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Obare S, Ayienga E. "Performance Evaluation and Optimization of IP Lookup Algorithm.". In: UNESCO-HP Brain Gain Workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
A R, N MJ, K RE. "Performance Evaluation of Compressed Laterite Blocks Stabilised with Cement and Gum Arabic." International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration (IJATEE). 2021;Vol 8(83).
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Performance Evaluation of Land administration Systems in Kenya." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2008;Vol 2(No 2):81-90 .
Kamunya SM, Ayienga EM, Moturi CA. "A Performance Evaluation of Mobile Agents in Network Management.". In: UNESCO-HP Workshop on Brain Gain. Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Kamunya S, Ayienga E, Moturi C. "Performance Evaluation of Mobile Agents in Network Management.". In: UNESCO-HP Brain Gain Workshop. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Kituku O, Osano SN, Mwea SK. "Performance Evaluation of Pedestrian Facilities at Donholm Interchange along Outer Ring Road Nairobi, Kenya." Icastor. 2020;Vol. 13(Issue No. 1):1-15.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Performance Evaluation of the Generalized Type-11 Hybrid ARQ Scheme with Noisy Feedback on Markov Channels, V.K. Oduol, S. D. Morgera, IEEE Transactions on Communications,.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1993. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Performance evaluation of the Limuru Dairy Farmers Cooperative Society, May.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
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Too V, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JP. "PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE POPULAR SWRC MODELS AT DIFFERENT SOIL BULK DENSITY RANGES." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment (JEAE) . 2021;Vol 7(No. 2):40-48.
Too VK, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JPO. "Performance Evaluation of the Popular SWRC Models at Different Soil Bulk Density Ranges." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;published online (August 2021 ).
OGOLLA CAROL, OLUOCH M F. "Performance Management Practices and Employee Productivity at State Department of Labour, Kenya." International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology. 2019;9(4):doi:10.30845/ijbht.v9n4p3.
MARANGA, R.O., HASSANALI, A., KAAYA GP, MUEKE JM. "Performance of a Prototype Baited-trap in Attracting and Infecting the Tick Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Field Experiments." Experimental and Applied Acarology. 2006;38: 211-218.
MARANGA, R.O., KAAYA, G.P., MUEKE JM, HASSANALI A. "Performance of a prototype baited trap in attracting and infecting Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius, 1794) in field experiments.". In: In proc. 3rd African Acarology Symposium. Cairo, Egypt; 2004.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Performance of advanced generation bean lines selected for multiple disease resistance 1993 in J.B. Smithson (ed). Proceedings of the fourth Bean Research Workshop, March 3-7 1993 CIAT, African Workshop Series.". In: Proceedings of the fourth Bean Research Workshop, March 3-7 1993 CIAT, African Workshop Series. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1993. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
Kangethe PC;, Rege JEO;, Thorpe W;, Mosi RO. "Performance of Ayrshire, Friesian and Sahiwal crossbred calves at Mariakani."; 1991. Abstract

Presents results of a trial carried out in Kilifi District, Coast Province in Kenya to evaluate genetic and environmental factors affecting birth weight, preweaning average daily gain, weaning weight (at 5 months) and preweaning survival for 8 genotypes of crossbred and straightbred of Ayrshire, Friesian and Sahiwal calves.

A. NMKE; A;. "Performance of Bachelor of Science in Nursing Graduates in Nursing Practice in Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2012;41 (1)(December, 2012):9-15.
Christelle Bonane Sinza, Muiru FMNLM’ragwac GSAWM. "Performance of biofortified Common Bean Varieties under Different Soil Moisture Levels." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2019;6(3).
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Performance of Block Codes Using the Eigenstructure of the Code Correlation Matrix and Soft-Decision Decoding of BPSK, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.5, No.1, pp.48-53, 2009.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.5, No.1, pp.48-53, 2009. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
A method is presented for obtaining the error probability for block codes. The method is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector properties of the code correlation matrix. It is found that under a unary transformation and for an additive white Gaussian noise environment, the performance evaluation of a block code becomes a one-dimensional problem in which only one eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector are needed in the computation. The obtained error rate results show remarkable agreement between simulations and analysis.
Inwani I, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G. "Performance of Clinical Algorithms for HIV-1 Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Initiation among HIV-1-Exposed Children Aged Less Than 18 Months in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 50% die before 2 years. Methods We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and ART initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: 1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), 2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and 3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA PCR testing. Findings A total of 1,418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1-infected. Compared to HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4 percent improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD to 74% and 84% respectively, however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively. Interpretation Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high prevalence, resource-limited setting remains a challenge and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Inwani I, Mbori-Ngacha DA, R W Nduati, Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Performance of Clinical Algorithms for HIV-1 Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Initiation among HIV-1-Exposed Children Aged Less Than 18 Months in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately 50% die before 2 years. Methods We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and ART initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: 1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), 2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and 3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA PCR testing. Findings A total of 1,418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1-infected. Compared to HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4 percent improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD to 74% and 84% respectively, however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively. Interpretation Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high prevalence, resource-limited setting remains a challenge and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Inwani I, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, G J-S, C. F. "Performance of clinical algorithms for HIV-1 diagnosis and antiretroviral initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months in Kenya. ." J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):492-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a8a4.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, approximately 50% die before 2 years.
METHODS:
We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: (1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), (2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and (3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA polymerase chain reaction testing.
FINDINGS:
A total of 1418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. Compared with HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI criteria were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4% improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD criteria to 74% and 84%, respectively; however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively.
INTERPRETATION:
Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high-prevalence resource-limited setting remains a challenge, and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Ndiba PK. Performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters .; 1993. Abstract

Filtration accounts for a substantial portion of water treatment cost. The dual media filter, by operating at a higher filtration rate than the conventional rapid sand filter, can reduce the cost of filtration considerably. However, use of the dual media filter in Kenya is limited by lack of suitable material for use as coarse media. In this study, pilot plant filtration tests have been carried out to investigate the performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters. Filtration rate, size of crushed coconut shell, relative depth of media and backwash requirements have been investigated. A dual media filter with equal depths of 1.20 rom effective size crushed coconut shell and 0.42 romeffective size sand was found to give the best performance. The filter was found to operate at 2.4 times the filtration rate of the conventional rapid sand filter while maintaining the same effluent quality and length. of filter runs as the rapid sand filter. The filter also required a smaller percentage of filtered water for backwashing than the rapid sand filter. Durability tests on crushed coconut shell media have indicated that the media would be durable against microbiological degradation while in service. Scrapping off the less compact surface layer of the shell was found to improve the durability of the media

Odira, P. M. A; Ndiba PK. "Performance of crushed coconut shell dual media filter.". 2007.
Odira, P. M. A; Ndiba PK. "Performance of crushed coconut shell dual media filter.". 2007.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Performance of Crushed Coconut Shell Dual Media Filter Paper.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice (under review awaiting publication). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2004. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Aduda BO. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated from Obliquely DC Sputtered." Africa Jnl. of Science and Technology, Series. 2006;7(2):125-139.waita_et_al_ajst_-_2006.pdf
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated From Obliquely DC Sputtered TiO2 Films." African Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 7, No. 2, 125-138. 2006. AbstractWebsite

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Waita SM, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Niklasson GA, Lindquist E, Granqvist CG. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated from Obliquely DC Sputtered TiO2 Films." Africa Jnl. of Science and Technology. 2006;7(2):125-139. Abstract

Nanocrystalline porous titanium oxide films of varying thickness have been deposited in ambient by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at a fixed but high oblique angle of 60o, and then converted to TiO2 by thermal annealing at 450 oC for 4 hours. X-ray diffraction analysis of the films showed that they were predominantly of anatase phase, whereas the as deposited films were amorphous. Top–down scanning electron microscope images of the annealed films showed cauliflower-like surfaces, and exhibited well-defined columns. Atomic force microscope images revealed rough surfaces with larger nodules for thicker films. With the annealed films as the working electrodes in a dye-sensitised solar cell, it was established that the photoelectric conversion efficiency increased with the film thickness. The highest efficiency was ~ 3.3 % at an illumination intensity of 100 W/m2.

Waita SM, Mwabora JM, Aduda BO, Niklasson GA, Lindquist S – E, Granqvist CG. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated from Obliquely DC Sputtered TiO2 Films”,." Africa Jnl. of Science and Technology, Series. 2006;7(2):125-139. Abstract

Nanocrystalline porous titanium oxide films of varying thickness have been deposited in ambient by reactive
DC magnetron sputtering at a fixed but high oblique angle of 60o, and then converted to TiO2 by thermal
annealing at 450 oC for 4 hours. X-ray diffraction analysis of the films showed that they were predominantly of
anatase phase, whereas the as deposited films were amorphous. Top–down scanning electron microscope
images of the annealed films showed cauliflower-like surfaces, and exhibited well-defined columns. Atomic
force microscope images revealed rough surfaces with larger nodules for thicker films. With the annealed films
as the working electrodes in a dye-sensitised solar cell, it was established that the photoelectric conversion
efficiency increased with the film thickness. The highest efficiency was ~ 3.3 % at an illumination intensity of
100 W/m2.

