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MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators." Far East Mathematics Journal. 2008;28(2(February 2008)):305-317. AbstractWebsite

The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.

Nzimbi BM, Pokhariyal GP, Khalagai JM. "A note on similarity, almost-similarity and equivalence of operators." Far East Journal of Mathematical Sciences(FJMS). 2008;28(2):305-317.
Nzimbi BM. "A note on some equivalences of operators and topology of invariant subspaces." Mathematics and Computer Science . 2018;3(5):102-112.
Khasakhala AA. "A note on the estimates of Childhood Mortality from Birth History Data for Kenya, 1993 and 1998.". In: Population and Sustainable Development Challenges in Ken. Nairobi: Population Association of Kenya; 2002.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Note on the Form and Language of the Poem." Lienhardt and Hassan Ismail, The Medicine MAN.. 1969.
B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "A note on the Temperature Distribution of a Viscous Incompressible Fluid in a Channel Bounded by Two Parallel Plates.". In: J. of Scientific Research, B.H.U. (INDIA), Vol. XXIV (1-2). Materials Research Society; Submitted.
Kokwaro JO, Gillett JB. "Notes on Anacardiaceae of Eastern Africa." Kew Bulletin. 1980;34(4):745-760.
Anselm OJ. "Notes On Context ." The South African Journal Of Philosophy . 1996;Vol15 No. 2.
J.O. K. "Notes on East African Geraniaceae." Kew Bulletin. 1969;23(2):527.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Notes on Francis Imbuga's "Aminata." Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 2002.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Notes on Grace Ogot's Land Without Thunder for O-levels, Authored, Nairobi.". In: Nyange Publishers.; 1982. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Wasamba P, Mwangi E. Notes on Margaret Ogolla’s The River and the Source.. Nairobi: Stantex; 1998.
Wasamba P. Notes on Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Coming to Birth. Nairobi: Marimba ; 2005.
Malaki P, Muchane M, Balakrishnan M. "Notes on the nesting and breeding behaviour of the Greycrested Helmet-shrike Prionops poliolophus around Lake Naivasha, Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2008;28:41-45. Abstract
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HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Notes on William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1991. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Notes to Francis Imbuga's Man of Kafira Nairobi Heinemann.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1984. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Notgi A, McLigeyo S.O., Anderton J.L.: Effects on Nifedipine versus other antiphypertensive treatment on renal allograft survival. African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 1(5):129-132, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
Muchemi LW. "Noti ya Bahati.". In: Gitaa. Nairobi, Kenya: Longhorn; 2011.
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WEKESA MRMALOBA. "THE NOTION OF FAITHFULNESS vs CONTEXT IN TRANSLATION. BY, MALOBA WEKESA,.". In: PUBLISHED PAPER FOR CONFERENCE IN LAPAMPA ARGENTINA. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2009. Abstract
Translations being representations of texts in other languages can be communicatively successful if these texts are faithful representations of the originals. This means that the posterior text must resemble the anterior text closely enough in respects relevant to the target audience.  The relevance theory, using the notions of interpretive resemblance and interpretive use, constraints the divergence of possible text interpretations between anterior and posterior texts. However, the notions of interpretive use and resemblance make assumption that each utterance will carry along a context that can faithfully be carried over to the posterior text. This paper will argue that "full meaning" of an utterance is a mirage even with interpretive resemblance and use since context is not replicable between languages.  The paper will explore how unfaithful a posterior text can be especially when translators "invent" new context to illustrate a previously unknown concept in the posterior text from the anterior text. The paper will use for illustration, excerpts from the Ten Commandments of the bible as translated in the Lubukusu version of the same - Endakano Empia.
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Anselm OJ. "The Notion Of Freedom From An African Cultural Perspective ." Culture And Quest . 1997.
NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Nov.2008 : Presented a scientific paper titled: .". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2008. Abstract
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Aboge GO, Jia H, Goo Y, Kuriki K, Nishikawa Y, Igarashi I, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "A novel 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni is a prospective antigen for diagnosis and serosurvey of canine babesiosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.". 2007. Abstract

We isolated a novel single copy gene encoding a 57-kDa merozoite protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgP57). The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 2387 bp with an open reading frame (ORP) of 1644 bp encoding a 57-kDa predicted polypeptide having 547 amino acid residues. The recombinant BgP57 (rBgP57) without a predicted signal peptide was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. Western blotting showed that the corresponding native protein was 57-kDa, consistent with molecular weight of predicted mature polypeptide. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rBgP57 detected specific antibodies in the sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected with B. gibsoni. Moreover, the antigen did not cross-react with antibodies to B. canis sub-species and closely related apicomplexan parasites indicating that the rBgP57 was a specific antigen for B. gibsoni antibodies. The diagnostic performance of ELISA based on rBgP57 using 107 sera from B. gibsoni-naturally infected dogs was the same as the previously identified rBgP32 but performed better than the previously studied rBgP50. Although, seminested peR detected higher proportions (82%) of positive samples than the ELISAs, the Mcnemar's chi-square test showed that there was no significant difference in relative effectiveness of rBgP57-ELISA and seminested peR (x2 = 2.70; P = 0.1003) in identifying positive samples. The rBgP57-ELISA when used in combination with rBgP32-ELISA and rBgP50-ELISA appeared to improve sensitivity of the rBgP57-ELISA for detection of B. gibsoni antibodies. Overall, the rBgP57-ELISA and seminested peR when used in combination, could improve epidemiological surveys and clinical diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection.

