 4.0 h; 95% CI: -2.0, 3.7), the CSF:plasma phenytoin ratios (means: 0.21, 0.22; 95% CI: -0.8, 0.10), the fraction of phenytoin unbound (means: 0.06, 0.09; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.07) and the cardiovascular parameters were not significantly different between CAP and CEF groups. However, mean terminal elimination half-life (t1/2,z) was significantly longer (23.7, 15.5 h; 95% CI: 1.71, 14.98) in the CAP group compared with the CEF group. Seventy per cent of the children had no convulsions during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant administration of chloramphenicol and a single i.m. dose of fosphenytoin alters the t1/2,z but not the other pharmacokinetic parameters or clinical effects of phenytoin in African children with severe malaria. Moreover, a single i.m. dose of fosphenytoin provides anticonvulsant prophylaxis in the majority of the children over 72 h. However, a larger study would be needed to investigate the effect of concomitant administration of multiple doses of the two drugs in this population of patients.

Ogutu O, Kariuki C, Kariuki J, Olang P, Nganga N, Ogutu F, Kilonzo MK, Patel A. Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy: Case report.; 2016. Abstract

This is a case presentation of a 32 year old woman with pheochromocytoma diagnosed at 27 weeks of gestation, she was managed till term, induced and had assisted vaginal delivery. The pheochromocytoma was surgically re-sected successfully at six weeks postpartum.

Ahramjian L, Carson A, Collins P, Kirloss R, Lang J, Makunda C, Moses Z, Oh SJ, Reinhardt J, Service E, Smith M, Styger K, Vagen K. The Philadelphia Public Space Project. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2008.
& Origa JO, Gatumu JC. "Philosophical and Psychological Issues in Transition from Pre-school to Primary School." Kenya Institute of Education. 2002.
Gatumu JC. Philosophical Foundations of Early Childhood Education. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2013.
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "A Philosophical labyrinth: Tracing two critical motifs in Kezilahabi's Prose works. SWAHILI FORUM V, University of Cologne, Germany.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1998. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Nyarwath O. Philosophy and rationality in taboos with special reference to the Kenyan Luo culture. Oruka POH, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Philosophy Belongs to You.". In: The Standard, (Nairobi: June 24, 1988), p. 14. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
Samanta P. "A Philosophy of Corruption etc”(planned seminar).". In: School of Economics,UON.; 2013.
Samanta P. "A Philosophy of Corruption: the Recent Libor case." Doon University,India; 2012.
Gunga S. "Philosophy of Education."; 2010.
Mwinzi JM, Higgs LG. "Philosophy of education and the Africanization of secondary school curriculum in Kenya." Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Revisiting the Research Paradigm,. 2013;12:126-141. Abstract
n/a
Mwinzi JM. "Philosophy of Education in School Curriculum in Amutabi." Studies in Culture, Gender and Education in Africa. 2013:315-326. Abstract
n/a
A. EO. "Philosophy of History." University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Gunga S. A Philosophy of Mathematics Education. Berlin, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller e.K.,; 2010.
Anselm OJ. The philosophy of the near death experience . Pune india; 1996.
Rego AB, Rimbui ZK. "Philosophy, Programmes and Policies in Environmental Education in Kenya." Philosophy, Programmes and Policies in Environmental Education in Kenya. 1995.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Phiri, P.M., J.T. Karugia and W.A. Oluoch-Kosura (2001). .". In: In Proceedings of a workshop on ``Food Distribution Networks in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA)" held at the Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, August 20th 2002. African Meteorological Society; 2001. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Anjili CO, Ngumbi PM, Kaburi JC, Irungu LW. "The phlebotomine sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Kenya." Journal of vector borne diseases. 2011;48(4):183-189. AbstractJournal of vector borne diseases

Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic in some parts of Kenya, where they are transmitted by phlebobotomine sandflies of genus Phlebotomus. This review is a compilation of the currently known distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in the parts of Kenya that have been studied, from the time sandflies were first reported in the country. So far 48 species of sandflies have been identified falling in the genera Phlebotomus Rondani & Berte and Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot. Genus Phlebotomus in Kenya is represented in five subgenera, namely Phlebotomus, Larroussius, Synphlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus and Anaphlebotomus. Genus Sergentomyia has the largest number of sandflies, and is represented in four subgenera, namely Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Grassomyia and Parvidens.