Nyanchaga EN. "Performance of EcoSanitary Toilets in Kenya. .". In: First International Dry Toilet Conference. University of Tampere, Tampere – Finland. ; 2003.
Kimotho LM, Ransom JK, Njoroge K. "Performance of five new varieties in three agroecozones of semi-arid Eastern Kenya.". In: Africa Crop Science .; 1997.
Kimotho LM, Ransom JK, Njoroge K. "Performance of five new varieties in three agroecozones of semi-arid Eastern Kenya." Africa Crop Science Conference Proceedings. 1997;Vol.3:761-764.
Irimu GW, Gathara D, Zurovac D, Kihara H, Maina C, Mwangi J, Mbori-Ngacha D, Todd J, Greene A, English M. "Performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital: before and after a training intervention." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e39964. Abstract

Implementation of WHO case management guidelines for serious common childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. The impact of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on the quality-of-care of patients in tertiary hospitals has rarely been evaluated.

Nyundo AA, Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mathai AM. "The performance of International HIV dementia Scale (IHDS) versus Mini Mental Status Examition Scale (MMSE) in assessment of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) among HIV-Infected Tanzanian adults: a Case-Control Study.". 2016. AbstractWebsite

vailability of HAART has improved the outcome of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) though the prevalence is still high. Routine screening for HAND may offer room for early detection and prompt management that may improve overall outcome.

Objective

To compare the performance of International HIV dementia scale (IHDS) and Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) Scale in assessing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

Methods

This was a case- control study involving 351 HIV-cases and 150 HIV-negative controls. International HIV dementia scale and Mini Mental Status Examination scale were used to screen for neurocognitive deficits.

Results

For cases, 91(25.9%) were males and 260(74.1%) were females while for 150 controls, 38(25.3%) were males and 112 (74.7%) were females. Under IHDS score 240(68.4%) of cases had HAND compared to 10(2.8%) when MMSE was used. The mean scores under MMSE for cases was 29±1.7 compared to 29.3± 1.2 for controls (p = 1.00). The mean IHDS scores for cases was 9.35 ± 1.89 compared to 10.35±0.89 (p < 0.0001) for controls.

Conclusion

Our findings suggests that IHDS has better sensitivity in detecting cases of HAND and perform better in identifying HIV/AIDS cases that requires further cognitive evaluation on comprehensive neuropsychological batteries.

Saidi H, Aziz RA, Ariffin A, Hassan H. "Performance of locally manufactured hollow-fiber membrane for CO2 separatio.". 1994. Abstract

Hollow fiber membrane is the latest and advanced gas separation technology currently employed in the gas industries. Malaysia which is rich in natural resources has huge natural gas reserves amounting to more than 5 Trillion Standard Cubic Feed (5 TSCF). Membrane Research Unit has produced a hollow-fiber module by using locally made spinneret which is capable of producing hollow fiber membranes using a wet-spinning method. This module contains hollow fiber membranes with surface area of 72.22cm2. The module is utilised in the existing membrane gas separation pilot plant (MGSPP) for performance test. The performance of third module was based on its permeation rate and selectivity for each pure gases tested namely N2, CO2 and O2. Based on the result obtained the module has the capability to separate CO2 from natural gas, helium recovery in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), nitrogen and oxygen recovery in the production of urea.

Odhiambo JW. "The performance of multistage group screening designs.". 1986. AbstractThe performance of multistage group screening designs

This article deals with multistage group screening in which group-factors contain the same number of factors. A usual assumption of this procedure is that the directions of possible effects are known. In practice, however, this assumption i s often unreasonable. This paper examines, in the case of no errors in observations, the performance of multistage group screening when this assumption is false . This enails consideration of cancellation effects within group-factors

Isingoma BE, Samuel MK, Edward KG, Maina GW. "Performance of Nutritionally Optimized Millet Porridges in the Rehabilitation of Severely Malnourished Children at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda ." British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research . 2016;18(2):1-12.
OLE DRMAPENAYISAACM. "The performance of Orma Boran and Maasai Zebu crossbreeds in.". In: journal. EAEP; 2005. Abstract
Studies on the trypanotolerance of Orma Boran X Maasai Zebu (Orma Zebu) crossbred cattle (F1 progeny) and pure-bred Maasai Zebu contemporaries were carried out in Nguruman, south western Kenya. The two groups were monitored from birth for a period of 2 years. The incidence of trypanosomosis, parasitaemia, packed cell volume (PCV), body mass and average daily mass gain were monitored. During the study period, overall trypanosomosis incidence was low (3%).The crossbred cattle had a higher incidence of infection (61% vs 39%). The mean PCV and the mean mass gain for the crossbred cattle was higher than that of the Maasai Zebu. The mean calf body mass at weaning (8 months) for the Orma Zebu and Maasai Zebu was 72 kg and 64 kg, respectively, while at 18 months of age their mean body mass was 164 kg and 123 kg, respectively. During the rainy season significant differences in average daily mass gains were noted (p<0.05). The superior mass gain of the Orma Zebu observed during the rainy season, despite higher infection rates, indicate an enhanced trypanotolerance. Moreover, the better performance of the Orma Zebu is an attribute that could be exploited in the adoption of the trypanotolerance genotype, as a sustainable trypanosomosis control strategy.   Keywords: Cattle, productivity, Maasai Zebu, Orma Boran, Orma Zebu, trypanotolerance
Zeh C, Oyaro B, Vandenhoudt H, Amornkul P, Kasembeli A, Bondo P, Mwaengo D, Thomas TK, Hart C, Laserson KF, Ondoa P, Nkengasong JN. "Performance of six commercial enzyme immunoassays and two alternative HIV-testing algorithms for the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in Kisumu, Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Performances of serological parallel and serial testing algorithms were analyzed using a combination of three ELISA and three rapid tests for the confirmation of HIV infection. Each was assessed individually for their sensitivity and specificity on a blinded panel of 769 retrospective sera of known HIV status. Western blot was used as a confirmatory assay for discordant results. Subsequently, one parallel and one serial testing algorithm were assessed on a new panel of 912 HIV-positive and negative samples. Individual evaluation of the ELISAs and rapid tests indicated a sensitivity of 100% for all assays except Uni-Gold with 99.7%. The specificities ranged from 99.1% to 99.4% for rapid assays and from 97.5% to 99.1% for ELISAs. A parallel and serial testing algorithms using Enzygnost and Vironostika, and Determine followed by Uni-Gold respectively, showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. The cost for testing 912 samples was US$4.74 and US$ 1.9 per sample in parallel and serial testing respectively. Parallel or serial testing algorithm yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. This alternative algorithm is reliable and reduces the occurrence of both false negatives and positives. The serial testing algorithm was more cost effective for diagnosing HIV infections in this population.

IRAYA MWANGICYRUS, Lucy M. "Performance of socially screened portfolio at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2013;3(6):73-83. Abstract

Since its introduction in the early 1970s, socially responsible investment (SRI) has gained prominence as both a rival and a complement to conventional investment. SRI is the philosophy and practice of making strategic investment decisions by integrating financial and non-financial considerations, including personal values, societal demands, environmental concerns and corporate governance issues. One of the major concerns in socially responsible investing is whether there is a difference between the performance of socially screened portfolios and that of conventional funds. This study sought to determine whether applying social screens to a portfolio would affect the portfolio`s performance. Two portfolios were formulated each comprised of 20 firms. One comprised of the NSE 20-share index firms and the second comprised 20 firms that passed the negative screening criterion that was employed. The descriptive research design approach was used. The target population was all the firms listed at the NSE. The risk adjusted returns were computed using the Sharpe index. Monthly and annual returns were calculated for years 2007 - 2011. F and T-tests were used to determine whether there was significant difference between the risk adjusted returns of the two portfolios. The NSE-20 portfolio had a higher average Sharpe ratio than the social screened portfolio hence it outperformed the socially screened portfolio when compared in terms of risk adjusted returns. The study concludes that social screening results in reduced portfolio performance.

Mujugira A, Morrow RA, Celum C, Lingappa J, Delany-Moretlwe S, Fife KH, Heffron R, de Bruyn G, Homawoo B, Karita E, Mugo N, Vwalika B, Baeten JM. "Performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in seven African countries." Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87(3):238-41. Abstract

To compare the performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the gold standard herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 western blot, among HIV-1-uninfected men and women in east and southern Africa.

