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o Anyamba TJC. "The Nairobi Sprawl; Misery or Felecity? ." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Social Sciences. . 2016;4(4, April 2016).
o Robbins, E. And Anyamba TJC. "Narrative and Property in Kibagare." Forum for Development Studies. 2013;40(2, 2013):285-307.
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(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Ngatia, T.A., Mulei, C.M., Gathumbi, P.K. and Wabacha, J.K. (2001). Oedema disease of Swine. A toxaemia or an infection?". In: Bull. Anim. Prod. Hlth. Afr. 49:292-298.; 2001.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Ndegwa, E.N., Mulei, C.M. and Munyua, S.J.M. (2000). The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in Kenya.". In: J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 71 (1):25-27.; 2000.
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.orago N. "Notable issues in litigating socio-economic rights.". In: Public Interest Litigation in relation to the 2010 Kenyan Constitution. Kisumu Kenya; 2013.
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wangi 1. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL KFDKRNROOJKTP. "New insights into HIV-1specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, persistently seronegative Kenyan sex workers." Immunol Lett. . 2001. Abstractnew_insights_into_hiv-1specific_cytotoxic_t-lymphocyte_responses_in_exposed_persistently_seronegative_kenyan_sex_workers.pdf

Abstract
A clearer understanding of HIV-1 specific immune responses in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects is important in developing models of HIV-1 protective immunity. HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) have been described in a cohort of HEPS Kenyan sex workers, and recent work has further elucidated these responses. CTL specific for HIV-1 Env were found in the blood of over half the sex workers meeting criteria for HIV resistance, and in some women recognized unmapped epitopes. The proportion of women with Env-specific CTL increased with the duration of uninfected HIV exposure, suggesting that these responses were acquired over time. CD8+ lymphocyte responses directed against predefined HIV-1 CTL epitopes from various HIV-1 genes were found in the blood and genital tract of >50% resistant sex workers, at a ten-fold lower frequency than in infected subjects. The epitope specificity of CD8+ responses differs between HEPS and HIV infected women, and in HEPS the maintenance of responses appears to be dependent on persistent HIV exposure. Several HIV-1 'resistant' sex workers have become HIV infected over the past 6 years, possibly related to waning of pre-existing HIV-specific CTL, and infection has often been associated with a switch in the epitope specificity of CD8+ responses. These findings suggest that vaccine-induced protective HIV immunity is a realistic goal, but that vaccine strategies of boosting or persistent antigen may be necessary for long-lived protection

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29. Irungu LW. "Neglected Tropical Diseases." POST. 2007;13(1):1-3.
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a SR, E Mpolya a, b JMS, C Onyambu c, a SE, Vianney J-M. "Novel multi-linear quantitative brain volume formula for manual radiological evaluation of brain atrophy." European Journal of Radiology Open . 2020;7:100281.
A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Ngare D, Obondo A. A, Neema S, Oladimeji B.Y, Ndetei D, M, Chikovore J. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "NATURAL KILLER CELLS AND SELECTED ENZYME/ METABOLITE PROFILES IN HIV INFECTION AND PROGRESSION TO AIDS (Mecha, Ezekiel Onyonka. (MSc. Hons), UON.". In: M.Sc. Thesis.; 1989. Abstract

Abstract   Acquired immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. It effects all sectors of the community namely education, military, health, transport and communication. To date, it is estimated that 40 million people are infected with the virus globally of which 28.5 million resides in Sub Saharan Africa   This study sought to evaluate the role of Natural killer cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. It

A DRMASIGAMARY. "Nyamu, E.N., Masiga, M.A., Gathece, L.W., Mutara, L.N. Knowledge attitude and practices of care givers attending the Kenyatta N. Hospital MCH clinics towards oral health of their children. Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (3): 326 .". In: Afri. J. of Oral Health Sciences. 2003; 4 (3): 326 . University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics, chief complaints and clinical presentation of children attending a private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective survey of dental clinic records. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 0-18 years who were first-time attenders at the dental clinic during a three year period. RESULTS: The records of 800 patients were examined, comprising 395 males and 405 female children. The average age was 7.2 years (95%CI, 6.9-7.4). Referral to the clinic for treatment was mostly by self (81.4%). Most patients (57.9%) were self-sponsored for their dental treatment. Majority of the patients attending (86.8%) did not clinically have any underlying medical conditions. The major complaints for most patients were dental decay (27.4%) and dental pain (21.6%). Very few children (7.6%) attended for dental check-up. Five hundred and forty nine (68.6%) of the children suffered from dental decay while 294 (36.8%) suffered from gingivitis. The average number of teeth decayed was 4.02, SD +/- 2.4 (95% CI 3.8-4.2). Most carious lesions occurred in the younger children. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of decay over the three year period of the study. Significantly higher levels of gingivitis was observed in the prepubertal and pubertal age group. Attendance for traumatic injuries was relatively low with only 46 (5.8%) children reporting traumatic injuries to their dentitions. Most traumatic injuries involved the anterior teeth as a result of falls. Treatment given at the first visit was mainly restorative (28.6%) followed by dental extractions (25.4%). CONCLUSION: The average are of patients attending the clinic was 7.2 years. Interdisciplinary referral was low since most patients were self-referred and self sponsored for treatment. Dental caries was prevalent, necessitating a high demand for restorative treatment. Although gingivitis was less prevalent, it was significant among children in the prepubertal years.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""New Technologies in Higher Education Pedagogy".". In: UNESCO Workshop on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education held in Nairobi Kenya 18-22 November 1996. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Nsanzumuhire, WAMOLA I.A and Mirza. Clinical Presentation and Management of Penicillin Resistant Pneumococcal Meningtitis. EAMJ 58: 611, 1981.". In: EAMJ 58: 611, 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""New Technologies in Higher Education Pedagogy".". In: UNESCO Workshop on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education held in Nairobi Kenya 18-22 November 1996. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""National Goals and Aims and Instructional Objectives".". In: Bachelor of Education and External Studies University of Nairobi seminar 1991. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Networking of Universities and Tertiary Middle Level Colleges".". In: Workshop on Linkages between University of Nairobi and Tertiary Colleges. In Nairobi. 15 June 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract
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A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ngoka, WAMOLA I.A and Dunlop. The role of Neisseria gonorrhoea in causing infertility. Paper read and published by Society of Obs and Gynae. Nairobi, (1979).". In: Society of Obs and Gynae. Nairobi, (1979). IBIMA Publishing; 1979. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Nyakwada, W., Ogallo, L.A. and Okoola, R. E, 2009: The Atlantic-Indian Ocean Dipole and its influence on East African seasonal rainfall , J. Meteorol. & Rel. Sci., 3, 21.". In: J. Meteorol. & Rel. Sci., 3, 21 . Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstractjkms_vol3_n01_for_editing_kinguyu.pdf

Sudden death in the young after low energy anterior chest wall impact is an under-recognised phenomenon in this country. Review of the literature yields several American references to commotio cordis, mainly in the context of sporting events. Two cases are reported of sudden death in young men as a result of blunt impact anterior chest wall trauma. It is suggested that these cases draw attention to a lethal condition of which many practitioners are unaware.
J Accid Emerg Med 2000 Nov 17 (6): 421-422. PMID: 11104247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1725482
 

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""National Goals and Aims and Instructional Objectives".". In: Bachelor of Education and External Studies University of Nairobi seminar 1991. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Networking of Universities and Tertiary Middle Level Colleges".". In: Workshop on Linkages between University of Nairobi and Tertiary Colleges. In Nairobi. 15 June 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999. Abstract

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A. DRKITAAJAFREDM. "Ndurumo SM, Mande JD and Kitaa JMA. Use of a Tiemann.". In: KVA conference 2005 Nairobi. au-ibar; 2005. Abstract
   