B DRESHUNFRANCIS. "Phonemic analysis and Phonological harmony in Akan:Francis Bannerman Eshun. ..1988. NOTIS NO. (AJZ4367) LOCATION Memorial Library AWO Masters Theses Basement North CALL NO. AWO E759F735.". In: Occasional Papers in Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, 2004. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Gaithuma VW. "Phonological Influence of Kiamu dialect to Amu Learners of Standard Kiswahili - Expected." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). 2020.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Phonology of Borrowed Lexicon in Standard Kiswahili." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2012;1 ( 2):59-74. Abstract

Standard Kiswahili has borrowed various lexical items from many diverse languages. As a result of this borrowing, Standard Kiswahili is at times (erroneously) seen as an admixture language born out of mixing different languages. The purpose of this paper is to show that while Standard Kiswahili has borrowed just like many other languages have, the loan words undergo various adaptation processes that give them a fundamentally Kiswahili and Bantu structure (Iribemwangi 2012). In the adaptation, various strategies are applied and these include substitution, insertion and deletion of both consonants and vowels. These strategies do not just lead to nativization of borrowed lexicon but they do also lead to the realization of the preferred syllable structure. Although Standard Kiswahili has largely maintained its syllable structure, nonetheless, it has had to accede to a few new structures. Using the P-rules and, to a lesser extent, the MP-rules as espoused in Natural Generative Phonology, this paper shows that any rules and structures in a language remain the only rules and structures to the extent that no new rules and processes have entered a language at a given time. Otherwise, the rules of any language are very dynamic and are perpetually prone to change as is exemplified using Standard Kiswahili data.

W. MK. "The Phonology of Borrowed Vocabulary in Kitharaka." Occasinal Papers in Language and Linguistics Vol. II; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Sang' HK, Prisca J. "The Phonology of English Loan Words in Three Kalenjin Dialects.". In: The Harmonization & Standardization of Kenyan Languages. South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Otieno N, Culhane J, Germaine K, Brazil D, Ryan D, Dowling D. Phosphate solubilisation and gluconic acid production by endophytic bacterial strains and ability to promote plant growth in oil seed rape (Brassica napus). 18-21 May 2012, Aldemar Hotel, Rhodes, Greece: New Phytologist Organisation; 2012. Abstract

Several studies have shown that the release of low molecular weight organic acids is
a major mechanism for solubilising insoluble phosphate by phosphate solubilising
bacteria (PSB). The production of gluconic acid during inorganic phosphate
solubilisation in conjunction with liberation of phosphate and the influence on plant
growth as a function of phosphate solubilisation by endophytic strains was analysed.
Solubilisation of Ca3(PO4)2 in National Botanical Research Institute’s Phosphate
(NBRIP) growth medium varied among the endophytes with P-liberated ranging from
1109.33 μg/ml to 67.3 μg/ml. In all cases, the final supernatant had a significant pH
decrease and this had a direct relation to P-liberated. High Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the culture filtrate to quantify gluconic acid
produced by the strains ranged from 33.21±2.34 mg/ml to 2.2 ±0.18 mg/ml. The
results suggest that acidification was the main strategy for solubilising phosphate. In
this study, a clear relationship was observed between supernatant acidification and
P solubilisation from Ca3(PO4)2. However, no significant difference was observed for
key growth parameters in oil seed rape between treatments. The result of this study
indicates in planta expression of P solubilisation traits may be more complex than
those in vitro studies.

Gikonyo EW, p o Oduor OS, Kanyanjua SM, Keter JKA. "Phosphate sorption by some kenyan soils as evaluated by the langmuir and freundlich adsorption equations.". 2000. Abstract

The sorption of added inorganic phosphate (P) by eight soils which varied appreciably in their ability to sorb P was evaluated using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. When the sorption data were plotted according to the conven¬tional Langmuir and linear Freundlich equations, linear relationships were obtained. Regression analysis was used to compute the straight lines obtained. The Freundlich equations gave significantly to highly significantly correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.509 - 0.972) in all the soils tested while the Langmuir equation was non-sig¬nificant in the highest and lowest sorbing soils (r2 0.004 and 0.453 respectively) but was highly to very highly significant in the other soils (r2 = 0.816 - 0.988). The Freundlich equation was, therefore, ade¬quate in describing the sorption data in all the soils tested but with varying precision as shown by the different correlation coeffi¬cients. A comparison of the two equations indicated that Freundlich equation gives the best fit in majority of soils and would, therefore, be recommended for estimating the P-sorption characteristic of soils tested in this work.