Diener; Slyker J, Christine G, Dalton W, Lara C, Tapia KA, Richardson BA, Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Elizabeth M-O, John-Stewart G. "Performance Of The Integrated Management Of Childhood Illness Algorithm For Diagnosis Of Hiv-1 Infection Among African Infants.". 2012.
Diener LC, Slyker JA GC, Tapia KA, Richardson BA, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Maleche-Obimbo E, G. J-S. "Performance of the integrated management of childhood illness algorithm for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among African infants. ." AIDS. 2012 Sep 24;26(15):1935-41. . 2012. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
Early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and treatment substantially improve survival. Where virologic HIV-1 testing is unavailable, integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) clinical algorithms may be used for infant HIV-1 screening. We evaluated the performance of the 2008 WHO IMCI HIV algorithm in a cohort of HIV-exposed Kenyan infants.
METHODS:
From 1999 to 2003, 444 infants had monthly clinical assessments and quarterly virologic HIV-1 testing. Using archived clinical data, IMCI sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated using virologic testing as a gold standard. Linear regression and survival analyses were used to determine the effect of age on IMCI performance and timing of diagnosis.
RESULTS:
Overall IMCI sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV value were 58, 87, 52, and 90%, respectively. Sensitivity (1.4%) and PPV (14%) were lowest at 1 month of age, when 81% of HIV infections already had occurred. Sensitivity increased with age (P < 0.0001), but remained low throughout infancy (range 1.4-35%). Specificity (range 97-100%) was high at each time point and was not associated with age. Fifty-eight percent of HIV-1-infected infants (50 of 86) were eventually diagnosed by IMCI, and use of IMCI was estimated to delay diagnosis in HIV-infected infants by a median of 5.9 months (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION:
IMCI had low sensitivity during the first month of life, when the majority of HIV-1 infections had already occurred and initiation of treatment is most critical. Although sensitivity increased with age, the substantial delay in HIV-1 diagnosis using IMCI limits its utility in early infant HIV-1 diagnosis.

Diener LC, Slyker JA, Christine Gichuhi, Dalton Wamalwa, Tapia KA, Richardson BA, Dalton Wamalwa, Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Maleche-Obimbo E, John-Stewart G. "Performance of the integrated management of childhood illness algorithm for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among African infants." AIDS. 2012;26(15):1935-41. Abstract

Early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and treatment substantially improve survival. Where virologic HIV-1 testing is unavailable, integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) clinical algorithms may be used for infant HIV-1 screening. We evaluated the performance of the 2008 WHO IMCI HIV algorithm in a cohort of HIV-exposed Kenyan infants.

Ininda J, Njuguna JGM, Gichuru L, Lorroki P. "Performance of Three-Way Cross Hybrids for Agronomic Traits and Resistance to Maize Streak Virus Disease in Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Maize Streak virus (MSV) disease is a major disease in many parts of Africa, and is the most important viral pathogen of maize in Kenya. A study was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the agronomic performance and maize streak virus (MSV) resistance of maize ( Zea mays check for this species in other resources L.) three-way crosses developed in Kenya. Twenty hybrids and one check were grown under normal conditions in a randomized complete block design, in two replications at Embu, 1540 masl; and Muguga, 2093 masl). In a parallel trial in Muguga, hybrids were also evaluated in two replications under artificial inoculation with MSV. The analyses of variance combined across environments showed significant differences (P<0.05) among genotypes for grain yield, days to 50% pollen shed, days to mid-silk and ear height. Genotype x environment interaction was significant (P<0.01) for grain yield and days to mid-silk, indicating some hybrids were more adapted in some environments. Grain yield for MU03-025 (10.04 t ha-1) was significantly better (P<0.05) than the check, H513 (7.53t ha-1). In the disease inoculated experiment, the best hybrids for disease resistance were MU03-012 and MU03-006 (score of 1.75), while H513 had a mean score of >3.0. The highest yielding hybrid under disease inoculation, MU03-026 showed yield gain of 5.2 t ha-1 above that of H513. The results indicate adoption of disease resistant hybrids would result in a higher maize yields in the mid-altitude areas of Kenya.

Aduda BO, Jain PK, Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Waita SM. "Performance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer." International Journal of Materials Engineering. 2013;3(2):11-16. Abstractpublished_paper21.pdf

In this work, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis and thermally annealed at 400℃. The films were characterized as deposited (no annealing) as well as after annealing. Optical studies showed that the energy band gap of the films was lowered from 3.25 eV to 2.90 eV on Nitrogen (N2) doping. The reduction in energy band gap was attributed to the introduction of N2 impurity states on the bands (conduction band and or valence band). The effect of N2 doping of Titanium Dioxide window layer on the efficiency of the ETA TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy solar cell was investigated using a conventional current-voltage (I-V) technique. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) increased from 1.06% for the solar cell with undoped films to 1.32% for the solar cell with N2-doped films. The increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency on doping was attributed to increased light absorption due to the Nitrogen doping.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Performance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer." International Journal of Materials Engineering . 2013; 3(2):11-16.
Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Aduda BO, Jain PK. "Performance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer.". 2012. AbstractPerformance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer

In this work, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis and thermally annealed at 400 oC. The films were characterized as deposited (no annealing) as well as after annealing. Optical studies showed that the energy band gap of the films was lowered from 3.25 eV to 2.90 eV on Nitrogen (N2) doping. The reduction in energy band gap was attributed to the introduction of N2 impurity states on the bands (conduction band and or valence band). The effect of N2 doping of Titanium Dioxide window layer on the efficiency of the ETA TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy solar cell was investigated using a conventional current-voltage (I-V) technique. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) increased from 1.06% for the solar cell with undoped films to 1.32% for the solar cell with N2-doped films. The increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency on doping was attributed to increased light absorption due to the Nitrogen doping.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Mbugua PN;, Maitho TE;, Nyaga PN. "Performance of weaner sheep fed wheat straw ensiled with caged layer waste."; 1993. Abstract

The performance of weaner lambs fed for 90 days Rhodes grass hay alone (A) or supplemented with silages containing 0, 20 or 40% (B, C, D) caged layer waste (CLW) was examined. Weaver sheep on the diet of hay supplemented with 40% CLW silage had higher total DMI (P<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) than sheep on the other treatments. Mean DMI/kg W 0.75 and ADG were 59.4, 58.7, 60.0 and 65.0 g/day and 15.0, 20.5, 17.6 and 33.2 g/day for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. Carcass composition did not (P>0.05) differ between treatments except that kidney fat was lower (P<0.05) for sheep on the B silage diet. Dressing percentage, % lean, % fat were: 30.4, 31.4, 32.1 and 33.5, 58.0, 59.0, 58.9 and 58:5, 8.3, 7.2, 8.2 and 8.9% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The study showed that CLW was a suitable protein supplement for sheep when processed by ensilage for 42 days at a level of 40% inclusion with wheat straw.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Mbugua PN;, Maitho TE;, Nyaga PN. "Performance of weaner sheep fed wheat straw ensiled with caged layer waste."; 1993. Abstract

The performance of weaner lambs fed for 90 days Rhodes grass hay alone (A) or supplemented with silages containing 0, 20 or 40% (B, C, D) caged layer waste (CLW) was examined. Weaver sheep on the diet of hay supplemented with 40% CLW silage had higher total DMI (P<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) than sheep on the other treatments. Mean DMI/kg W 0.75 and ADG were 59.4, 58.7, 60.0 and 65.0 g/day and 15.0, 20.5, 17.6 and 33.2 g/day for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. Carcass composition did not (P>0.05) differ between treatments except that kidney fat was lower (P<0.05) for sheep on the B silage diet. Dressing percentage, % lean, % fat were: 30.4, 31.4, 32.1 and 33.5, 58.0, 59.0, 58.9 and 58:5, 8.3, 7.2, 8.2 and 8.9% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The study showed that CLW was a suitable protein supplement for sheep when processed by ensilage for 42 days at a level of 40% inclusion with wheat straw.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Mbugua PN;, Maitho TE;, Nyaga PN. "Performance of weaner sheep fed wheat straw ensiled with caged layer waste."; 1993. Abstract

The performance of weaner lambs fed for 90 days Rhodes grass hay alone (A) or supplemented with silages containing 0, 20 or 40% (B, C, D) caged layer waste (CLW) was examined. Weaver sheep on the diet of hay supplemented with 40% CLW silage had higher total DMI (P<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) than sheep on the other treatments. Mean DMI/kg W 0.75 and ADG were 59.4, 58.7, 60.0 and 65.0 g/day and 15.0, 20.5, 17.6 and 33.2 g/day for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. Carcass composition did not (P>0.05) differ between treatments except that kidney fat was lower (P<0.05) for sheep on the B silage diet. Dressing percentage, % lean, % fat were: 30.4, 31.4, 32.1 and 33.5, 58.0, 59.0, 58.9 and 58:5, 8.3, 7.2, 8.2 and 8.9% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The study showed that CLW was a suitable protein supplement for sheep when processed by ensilage for 42 days at a level of 40% inclusion with wheat straw.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Mbugua PN;, Maitho TE;, Nyaga PN. "Performance of weaner sheep fed wheat straw ensiled with caged layer waste."; 1993. Abstract

The performance of weaner lambs fed for 90 days Rhodes grass hay alone (A) or supplemented with silages containing 0, 20 or 40% (B, C, D) caged layer waste (CLW) was examined. Weaver sheep on the diet of hay supplemented with 40% CLW silage had higher total DMI (P<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) than sheep on the other treatments. Mean DMI/kg W 0.75 and ADG were 59.4, 58.7, 60.0 and 65.0 g/day and 15.0, 20.5, 17.6 and 33.2 g/day for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. Carcass composition did not (P>0.05) differ between treatments except that kidney fat was lower (P<0.05) for sheep on the B silage diet. Dressing percentage, % lean, % fat were: 30.4, 31.4, 32.1 and 33.5, 58.0, 59.0, 58.9 and 58:5, 8.3, 7.2, 8.2 and 8.9% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The study showed that CLW was a suitable protein supplement for sheep when processed by ensilage for 42 days at a level of 40% inclusion with wheat straw.