I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "A Novel Approach to e-Content Development Process: Complexity Reduction and Process Automation.". In: In: Kommers P, Richards G. (eds.), World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications. ED-MEDIA 2005. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Montreal, Canada, pp 3475-3480. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "A Novel Approach to e-Content Development Process: Complexity Reduction and Process Automation.". In: In: Kommers P, Richards G. (eds.), World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications. ED-MEDIA 2005. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Montreal, Canada, pp 3475-3480.; 2005. Abstract
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H. A, T. T. "A Novel Approach to Triangulating Contours for Surface Approximation." Trans. IEEJ. 1997;117-C(6):667-675.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Novel electrochemical oral biosensor for histatin.". In: Sensor Letters, 3(2), 161-163 (2005). American Scientific Publishers; 2005. Abstract
Aluoch A. O., Amrute, K., Sadik, O. A. An amperometric biosensor for monitoring the level of saliva protein histatin is described. The biosensor-sensing elements comprise a layer of salivary histatin antibody self-assembled onto a gold quartz crystal by covalent attachment. The biospecific interaction between the immobilized histatin antibody and histatin antigen was monitored via a novel electroactive indicator, silver monodispersed on the gold surface. The silver is oxidized or reduced and the resulting peak currents provide analytical information about the concentrations of the salivary proteins. A detection limit of 0.626 pg/ml was obtained
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A novel entitled .". In: published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2000.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A novel entitled .". In: publiushed by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1995.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "A Novel Framework for E-Commerce Diffusion and Adoption and supporting Digital Documentation Options.". In: Proceedings of the WAITRO Bienial Congress September 2004. JKUAT Kenya. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "A Novel Framework for E-Commerce Diffusion and Adoption and supporting Digital Documentation Options.". In: Proceedings of the WAITRO Bienial Congress September 2004. JKUAT Kenya. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2004. Abstract
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Adhiambo C, Blisnick T, Toutirais G, Delannoy E, Bastin P. "A novel function for the atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 in the assembly of the trypanosome flagellum." J. Cell. Sci.. 2009;122(Pt 6):834-41. Abstract

The atypical small G protein Rab-like 5 has been shown to traffic in sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans, where it participates in signalling processes but not in cilia construction. In this report, we demonstrate that RABL5 colocalises with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins at the basal body and in the flagellum matrix of the protist Trypanosoma brucei. RABL5 fused to GFP exhibits anterograde movement in the flagellum of live trypanosomes, suggesting it could be associated with IFT. Accordingly, RABL5 accumulates in the short flagella of the retrograde IFT140(RNAi) mutant and is restricted to the basal body region in the IFT88(RNAi) anterograde mutant, a behaviour that is identical to other IFT proteins. Strikingly, RNAi silencing reveals an essential role for RABL5 in trypanosome flagellum construction. RNAi knock-down produces a phenotype similar to inactivation of retrograde IFT with formation of short flagella that are filled with a high amount of IFT proteins. These data reveal for the first time a functional difference for a conserved flagellar matrix protein between two different ciliated species and raise questions related to cilia diversity.

Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Zhang X, Zhu H. "Novel Lattice Thermal Transport in Stanene." arXiv preprint arXiv:1508.02156. 2015. Abstract
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P. KAAYAG. "Novel methods in the control of ticks.". In: Proc. PARSA Conf, Golden Gate Highlands National Park, RS.Africa.; 2002.
a SR, E Mpolya a, b JMS, C Onyambu c, a SE, Vianney J-M. "Novel multi-linear quantitative brain volume formula for manual radiological evaluation of brain atrophy." European Journal of Radiology Open . 2020;7:100281.
Odada EO, Baker, O., Talbot, M.R., Street-Perrot, F.A., Marret, F. "Novel proxies of the late Quaternary Climatic Variability in Intertropical Africa.". In: in R. Batterbee, F. Gasse and C. Stictley (Eds.) Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa. The Netherlands: Springer; 2003.
Mwamuye MM, Kariuki E, D O, Kabii J, Odongo D, Masiga D, Villinger J. "Novel Rickettsia and emergent tick-borne pathogens: A molecular survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya." Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2017;8(2): 208-218.
Kamau G. "Novel Solar Cell Technology.". 2000.
Jans C, Gerber A, Bugnard J, Njage PMK, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.". 2012. Abstract

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log10 8.2–8.5 CFU mL−1. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcusthermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7–100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102T and a gal-lac operon with 91.7–97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a β-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant.