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Nduati RW and WAMOLA I.A. Bacteriology of acute septic arthritis J. Trop. Paed 37: 172-175, 1991.". In: J. Trop. Paed 37: 172-175, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
In a study of septic arthritis infants formed the bulk of patients though, notably, neonates were not encountered. Gram-negative bacterial of the Salmonella species, especially Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella species were the most important cause of septic arthritis in infants. Staphylococcus aureus was also isolated. The combination of blood cultures and joint aspirate cultures resulted in very high rate (72 per cent) of bacteria isolation. It is strongly recommended that every effort should be made to obtain two bacteriological specimens for culture to improve bacteriological diagnosis of the disease.
A.Vassiliev E. "New Tendencies in the Development of Anglophone Novel in East Africa - in: Africa in a Changing World." Moscow: Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences. 1997:331-332.
Abinya ONA, LLEONCINII, Spinai D, A.Nyong'o, Minaccii C, Disantoi A, de lucai F, de viv A. "Neoplastic cells of hodgkin's disease show differences in ebv expression between kenya and italy.". 1996.
Aboge GO, Jia H, Goo Y, Kuriki K, Nishikawa Y, Igarashi I, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "A novel 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni is a prospective antigen for diagnosis and serosurvey of canine babesiosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.". 2007. Abstract

We isolated a novel single copy gene encoding a 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP57). The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 2387 bp with an open reading frame (ORP) of 1644 bp encoding a 57-kDa predicted polypeptide having 547 amino acid residues. The recombinant BgP57 (rBgP57) without a predicted signal peptide was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Western blotting showed that the corresponding native protein was 57-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of predicted mature polypeptide. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rBgP57 detected specific antibodies in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected with B. gibsoni. Moreover, the antigen did not cross-react with antibodies to B. canis sub-species and closely related apicomplexan parasites indicating that the rBgP57 was a specific antigen for B. gibsoni antibodies. The diagnostic performance of ELISA based on rBgP57 using 107 sera from B. gibsoni-naturally infected dogs was the same as the previously identified rBgP32 but performed better than the previously studied rBgP50. Although, seminested peR detected higher proportions (82%) of positive samples than the ELISAs, the Mcnemar's chi-square test showed that there was no significant difference in relative effectiveness of rBgP57-ELISA and seminested peR (x2 = 2.70; P = 0.1003) in identifying positive samples. The rBgP57-ELISA when used in combination with rBgP32-ELISA and rBgP50-ELISA appeared to improve sensitivity of the rBgP57-ELISA for detection of B. gibsoni antibodies. Overall, the rBgP57-ELISA and seminested peR when used in combination, could improve epidemiological surveys and clinical diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection.

Abong GO, Okoth MW, Karuri EG, Kabira JN, Mathooko FM. "Nutrient contents of raw and processed products from Kenyan potato cultivars." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2009;16:877-886.
Abou-Awad BA, El-Banhawy EM. "New mites of the family Eriophyidae from Kenya (Acari: Eriophidae). Acarologia, 32: 329.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1991. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Abou-Awad BA, El-Banhawy EM. "A new genus in the subfamily Nothopodinae with description of four new species from East Africa (Acari : Eriophyoidea : Eriophyidae). Acarologia, 33: 157.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1992. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Ndurumo M. S., Mande J.D., Kihurani D., and Abuom T.O. Antidrool cheiloplasty; Plastic Surgery of the Canine Lip. Poster presentation.". In: KVA conference 2006,Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Achola MA. "Nationalism and the Struggle for Independence in Kenya.". In: The Contribution of the Luo and Abaluyia. Naivasha; 2006.
Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen T-H, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Achia T, others. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC public health. 2019;19:372. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen T-H, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, Mutave R, Achia T, others. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC public health. 2019;19:1-10. Abstract
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Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen TH, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, R M, Achia T, Katana A, Ng'ang'a L, Cock D. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC Public Health. . 2019; 3;): doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6716-2.(19(1):372.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "New Product Development in the Micro Enterprise Sector, Report from fieldwork undertaken in Maputo, Mozambique.". In: Faculty of ADD, University of Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract

Various stakeholders come together to conceptualise, analyse and commercialise new products. This was the case recently when designers, artisans, marketers and facilitating institutions came together to engage in new product development for the micro enterprise sector. Through the effort of Terra Nuova (the facilitating agency), Department of Design (providing designers), Aid to Artisans and Institute for the Development of Local Industry (IDIL), Undugu Kenya and artisans in both Kenya and Mozambique, a number of new products were developed. The artisan works in difficult circumstances in many parts of Africa such as Mozambique and Kenya. Most artisans provide technical and entrepreneurial inputs in the enterprises and are therefore invariably referred to as artisans and entrepreneurs in this report. They support their families from proceeds of the enterprise. Often they do not pay attention to detail and not enough attention to product quality. Inspite of this, the benefits of the artisan's products to many people far outweigh these shortcomings. Customers buy from micro enterprises because their prices are fair. The entrepreneurs understand the customer tastes in terms of colour and form, and the entrepreneurs provide easy payment terms and are available or easily accessible to them. The entrepreneurs often work near their ancestral homes so they understand the culture and traditions of the customers they serve. This can be deduced from observations, interviews and sales figures. Product development can take the form of an innovation, change of use, adaptation and bundling of features among other things. This report outlines the process of product development that was undertaken in Mozambique in the course of the project. Lueti is a set of coasters developed through a product design process that took into account the various stakeholders in the success of a product. These were the designer, marketer and artisan all working together. The process involved a critical examination of material, the ability of the artisan and the availability of a market. The availability of good quality and varied hard wood in Mozambique also influenced the identification of the product. The working environment at IDIL, where equipment and machinery for working wood was also complementary to the product development. In the case of lueti there was redefinition of use and adaptation. The idea was developed through consultation, sketching and specification. A prototype was developed and after further consultation and modification a series of three coasters were available for test marketing. Lueti coasters design was inspired by the afro-comb. Afro combs can be found in most parts of the world particularly where afro hair is predominant. The original combs were made from wood whereas the more conventional ones are made from plastic. The basic shape remains the same with the teeth on one side and a handle on the other side. Whereas the basic shape has remained the same, nowadays you can find combs whose main use is adornment on walls.

Adhiambo C, Blisnick T, Toutirais G, Delannoy E, Bastin P. "A novel function for the atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 in the assembly of the trypanosome flagellum." J. Cell. Sci.. 2009;122(Pt 6):834-41. Abstract

The atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 has been shown to traffic in sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans, where it participates in signalling processes but not in cilia construction. In this report, we demonstrate that RABL5 colocalises with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins at the basal body and in the flagellum matrix of the protist Trypanosoma brucei. RABL5 fused to GFP exhibits anterograde movement in the flagellum of live trypanosomes, suggesting it could be associated with IFT. Accordingly, RABL5 accumulates in the short flagella of the retrograde IFT140(RNAi) mutant and is restricted to the basal body region in the IFT88(RNAi) anterograde mutant, a behaviour that is identical to other IFT proteins. Strikingly, RNAi silencing reveals an essential role for RABL5 in trypanosome flagellum construction. RNAi knock-down produces a phenotype similar to inactivation of retrograde IFT with formation of short flagella that are filled with a high amount of IFT proteins. These data reveal for the first time a functional difference for a conserved flagellar matrix protein between two different ciliated species and raise questions related to cilia diversity.

Aduda BO. Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

Key words: Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Research, Policies, Kenya

AJ W, A M, A T, R R, CD M, R G. "Netilmycin and vancomycin in the treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients." Clin Nephrol.. 1992;37(4):209-13. Abstract

This study was undertaken to evaluate: 1. The efficacy of netilmycin and vancomycin as combined first line antimicrobial regime, compared to cefuroxime, in the treatment of peritonitis. 2. To measure the levels of netilmycin and vancomycin in the serum and dialysate. 3. To report on the use of this combination over a one year period and compare it with that of cefuroxime used during the previous one year.

Ajuoga P, Ogacho A, Aduda B, Mwabora JM. Niobium Doped Effects of Doping Concentration on the Optical Properties of. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The optical band gaps and crystal structure were investigated on niobium doped TiO2 (for atomic niobium concentrations ranging from 0.02 –0.06 at. % in the composite) prepared by high temperature diffusion method. The Nb:TiO2 films displayed an enhanced visible light absorption with a red shift of 18.2 nm of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for pure TiO2 film to 412.2 nm for 0.04 at. % niobium concentration representing a band gap lowering of 0.181eV due to the donor–type behavior of niobium. As the niobium concentration increased, the enhancement in light absorption at the investigated concentration range goes through a maximum at 0.04 at. % of Nb5+ with minimum band gap of 3.017eV. Despite higher rutilization, at the doping temperature of 850oC used, crystal sizes (39–43 nm) obtained from X-ray diffraction spectra depicted a significant increase in surface areas which is attributed to retardation of anatase - rutile phase transformation caused by Nb:TiO2 matrix.

AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Nyikal, R. and C. Ackello-Ogutu (1996). An Evaluation of Institutional Credit and its Role in Agricultural Production in Kenya, in Mukhebi, A. et al (Eds.) Agricultural Policies and Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: Proceedings of a Syposium h.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
Akinyi J, Mwaniki A, Gichamba A, Kariuki D, Chand P, Munene S, Nyakinyua C, Nzangi B, Akinyi V, Betsy M, Cosmas K, Mwangi M. "NanoSatellite Platform for the University of Nairobi (NaSPUoN) Student Project.". In: 72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Dubai, United Arab Emirates (presented online); 2021.
Akuon P, Afullo TJO. "Negative power law attenuation estimation for rainy earth-space radio links,Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.". In: PIERS . Kuala Lampur, Malaysis: PIERS; 2012. Abstract

Attenuation prediction for satelite links s derived and validated from measurements all over tropical zones in the world. The power law model is based on the modelling of the stochastic nature of rain drops over an average rain field area. Best performig for the tests.

ALANDO MRSOMONDIESTHER. "Nationalism in Africa and Other Third World Countries.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 2000. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Novel electrochemical oral biosensor for histatin.". In: Sensor Letters, 3(2), 161-163 (2005). American Scientific Publishers; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch A. O., Amrute, K., Sadik, O. A. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of saliva protein histatin is described. The biosensor-sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary histatin antibody self-assembled onto a gold quartz crystal by covalent attachment. The biospecific interaction between the immobilized histatin antibody and histatin antigen was monitored via a novel electroactive indicator, silver monodispersed on the gold surface. The silver is oxidized or reduced and the resulting peak currents provide analytical information about the concentrations of the salivary proteins. A detection limit of 0.626 pg/ml was obtained
AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
Amayo EO. "Neurological letter from Kenya." Practical neurology . 2006;6:261-262.
Amiri S. "Natija ya Mapuza.". In: Kopo la Mwisho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP Ltd; 2011.
Amiri S. "Naye Huyo M ’ me Mwenzangu.". In: Alidhani Kapata na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: EAEP; 2007.
and GKN, Mochoge BO. "Nitrogen Mineralization Potential (No) in Three Kenyan Soils, Nitisols, Ferralsols and Luvisols." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(4).
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DD. Nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Paleogene sediments of the Crimea-Caucasus region (southern Ukraine and Russia). Paris, France: French Congress on Stratigraphy; 2010.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Berezovskiy AA, Waga DD. Nannoplankton and Mollusks from Eocene deposits from Krivoy Rog iron-ore deposit..; 2003.
ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Nguku SW, Wanyoike-Gichuhi J, Aywak AA.Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical artery as seen in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The role of Biophysical Profile Score and resistive index of the umbilical artery for monitoring pre-eclampsia patients. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ten cases during a three month period. RESULTS: Normal biophysical profile scores were found in 93 (84.5%), and 17 (17.5%) cases had abnormal scores ranging from mild to severe foetal distress. Resistive index of umbilical artery (RI-UA) were normal in 72 (66.1%) and high resistive index accounted for 33.9%. Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) was a prominent finding accounting for 30.5%. A positive relationship was shown to exist between IUGR and RI-UA and also with severity of hypertension with P-values < 0.05. Resistive index of umbilical artery was positively related to the duration of illness confirming its dependence on chronicity (P = 0.004). Resistive index of umbilical artery proved to be an earlier indicator of foetal compromise before any foetal distress becomes obvious. CONCLUSION: Regular obstetrical ultra sound foetal surveillance in pre-eclampsia patients is important for foetal wellbeing. Doppler evaluation of high risk patients is more sensitive test than the biophysical profile score. PMID: 16771106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Angima, C., A M. "Nature of fraud and its effects in the medical insurance sector in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(2):33-44.
Anselm OJ. "The Notion Of Freedom From An African Cultural Perspective ." Culture And Quest . 1997.
Anselm OJ. "Notes On Context ." The South African Journal Of Philosophy . 1996;Vol15 No. 2.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "NGO's and Consumer Issues in Africa Today- in Voices From Africa, Issues Number 2, NGOs and Grassroots Development, Published by UN Non-Governmental Liaison Services, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "NGO's and Consumer Issues in Africa Today- in Voices From Africa, Issues Number 2, NGOs and Grassroots Development, Published by UN Non-Governmental Liaison Services, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Anyamba, TJC KAK;. "Nairobi: From a Railway Yard to a Metropolis.". 1995.
Anyamba TJC, Kamweru AK. "Nairobi: From a Railway Yard to a Metropolis.". In: Africa 2000: Towards the Millenium. University of Cape Town, South Africa; 1995.
Anyango SO, Kiplagat J. "Natural Resources Governance in Kenya: The Assessment of the Fisheries Resources Subsector ." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences . 2019;24(3):25-30.
Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Owino F. "Nodulation Survey of Nitrogen Fixing Tre es in Kenya."; 1986.
Anyango OS, Aloo T, C B, Chin, C. K. "Niche differentiation for improved crop growth and yield in arid and semi arid lands of Kenya. ." African Journal for Environmental studies and development . 2008;Vol 1(no. 1 ISSN: 1995-1329.):24-26.
Aong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, J.N K. "Nutrient contents of raw and processed products from Kenyan potato cultivars ." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2009;16:877-886.potato_nutrients.pdf
Ashton N. "Neurological and humoral control of blood pressure." Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 2007;8:221-226. AbstractWebsite

Blood must be maintained under pressure to overcome the resistance offered by blood vessels, and thus ensure an adequate rate of flow to metabolizing tissues. If pressure is too low, the flow of blood cannot deliver sufficient oxygen; if it is too high, damage occurs to the blood vessels and organs. Hence, blood pressure is regulated around a ‘set point’. Pressure in the arterial system is regulated on a minute-to-minute basis by the autonomic nervous system and in the long term by a number of hormones that act on the kidney. High-pressure sensors (baroreceptors) are located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch, which monitor pressure generated by the beating heart. Afferent fibres of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves (glossopharyngeal and vagus, respectively) project into the cardiovascular control centre in the medulla oblongata. Parasympathetic vagal tone acts to slow heart rate and thus cardiac output, whereas sympathetic tone increases both force and rate of contraction, as well as stimulating vasoconstriction of blood vessels to increase resistance. Long-term regulation of blood pressure depends on the maintenance of blood volume. This is achieved by the combined actions of the renin–angiotensin system, aldosterone and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), which act on the kidney to promote retention of sodium and water. Blood volume is reduced by atrial natriuretic peptide, which causes diuresis and natriuresis. Together, the nervous and endocrine systems act to correct fluctuations in blood pressure and ensure that it is maintained at an appropriate level.

AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Neighbourhood Associations and Governance in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of their Performance and prospects for the Future, IPAR Discussion Paper No.49.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004.
Awori M, Mutwiri R, Mutunga W, Jowi S, Peninan K, Mang’usu O. "Neonatal Ebstein’s Anomaly: Surgical Decision Making." Annals of African Surgery. 2018;15(1):40-43.ebsteins_anomaly-case_report-surgical_decision_making-awori-_2018.pdf
Ayiemba EHO. "Nuptiality Measures.". 1992.Website
Ayiemba EHO. "Nuptiality Measures.". 1992.Website
B
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Kigondu CS, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jesencky K. Ojwang SBO,Gachara M Survey of attitude of Kenya Medical doctors on family (FP): Secondary data analysis.J. Obst. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1995:38-44.". In: College of Health Sciences, UON, 1971-1995.II: GYNAECOLOGY AND FAMILY PLANNING. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
B DRODUOLCHARLES. "Needs Assessment for Establishing a Gender Resource Centre. CIDA (GESP) 1999.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "A note on the Temperature Distribution of a Viscous Incompressible Fluid in a Channel Bounded by Two Parallel Plates.". In: J. of Scientific Research, B.H.U. (INDIA), Vol. XXIV (1-2). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
B N, M.K L, D.A M, H E, M.R J, S.I K, I M, L.K O, J.O M. "New ent-clerodane and abietane diterpenoids from the roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Medica. 2016;doi, http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-108857.ndunda_et_al._planta_medica_2.pdf
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Kigondu CS, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jesencky K. Ojwang SBO,Gachara M Survey of attitude of Kenya Medical doctors on family (FP): Secondary data analysis.J. Obst. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1995:38-44.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
Baidoo SK, Mitaru BN, Aherne FX, Blair R. "The nutritive value of canola meal for early-weaned pigs.". 1987. Abstract