Rutunga V;, Karanja NK;, Gachene CKK;, Palm C. "Performance of Zea mays grown under short term duration fallow systems."; 2002.
Rutunga V;, Karanja NK;, Gachene CKK;, Palm C. "Performance of Zea mays grown under short term duration fallow systems."; 2002.
Cockerill FR. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-first informational supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); 2011. Abstract
n/a
O DROUTAGEORGE. "Performing Power: Ethnic Citizenship, Popular Theatre and the Contest of Nationhood in Modern Kenya.". In: Mid American Alliance for African Studies conference (MAAAS). BookSurge, South Carolina, USA; 2009. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Olali T. ""Performing the Swahili Hamziyyah and the Pyeongtaek Nongak: A Comparative Analysis of Community Dance and Rituals"." American Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;1(2):43-48.
Ongeti K, Pulei A, Mandela P, Kimpiatu P. "Periduodenal Tuberculosis Masquerading As Annular Pancreas." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9:64-65. Abstract

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is rampant in Africa. Nonetheless, isolated duodenal involvement is rare, and is more likely to mimic other causes of duodenal obstruction. We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis, diagnosed at laparatomy, whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy is emphasized.

ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE, MANDELA DRIDENYAPAMELA. "Periduodenal Tuberculosis Masquerading As Annular Pancreas.". In: Annals of African Anatomy. Annals of African Surgery; 2012. Abstract
Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is rampant in Africa. Nonetheless, isolated duodenal involvement is rare, and is more likely to mimic other causes of duodenal obstruction. We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis, diagnosed at laparatomy, whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy is emphasized.
K O, A P, P M, undefined. "Periduodenal Tuberculosis masquerading as Annular Pancreas." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9. Abstract

Periduodenal Tuberculosis masquerading as Annular Pancreas
K Ongeti, A Pulei, P Mandela, P Kimpiatu

Abstract

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is common in Africa. Nonetheless, isolated duodenal involvement is rare, and is more likely to mimic other causes of duodenal obstruction. We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis, diagnosed at laparatomy, whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy is emphasized.

Musoke RN. "Perinatal mortality in Kenya: time for action." East Afr Med J. 2004;81(11):553-4.
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Perinatal mortality in Kenya: time for action. East Afr Med J . 2004 Nov; 81 ( 11 ): 553-4 . No abstract available. PMID: 15868962 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Nov; 81 ( 11 ): 553-4 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2004. Abstract
No abstract available.
Santana DS, Silveira C, Costa ML, Souza RT, Surita FG, Souza JP, Mazhar SB, Jayaratne K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Sousa MH, Vogel JP, Cecatti JG. "Perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies complicated by maternal morbidity:evidence from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth . 2018;18(449). AbstractWebsite

Background: Twin pregnancy was associated with significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal and perinatal outcomes, especially for the second twin. In addition, the maternal complications (potentially life-threatening conditions-PLTC, maternal near miss-MNM, and maternal mortality-MM) are directly related to twin pregnancy and independently associated with adverse perinatal outcome. The objective of the preset study is to evaluate perinatal outcomes associated with twin pregnancies, stratified by severe maternal morbidity and order of birth.

Methods: Secondary analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), a cross-sectional study implemented in 29 countries. Data from 8568 twin deliveries were compared with 308,127 singleton deliveries. The occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes and maternal complications were assessed. Factors independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes were reported with adjusted PR (Prevalence Ratio) and 95%CI.

Results: The occurrence of severe maternal morbidity and maternal death was significantly higher among twin compared to singleton pregnancies in all regions. Twin deliveries were associated with higher rates of preterm delivery (37.1%), Apgar scores less than 7 at 5th minute (7.8 and 10.1% respectively for first and second twins), low birth weight (53.2% for the first and 61.1% for the second twin), stillbirth (3.6% for the first and 5.7% for the second twin), early neonatal death (3.5% for the first and 5.2% for the second twin), admission to NICU (23.6% for the first and 29.3% for the second twin) and any adverse perinatal outcomes (67% for the first twin and 72.3% for the second). Outcomes were consistently worse for the second twin across all outcomes. Poisson multiple regression analysis identified several factors independently associated with an adverse perinatal outcome, including both maternal complications and twin pregnancy.

Conclusion: Twin pregnancy is significantly associated with severe maternal morbidity and with worse perinatal outcomes, especially for the second twin.

Keywords: Maternal morbidity; Perinatal outcome; Twin pregnancy.

Datta P, Embree J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss J. "Perinatal transmission in Nairobi, Kenya: 5 year follow-up.". 1991.
Greenfield C, Osidiana V, Karayiannis P, Galpin S, Musoke R, Jowett TP, Mati P, Tukei PM, Thomas HC. "Perinatal Transmission Of Hepatitis B Virus In Kenya: Its Relation To The Presence Of Serum Hbv-dna And Anti-hbe In The Mother.". 1986. Abstract

In Kenya hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae are common. We followed up 49 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)- positive mothers and their newborn infants for 9 months to determine the importance of perinatal transmission in the African and to relate this to the HBe and HBV-DNA status of the mother. Our study shows that perinatal transmission is relatively unimportant in Kenya and that this may be a consequence of the low levels of circulating HBV-DNA in the maternal plasma. These results imply that vaccination without hyperimmune globulin may be adequate to control HBV infection in Kenya

Balkus JE, Manhart LE, Lee J, Anzala O, Kimani J, Schwebke J, Shafi J, Rivers C, Kabare E, Scott McClelland R. "Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Vaginal Infections May Reduce the Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections." J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(12):1932-7. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections, we observed a significant reduction in BV. We further assessed the intervention effect on incident Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium infection.

O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Periodic reaction between m-nitrophenol and potassium bromide in acidic solution.". In: Kenya Journal of Science Series A (1988) 9 (1 & 2): 91.; 1988. Abstract
n/a
Wasike AAM, Ogana W. "Periodic solutions of a system of delay differential equations for a small delay." Science and Technology. 2002;7:pp. 295-302.
Ngugi CM. "Periodicals.". In: Greenwood Encyclopedia of Popular World Cultures. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group; 2007.
Mathai LW, Nderitu EM. Periodontal disease in a 15 year old Jack Russel bitch: A Case Report. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.dentistry.pdf
Wagaiyu FG, Macigo F. "Periodontal health status of HIV infected adults in Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2009. Abstract

To assess the periodontal health status ofHIV infected adults including the periodontal lesions associated with HIV infection. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study of HI V patients. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: HIV positive patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital Methods: All HIV infected adults admitted in the medical wards at KNH during the months of Aug and Sept 2005 were examined. Plaque levels were assessed and the periodontal tissues examined for gingival inflammation, probing pocket depths and recession on four sites per tooth. Examination for the presence or absence of linear gingival erythema (LGE), necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/P) was included. Results: A total of 109 patients were examined. 40 (36.7%) of them were male and 69 (63.3%) female. 43 (39.4%) of the patients were between 30-39 years. 4 (3.7%) were 17-19 years while 6 (5.5%) were 50-59 years. Only 15 patients (13.8%) were on Anti-Retrovirals. All the patients had plaque however, none had abundant plaque. The mean plaque score was 1.2 and all the individuals were found to have plaque. 95.4% of the patients had early inflammatory changes of the gingival tissues with redness but no bleeding on probing. Bleeding on probing was seen in 40.3% of the patients. Linear gingival erythema was recorded in 17.4% (19) of the patients. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis was seen in 6 (5.5%) of the patients while necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis was also seen in 6 (5.5%) individuals. 10 (9.2% ) individuals examined did not have any periodontal breakdown since they did not exhibit any clinical loss of attachment. 21 (19.3%) hadat least one site with 4mm or more loss ofattachment and of these 10 (9.2%) had one site with 5mm or more. 89 (81.7%) had mean loss of attachment of between 0.25-2.5mm. Conclusions: This group of HIV infected individuals did not exhibit extensive periodontal destruction. The presence of periodontal lesions associated with HIV like Liner Gingival Erythema was seen in 17.4%, Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis and Necrotizing Ulcerative Periodontitis were present in 5.5%. Recommendations: The management ofHIV/AlDS patients should include periodontal therapy, oral hygiene instructions and other measures to improve periodontal health. In addition, comparative studies of HIV negative and HIV positive persons are needed so as to define the effects ofHIV on periodontal health