Wolfgang R. Mukabana, Collins K. Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Philemon Omusula, Renate C. Smallegange, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W. "A novel synthetic odorant blend for trapping of malaria and other african mosquito species." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:235-244.
Marsh S, Ameyaw MM, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Ofori-Adjei D, McLeod HL. "Novel thymidylate synthase enhancer region alleles in African populations." Hum. Mutat.. 2000;16(6):528. Abstract

Thymidylate synthase (TS) regulates the production of DNA synthesis precursors and is an important target of cancer chemotherapy. A polymorphic tandem repeat sequence in the enhancer region of the TS promoter was previously described, where the triple repeat gives higher in vitro gene expression than a double repeat. We recently identified ethnic differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations. We now describe assessment of genotype and allele frequencies of the TS polymorphism in 640 African (African American, Ghanaian and Kenyan) and Caucasian (UK, USA) subjects. The double and triple repeat were the predominant alleles in all populations studied. The frequency of the triple repeat allele was similar between Kenyan (49%), Ghanaian (56%), African American (52%), American Caucasian (54%) and British Caucasian (54%) subjects. However, two novel alleles contained 4 and 9 copies of the tandem repeat. These novel alleles were found at a higher allele frequency in African populations (Kenyan 7%, Ghanaian 3%, African American 2%) than Caucasians (UK 1%, USA 0%). The novel alleles identified in this study decrease in frequency with Western migration, while the common alleles are relatively stable. This is a unique example suggesting the influence of multiple selection pressures within individual populations. Hum Mutat 16:528, 2000.

Sitati F, Kingori JK. "A Novel Treatment for Severely Porotic Humerus Non Union with Plate and Rush Pin: A Report of 2 Cases." The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery . 2009;14(2):7-19. Abstracta_novel_treatment_for_severely_porotic_humerus_non_unionwith_plate_and_rush_pin.pdf

The management of humerus non-union in severely porotic bone mainly encountered in the elderly is challenging .The incidence of nonunion is higher in cases involving porotic bones. Non unions can result in significant patient morbidity by limiting activities of daily living due to pain and loss of function especially in the elderly. The literature is replete with studies outlining the various methods of treating humeral shaft non unions with severely porotic bones following primary operative management. However no study describes combining a plate and rush pin together with cancellous bone graft for severely porotic humerus non unions. We have applied this technique in 2 cases of previously plated porotic humerus non unions in the elderly with good results. This technique could be a very useful procedure in underdeveloped countries and rural hospitals where facilities like methylmethacrylate, a plate with a blade and spiked nuts that lock the screws to the plate are not available.

Höltje JV, Mirelman D, Sharon N, Schwarz U. "Novel type of murein transglycosylase in Escherichia coli." J. Bacteriol.. 1975;124(3):1067-76. Abstract

The purification and properties of a novel type of murein transglycosylase from Escherichia coli are described. The purified enzyme appears as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and has an apparent molecular weight of approximately 65,000 as estimated by gel filtration and gel electrophoresis. It degrades pure murein sacculi from E. coli almost completely into low-molecular-weight products. The two prominent muropeptide fragments in the digest are the disaccharide-tripeptide N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylmuramic acid-L-alanine-D-iso-glutamic acid-meso-diaminopimelic acid and the corresponding disaccharide-tetrapeptide N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylmuramic acid-L-alanine-D-iso-glutamic acid-meso-diaminopimelic acid-D-alanine. The unique feature of these compounds is that the disaccharide has no reducing end group and that the muramic acid residue possesses an internal 1 leads to 6 anhydro linkage. The new lytic enzyme is designated as a murein: murein transglycosylase. Its possible role in the rearrangement of murein during cell growth and division is discussed.