Wilson HK, Keuer SP, Lea AS, Boyd AE, Eknoyan G. "Phosphate therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis." Archives of Internal Medicine. 1982;142:517-520. Abstract

To determine the efficacy of phosphate replacement in the therapy for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 44 patients were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: those who received no phosphate replacement, those who received 15 mmole of sodium phosphate at the fourth hour, or those who received 15 mmole of sodium phosphate at 2, 6, and 10 hours. All patients were treated with intravenous insulin injection (0.1 units/kg/hr), fluids, and potassium. Four hours after a 15-mmole sodium phosphate infusion, the serum phosphate level was 2.8 +/- 0.8 mg/dL vs 2.1 +/- 0.8 mg/dL in the control patients; however, this dose was insufficient to maintain the serum phosphate level at 16 and 24 hours. Forty-five millimoles of phosphate prevented severe hypophosphatemia in all but one patient and produced substantially higher phosphate levels at 8, 16, and 24 hours. Phosphate therapy did not affect the duration of DKA, dose of insulin required to correct the acidosis, abnormal muscle enzyme levels, glucose disappearance, or morbidity and mortality. Although theoretically appealing, phosphate therapy is not an essential part of the therapy for DKA in most patients.

Onyatta JO, Huang PM. Phosphate-induced cadmium release from selected soils. . Bangkok, Thailand: World Congress ofSoil Science; 2002.
Onyatta JO, Huang PM. "Phosphate-induced cadmium release from soils.". In: Soil Abiotic and Biotic Interactions and the Impact of the Ecosystem and Human Welfare. Enfield, NH USA: Science Publishers; 2005.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The Phosphoproteins of the African Land tortoise Kinixy erosa Lin. 7 Ph.D. Thesis Obafemi Awolowo University Ile - Ife.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1990. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

Keya SO, Ssali H. "Phosphorus and cultivar effects on nodulation, growth, dinitrogen fixation and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).". 1984. Abstract

In field experiments at Katumani in 1982, cowpea cv. Katumani 80 and Vita 4 were grown in chromic luvisol soils and treated with 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate at 20 kg N/ha, with or without 70 kg P/ha. Differences in nodule DW, DM yield, P uptake and tissue N yield were detected between cv. at maturity, but P rate had no effect. Av. seed yields of Katumani 80 and Vita 4 were 1.16 and 1.05 t/ha, resp., and were unaffected by P rate.

Kreisberg RA. "Phosphorus deficiency and hypophosphatemia." Hospital Practice. 1977;12:121-128. Abstract

Low serum phosphorus levels, sometimes associated with depletion of phosphorus stores, can engender a variety of serious, often life-threatening physiologic changes. The proximate cause of this dangerous situation is usually medical intervention in such conditions as alcoholism and diabetic ketoacidosis, which can produce a shift of phosphorus within the body unless preventive measures are instituted.

Kitaka N, Harper DM, Mavuti KM. "Phosphorus inputs to Lake Naivasha, Kenya, from its catchment and the trophic state of the lake.". 2002. AbstractPhosphorus inputs to Lake Naivasha, Kenya, from its catchment and the trophic state of the lake

The main river supplying Lake Naivasha, Kenya, the Malewa, drains a catchment given over to largely subsistence cultivation and animal husbandry. The lake itself is the focus for an intensive horticultural industry based upon irrigation from the lake. The Malewa, however, is relatively independent of the impact of industry, and so its contribution to eutrophication of the lake was evaluated. Two periods of study, a very wet-dry and a `normal' wet-dry season showed that the river contribution of phosphorus led to a total phosphorus loading of 1.4 g m−2 lake surface ann−1 in the very wet period compared to 0.2 in the `normal'. Chlorophyll `a' in the open water of the lake was significantly related to soluble reactive phosphorus. The lake is now eutrophic by normal limnological criteria.