M KM, G WE, N MB. "Periodontal treatment needs of psychiatric inpatients at Mathari Mental Hospital." Journal of Kenya Dental Association. 2011;(4):103-107.
B Ganda, GO Oyoo KMJM. "Peripheral arterial disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." East African Medical Journa. 2011;88(12). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To determine the magnitude of the rosclerotic arterial disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: hospital based cross-sectional study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital Rheumatology outpatient clinic.
Subjects: Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.
Results: We obtained ABI measurements in 90 RA patients, among them 23(25.5% 95% CI 17.2-36.1) had obstructed lower limb arteries. Among the 23, 21(91.3%) had mild PAD, two (8.7%) had moderate PAD; none had severe PAD nor incompressible vessels. The obstruction of vessels was independent of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cigarette smoking though these factors increased the likelihood of having PAD. Risk age( ≥45 males, ≥55 females), Established RA(> 5 year duration) and severe RA were found to be significantly associated with the likelihood of having PAD. These trends remained significant after multivariable adjustment for potential confounders. twenty five (27.7%) of the study subjects exhibited symptoms of intermittent claudication, 13(52%) of them had PAD on ABI measurements, The Edinburgh claudication questionnaire was found to have 56.5% sensitivity and 82% specificity in detection
of PAD in RA patients. Conclusion: There seems to be an association between PAD in RA with chronicity and severity of the RA. This association may support the pathogenic role of accumulated systemic inflammation in atherosclerosis. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of impared arterial function and thus subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

B Ganda, GO Oyoo KMJM. "Peripheral arterial disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya ." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88(12). Abstract

Objective: To determine the magnitude of the rosclerotic arterial disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: hospital based cross-sectional study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital Rheumatology outpatient clinic.
Subjects: Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.
Results: We obtained ABI measurements in 90 RA patients, among them 23(25.5% 95% CI 17.2-36.1) had obstructed lower limb arteries. Among the 23, 21(91.3%) had mild PAD, two (8.7%) had moderate PAD; none had severe PAD nor incompressible vessels. The obstruction of vessels was independent of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cigarette smoking though these factors increased the likelihood of having PAD. Risk age( ≥45 males, ≥55 females), Established RA(> 5 year duration) and severe RA were found to be significantly associated with the likelihood of having PAD. These trends remained significant after multivariable adjustment for potential confounders. twenty five (27.7%) of the study subjects exhibited symptoms of intermittent claudication, 13(52%) of them had PAD on ABI measurements, The Edinburgh claudication questionnaire was found to have 56.5% sensitivity and 82% specificity in detection
of PAD in RA patients. Conclusion: There seems to be an association between PAD in RA with chronicity and severity of the RA. This association may support the pathogenic role of accumulated systemic inflammation in atherosclerosis. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of impared arterial function and thus subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

Ganda B, Oyoo GO, KAYIMA JK, Maritim M. "Peripheral arterial disease in rheumatoid arthritis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88(12):107-113. Abstract

Objective: To determine the magnitude of the rosclerotic arterial disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: hospital based cross-sectional study.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital Rheumatology outpatient clinic.
Subjects: Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.
Results: We obtained ABI measurements in 90 RA patients, among them 23(25.5% 95% CI 17.2-36.1) had obstructed lower limb arteries. Among the 23, 21(91.3%) had mild PAD, two (8.7%) had moderate PAD; none had severe PAD nor incompressible vessels. The obstruction of vessels was independent of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cigarette smoking though these factors increased the likelihood of having PAD. Risk age( ≥45 males, ≥55 females), Established RA(> 5 year duration) and severe RA were found to be significantly associated with the likelihood of having PAD. These trends remained significant after multivariable adjustment for potential confounders. twenty five (27.7%) of the study subjects exhibited symptoms of intermittent claudication, 13(52%) of them had PAD on ABI measurements, The Edinburgh claudication questionnaire was found to have 56.5% sensitivity and 82% specificity in detection
of PAD in RA patients. Conclusion: There seems to be an association between PAD in RA with chronicity and severity of the RA. This association may support the pathogenic role of accumulated systemic inflammation in atherosclerosis. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of impared arterial function and thus subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

Stephen Kainga, Margaret Chege MWSK. "Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus attending Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. Nairobi; 2012.
NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type Diabetes mellitus attending Kenyatta National Hospital."; 2012. Abstract

2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference, 18-19 June 2012, Nairobi,
Kenya
Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients with Type Diabetes mellitus attending
Kenyatta National Hospital
Stephen Kainga1
,2, Margaret Chegel, Miriam Wagoro\ Samuel Kiman!' ~
'University of Nairobi and 2Ministry of Medical Services, Government of Kenya.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become the epidemic of the 21st century with the
poorest nations bearing the greatest burden. DM affects both central and peripheral
nerves causing dysfunctional sensory activity with peripheral neuropathy (PN)
being the most common complication. Peripheral neuropathy has been associated
with lower limbs pain and ulceration among diabetic patients resulting to increased
morbidity, disability and reduced quality of life. Objective: We determined the
prevalence ofPN among patients with type 2 DM attending Kenyatta National
Hospital. Methods: We carried out descriptive cross-sectional study involving 147
patients with DM attending the KNH. Clinical history and physical findings were
captured using questionnaires and a focused physical examination. Data was
analyzed using SPSS software (version 17). Statistical significance was set at a cut
off value of 0.05. Results: Based on history and signs of peripheral numbness and
pain, 60 (41.1 %) participants with DM had PN. Peripheral neuropathy was
significantly associated with coexistence of DM and hypertension. Furthermore,
the duration of DM, participants' age and difficulties in healthcare financing were
significantly associated with PN. However, our study did not elicit any association
between smoking, alcohol consumption and prevalence of PN among the
participants. Conclusion: Our findings underscore the role ofDM on the
occurrence ofPN, the main cause of morbidity, disability, and reduced quality of
life among patients. Early diagnosis and adequate management of DM can
significantly reduce diabetic neuropathy and should be incorporated

OCHANDA DRMBUYAS. "Peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract
Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Tsuma VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Rojkittikhun T, Lundeheim N. Peripheral plasma concentration of B-endorphin and cortisol in sows around weaning.. Missouri, USA; 1993.
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Periportal fibosis of the liver due to natural or experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni occurs in the Kenyan baboon. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 92 (2): 187-195.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
Virology Research Division, Institute of Primate Research, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. ipr@elci.sasa.unep.no The objective of this study was to investigate the gastro-intestinal (GIT) parasites commonly occurring in captive and wild-trapped (WT) non-human primates (baboons, vervets and Sykes) in Kenya and compare their prevalence. Three hundred and fifteen faecal samples were subjected to a battery of diagnostic tests, namely, direct smear, modified formal ether sedimentation, Kato thick smear, Harada-Mori techniques for parasite detection and culture to facilitate nematode larvae identification. Of these, 203 (64.4%) harboured helminths and 54 (17.1%) had protozoa. The helminth parasites comprised Strongyloides fulleborni 141 (44.8%), Trichuris trichuira 200 (63.5,%), Oesophagostomum sp. 48 (15.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. 73 (23.2%), Enterobius vermicularis 44 (14.0%), Schistosoma mansoni 4/92 (4.3%) and Streptopharagus sp. 68 (21.6%). Protozoan parasites consisted of Entamoeba coli 204 (64.8%), Balantidium coli 127 (40.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica 78 (24.8%). Both WT and colony-borne (CB) primates had similar species of parasites, but higher prevalences of protozoan infection were observed in CB baboons while helminth infections were relatively more common in WT primates. Some of the parasites observed in this study are reported to be zoonotic in various parasitological literatures. Chemoprophylaxis and other managerial practices were believed to be responsible for the lower worm prevalence in CB primates. Similar intervention against protozoa and other agents will not only improve primate health, but also increase safety to animal handlers and colony workers. PMID: 9760061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Jani PG, Nyaga PN. "Peritonial Drains in Perforated Appendicitis without Generalised Peritonitis:A prospective RandomisedControlled Trail ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery (Online). Submitted;16(2).
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Peritonitis - Definitions, Interventions and Contravention.". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine,. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "The Permanent Project syndrome: A counter productive consequence of philanthropy Soc. Sc. & Med., Vol. 41, No.5, 1995, pp 604-605.". In: Soc. Sc. & Med., Vol. 41, No.5, 1995, pp 604-605. SITE; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Peroxidase activity of Coffea arabica cultivars resistant and susceptible to coffee berry disease. African Crop Science Journal (1996). 4 (No 2): 223-232.". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1996. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Peroxidase activity of Coffea arabica cultivars resistant and susceptible to coffee berry disease. African Crop Science Journal (1996). 4 (No 2): 223-232.". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1996. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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Zipporah M, Robinson M, Julius M, Arti K. "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn2VIn (001) films: An ab initio study." AIP Advances. 2018;8:055701. Abstract
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STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Perrin P, Gontier C, Lecocq E, Bourhy H. A modified rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses: RREID-lyssa.Biologicals. 1992 Mar;20(1):51-8.". In: Biologicals. 1992 Mar;20(1):51-8. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Rabies Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. This paper presents a modification of the previously described Rapid Rabies Enzyme Immuno-Diagnosis test (RREID) by using biotinylated antibodies, streptavidin conjugate and a mixture of monospecific polyclonal antibodies against several lyssaviruses. In the modified technique (RREID-lyssa), microplates were sensitized with a mixture of purified antibodies against ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from Pasteur virus (Lyssavirus serotype 1), European Bat Lyssavirus (EBL, unclassified) and Mokola virus (Lyssavirus serotype 3). Bound RNP was detected by the same antibodies labelled with biotin and peroxidase-strepavidin conjugate. These techniques were used for the detection of RNP of different Lyssavirus serotypes (rabies and rabies-related viruses). For lyssavirus specimens of serotype 1, the threshold of detection of RREID and RREID-lyssa were similar. However, a smaller amount of labelled antibodies was needed when biotinylated antibodies were used. For specimens infected by rabies-related strains (serotypes 2, 3, 4 and EBL), the threshold of detection of the RREID-lyssa was between two and 512 times lower than with the RREID. The sensitivity and the specificity of the RREID-lyssa for rabies virus (serotype 1) when tested on a small field trial (53 specimens) were found to be identical to the RREID. Consequently, RREID-lyssa can be a useful tool for diagnostic laboratories that receive specimens infected by rabies-related viruses.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Perrin P, Joffret ML, Zanetti C, Bourhy H, Gontier C, Fritzell C, Leclerc C, Sureau P. Rabies-specific production of interleukin-2 by peripheral blood lymphocytes from human rabies vaccinees.Vaccine. 1991 Aug;9(8):549-58.". In: Vaccine. 1991 Aug;9(8):549-58. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Unite de la Rage, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Cell-mediated immunity induced by rabies vaccination was studied in humans by the determination of specific interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a large number of donors (postexposure immunized patients and pre-exposure immunized laboratory workers). Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 35 donors were tested for IL-2 production after in vitro stimulation by different rabies and rabies-related viruses. IL-2 responses were compared to antibody recognition of these different virus serotypes by sera from the same individuals. IL-2 was produced by PBL from more than 85% of donors after stimulation with inactivated and purified rabies viruses (IPRV) prepared from either Pittman Moore (PM) or Pasteur Virus (PV) strains. IL-2 was also produced by 65 and 45% of donor PBL stimulated with IPRV from the European Bat Lyssavirus (EBL) and Mokola (Mok) rabies-related virus strains respectively. No correlation was found between the production of IL-2 by PBL and the levels of virus neutralizing antibody (VNAb). Moreover, 50, 25 and 35% of donors produced IL-2 after stimulation of their PBL with ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from PV-, EBL- and Mok-viruses, respectively. These results obtained with a large number of human rabies vaccinees and using an assay specific to T-cell activation confirm the significant cross-reactivity of T-cell responses directed against rabies and rabies-related viruses. This study shows that IL-2 production could be used for the study of cell-mediated immunity and T-cell memory induced in humans by rabies vaccination.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Perry, B.D., Kyendo, T.M., Mbugua, S.W., Price, J.E. and Varma, S.(1995). Increasing rabies vaccination coverage in urban dog populations of high human population density suburbs - A case study in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
Lalah JO, Wandiga SO. "The Persistence and Fate of Malathion Residues in Stored Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Maize (Zea mays).". 1999. AbstractThe Persistence and Fate of Malathion Residues in Stored Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Maize (Zea mays)