Four experiments using 900 crossbed pigs were conducted to determine the nutritive value of canola meal (CM) for pigs weaned at 3 or 5 weeks of age. Diets were based on barley and wheat, and CM replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of the protein supplied by soya bean meal (SBM) on an isoenergetic and isonitrogenous basis. In Experiments 1 and 2, with pigs weaned at three weeks of age, regression analyses of the results indicated that, for each percent addition of CM to the diets, there was a significant (P < 0.001) linear decrease in average daily feed intake and average daily gain by 4 and 2 g, respectively. Regression analyses of results of Experiments 3 and 4 for pigs weaned at 5 weeks of age indicated that, for each percent inclusion of CM in the diet, there was a significant (P < 0.001) linear decrease in average daily feed intake and average daily gain by 4.3 and 3.6 g, respectively. In all 4 experiments feed-to-gain ratio was not affected (P > 0.05) by the level of CM in the diet.

Bentivoglio M, Cavalherio EA, Kristensson K, Patel NB. Neglected Tropical Diseases and Conditions of the Nervous System. Springer; 2014.productflyer_978-1-4614-8099-0-1.pdf
Boon, TE; Lund DH; NI. The national park pilot process introducing new forms of governance in Danish nature politics.; 2009. Abstract

The present report constitutes part of the Danish contribution to the European research project New Modes of Governance for Sustainable Forests in Europe (GoFOR). It builds on the conceptual framework developed during the GoFOR project and is structured according to the corresponding Terms of Reference. The National Park Pilot Process (NPP) was to identify options for establishing national parks in Denmark. The expected output was a non-binding input to policy formulation. The Minister of Environment (MoE) enquired counties and municipalities of six areas whether they were interested in hosting a pilot project. The Outdoor Council, an umbrella NGO for outdoor and environmental NGOs, entered the political arena, adding 2 ½ million Euro to the project and entered into an agreement with the Minister of Environment regarding how to implement the pilot projects, and it was decided to support pilot projects in seven areas. In the following phase, the MoE initiated the process by sketching out rough guidelines for the organisation of the pilot projects to the counties and municipalities. The pilot projects were to elaborate a report with recommendations on how to organise a prospective National park. Locally, the pilot projects were led by steering committees headed by (in most cases) mayors from the municipality assisted by the local state forest districts and with representatives from a broad range of organisations. At the national level a national advisory group was set up with members representing different Ministries, NGOs and the chairmen of the seven steering committees. The purpose of this committee was to assist in carrying out relevant investigations and to compile the reports from the seven pilot projects elaborating one final report to be submitted to the MoE. So far the process has resulted in the elaboration of a draft proposal for a National Park Act. From the initiation and onwards, the Government rhetoric was dominated by wanting a voluntary approach, extensive participation by landowners and other local stakeholders, and an intersectoral solution. Along with a participatory approach, expert knowledge was attributed a significant role. Participation The NPP was initiated and framed ‘from above’, and can best be characterised as a governance process induced and embraced by Government. The identification and appointment of the pilot project areas was a bilateral communication between the MoE and the mayors of the municipalities. If a municipality did not want to join, that area was omitted. From a local perspective this may be fair insofar as the mayors are elected representatives of the local population. But it also meant that possible areas of national interests were omitted without national stakeholders having a say in it. Within this government induced process, the pilot projects took a bottom-up approach. In pilot project ‘Kongernes Nordsjælland’ the steering committee initiated the establishing of thematic groups which prepared a number of proposals which were brought up at a citizen summit for (what was intended as a socio-demographically representative) deliberating dialogue and voting procedure. There was a high degree of transparency and information, tending towards information overflow in the pilot projects. The process managed to involve new stakeholders, notably the local mayors, who traditionally have not been involved in nature policy, since nature and agriculture was beyond the jurisdiction of the municipalities, until the Structural Reform in 2007. But the organisers of the process, the Forest and Nature Agency found it difficult to mobilise the ‘ordinary citizens’ despite active efforts. iv Experiences from pilot project ‘Kongernes Nordsjælland’ indicated that the NPP had problems dealing with minority viewpoints: The one main conflict was that Agriculture wanted to restrict the national park area to already publicly owned areas, whereas the proposal that evolved from the steering committee included corridors on privately owned land. The Agricultural organisations played a hesitant role in the process and left at the end, proposing their own suggestion for demarcation. Intersectoral coordination There is tradition for involving interest groups from different sectors in decision-making in Denmark, yet the ISC was more formalised and deliberately emphasised in this process than formerly, and as a new thing, the local level was involved. Prior to the Structural Reform 2007, nature policies related to the national and county level, and agricultural policies entirely to EU and the national level. By establishing a discussion at local level too, the ‘column-like’ character of the nature and agricultural sectors was partly dissolved. Multilevel governance The degree of Multi-level governance varies with the phase we look at. Seen as a whole, the NPP was a top-down governed process. The pilot project phase was bottom-up with active involvement of local levels, but the pilot projects were evaluated by the national advisory group, and the parliamentary statement and draft Act on National parks was prepared by the National Forest and Nature Agency for the Minister of Environment. It appears the decision-making power lies with the MoE, the National Forest and Nature Agency and the Outdoor Council. Expertise There was a focus on the need to investigate specified topics, defined by the MoE/NFNA. Many experts participated from various research institutions, consultancy firms, counties and NFNA. In principle there was rich opportunity for contesting viewpoints. In practice, it was division of work within strictly limited time. The final expert reports were not included in the discussions for time reasons. Still, the new thing was that experts got closer to the public, i.e. experts were asked to report on their methods towards the broad public, possibly strengthening accountability. A report about biodiversity came up in the middle of the process, showing that the chosen pilot projects were not optimal from a (insect) biodiversity perspective. This information was deliberately set aside by most stakeholders, even the Danish Society of Nature Conservation. Adaptive and iterative planning The aim of the process was to decide if and how National parks should be established. In that sense the process was part of and adaptive, iterative planning process, because this question was addressed at national, local and then again national level. There was a great degree of complexity and uncertainty, as during the pilot project phase it was uncertain if pilot projects would ever be implemented.

Braun HMH, Mungai DN. "A new map of agroclimatic zones of Kenya.". 1983.
Bulimo W. NCBI Nucleotide Sequences.; Submitted. Abstract
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Bulimo W. NCBI Protein Sequences.; Submitted. Abstract
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C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Ngatia T.A. and Kiptoon J.C. *(1989): .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI. "Nairobi’s Informal Modernism.". In: 6th N-AERUS Workshop, Promoting Social Inclusion in Urban Areas: Policies and Practice. Lund, Sweden; 2005. Abstractn-aerus_workshop_paper_2005.pdf

Nairobi was established more than 100 years ago as a transit point for the Uganda
Railway. The Uganda railway was built by the British Colonial Administration, to link Mombasa on the
Indian Ocean coast with Lake Victoria in the interior of East Africa, in order to extract natural resources. In
1900 commissioner Charles Eliot introduced hut tax, and encouraged European settlement based upon a
policy of integrated development. However the advent of the first European settlers swiftly changed this
vision, and separate development was established as policy. These were the beginnings of social, economic
and spatial exclusions. By the end of the Second World War, most of the land in Nairobi had been
privatised, making it almost impossible for any inclusive civic development to take place.
At independence in 1963, the restriction of the movement of Africans was relaxed, creating a large influx
of people into the city. These people were excluded from main stream formal operations of the city, and
had to survive from their own `wits’. In recent times, neo-liberal policies have had no meaningful impact
on the provision of urban services to the poor. The reduced role of the state has created a haven for
privateers to exploit the urban poor. In the process an informal modernism has emerged in Nairobi, where
moneyed developers build 8-10 storey rental business cum residential blocks, further marginalising the
poor. This paper further argues that for there to be any meaningful progress, the state should provide
subsidised rental housing for the poor, as they are unable to get into the home ownership bracket based on
market rates.