SILAS DRMURERAMANZI, SILAS DRMURERAMANZI. "Photo - electrochemical methods for the utilization of solar energy.". In: International Journal of Ambient Energy, U.K. UNR; 1986.
S.N. M, W.S O, K.G N. "Photo Catalytic Inactivation of Escherichia coli Using Titanium (IV) Oxide- Tungsten (VI) Oxide Nanoparticles Composite." International Journal of Photocatalysis. 2015;19:204-211. Abstractphoto_catalytic_inactivation_of_escherichia_coli_using_titanium__iv__oxide-tungsten__vi__oxide_nanoparticles_composite.pdf

This work focused on synthesis of Titanium (IV) Oxide and Tungsten (VI) Oxide composite and testing the composite as a photocatalyst in deactivation of Escherichi coli in water. Modified wet chemistry method was used and the synthesized nanoparticles calcined at 575° C, taken through XRay Fluorescence and X-Ray Diffraction. The result showed a particle size diameter of 18.99nm. The nanoparticles photocatalytic inactivation efficacy of Escherichia coli in water was tested. 3M Petrifilms from 3M Microbiology Products, U.S.A., was used for Escherichia coli colony forming units’ counts. ATUV 8W G8 T5 lamp from PHILIPS emitting between 350-600nm was used as energy source. The catalyst reduced Escherichia coli count by log 3.415 at an optimum catalyst amount of 0.75 g/L at pH 7.3 using the Chick-Watson model for disinfection kinetics. This work proved that photocatalysis is a promising technology in water purification with possible and practical opportunities existing especially for small-scale point-of-use water purification units where potable water could be treated for disinfection of pathogens or trace priority pollutants remaining in water distribution network after conventional treatment methods. This work proved that nano particles can provide solutions in treatment of drinking water especially for poor communities living in the tropics.

Charles AO, Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Jain P. "Photo-thermal Conversion Efficiency of Textured and Untextured Aluminum Substrate Coated with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 Absorber." American Journal of Modern Energy. 2020;6(1):9-15. AbstractJournal Article Website

The possibility of obtaining thermal energy from the sun for household bathing and washing has resulted to growth in market for solar thermal applications with new types of solar absorbers currently being investigated either to compliment or to replace existing ones. This study focuses on CuFeMnO4 absorber paint by addressing aspects which have little attention regarding improvement of optical absorption for higher efficiency such as texturing the metal substrates on which to coat CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. In this study, texturing was done controllably in order to match the incoming solar radiation wavelength and the surface topography and morphology. Textured and untextured aluminum sheets coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint were used to fabricate prototype flat plate solar thermal collectors. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was chosen here as binder to a spectrally selective CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. The TiO2-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint was applied by a simple, cheap and up-scalable dip coating method over the aluminum sheets. The aluminum sheets were electro-chemically textured to enhance optical absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency for both the textured and untextured prototypes were compared. The efficiency characterization of the prototype collectors was done by measuring the global solar irradiance, fluid inlet, fluid outlet and ambient temperature. Both instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies were determined mathematically, and it was found that the prototype collector whose absorber plates were textured recorded higher instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies compared to the collector fabricated from untextured aluminum plates.
Keywords: Aluminum, Texturing, Conversion Efficiency, Solar Energy, (TiO2)-bound, CuFeMnO4