Two experimental models simulating the traditional storage conditions prevalent in Kenya, i.e. the open basket model and the modern wooden box model, were used to study the rate of dissipation and fate of malathion residues in maize grains and beans stored for periods of up to one year at ambient temperatures averaging 23°C. The grain samples were initially treated with 10·36 mg kg−1 of radiolabelled malathion dust prior to storage and portions analysed at regular intervals for malathion, malaoxon and the transformation products isomalathion, malathion α-monocarboxylic acid and malathion β-monocarboxylic acid using a combination of chromatographic, radioisotopic and mass-spectrometric techniques. The findings showed a gradual penetration of malathion into the grains in amounts which were slightly higher in maize than in beans irrespective of the method of storage. After 51 weeks of storage, 34–60% of the initial residues persisted in all the grains. The total residual levels were slightly higher in beans than in maize irrespective of the storage methods though the persistence was a little higher in the wooden box than in the open basket. The rates of dissipation of the pesticide from the grains decreased with storage time and followed a biphasic pattern. Applying first-order reaction kinetics, the following half-lives were obtained: maize grains stored in open basket: 194 days; maize grains stored in closed wooden box: 261 days; beans stored in open basket: 259 days; beans stored in closed wooden box: 405 days. Beans stored in the wooden box had higher levels of bound residues than those sampled from the open basket. This trend was similar in maize grains although the concentrations were lower. The analysis of malathion metabolites confirmed the degradation trend of the residues.

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The persistence and Fate of malathion residues in stored beans (phaseolus vulgaris)and maize (zea mays),.". In: Pestic Science 46 215-220. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1996. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Persistence of 14CDDT in the Tropical Soils of Kenya.". In: In "Isotope Techniques for Studying the Fate of Persistent Pesticides in the Tropics". IAEATECDOC-476, 19-26. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract
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W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "The persistence of benomyl tolerance in Colletotrichum coffeanum in Kenya. Kenya Journal of Sciences series B (1988) 9: 55-65.". In: at a symposium on integrated pest management in tropical and subtropical cropping systems - Bad Durkheim, West Germany, organized by DLG, February 8th - 15th 1989 Vol. 111. 799-804. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1988. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "Persistence of Droughts and their Implications on the the Utilization and Management of Water Resources in Africa.". In: Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Efficient Utilization and Management of Water Resour. in Africa. Khartoum. International Journal of Climatology; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Shilabukha K. "The Persistence of Female Genital Cutting Among the Abagusii and Maasai Communities of Kenya .". In: A Tapestry of Human Sexuality in Africa. Action Health Inc; 2010.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Persistence of g-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane (g -HCH) in Tropical Soils in Kenya.". In: Isotope Techniques for Studying the Fate of persistent pesticides in the Tropics". IAEA-TECDOC-476, 77-82,. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract
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MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. "The Persistence of High Fertility in Africa & Prospects for fertility Decine. In African Perspectives on Development by U. Himmerlstrand K. Kinyanjui & E. Mburugu (eds.) James Currey Publishers, London (1994) pp.74-83.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
Odundo • PA, Ngaruiya B, Muchanje PN. "Personal Characteristics and Career Progression of Tutors in Primary Teacher Colleges in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2015;2(1).
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness Trust and Risk.". In:  Americas Conference of Information Systems . USA; 2020.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness with TAM.". In: IST-Africa 2020. Uganda; 2020.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: The Effect of Individual IT Mindfulness.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2019.
E.N. PN. "Personal digital assistants for HIV treatment adherence, safer sex behavior support, and provider training in resource-constrained settings.". 2007. Abstract

AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2007 Oct 11:1018.
Personal digital assistants for HIV treatment adherence, safer sex behavior support, and provider training in resource-constrained settings.
Kurth AE, Curioso WH, Ngugi E, McClelland L, Segura P, Cabello R, Berry DL.
Source

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Abstract

We developed a Web-based application delivered on PDAs (Colecta-PALM in Peru, Pambazuko-PALM in Kenya), to collect data from HIV patients and to facilitate HIV provider training. Colecta-PALM provides tailored feedback (behavioral messaging) based on risk assessment responses for HIV patients. Pambazuko-PALM collects patient risk assessment data, and delivers counseling protocol training and evaluation to nurses involved in HIV care.

PMID:
18694116
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Personal Management Teaching Mannual and Audio Cassets. Developed for the Faculty of External Studies and Adult Education Univesity of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
Wanjala CL;, Wanjala AN. "A Personal Overview−Central and East Africa.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Ever since Professor G.D. Killam of the University of Guelph edited The
Writings of East and Central Africa (1984),and the conferences that lead
to the changes in the English syllabi of Secondary Schools, nothing has
brought the writers,booksellers,librarians,literary critics,journalists,and
intellectual property lawyers of the region together more than book fairs
which take place annually in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Nairobi, Kenya.
Names like Ali A. Mazrui, Njabulo Ndebele, Ngugi wa Thiong’o, David
Rubadiri, Charles Mungoshi, Chenjerai Hove, Micere Githae Mugo,
which one sees on book covers suddenly stick into one’s mind as one
meets their owners at either the Zimbabwe or Nairobi International
Book Fairs.
During the years under review (2000–4), Jared Angira, the internationally
known Kenyan poet and chairman of the Kenya Organization
of Writers Association (KOWA) could be seen with Dr. Jack Mapanje,
the famous Malawian linguist and poet, at the international book fair
almost every day. At the meetings of the National Book Development
Council of Kenya,one met the stakeholders in the book production and
book marketing industry meeting under the aegis of the East African
Book Development Association (EABDA),a consortium comprising of
the National Book Development Councils of Kenya, Uganda, and
Tanzania. As constituent bodies,these councils and the organizers of the
book fairs in Nairobi and Harare argue that the challenges facing all the
stakeholders of the books is the fight against the monster of illiteracy. A
nation that has to operate satisfactorily in the twenty-first century has to
be a reading nation. It must celebrate the book.