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "November 8, 2006 .". In: The 1st Korea .; 2006. Abstract
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Mwabe PO, Wendt JOL, Lin WC. "Nox destruction in a laminar opposed jet diffusion flame."; 1990.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Nsanzumuhire, WAMOLA I.A and Mirza. Clinical Presentation and Management of Penicillin Resistant Pneumococcal Meningtitis. EAMJ 58: 611, 1981.". In: EAMJ 58: 611, 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
G.Mutegi R, K.Muriithi M, Mwabu G. "The NTA Estimates for Kenya: Policy implications of the life cycle and tax profiles.". In: IUSSP. Marrakech, Morocco; 2009.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M. J and E. Wakwabi. The Kenyan coast fish and fisheries. A Chapter in The East African Coastal and Marine Environment and Resource Atlas, Phase One: Kenya.". In: A UNEP Publication, 119p. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. and B.W. Ogana: Potential Impacts of Climate Change of Fisheries in Lake Naivasha and Victoria.". In: In the Proceedings of Lake Victoria 2000: A New Beginning, International Conference, May 15-19, Jinja, Uganda. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. and E. Okemwa. Current status on Marine science research in Kenya. In Proceedings of the Workshop on "Tropical Coastal Lagoon ecosystems", December 3-5, 1991.". In: Inhaca, Mozambique. SAREC Documentation, 58-66. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. and V. Jaccarini, The effect of oocytic atresia on the fecundity estimates of Siganus sutor off Kenyan marine inshore waters.". In: Hydrobiologia 247: 215-222. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. and V. Jaccarini, The spawning seasonality of the Siganus sutor in the Kenyan marine waters.". In: J. Fish. Biol., 37, 315-325. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. and V. Jaccarini. (1988). Age and growth of Siganus sutor in Kenya marine inshore waters, derived from number of otolith micro?bands and fish length.". In: J. Fish. Biol., 33, 465-4780. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. Application of trawls in sampling large marine ecosystems. In Micheni Ntiba, Ezekiel Okemwa, and Kenneth Sherman (eds.). Assessment, Variability, and Management of Large Marine Ecosystems of the Indian Ocean.". In: Blackwell Science Publisher, Boston, USA. 394p, 23-43. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. The biology and Ecology of the long rough dab, Hippoglossoides platessoides (Fabrcius 1780) in the North Sea. Ph.D. Thesis.". In: University of East Anglia, U.K. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1989. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J. The Biology of the Kenya Reef Fish of the genus Siganus. M.Sc. Thesis.". In: University of Nairobi, Kenya. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ, PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J., Trawl Survey Strategy and its Application in East African Coastal Waters. In Ezekiel Okemwa, Micheni Ntiba and Kenneth Sherman (eds.): Status and Future of Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) of the Indian Ocean: A Report of the International sympo.". In: IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, p 163-180. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J., Wakwabi, E.O., Mwatha, G. K.; Kimani, E. and Okoth, B.K. Species Composition and shuttle movements of fish. In Dynamics and Assessment of Kenyan Mangrove Ecosystems.". In: No. TS2-0240-C (GDF), Final Report (April, 1993). 129 p. 139-157. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Ntiba, M.J.; Kudoja, W.M. and Mukasa, C.T. Management issues in Lake Victoria watershed.". In: Lakes & Reservoirs: Res. Mangt. 6: 211-216. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Obukosia SD, Waithaka K. "Nucellar embryo culture of Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus limon L.". 2000. Abstract

Nucellar tissue cultures of polyembryonic Citrus sinensis cultivar Valencia Late and Citrus limon cultivar Rough Lemon produced somatic embryos within 60 days of culture on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.4 g l-1 of filter-sterilised casein hydrolysate or 10% coconut water. Embryos that were separated and subcultured in MS media containing casein hydrolysate or coconut water but without hormones, first developed roots within 4 to 8 months and then shoots within 6 to 9 months of in vitro culture. Plantlets were transplanted to soil from 7 to 9 months after initiation. Callus-like tissue consisting of pseudobulbils was observed after 4 to 5 months from the time of initiation. Pseudobulbils developed into visible embryos with multiple cotyledons when subcultured into MS media containing casein hydrolysate or 10% coconut water after 19 to 27 days of in vitro culture. These embryos produced plantlets in which roots developed after 6 to 10 months and shoots formed after 8 to 11 months from the time of initiation.

Tilahun Y, Soliman K, Lawrence KS, Cseke LJ, Ochieng JW. "Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in the United States." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(18):3217-3224.2008_tilahun_et_al_ajb.pdf
Ochieng JW, Baverstock PR, Steane DA, Shepherd M, Henry RJ. "Nuclear ribosomal pseudogenes resolve a corroborated monophyly of the eucalypt genus Corymbia despite misleading hypotheses at functional ITS paralogs.". 2007. Abstract

Divergent paralogs can create both obstacles and opportunities for phylogenetic reconstruction. Phylogenetic relationships among eucalypt genera have been incongruent among datasets in previous studies, where morphological characters supported monophyly of the genus Corymbia, while intergenic spacers of the nuclear ribosomes (ITS) and chloroplast loci (trnL, trnH, psbA) showed Corymbia as either equivocal or paraphyletic. Ribosomal DNA occurs in multiple copies in a genome. We cloned and sequenced the nrITS to investigate if gene duplication was the cause of incongruence among trees in the eucalypts. Three ITS riboforms, two of them widespread, were recovered within some genomes. One of the ITS riboforms recovered a robust phylogeny showing Corymbia as a monophyletic genus, corroborating the evidence from morphology, fossil data, a recent ITS/ETS dataset and microsatellites (SSRs). Compelling evidence suggested that this divergent riboform is a pseudogene, i.e., non-functional paralog: comparatively lower GC content suggesting lower structural stability, deamination-like mutations at potential methylation sites, lack of conserved helices and hairpins and conspicuously lower thermodynamic stability in secondary structures. Phylogenies from the apparently functional riboform retained Corymbia as paraphyletic. We show here that pseudogenes can recover a well-corroborated phylogeny whereas their functional paralogs show misleading hypotheses. We explain that phylogenetic signals may be obscured when functional constraints in ITS necessitate compensatory mutations in the secondary structure helices involved in RNA transcription, whereas pseudogenes mutate under neutrality.