C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Nyaga P.N. and Bebora L.C. (1988): Zoonotic human chlamydiosis of avian origin.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1988.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Njoroge, W.J., Kakimoto, K., Songok, E.M., Makokha, E.P., Mukuria, J.C., Munyua,J.K., Adungo, N.I., Oloo, J.A., Orege, P.A. and Tukei,P.M. Use of short-course Zidovudine (ZDV) for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in rural Western Kenya.". In: E.A. Medical Journal. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "NgatiaT.A. and Kiptoon, J.C. (1989): .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Noguchi, A., Mukuria, J.C., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1996). Failure of human immunoresponse to N-Glycolylneuraminic acid epitope contained in recombinant human erythropoietin. Nephron 72: 599 .". In: Nephron 72: 599 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1996. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Ngatia T.A., Kiptoon J.C., Njiro S.M. and Kuria J.K.N. (1988). Some rabbit diseases around Kabete area of Kenya: A review of postmortem cases; Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. Vol.36 p.243-244.". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1988.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C. and Njagi L.W. (2000): Production status of indigenous ducks from peri-urban villages in Kenya.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 2000.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Noguchi, A., Mukuria, J.C., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1995). Immunogenicity of N-glycolylneuraminic acid .". In: Journal of Biochemistry 117: 59 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1995. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C. IBALAI, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F, J. WANJARE. "NEGLECTED FIRM EFFECT AND STOCK RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce Vol. 2. 2017;2(4):42-70.
C.K. M. "The need for a poison information centre in Kenya." East Afr Med J. . 1983;60(9):597-8.
C.K. M, R.W M. "New use of Indomethacin." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(1):13-15.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. <br>DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study. <br>SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up. <br>SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members. <br>RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH, DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V.Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children.". In: World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH, DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Rono RC, Mwangi SW, Ototo B, Alaro J, Esakwa M, Mwangi J, Kamau A, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V.Psychological effects of the Nairobi US embassy bomb blast on pregnant women and their children.". In: World Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;4(1):50-2. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Following the death of 67 boys in a fire tragedy at Kyanguli School in rural Kenya, the level of traumatic grief was assessed in a sample of 164 parents and guardians whose sons died in the fire. The study was cross-sectional. Counseling services were offered to all the bereaved parents soon after the tragedy. The subjects were interviewed using the Traumatic Grief Scale. A group of 92 parents/guardians was interviewed 2 months after the event, while the other group of 72 was assessed 7 days later. The second group of bereaved parents also completed the Self Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) and the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale (NOK). Over 90% of parents from both groups had a yearning for the departed and found themselves searching for him quite often. There was no much difference in terms of symptoms profile or intensity between the two groups. It appears that the counseling offered had minimal impact on the levels of distress.
CHEGE DRGITAOGEORGE. "Nguhiu M. and Gitao C.G.1987. Acute cellulitis as a complication of footrot in cattle. Modern Vet. Pract. Vol. 68 No.2, 110-111.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1987. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
Chege F, Day R, T R, A S, Muthomi J, W O, E K, R N, J.G M’E, J J, F O, Mohamed R. "A new partnership in phytosanitary capacity development for protecting agriculture and supporting trade in Africa: The Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Chemining’wa GN, Mwangi PW, Mburu MWK, Mureithi JG. "Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected grain legumes in a Kenyan soil." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research . 2013;3(2):14-20.nitrogen_fixation_potential_and_residual_effects_of_selected.pdf
Chemining’wa1 GN, Mwangi2 PW, MMWK, George N. Chemining’wa1*, Peter W. Mwangi2 MM3 JM2WKG. "Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2013;Vol. 3(No. 2):14-20, 2013.2013-nitrogen_fixation_potential_and_residual_effects_of_selected4.pdf
Chen W, Wang C, Peng B, Yang L. "Non-hermitian physics and exceptional points in high-quality optical microresonators.". In: Ultra-High-Q Optical Microcavities. World Scientific; 2021:. Abstract
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Chepkirui C, Bourgard C, Gilissen PJ, Ndakala A, Derese S, Gütlin Y, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "A new β-hydroxydihydrochalcone from Tephrosia uniflora, and the revision of three β-hydroxydihydrochalcones to flavanones." Fitoterapia. 2022;158:105166.
Chern MJ, Odhiambo E, Borthwick AGL, Horng TL. "Numerical simulation of vibration of horizontal cylinder induced by progressive waves." Fluid Dynamics Research. 2016;48(1):015508.
Chern M-J, Purnadiana FR, Noor DZ, Horng T-L, Chau S-W, Odhiambo E. "Numerical study of flow past two counter rotating cylinders using immersed boundary method." Journal of Marine Science and Technology. 2015;23(5):761-773.
Chindia ML, Dimba E. "Neural tumours of the head and neck." East African medical journal. 2000;77. Abstract
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Chitere PP. "Neighbourhood Associations and Governance In Nairobi: Their Performance and prospects." Hekima: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2009;4(1). Abstract

This article shows the contribution of neighbourhood associations in delivery of services. It examines the policy and legal framework guiding formation and operation of the associations, their governance including participation of their members and factors influencing them. Data were collected through interviews of officials of 35 associations and 42 members/leaders in Nairobi and surrounding towns, key informants and desk reviews. The article shows that the governance and operations of the associations were not based on a uniform policy and legal framework. Participation was also much better among half of the members that were older, leaders and homeowners. The associations provided services to their neighbourhoods and took affirmative actions such as withholding payment of tax to city authorities and filing cases to challenge unjust laws and practices.

Chohan BH, Tapia K, Benki-Nugent S, Khasimwa B, Ngayo M, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G. "Nevirapine Resistance in Previously Nevirapine-Unexposed HIV-1-Infected Kenyan Infants Initiating Early Antiretroviral Therapy." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2015;31(8):783-91. Abstract

Nevirapine (NVP) resistance occurs frequently in infants following NVP use in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) regimens. However, among previously NVP-unexposed infants treated with NVP-antiretroviral therapy (ART), the development and impact of NVP resistance have not been well characterized. In a prospective clinical trial providing early ART to HIV-infected infants <5 months of age in Kenya (OPH03 study), we followed NVP-unexposed infants who initiated NVP-ART for 12 months. Viral loads were assessed and resistance determined using a population-based genotypic resistance assay. Of 99 infants screened, 33 had no prior NVP exposure, 22 of whom were initiated on NVP-ART. Among 19 infants with follow-up, seven (37%) infants developed resistance: one at 3 months and six at 6 months after ART initiation. The cumulative probability of NVP resistance was 5.9% at 3 months and 43.5% at 6 months. Baseline HIV RNA levels (p=0.7) and other characteristics were not associated with developing resistance. Post-ART, higher virus levels at visits preceding the detection of resistance were significantly associated with increased detection of resistance (p=0.004). Virus levels after 6 and 12 months of ART were significantly higher in infants with resistance than those without (p=0.007, p=0.030, respectively). Among infants without previous NVP exposure, development of NVP resistance was frequent and was associated with virologic failure during the first year of ART. Earlier development of NVP resistance in infants than in adults initiating NVP-ART may be due to longer viremia following ART or inadequate NVP levels resulting from NVP lead-in dosing. The development of NVP resistance may, in part, explain the superiority of protease inhibitor-based ART in infants.

Chopra S, Baby C, Jacob JJ. "Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure." Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;15:S281-S288. AbstractWebsite

As our understanding of the underlying aetiology of hypertension is far from adequate, over 90% of patients with hypertension receive a diagnosis of essential hypertension. This non-specific diagnosis leads to suboptimal therapeutics and a major problem with non-compliance. Understanding the normal control of blood pressure (BP) is, hence, important for a better understanding of the disease.This review attempts to unravel the present understanding of BP control. The local mechanisms of BP control, the neural mechanisms, renal-endocrine mechanisms, and a variety of other hormones that have a bearing in normal BP control are discussed and the possible role in the pathophysiology is alluded to.

CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Notes to Francis Imbuga's Man of Kafira Nairobi Heinemann.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1984. Abstract
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Clement G Tweh, Célestin Y Kouakou, Chira R, John M Githaiga, Shadrach Kerwillain MM-O, Matthew Varney JJ. "Nest Counts Reveal a Stable Chimpanzee Population in Sapo National Park, Liberia." Primate Conservation. 2018;32:12.
CO A, PM N, LW. I. "Natural and experimental studies on domestic animal infections with visceral and cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2012;23:292-297.
Cohen-Cory S, Lom B. "Neurotrophic regulation of retinal ganglion cell synaptic connectivity: from axons and dendrites to synapses." The International journal of developmental biology. 2004;48:947-956. Abstract

This review highlights important events during the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), focusing on mechanisms that control axon and dendritic arborization as a means to understand synaptic connectivity with special emphasis on the role of neurotrophins during structural and functional development of RGCs. Neurotrophins and their receptors participate in the development of visual connectivity at multiple levels. In the visual system, neurotrophins have been shown to exert various developmental influences, from guiding the morphological differentiation of neurons to controlling the functional plasticity of visual circuits. This review article examines the role of neurotrophins, and in particular of BDNF, during the morphological development of RGCs, and discusses potential interactions between activity and neurotrophins during development of neuronal connectivity.

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D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Nishiyama Y, Moriyasu M, Ichimaru M, Iwasa K, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Chalo Mutiso PB, Juma FD.Secondary and tertiary isoquinoline alkaloids from Xylopia parviflora. Phytochemistry. 2006 Dec;67(24):2671-5. Epub 2006 Sep 11.". In: Phytochemistry. 2006 Dec;67(24):2671-5. Epub 2006 Sep 11.Click here to read. UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
From the secondary and tertiary alkaloidal fractions of the root and the bark of Xylopia parviflora (Annonaceae), the isoquinoline alkaloids, 10,11-dihydroxy-1,2-dimethoxynoraporphine and parvinine were isolated, along with 39 known alkaloids. Their structures were determined on the basis of analysis of spectroscopic data.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Nishiyama Y, Moriyasu M, Ichimaru M, Iwasa K, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Chalo Mutiso PB, Juma FD.Quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids from Xylopia parviflora.Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(7):939-44.". In: Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(7):939-44. UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
From the quaternary alkaloidal fraction of the bark and the root of Xylopia parviflora (Annonaceae), four isoquinoline alkaloids, xylopinidine, dehydrocoreximine, N, N-dimethylanomurine and N-methylphoebine were isolated along with the known compounds, pycnarrhine, lotusine, 6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-isoquinolinium salt, 1,2-dehydroreticuline, (-)-phellodendrine, (+)-tembetarine, (-)-litcubine, (+)-magnoflorine, tetradehydroreticuline, (-)-oblongine, (+)-menisperine, (+)-N-methylcorydine, stepharanine, (+)-xanthoplanine, dehydrodiscretine, jatrorrhizine and palmatine. 3,4-Dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methyl-isoquinolinium and N-methylpurpuerine were isolated as natural products for the first time. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
D DRNJUGUNAKARANJA. "Nganga J C, Karanja D N and Mutune M N. The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in pigs in Kenya.". In: Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 40:331-334. Springer; 2008.
Da Silva EJ, Freire J, Hillali A, Keya S. "Nuestros amigos los microbios.". 1987.
Dadu CK. A Negotiated Framework for Rehabilitation of Riparian Zones in Nairobi City: The Case of Mathare River Valley (Kenya) . Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Short Outline

Traditionally, riparian zones have been conceived as natural areas adjacent to water bodies. Today these are infiltrated by other non-traditional functions, particularly human settlement related; their management is a complicated negotiation.

Traditionally, riparian zones have been defined, planned, and managed as natural areas adjacent to rivers or water bodies; seen in this context, the riparian zone as a land use would largely have a recreational and/or environmental function attached to it. Consequently, when it comes to river restoration and rehabilitation, the above characteristics have formed the bulk of the desired end-state. However, the situation becomes much more complex where, for various reasons such as lack of access to urban land especially for the poor, such areas are infiltrated by other non-traditional uses, particularly those related to human settlement. In Nairobi, and Mathare River Valley in particular, the bulk of human activities occupying and using the riparian zone fall under the pro-poor informal sector; these include shanty dwelling units, informal micro-industry, urban agriculture (including livestock farming), informal breweries, and clay works. For decades, the Mathare riparian corridor has been colonized and utilized by the urban poor now estimated at over 6000 households organized into villages; whereas majority use it for dormitory purposes only, a significant number have relied on it for extractive and processing micro-economic functions with tangible benefits. Both dimensions have triggered serious problems related to environmental quality and carrying capacity. A significant proportion of these households have settled much into the flood zone that is considered as hazardous.
Recently the Government of Kenya, through a ministerial statement, put the riparian communities on notice pending total recovery of the riparian reserve. The immediate impact is the imminent displacement of large amount of dwellings, but also such a move is predicted to have adverse effects on key livelihoods and socio-economic activities of the community in the long-term. The pronouncement has been met by anxiety and resistance on the community side, who argue that complete recovery of the riparian zone for exclusive natural and recreational functions will have far-reaching effects and thus is not sustainable. Other than exchanges through the media, there has not been any effort towards dialogue, neither has there been initiated any meaningful research to establish the true extent of potential impacts of enforcing the pronouncement in total. The research employs GIS mapping techniques as well as field surveys to develop community profiles; overlays will be conducted to assess level of displacement and its impacts, which will be interpreted in scenario development. The output is a negotiated framework for rehabilitation of Nairobi riparian zone anchored on four components: community mapping, impact assessment, scenario development, and consensus building.

Keywords
Riparian; Rehabilitation; Framework; Livelihoods

DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Namibia Trained writers and participated in the development of nearly all the literacy books published in the Directorate of Adult Basic Education and for distance education materials developed by NAMCOL, the Namibian Open Learning College. (1990-1996).". In: A Critical Policy Analysis (1999),co-authored with J Kebathi and G Righa. (Asia-South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education/UNESCO). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
Deng Z, Peng B, Chen D, Tang F, Muscat AJ. "A new route to self-assembled tin dioxide nanospheres: Fabrication and characterization." Langmuir. 2008;24:11089-11095. Abstract
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Derese S, Kerubo L, Yenesew A, Machumi F, Midiwo JO. "Natural Products from Plant Diversity and their Potential in Management of Neglected Diseases.". 2011. Abstractmidiwo_et_al._napreca_abstracct.pdfNatural Products from Plant Diversity and their Potential in Management of Neglected Diseases

Conventionally, neglected diseases are considered as a group of 13 infectious diseases that are . endemic in the low income populations in the tropical developing world. They can be classified as those caused by trypanosomal parasites, helminthes, bacteria and viruses. They cause death to an estimated 0.5- 1m people annually. Trypanosomal diseases are represented by Kala-azar or visceral leshmaniasis, African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) and Chaga's disease (American trypanosomiasis); the current drugs for these diseases are relatively toxic even though the disease is not that lethal. Helminth infections include schistosomiasis treated with the inexpensive praziquantel but which cannot stop re-infection; onchocerciasis (river blindness), on which anthelmintic treatment is being tried; dracunculiasis (guinea worm), which should have been eradicated in 2009; lymphatic filiriasis (elephantiasis), managed by anthelmintic treatments. The others are soil transmitted worms such as ascariasis (round worms), trichuriasis (whipworms) and hookworms which are really best controlled by good hygienic practices. Leprosy, trachoma, Buruli ulcer and cholera represent the prevalent bacterial problems. Viral infections are yellow and dengue fevers caused by flavivirus transmitted by Aedes aegyptii and Japanese encephilitis caused by a flavivirus transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus; the viral infections can be controlled through vaccination (WHO, 2008).