Wanjala CL;, Wanjala AN. "A Personal Overview−Central and East Africa.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Ever since Professor G.D. Killam of the University of Guelph edited The
Writings of East and Central Africa (1984),and the conferences that lead
to the changes in the English syllabi of Secondary Schools, nothing has
brought the writers,booksellers,librarians,literary critics,journalists,and
intellectual property lawyers of the region together more than book fairs
which take place annually in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Nairobi, Kenya.
Names like Ali A. Mazrui, Njabulo Ndebele, Ngugi wa Thiong’o, David
Rubadiri, Charles Mungoshi, Chenjerai Hove, Micere Githae Mugo,
which one sees on book covers suddenly stick into one’s mind as one
meets their owners at either the Zimbabwe or Nairobi International
Book Fairs.
During the years under review (2000–4), Jared Angira, the internationally
known Kenyan poet and chairman of the Kenya Organization
of Writers Association (KOWA) could be seen with Dr. Jack Mapanje,
the famous Malawian linguist and poet, at the international book fair
almost every day. At the meetings of the National Book Development
Council of Kenya,one met the stakeholders in the book production and
book marketing industry meeting under the aegis of the East African
Book Development Association (EABDA),a consortium comprising of
the National Book Development Councils of Kenya, Uganda, and
Tanzania. As constituent bodies,these councils and the organizers of the
book fairs in Nairobi and Harare argue that the challenges facing all the
stakeholders of the books is the fight against the monster of illiteracy. A
nation that has to operate satisfactorily in the twenty-first century has to
be a reading nation. It must celebrate the book.

Rono R, Khasakhala L, editor Ndetei D.M. "Personality and Personality Traits."; 2006.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Personality Characteristics in Personal Selling.". In: Marketing Review.; 1988.
Ndetei DM, Tyrer P, Mulder R, Crawford M, Newton-Howes G, Simonsen E, Koldobsky N, Fossati A, Mbatia J, Barrett B. "Personality Disorder: A New Global Perspective."; 2010.personality_disorder_-_a_new_global_perspective.pdf
Khasakhala L, editor Ndetei, D.M., Abdelrahman A, Gakinya B. "Personality Disorders."; 2006.
Kuria MW. "Personality Disorders Chapter 10.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Mwenda AM. "Personalizing Power in Uganda.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

A dozen years after the adoption of Uganda's new constitution, the democratization process has been thrown into reverse. Uganda today is sliding backward toward a system of one-man rule engineered by the recently reelected President Yoweri Museveni, who has now been in power for more than two decades. Due to Museveni's use of force and intimindation on the one hand, and his manipulation of patronage on the other, the stakeholders whom one would naturally expect to denounce the backsliding have been silent.

PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Personhood and Art: Social Change and Commentary Among the Acoli.". In: Indiana University Press. University of Nairobi Press; 2000. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
NZUVE SNM. Personnel Management I, with a 60 minutes cassette. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1988.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Personnel Management Teaching Manual and Audio Cassettes.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
Kariuki CN. "Personnel selection techniques.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi. Nairobi: African Crop Science Society; 1989. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

P OCHILO. Perspective for Editorial Independence. . Tampere University in Finland.: UNESCO; 2003.
Muturi PW, P.W. M, Munyiri JK, P. RSW, Munyua JK, M. M, E. M, N. K. "A perspective on proteomics: Current applications, challenges and potential uses." Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2010;1(5):916-918.
Othieno C, Jenkins R, Okeyo S, Wallcraft J, Jenkins B. "Perspectives and concerns of clients at primary health care facilities involved in evaluation of a national mental health training programme for primary care in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Perspectives and concerns of clients at primary health care facilities involved in evaluation of a national mental health training programme for primary care in Kenya.

Kaviti LK. Perspectives in Bantu Grammar-The Case of Kikamba. Saabrucken: VDM-Verlag; 2011.
KAVITI DRLILIANKATUNGE. "Perspectives in Bantu Grammar-The Case of Kikamba. VDM-Verlag Dr. Muller, Gmblt & Co, Saabrucken, Germany.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. VDM-Verlag Dr. Muller, Gmblt & Co, Saabrucken, Germany.; 2011.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Perspectives in Transition: Medicinal Plants and the Emerging Technologies (Forthcoming).". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Nzioka C. "Perspectives of adolescent boys on the risks of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections: Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Sexual debut for boys in Kenya occurs mostly by mid-adolescence. This study looks at the perspectives of adolescent boys aged 15–19 attending schools in rural, eastern Kenya on the dual risks of unwanted pregnancy, STDs and HIV, based on qualitative data from eight focus group discussions with 90 boys. Despite a high knowledge of sexual risks, fear of HIV and awareness of the protective value of condoms, the young men exhibit high risk behaviour. They feel the need to conform to social prescriptions of male prowess, early sexual experience, and having more than one partner, yet their feelings about this behaviour are ambiguous and contradictory. They consider getting girls pregnant and having had a treatable STD as marks of masculinity, blame girls for not protecting themselves (and girls' parents), and want to boast about their sexual conquests to their peers. Yet they feel embarrassed and reticent about discussing sexual issues with adults, and are unwilling to get condoms from places where anonymity is not assured as they know their sexual activity is not sanctioned. There is a clear need for educational programmes that confront male sexual norms, address issues of gender power relations, promote communication skills, informed choice and sexual responsibility among boys as well as girls, and provide a consistent supply of good quality condoms free or at affordable prices.

Russ CM, Ganapathi L, Marangu D, Silverman M, Kija E, Bakeera-Kitaka S, Laving A. "Perspectives of host faculty and trainees on international visiting faculty to paediatric academic departments in East Africa." BMJ Glob Health. 2016;1(3):e000097. Abstract

Investments in faculty exchanges to build physician workforce capacity are increasing. Little attention has been paid to the expectations of host institution faculty and trainees. This prospective qualitative research study explored faculty and resident perspectives about guest faculty in paediatric departments in East Africa, asking (1) What are the benefits and challenges of hosting guest faculty, (2) What factors influence the effectiveness of faculty visits and (3) How do host institutions prepare for faculty visits?