Ochieng JW, Henry RJ, Baverstock PR, Steane DA, Shepherd M. "Nuclear ribosomal pseudogenes resolve a corroborated monophyly of the eucalypt genus Corymbia despite misleading hypotheses at functional ITS paralogs." Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.. 2007;44(2):752-64. Abstract

Divergent paralogs can create both obstacles and opportunities for phylogenetic reconstruction. Phylogenetic relationships among eucalypt genera have been incongruent among datasets in previous studies, where morphological characters supported monophyly of the genus Corymbia, while intergenic spacers of the nuclear ribosomes (ITS) and chloroplast loci (trnL, trnH, psbA) showed Corymbia as either equivocal or paraphyletic. Ribosomal DNA occurs in multiple copies in a genome. We cloned and sequenced the nrITS to investigate if gene duplication was the cause of incongruence among trees in the eucalypts. Three ITS riboforms, two of them widespread, were recovered within some genomes. One of the ITS riboforms recovered a robust phylogeny showing Corymbia as a monophyletic genus, corroborating the evidence from morphology, fossil data, a recent ITS/ETS dataset and microsatellites (SSRs). Compelling evidence suggested that this divergent riboform is a pseudogene, i.e., non-functional paralog: comparatively lower GC content suggesting lower structural stability, deamination-like mutations at potential methylation sites, lack of conserved helices and hairpins and conspicuously lower thermodynamic stability in secondary structures. Phylogenies from the apparently functional riboform retained Corymbia as paraphyletic. We show here that pseudogenes can recover a well-corroborated phylogeny whereas their functional paralogs show misleading hypotheses. We explain that phylogenetic signals may be obscured when functional constraints in ITS necessitate compensatory mutations in the secondary structure helices involved in RNA transcription, whereas pseudogenes mutate under neutrality.

Mbugua PN;, Wahome RG. "Nuclear technique in animal nutrition.".; 1992.
Mbugua PN;, Wahome RG. "Nuclear technique in animal nutrition.".; 1992.
Smith RC, Stricker CM. "Nucleosides and nucleotides of the cold acid-soluble portion of the blood of steers." J. Anim. Sci.. 1975;41(6):1674-8.
Da Silva EJ, Freire J, Hillali A, Keya S. "Nuestros amigos los microbios.". 1987.
Prof. Wamutiso K. "Number Symbolism in World Religions: The Case of Number Seven." Journal of Oriental and African Studies Vol. 22, pp.38-62,. 2014;23:405-415.
Ngecu W, Khudheyer AF, Mahmoud MS. "Numerical analysis of fin-tube plate heat exchanger by using CFD technique." Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2011;6(7):1-12. AbstractFull Text

Three-dimensional CFD simulations are carried out to investigate heat transfer and fluid flow
characteristics of a two-row plain fin-and-tube heat exchanger using Open FOAM, an open-
source CFD code. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the heat exchanger are
investigated for Reynolds numbers ranging from 330 to 7000. Model geometry is created,
meshed, calculated, and post-processed using open source software. Fluid flow and heat
transfer are simulated and results compared using both laminar and turbulent flow models (k-
epsilon, and Menter SST k-omega), with steady-state solvers to calculate pressure drop,
flow, and temperature fields. Model validation is carried out by comparing the simulated
case friction factor f and Colburn factor j to experimental results from the literature.