Dimba E, Chindia ML, Ngovo C, Patel S, Muriithi MW. "Neural tumours of the neck and craniofacial region.". In: JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH. Vol. 78. AMER ASSOC DENTAL RESEARCH 1619 DUKE ST, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 USA; 1999:. Abstract
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Dimova I, Hlushchuk R, Makanya A, Karthik S, Nikolova D, Djonov V. Notch signaling in normal and tumor angiogenesis. Metropolitan Hotel, Athens, Greece; 2015.
Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis." EXS. 2005;(94):17-33.
Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis. In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis.". In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis . Vol. XIV.; 2005:.
DO A, KA W, EAO D, chindia ML, JF O, AK L, JO G. "Nasopalatine duct cyst." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
Dommergues Y, Keya SO, Freire J, Diem Hoang G, Dreyfus B. "Nitrogen fixation in tropical agriculture and forestry.". 1987. Abstract

Nitrogen compounds comprise from 40 to 50 percent of the dry matter of protoplasm, the living substance of plant cells. For this reason, nitrogen is required in large quantities by growing plants and is indeed the key to soil fertility. Non-nitrogen-fixing plants, for example cereals, obtain all the nitrogen they need from the soil. In Senegalese conditions this uptake was estimated to be as follows: 79-132 kg N ha/crop for pearl millet; 74-84 kg N ha/crop for rice; 134 kg N hdcrop for sorghum; and 121-139 kg N ha/crop for maize. Nitrogen-fixing plants, essentially legumes, take a part of the nitrogen they require from the atmosphere, the other part being provided by the soil."

Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N, Ongile G. "Networks, Markets, and Growth in Nairobi's Garment Industry.". In: International Center for Economic Growth. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1994. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Nairobi's Clothing Retailers: Some Preliminary Findings.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1991. Abstract

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DR DAVIDNYIKA. "New Concepts on the Calibration of Comparators and Projection Instruments. Technical Paper, No. 3; .". In: Department of Surveying; University of Nairobi. Nairobi.; 1978.
Dr. Derese S, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Yenesew A, Peter MG, Heydenreich. M. "neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia.". 2010. Abstractneo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are morphologically similar

DR. MISRA ANILK. "Nitrate reductase activity in the roots and leaves of Sorghum biocolor.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 1986. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Njiru, B.N., Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Knols, B.G.J., 2006, Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 39. http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/14.". In: Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 39. http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-5-39.pdf. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Capacity strengthening of rural communities, and the various actors that support them, is needed to enable them to lead their own malaria control programmes. Here the existing capacity of a rural community in western Kenya was evaluated in preparation for a larger intervention. Focus group discussions and semi-structured individual interviews were carried out in 1,451 households to determine (1) demographics of respondent and household; (2) socio-economic status of the household; (3) knowledge and beliefs about malaria (symptoms, prevention methods, mosquito life cycle); (4) typical practices used for malaria prevention; (5) the treatment-seeking behaviour and household expenditure for malaria treatment; and (6) the willingness to prepare and implement community-based vector control. Malaria was considered a major threat to life but relevant knowledge was a chimera of scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs, which combined with socio-economic circumstances, leads to ineffective malaria prevention. The actual malaria prevention behaviour practiced by community members differed significantly from methods known to the respondents. Beside bednet use, the major interventions implemented were bush clearing and various hygienic measures, even though these are ineffective for malaria prevention. Encouragingly, most respondents believed malaria could be controlled and were willing to contribute to a community-based malaria control program but felt they needed outside assistance. Culturally sensitive but evidence-based education interventions, utilizing participatory tools, are urgently required which consider traditional beliefs and enable understanding of causal connections between mosquito ecology, parasite transmission and the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Community-based organizations and schools need to be equipped with knowledge through partnerships with national and international research and tertiary education institutions so that evidence-based research can be applied at the grassroots level.
DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "New Desmodoridae (Nematoda: Desmodoroidea): three new species from the Ceriops mangrove sediments (Kenya) and one related species from the North Sea.". In: Cah. Biol. Mar. 36: 181-195. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1995.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. Psychometric properties of an African symptoms check list scale: the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku scale. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):280-7. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVES: To profile and quantify the psychometric properties of the NOK (Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku) scale against internationally used Gold-standards and benchmarks for mild psychiatric disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders and to provide a potential easy to administer culture sensitive instrument for screening and assessing those with possible psychiatric disorders for the Kenyan and similar social-cultural situations. <br>DESIGN: Cross-Sectional quantitative study.  <br>SETTING: A psychiatric clinical consultation setting and Kyanguli Secondary School psychotrauma counselling clinical set-up.  <br>SUBJECTS: Survivors of the Nairobi USA Embassy bombing who were referred for psychiatric treatment and survivors of a fire disaster from a rural Kenyan school (Kyanguli School fire disaster) including students, parents of the diseased children and staff members.  <br>RESULTS: Positive correlation was found between the NOK and all the instruments. The highest correlations were between the NOK and the BDI and SCL-90 (r = 0.557 to 0.786). The differences between the NOK scores among the different groups were statistically significant (F ratio = 13.54 to 160.34, p < 0.01). The reliability coefficient (internal consistency) of the scale
Dufitumukiza, A., Wanjala, G., Khatete I. "Nine year basic education policy interventions and students’ enrolments rates at lower secondary level: A lesson from Rwanda." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies, . 2021;2(1):94-112.
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Ebrahim YH. "Neelkanath Chhaya." Architectural World. 2019;August 2019 (3)(1(3)):15-20.
Eddy PO, Olweny CO, Mukabana WR. "Nutritive value of common housefly (Musca domestica) prepupae reared on broiler by-products as source of animal feed." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(10):1330-1335.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "New Amblyseius mite from Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Biol., 35: 549 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1975. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
El-Banhawy EM, Abou-Awad BA. "New gall-mites of the superfamily Eriophyoidea from East Africa (Arachinida : Acari). Acarologia, 33: 69.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1992. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "A new predacious mite of genus Typhlodromus Scheuten from Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Biol., 36: 531 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1976. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Emmanuel TV, Njoka JT, Catherine LW, Lyaruu HVM. "Nutritive and anti-nutritive qualities of mostly preferred edible woody plants in selected drylands of Iringa District, Tanzania.". 2011. Abstract

Nutritional and anti-nutritional factors of preferred woody plants were evaluated in selected drylands of Iringa District. Vangueria infausta (Burch.) and Vitex mombassae (Vatke.) identified as source of edible fruits; Adansonia digitata (L.) and Sterculia africana (Lour.) were preferred for oil products whereas Opilia amentacea (Roxb.) and Maerua angolensis (DC.) were used as sources of vegetables. The nutrients and anti-nutrients were evaluated using laboratory standard methods. Results show that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in percentage moisture content, dry matter, crude protein, crude and carbohydrates in all species used as sources of oils, vegetables and fruits. Percent ash content was different among the preferred species for vegetables and fruits. S. africana as oil producing plants had higher protein content (<25%). O. amentacea and M. angolensis had higher crude protein percent (14-34%) than other species. Crude fiber for all preferred species ranged from 9-27.6% on dry weight basis. The crude lipid content of preferred species ranged from 1.2% for fruit plants to 6.80% for oily plants. V. infausta and A. digitata had high Carbohydrates whereas all edible plants had higher values of Potassium and low Copper, Iron and Zinc content. A. digitata seeds had the highest value of Vitamin C (57.31 mg/100 dry weight) and low levels of tannins and phenols. This study concludes that wild plants are nutritious and have adequate nutrients and levels of anti-nutrients are below the toxic levels. Consequently, use of wild food plants could provide a possible source of food security in Iringa District.

Eunice G, Gachene CKK, Jesse TN, Omondi SM. "Nitrogen Fixation by Natural Populations of Acacia Senegal in the Drylands of Kenya Using 15N Natural Abundance.". 2013. Abstract

Nitrogen (N) fixation was estimated for three Acacia senegal (L.) (A. senegal) Willd. varieties (A. senegal var. senegal, kerensis, and leiorhachis) growing naturally in different sites in the dryland areas of Kenya. The quantities of N2 fixed were estimated by the 15N natural abundance method, using leaves as the sampling material. Balanites aegyptiaca (B. aegyptiaca) was selected as the reference species growing in the same area. Soil samples were also collected under A. senegal trees for nodule assessment. Leaf 15N natural abundance values (δ15N) were significantly different between A. senegal and B. aegyptiaca. These values averaged 6.35, 4.67, and 3.03% for A. senegal var. kerensis, leiorhachis, and senegal, respectively, and were lower than those of the adjacent reference species. There were also significant differences in the amount of N2 fixed (%Ndfa) among the varieties. A. senegal var. senegal showed the highest levels of N2 fixation with a mean of 36% while A. senegal var. kerensis and leiorhachis had equal estimates of 25%. However, no nodules were observed in the collected soil samples. Leaf N values were significantly different among the varieties with a mean of 2.73, 2.46, and 4.03% for A. senegal var. kerensis, leiorhachis, and senegal, respectively. This study shows that the three varieties of A. senegal are able to fix N2 in their natural ecosystems and the differences could probably be due to soil properties and nutrient availability under the different environments. The species can hence be utilized as plantations in agriculture and land rehabilitation programs.