ROSEMARY DRATIENO. "Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers". With Patrick Alila. In:Micro-economies and structural adjustment in Africa-experiences and prospects of small businesses and farmers. Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA), and Foundation for Adva.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
"Perspectives of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in Kenya: Uncompleted Reforms." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2018;3(3):288-298.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Perspectives on Women in African Literature: Impact Associates.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1994. Abstract
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Patel, Nilesh; Poo M-ming. "Perturbation of neurite growth by pulsed and focal electric fields." J. Neuroscience. 1984;4:2939-2947.
WANJIRA DRNJUGUNAPAMELA. "Perturbations in electrolyte levels in kenyan children with severe malaria complicated by acidosis. Maitland K, Pamba A, Fegan G, Njuguna P, Nadel S, Newton CR, Lowe B.Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jan 1;40(1):9-16. Epub 2004 Dec 6.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jan 1;40(1):9-16. Epub 2004 Dec 6. East African Medical Journal; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: To date, information about the frequency of electrolyte disturbances among children with severe falciparum malaria is limited. METHODS: We describe changes in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate levels in 56 Kenyan children (42 who survived and 14 who died) admitted to the hospital with clinical features of severe malaria (impaired consciousness or deep breathing) complicated by acidosis (base deficit, >8 mmol/L). RESULTS: Mild-to-moderate hypercalcemia was common at admission, particularly among children with severe anemia. Severe hyperkalemia complicated falciparum malaria in 9 children (16%), of whom 7 (78%) died, generally soon after admission. Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia were uncommon (<7% of children) at admission but developed in >30% of children within 24 h. Hypocalcemia was infrequent (<5% of children) at any time point. Apart from administration of potassium, electrolyte deficiencies were not corrected and were not associated with an adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: At admission to the hospital, hyperkalemia may complicate cases of acidosis due to severe malaria and is associated with high, early mortality. After admission, mild asymptomatic deficiencies in magnesium and phosphate levels were common but were not associated with any deleterious effect. Thus, routine correction when serial measurement of electrolyte levels cannot be performed is unwarranted. Asymptomatic potassium deficiency developed despite provision of this electrolyte at maintenance doses. Further studies are justified but are unlikely to be a major research priority because, as these data suggest, the impact on mortality would at most be limited.
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Perusuh, M. and Ogonda, G. (1998). .". In: Special Needs Education in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1998. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Pessimism in East African Literature, Afras: Journal of African and Asian Studies 1.3.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1973. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Pessimism in East African Literature, Umma 8.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1978. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Muthomi J. "Pest diagnostics in phytosanitary systems.". In: International Phytosanitary Conference. KEPHIS Headquarters, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
and Nyamasyo WOGNH. "Pest status of bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia sp.) and Black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) in Taita District, Kenya." Tropical & Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. 2011;Vol. 13 (1):pp. 91 to 97.
Ochillo WN, Nyamasyo GH. "Pest status of bean stem maggot (Ophiomyia sp.) and Black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) in Taita District, Kenya." Tropical & Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. 2011;13(1):91-97.
Omani R, Gitao C, Gachohi J, Gathumbi P, Bwihangane A, Khalif A, Chemweno V. "Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Dromedary Camels and Small Ruminants in Mandera and Wajir Counties of Kenya." Advances in Virology . 2019;(doi.org/10.1155/2019/4028720).
Kihu SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC. Peste des Petits ruminants disease in Turkana, Kenya. Omni scriptum GmbH and Co KG. ISBN 978-3-659-51078-3: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2015.peste_des_petits_ruminants_in_kenya-1.pdf
Omani RN, Gitao CG, Gachohi J, Gathumbi PK, Bwihane BA, Abbey K, Chemwono VJ. "Peste des petits ruminants in dromedary camels and small ruminants in Mandera and Wajir Counties of Kenya." Advances Virology. 2019;Volume 2019 Article ID 4028720 6 pages(https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4028720).
Muse E, Matondo RB, Karimuribo ED, Misinzo G, Mellau SLB, Msoffe PLM, Albano LO, Gitao CG. "Peste des petits ruminants(PPR) Outbreak in Southern Tanzania.". In: Third Ruforum Biennial Meeting . Kampala, Uganda; 2012.muse.pdf
MR. ODONGO HESBONO. "The pesticide heptachlor affects steroid hormone secretion in isolated follicular and luteal cells of rat.". In: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 73, 201-206. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP;144(1):76-84.; 2006. Abstract
Heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, suppresses the production of progesterone and estradiol in the female rat in vivo or in isolated ovaries in vitro. In this study the effect of heptachlor on steroid hormone production by isolated rat luteal and follicular cells, in the presence of two precursor hormones was investigated. Ovaries were isolated from anesthetized mature normocyclic virgin rats (3 to 4 months old), under sterile conditions. Corpora lutea and follicles were microscopically dissected out and separately enzymatically dispersed with collagenase at 37 degrees C. Viable cells collected after centrifugation were used at a concentration of approximately 2.5 x 10(5) cells/10 mL. Both luteal and follicular cell preparations were separately incubated overnight (15 h) at 37 degrees C in the presence of pregnenolone (P5) and androstenedione (A4) at a concentration of 6.0 nmol/L each, and heptachlor at either 0.12 microg/mL (low dose) or 1.20 microg/mL (high dose) (test cells) or in the absence of heptachlor (control cells). At the end of the incubations, progesterone and estradiol 17beta levels were analyzed in the incubation media. The results indicate that heptachlor significantly suppressed the production of both progesterone and estradiol in both cell types in a dose related manner even in the presence of A4 and P5 as precursor hormones (P<0.05).
MR. ODONGO HESBONO. "The pesticide heptachlor affects steroid hormone secretion in isolated follicular and luteal cells of rat.". In: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 73, 201-206. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP;144(1):76-84.; 2006. Abstract
Heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, suppresses the production of progesterone and estradiol in the female rat in vivo or in isolated ovaries in vitro. In this study the effect of heptachlor on steroid hormone production by isolated rat luteal and follicular cells, in the presence of two precursor hormones was investigated. Ovaries were isolated from anesthetized mature normocyclic virgin rats (3 to 4 months old), under sterile conditions. Corpora lutea and follicles were microscopically dissected out and separately enzymatically dispersed with collagenase at 37 degrees C. Viable cells collected after centrifugation were used at a concentration of approximately 2.5 x 10(5) cells/10 mL. Both luteal and follicular cell preparations were separately incubated overnight (15 h) at 37 degrees C in the presence of pregnenolone (P5) and androstenedione (A4) at a concentration of 6.0 nmol/L each, and heptachlor at either 0.12 microg/mL (low dose) or 1.20 microg/mL (high dose) (test cells) or in the absence of heptachlor (control cells). At the end of the incubations, progesterone and estradiol 17beta levels were analyzed in the incubation media. The results indicate that heptachlor significantly suppressed the production of both progesterone and estradiol in both cell types in a dose related manner even in the presence of A4 and P5 as precursor hormones (P<0.05).
MR. ODONGO HESBONO. "The pesticide heptachlor affects steroid hormone secretion in isolated follicular and luteal cells of ratJ. A. Odumaa, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, D. Oduor Okeloa, H. Odongoa, D.W. Makawitib Purchase a Reprod.". In: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 73, 201-206. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology Vol 144, Issue 1,; 2006.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
Mabeya JM;, Nderitu JH;, Wambua EW. "Pesticide Use and Implications in Horticultural Export Crops in Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

Horticultural exports earned Kenya 14 billion and 20 billion shillings in the years 2000 and 2001 respectively, from an estimated volume of 99 million tonnes and 93 million tonnes respectively. This indicates an increase in value of the exports, and makes horticulture the second highest foreign income earner after tea. Pesticides are a major production cost in the large-scale enterprises. Every year large amounts of pesticides are used to manage pests in horticulture, so as to ensure high quality production especially for export market. Local markets have also evolved as to demand high quality blemish free horticultural products. This has made farmers to increase use of pesticides and other agrochemicals. The types, quantities and market value of pesticides imported and sold for various crops would indicate the trend of pesticides usage in Kenya. The horticultural exports from this country are subject to stringent European Union (EU) requirements on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). The EU being the most important export destination, the issue of MRLs should urgently be addressed. Measures need to be put in place to ensure that Kenya does not lose its horticultural export niche. These may include, developing and devising crop protection strategies based on the farmers’ needs, strengthening various relevant institutions and developing sound pest management policies.

Wandiga SO, LALAH JO, Kaigwara PN. "Pesticides in Kenya.". 2003.Pesticides in Kenya
Mbindyo SN. "Pet ownership as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis- a review." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2019;34(1):18-23.
Mukhwana A. "Pete ya Uganga.". 2011.Website
Mukhwana A. "Pete ya Uganga.". In: Mwavyaji Mimba na Hadithi Nyiugine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2011.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Peter A. Nyamanga, Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen. Practical Implications of Ethnoveterinary Medical Pluralism in Western Kenya.". In: Agriculture and Human Values. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Peter Auma Nyamanga, Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen Similarities between Human and Livestock Illnesses among the Luo in Western Kenya. Anthropology and Medicine, Vol. 13, No.1 pp.13-24, April 2006.". In: workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 2006.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Peter L. Msoffe and Carol Cardona. 2009. Poultry Disease Handbook for Africa. Published by The Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program. (I Have contributed in the book).". In: Published by The Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program. Published by The Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program; 2009. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi (1991). Comparative healing of untreated and saline bandage treated skin wounds of cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 39, 191-194.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi and J.V. Bailey (1991). Comparative healing of nitrofurazone bandage treated and untreated skin wounds of cattle. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39, 93-96.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

The healing of untreated and Nitrofurazone bandage treated excisional skin wounds on the metatarsal and/or metacarpal regions of cows were compared. There was no difference in the rate of wound healing and epithelization between the untreated and treated wounds healing and epithelialization between the untreated and treated wounds (P<0.05), but contraction was greater in the treated wounds (P>0.05). The untreated wounds did not produce exuberant granulation tissue and healed with thick firm scars. The treated wounds grew excessive granulation tissue and healed with thin friable scars that were very easilyt disrupted. Results suggested that skin lacerations on the distal limbs of healthy cattle do not benefit from topical antibiosis and or bandaging.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi, Charles M. Mulei and G.M. Magoa (2003). Restraint of Domestic, Wild and Laboratory Animals: A manual for students, practitioners and animal handlers. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi, S.M. Mbiuki, J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi and D.O. Kihurani (1991). Non-fracture lameness in cattle: A retrospective study. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39, 307-309.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Out of 3,278 bovine cases seen and treated at the large animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (LAC-UON), 549 (16.74%) had non-fracture lameness (NFL). Foot lameness contributed to 65% of the NFL and the commonest cause of the foot lameness (37.34%) was septic arthritis of the distal interphalengeal joint. The data is being used to establish examination, therapeutic and preventive protocol to be followed in hospital as well as on farm herd health programs.

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Peter N. Macharia1 and Wellington N. Ekaya. Maasai indigenous knowledge on range vegetation analysis, utilization and management. Journal of Human Ecology, 12: 287-291.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
A participatory vegetation inventory and research was conducted in Mashuuru Division, Kajiado District of Kenya, with an overall objective of capturing the indigenous knowledge of the Maasai pastoralist community on vegetation resources. Data collection was done through questionnaires, community workshops and meetings whereby the pastoralist, administration and extension personnel, and prominent leaders were invited. Representative pastoralists were engaged during the actual field data collection to assist in naming of vegetation types and uses of plant species encountered. The pastoralists gave detailed information on the status of vegetation degradation, which they considered as a major threat to their sources of livelihood. The information included indicators of vegetation degradation, the possible approaches, and benefits of reversing the degradation trend. The pastoralists also named and categorized plants into those that provide fodder and food for livestock and humans respectively; medicinal value to livestock and humans; woodfuel; construction, poisonous to livestock and humans; and as environmental quality indicators. Finally, they named five plant species which they considered threatened with extinction due to over-harvesting for medicinal and other uses. The study showed that both indigenous knowledge held by farmers and technical knowledge held by researchers are complimentary and they need each other for more responsive research activities. The data collected from such participatory involvement of pastoralists is demand driven and therefore guides the researchers on the type of research interventions for enhanced natural resource management.
B MISSREGOASSUMPTA. "Peters, F.A and Rego, A.B 19985, Geography Fieldwork 2. A Guide for Upper Forms, Oxford University Press, Nairobi.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

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