Odhiambo E, Chern M-J. "Numerical Assessment Of Three Flexibly Mounted Rota ry Wave Energy Converters With A Two Degree Of Freedom Constraint.". In: 2nd Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference. Tokyo, Japan; 2014.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 2000.
Opijah FJ. Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area. Ng'ang'a JK, Mukabana JR, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2000.phd.doc
M DRININDAJOSEPH. "Numerical Simulation of the Influence of SST anomalies on the East Africa Seasonal Rainfall.". In: PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya. University of Nairobi; 1994.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Urbanisation on Convective Activities over Nairobi City.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. International Human Dimensions Programme; 2005.
Chern MJ, Odhiambo E, Borthwick AGL, Horng TL. "Numerical simulation of vibration of horizontal cylinder induced by progressive waves." Fluid Dynamics Research. 2016;48(1):015508.
Ogana W. "Numerical solution for subcritical flows by a transonic integral equation method." AIAA Journal. 1977;Vol 15(No. 3):pp. 444-446.
Chern M-J, Purnadiana FR, Noor DZ, Horng T-L, Chau S-W, Odhiambo E. "Numerical study of flow past two counter rotating cylinders using immersed boundary method." Journal of Marine Science and Technology. 2015;23(5):761-773.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Numerous reviews and the Writer's Freedom: A Paper Presented at the Symposium Organized by the Historical Association of Kenya, Asis Hotel, Sosian Road at Eldoret, 29th - 30th April, 1995, under the theme, "Development in Africa since the 1960s".". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1995. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Nungu, J.M. (2008). Homesickness as Quest. Phenomenology Online. http://www.phenomenologyonline.com/articles/nungu.html.". In: Middle East and African Studies (MEAS) Conference, University of Alberta, 30 . Frontiers, 2011; 2008. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Nungu, M. (2008). (Book Review) New directions in African education: Challenges and Possibilities. S. Nombuso Dlamini (Ed.), 2008. Calgary, AB: University of Calgary Press. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Education 3(1), 62-84.". In: Middle East and African Studies (MEAS) Conference, University of Alberta, 30 . Frontiers, 2011; 2008. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Ayiemba EHO. "Nuptiality Measures.". 1992.Website
Ayiemba EHO. "Nuptiality Measures.". 1992.Website
R A, K R. Nur Islamic Religious Education Learner’s Book, Grade seven. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; Forthcoming.
R A, K R. Nur Islamic Religious Education Teacher’s Guide, Grade Four. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; Forthcoming.
R A, K R. Nur Islamic Religious Education Teacher’s Guide, Grade Four. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; Forthcoming.
R A, K R. Nur Islamic Religious Education Teacher’s Guide, Grade seven. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; Forthcoming.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference on 5th-7th Oct. 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College - Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

 Prof. Anna Karani on - Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

Odero T. "Nurse's knowledge, attitude and practice on the initial management of acute poisoning amongadult casualties: Study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Open Journal of Nursing. 2012;2:149-156. Abstract

doi: I0.4236/ojn.20 12.23023 Published Online September 2012 (http://www.SClRP.orghoumallom/)
OJN
Nurse's knowledge, attitude and practice on the initial
management of acute poisoning amongadult casualties:
Study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya
'''"heth RuffO·, James M.waura, Angeline Chepchirchi.r, Theresa Odero
School of Nursing, The University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Email: *kolonget@yahoo.com
Received 13 June 2012; revised 10 July 2012; accepted 18 July 2012
ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine nurse's
knowledge, attitude and practice on the initial management
of acute poisoning among adult casualties
seen at Accident and Emergency Department (AED),
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The study was
cross sectional. Both 'qualitative, and quantitative
methods of data collection were employed. The target
population were all nurses working at AED, KNH.
Purposive sampling was used to select study subjects.
Sample size included all Accident and Emergency
(A&E) nurses who met subject's inclusion criteria.
Structured questionnaires, observation checklist and
interview were used to collect the data. Sixty eight
(82%) of A&E nurses participated in this study. The
study found out that with higher nursing qualification
and training on courses related to emergency care,
knowledge and skills of A&E nurses on the initial
management of acute poisoning is enhanced. A&E
nurses with lower education level had a higher mean
score of positive attitude compared with nurses with
higher nursing qualification. Majority 60 (88.2%) of
the A&E nurses indicated that, they required more
training on the initial management of acute poisoning.
Study recommends that 'A&E nurses should be
trained on various types of poisoning including; assessment,
clinical presentations and management to
include gut decontaminations. In addition, refresher
courses should be organised for those already trained.
Flowcharts that will enhance easy identification and
management of poisoned casualties should be put in
place and utilized accordingly.
Keywords: Knowledge; Attitude; Practice; Initial
Management; Acute Poisoning; Adult Casualties;
Accident and Emergency Department; Kenyatta
National Hospital (KNH)

Keira Lowther 1, Selman L, Victoria Simms, Nancy Gikaara, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr, Irene J Higginson RH. "Nurse-led palliative care for HIV-positive patients taking antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a randomised controlled trial." Lancet HIV. 2015;2(8):328-34.
JO M, LU(1) W, Faxelid EA, PN C, AA O'any, EB. N. "Nurse-midwives' attitudes towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health needs in Kenya and Zambia." Reprod Health Matters. 2006 May;14(27):119-28.. 2006.dr.musandu.pdf
OLIECH JS. "Nurses are key players.". In: Kenya Nurs J. 1991 Jun;19(1):15-6. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1991. Abstract

Review of twenty cases of live-donor kidney transplants in Kenya for a period of 5 years (1985-1989) and the follow up study results revealed that there were both high graft losses, high morbidity and mortality due to various complications pertaining to surgery and immunosuppression. The most serious complications were intercurrent infections, acute or chronic rejection, pulmonary embolism, steroid induced diabetes, pneumonia, and myocardial infarction. At the end of the first year follow up, there were only twelve graft patients alive. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was not available for assessing the anatomical and functional behaviour of the transplanted kidneys. This would have assisted in early diagnosis of the degree and onset of rejection for appropriate treatment before the death of the allografts. It would also assist in differentiating perfusional problems from rejection.