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F.G. M, Wagaiyu EG, EM N, Gathece L, Mutara LN, T.K M. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly in Nairobi popolation.". 2008.
Feyssa DH, JNT, Nyangito MM, Asfaw Z. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Research Journal of Forestry. 2011;5(1):1-16. Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Nyangito MM, Asfaw Z. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2010;3(1). Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security.

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Neutraceutal Wild Plants of SemiArid East Shewa, Ethiopia: Contributions to Food and Healthcare Security of the Semiarid People." Research Journal of Forestry. 2011;5 (1):1-16. Abstract

Ethnobotanical study was conducted in six study sites of semi arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. The study has aimed to identify key nutraceutical wild plants and documents associated indigenous knowledge. It also analyzed local use and management practices and implications to food and health security of people living in semi arid areas. Data was obtained ethnobotanically by field observations, focus group discussions and interviews. Qualitatively data were described by narrating and quantitatively summarized in tables, percentages and ranking matrixs. Twenty nutraceutical plants were identified; 35% shrubs, 6% trees and 5% liana for human food, livestock feed and medicine. Transhumant pastoralists used (95%) nutraceuticals and settled farmers (65%). Twenty nutraceutical wild plants were used to treat 11(55%) human and 9(45%) livestock ailments/ health problems. There are a good number of nutraceutical plants which can be used for nutrition and healthcare system of semiarid people. Transhumant pastoralists were more intimate with nature and more knowledgeable. Hence, they adapt to climate change by using locally available nutraceuticals for themselves and their livestock. Climate change adaptation strategies can be built on this indigenous knowledge for sustainable use of nutracuticals for nutrition and health security.

Feyssa, Debela H, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Nutritional Value of Berchemia discolor: A Potential to Food and Nutrition Security of Households.". 2012. Abstract

Drylands have a multitude of livelihood problems where food insecurity is one of the serious impediments. Both transhumance and settled farmers make their living in the semiarid parts of east Shewa, Ethiopia. They adapt partly to food shortage by using natural resources. The study objective was to determine nutritional value of fruit of Berchemia discolor and analyse the use and management practices and associated indigenous knowledge. Data were collected from three study sites each in Fantalle and Boosat districts in East Shewa Zone. Before the laboratory analysis of fruit, the species was identified through focus group discussions and field observations. Mineral elements and phosphorus were determined in dry matter basis. Vitamin A and C were determined by spectrophotometer and redox titration respectively. Analysis of variance was done and means were separated by LSD at 0.05. Berchemia discolor is a candidate for dry land agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. Ten major uses of B. discolor (food, medicine, fuel wood and others) and food value were the highest. Total carbohydrates, crude protein, crude lipid, moisture and total ash contents of the fruit pulps ranged from 4.17-4.35%. The calculated energy from total carbohydrates was 314.50 kcal/100 g. Transhumance conserves Wild Edible Plants (WEPs) in pasture land and protect of vegetation, while settled farmers in traditional dryland agroforestry, in live fence and farm boarders. Berchemia discolor is one of the potential resources to enhance people’s livelihoods. Technologies for improved use and market chain need policy attention.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Urbanisation on Convective Activities over Nairobi City.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. International Human Dimensions Programme; 2005.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Natural Hazards and the Art of Forecasting.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. Kenya Meteorological Society; 2009.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2000.
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G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NJOROGE W, NDAVI PM, KARANJA JG, MATI JKG. The incidence of cervical extropion among women on contraceptive methods in two periurban areas in Nairobi. J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00.". In: J. Obst. Gynaec. East Cent. Afr. 15:00-00. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; Submitted. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NOREH J, SEKADDE-KIGONDU C, KARANJA JG and THAGANA NG. Age at menopause in a rural population of western Kenya.East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "NOREH J, SEKADDE-KIGONDU C, KARANJA JG and THAGANA NG. Age at menopause in a rural population of western Kenya.East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638.". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

G R, L O. National Study on Adolescent Reproductive Health Issues. Nairobi: Voluntary Agency for Local Initiatives Development ; 1999.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Naziriwo B.B., Wandiga S.O., Gatari M.J.G., Madadi O.V., Ssebuwufu P.J., Determination of trace metal concentrations in waters of Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.". In: Poster presentation, European conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (XRS2007), Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 16-20 June 2008. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
In an effort to understand the pollution levels in waters of Nakivubo channel in Kampala, Uganda and Lake Victoria (Fig 1) concentrations of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using convectional EDXRF and TXRF analysis. Water samples were collected with a 1-litre Van Don sampler (code, 1077) and transferred into polyethylene containers that were stored in an ice cooled box. Five samples were obtained at each sampling site and were all stored at -21 0C until analysis. Filtration on cellulose filter gave a particulate deposit that was analyzed for trace metals on a convectional EDXRF spectrometer. Pre-concentration and evaporation at 50 0C were used for extraction of dissolved metal content that was analyzed on TXRF. Samples of the unfiltered water were treated with HNO3 and H202 in a process for extracting total trace metal content that was subsequently prepared and analyzed on TXRF. Spectra from the spectrometers were analyzed for the trace elements of interest and elemental quantification was achieved using Quantitative X-ray Analysis software from International Atomic Energy Agency. The results showed high concentrations of particulate Fe and Mn, and relatively low Zn upstream the Nakivubo Channel. These were lower in the Lake Victoria waters. At the shores of Lake Victoria the dissolved Fe and Zn were higher than in the channel. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn in Lake Victoria were below the USEPA maximum contamination limits of 0.3, 0.05 and 5 mg/L respectively. However, Fe at the mouth of Nakivubo Channel was high and in general the quantified total elemental concentrations increased upstream along the channel. This meant increased water pollution input upstream and along the channel.
G.Mutegi R, K.Muriithi M, Mwabu G. "The NTA Estimates for Kenya: Policy implications of the life cycle and tax profiles.". In: IUSSP. Marrakech, Morocco; 2009.
G.O.Oyoo, F.A.Odhiambo. "Non-Compressive myelopathy: case report.". 2006.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Nzioka B.M, Nyaga J.K., Wagaiyu E.G The relationship between tooth brushing frequency and personal hygiene habits in teenagers. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 70, No.7 pg. 445 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):445-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. A survey of 904, 14-17 year old school children from secondary schools around Nairobi was done to find out if there was any relationship between toothbrushing frequency and personal hygiene habits. The students completed a questionnaire anonymously in class. Female students brushed their teeth more often than the male students. 62.2% of the females and 50.1% of the males brushed their teeth more than once a day. Of those students who brushed their teeth more than once a day, 52% bathed daily, 22% used perfumes/deodorants daily and 50.1% always washed their hands after visiting the lavatory. No relationship was found between washing of hair and toothbrushing frequency. 69.7% males and 53.2% females gave toothache and tooth decay as the main reasons for mouth care. Those who brushed their teeth more frequently also visited the medical doctor regularly for routine check-ups. These findings indicated that toothbrushing was closely related to personal hygiene habits.
Gachene CKK. "Nutrient losses in eroded soil material from some Kenyan soils."; 1989. Abstract

Nutrient loss is one of the factors which causes productivity decline in soils when erosion occurs. This paper gives preliminary results on nutrient losses in eroded soil material in relation to original soil material of some commonly occurring soils in Kenya. Results showed that nutrient losses in eroded soil materials are quite high as indicated by the enrichment ratios of 1.0 for all the nine Kenyan soils studied. Soil conservation measures are recommended

Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle

Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Mwaniki, S.W, Muthama, J.M. "A New Frontier in Collaborative Approaches in Sustainable Open Spaces Delivery."; 2019.

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