M DRWAITASEBASTIAN, NYACHOTI MRNYANGONDATHOMAS. "Photoactive iron pyrite films for photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells Renewable Energy.". In: Renewable Energy 20, 37-43. ELSEVIER; 2000. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Raturi AK, Waita S, Aduda B, Nyangonda T. "Photoactive Iron Pyrite Films for Photoelectrochemical Cells (PEC)." Renewable Energy. 2000;20:37-43.
and D.K. TKPK. "Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Titanium Dioxide: Role of Annealing Temperature and Morphology." and Journal of Applied Science Environment Management. 2020;24(1):5-12.
Onyatta JO, Tum PK, Kithure JGN, Oduor FDO. "Photocatalytic Degradation of Acid Orange II Dye on Selected Commercial Titanium Dioxide Catalysts." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2016;4(10):1149-1155.
Tum PK, Kithure JGN, Onyatta JO. "Photocatalytic degradation of acid orange ii dye on selected commercial titanium dioxide catalysts." Int. J. Adv. Res. . 2016;4 (10):1149-1155.594_ijar-13021.pdf
Mureramanzi S, Tien HT. "Photoelectro-chemical methods for the utilization of solar energy." International journal of ambient energy. 1986;7:3-30. Abstract
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M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Photoelectrochemical and Optical Properties of Nitrogen doped Titanium Dioxide Prepared by reactive D.C. Magnetron Sputtering.". In: J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 5709-5716 . University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells based on Nitrogen-doped TiO2 electrodes.". In: Presented at the ISES Solar World 2003 Congress, Goteb. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Photographic and Graphic Art Exhibition.". In: Shelter Afrique, Nairobi. IPPNW; 1989. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Waita 6. S, Aduda B. "Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Sizing for Off grid Solar Home Systems." International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences . 2016;5(5):73-78. Abstract

The sun releases tremendous amount of energy, which if harnessed would provide all energy needs of mankind. One of the strategies to trap this immense energy is the use of solar modules/panels. However, these solar modules need to be properly sized and installed to be able to function and generate electricity optimally. The successful installation of an off grid Photovoltaic (PV) solar system is a process that begins with a site visit to the area of installation, the determination of the client’s energy needs, installation of the solar PV system, commissioning of the installed solar system and ends with user training. Every step is critical for it determines the final performance of the solar system and hence the delicate balance between a satisfied or unsatisfied client. However, the system sizing step tends to attract more attention for it determines the system size and the matching of the balance of system components and so if this is not properly done, then the entire system may not perform as intended. Most documented sizing methods tend to be too complicated and require significant computer knowledge in simulation, modeling and even programming. For practical purposes, many designers and PV installers, especially in developing countries have basic education may not be well equipped for these complicated sizing methods. Furthermore, very few have been professionally trained in PV solar system Sizing and although there are commercially available sizing software’s, they are too expensive for majority of the people and even if available, they are too complicated for them. In actual sizing therefore, most untrained PV technicians use mere estimates that may not be appropriate for the outcome, more often than not is disappointing. We present a simple sizing method that can easily be learned and applied in a simple calculation, for example in a simple excels sheet formulas for easier sizing of PV systems The method is recommended for adoption in developing countries for faster dissemination of professional PV services in system sizing.

WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda BO. "PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SOLARSYSTEM SIZING FOR OFF GRID SOLAR HOME SYSTEMS." International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences (IJANS). 2016;5(5):2319-4022. Abstract

The sun releases tremendous amount of energy, which if harnessed would provide all energy needs of mankind.
One of the strategies to trap this immense energy is the use of solar modules/panels. However, these solar modules need to be properly sized and installed to be able to function and generate electricity optimally. The successful installation of an off grid Photovoltaic (PV) solar system is a process that begins with a site visit to the area of installation, the determination of the client’s energy needs, installation of the solar PV system,
ommissioning of the installed solar system and ends with user training. Every step is critical for it determines the final performance of the solar system and hence the delicate balance between a satisfied or unsatisfied client. However, the system sizing step tends to attract more attention for it determines the system size and the matching of the balance of system components and so if this is not properly done, then the entire system may not perform as intended. Most documented sizing methods tend to be too complicated and require significant computer knowledge in simulation, modeling and even programming. For practical purposes, many designers
and PV installers, especially in developing countries have basic education may not be well equipped for these complicated sizing methods. Furthermore, very few have been professionally trained in PV solar system Sizing and although there are commercially available sizing software’s, they are too expensive for majority of the people and even if available, they are too complicated for them.In actual sizing therefore, most untrained PV technicians use mere estimates that may not be appropriate for the outcome, more often than not is disappointing. We present a simple sizing method that can easily be learned andapplied in a simple calculation, for example in a simple excels sheet formulas for easier sizing of PV systems.The method is recommended for adoption in developing countries for faster dissemination of professional PV services in system sizing.

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