Mendenhall E, Isaiah G, Nelson B, Musau A, Koon AD, Smith L, Mutiso V, Ndetei D. "Nurses' perceptions of mental healthcare in primary-care settings in Kenya." Glob Public Health. 2016:1-14. AbstractWebsite

Kenya maintains an extraordinary treatment gap for mental health services because the need for and availability of mental health services are extraordinarily misaligned. One way to narrow the treatment gap is task-sharing, where specialists rationally distribute tasks across the health system, with many responsibilities falling upon frontline health workers, including nurses. Yet, little is known about how nurses perceive task-sharing mental health services. This article investigates nurses' perceptions of mental healthcare delivery within primary-care settings in Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 60 nurses from a public urban (n = 20), private urban (n = 20), and public rural (n = 20) hospitals. Nurses participated in a one-hour interview about their perceptions of mental healthcare delivery. Nurses viewed mental health services as a priority and believed integrating it into a basic package of primary care would protect it from competing health priorities, financial barriers, stigma, and social problems. Many nurses believed that integrating mental healthcare into primary care was acceptable and feasible, but low levels of knowledge of healthcare providers, especially in rural areas, and few specialists, would be barriers. These data underscore the need for task-sharing mental health services into existing primary healthcare in Kenya.

Kivuti L, Nduike D, Chepchirchir A. "Nurses’ Preference Areas for Post Basic Training in Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2011;40.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review. 2018;9(1):: NU 20198-20203 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15520/ijcrr/2018/9/01/403.
Githui S, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Nurse’s Perception on Non-Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence by Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study ." International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review . 2018. Abstract

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) constitute physical, sexual, social or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Many researchers have observed that intimate partner violence is directly associated with negative maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess nurse’s perception on non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant women. A mixed method was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and a Likert scale was used to collect quantitative data. A structured interview schedule was used to gather qualitative data. 125 nurses and midwives were voluntarily recruited for this study. The results of this study showed that 52% (n=65) of the respondents had worked for more than 12 years and a majority (62.6%, n=77) were community health nurses. The nurses perceived that non-disclosure of IPV by pregnant was because of various barriers. Majority (n=86, 69.9%) agreed that the reason why they did not disclose IPV was because the abused survivor would still stay with the abuser after disclosure, and 66.7% (n=82) agreed that stigmatizing attitudes towards the IPV survivors from the society prevented disclosure. About 65.3% of the respondents agreed that survivors are not aware of their rights in regard toIPV reporting and that survivor’s view IPV abuse as normal. The results from this study point to the need of addressing barriers that emanate from the survivors of IPV themselves if IPV screening is to be achieved.
Key words: Nurse, Perception, Non-disclosure, Intimate Partner Violence, Pregnant women, Screening

Nursing Trends in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
Mugambi MM, Miriti GM. "Nurturing the Industrial Economy through Enterprise Education:The Case of Kenyan Universities.". In: Handbook of Research on Nurturing Industrial Economy for Africa’s Development. Hershey: IGI-global; 2021.
Mziray RS, Imungi JK, Karuri EG. "Nutrient and antinutrient in contents of raw and cooked Amaranthus hybridus.". 2001. Abstract

Amaranthus hybridus was grown as a leafy vegetables in four sites in Dar‐Es‐Salaam, Tanzania. Freshly harvested leaves from each of the growing sites were analyzed for proximate composition of beta‐carotene, reduced ascorbic acid, minerals iron, calcium, phosphorous and the antinutrients oxalates and nitrates. The leaves from the four sites were bulked and cooked by boiling in distilled water in the ratio vegetable to water of 1:4 then drained. The drained vegetables were analyzed for beta‐carotene, reduced ascorbic acid, iron, calcium, phosphorus, oxalate and nitrate. Results indicated that fresh amaranth vegetables from the four sites had comparable high moisture contents ranging between 85.3% to 86.5%, protein of between 28.2% to 31.6%. The level of minerals calcium, iron and phosphorus ranged between 2062 mg/100 g and 2263 mg/100 g, 108 mg/100 g and 128 mg/100 g and 500 mg/100 g and 553 mg/100 g respectively on dry weight basis. The levels of beta‐carotene of between 25.2 mg/100 g to 37.3 mg/100 g, ascorbic acid of between 455 mg/100 g to 535 mg/100 g. Nitrates and oxalates were at levels of between 501 mg/100 g to 560 mg/100 g and 3383 mg/100 g to 4333 mg/100 g respectively on dry matter basis. On cooking, the levels of beta‐carotene did not change significantly but there were significant reductions (P < 0.05) in the levels of ascorbic acid of up to 50.4%, and 41.4% for phosphorus, while the total nitrate was reduced by 39.2%, and the oxalate by 40.2%. The study established that Amaranthus hybridus leaves grown in four sites of Dar‐Es‐Salaam were good sources of nutrients, had low nitrates levels but high oxalate contents. Furthermore the cooking losses of the nutrients were not excessive, while the antinutrients were substantially reduced.

MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Nutrient balances at farm level in Machakos (Kenya), using a participatory nutrient monitoring (NUTMON) approach. Gachimbi, L.N., Van Keulen, H., Kinama, J.M., Nguluu, S., Itabari, J.K., Ikombo, B.M., Thuranira, E.G., Karuku, A.M., de Jager, J. and Nandwa.". In: tissues. Poster presentation at the XXI World Poultry Congress to be held in Montr. University of nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Nutrient contents of cured potatoes from Kenyan highland varieties. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 20: 51-58.". In: Presented at the First Symposium of the National Council of Zimbabwe, Harare, and 3 - 7 January 1988. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Nutrient contents of raw and cooked cowpea leaves. J. Food Sci. 48: 1252.". In: Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, USA. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1983. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Aong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, J.N K. "Nutrient contents of raw and processed products from Kenyan potato cultivars ." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2009;16:877-886.potato_nutrients.pdf
Abong GO, Okoth MW, Karuri EG, Kabira JN, Mathooko FM. "Nutrient contents of raw and processed products from Kenyan potato cultivars." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2009;16:877-886.
Gachene CKK. "Nutrient losses in eroded soil material from some Kenyan soils."; 1989. Abstract

Nutrient loss is one of the factors which causes productivity decline in soils when erosion occurs. This paper gives preliminary results on nutrient losses in eroded soil material in relation to original soil material of some commonly occurring soils in Kenya. Results showed that nutrient losses in eroded soil materials are quite high as indicated by the enrichment ratios of 1.0 for all the nine Kenyan soils studied. Soil conservation measures are recommended

Njenga M, Kimani S, Romney D, Karanja N. "Nutrient recovery from solid waste and linkage to urban and peri-urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Community based composting practices were studied in Nairobi using a questionnaire, and the quality of composts produced characterised for nutrient and heavy metal contents. An inventory of the composting groups was made using existing databases. The quality of different manure types and their sources were also noted. The movement of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) for composting and its outlets, as well as manures, were investigated through mapping of market and ecological chains. The study objectives aimed at documenting group dynamics in community based composting activities, quality of composts as influenced by different composting techniques and mapping of the movement of organic resources for soil fertility improvement. It was established that composting practices used by the community-based organisations (CBO’s), had an impact on the quality of the composts, which was found to be lower than the recommended international standards. The CBO’s involved regard composting activities as a business enterprise from where their livelihood comes. Low market opportunities (low demand) for their product have hampered their growth and development.. It was also observed that there is an inflow of organic nutrients in the form of animal manure imported into the city from the arid and semi arid livestock producing areas, some of which are as far as 300 km from Nairobi. In contrast, there is a big challenge in the disposal of the same product within the informal settlement areas of the city

Okalebo JR;, Karanja NK;, Maritim HK;, Woomer PL;, Obura PA;, Nekesa P;, Mwaura F. "Nutrient Replenishment In Smallhold Farms Of Western Kenya."; 2002.
Okalebo JR;, Karanja NK;, Maritim HK;, Woomer PL;, Obura PA;, Nekesa P;, Mwaura F. "Nutrient Replenishment In Smallhold Farms Of Western Kenya."; 2002.
Okalebo JR;, Karanja NK;, Maritim HK;, Woomer PL;, Obura PA;, Nekesa P;, Mwaura F. "Nutrient Replenishment In Smallhold Farms Of Western Kenya."; 2002.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Nutrigenetics and CVD: what does the future hold?Lovegrove JA, Gitau R. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 May;67(2):206-13.". In: Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 May;67(2):206-13. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract

CVD is a common killer in both the Western world and the developing world. It is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by many environmental and genetic factors. Although public health advice to date has been principally in the form of prescribed population-based recommendations, this approach has been surprisingly unsuccessful in reducing CVD risk. This outcome may be explained, in part, by the extreme variability in response to dietary manipulations between individuals and interactions between diet and an individual's genetic background, which are defined by the term 'nutrigenetics'. The shift towards personalised nutritional advice is a very attractive proposition. In principle an individual could be genotyped and given dietary advice specifically tailored to their genetic make-up. Evidence-based research into interactions between fixed genetic variants, nutrient intake and biomarkers of CVD risk is increasing, but still limited. The present paper will review the evidence for interactions between dietary fat and three common polymorphisms in the apoE, apoAI and PPARgamma genes. Increased knowledge of how these and other genes influence dietary response should increase the understanding of personalised nutrition. While targeted dietary advice may have considerable potential for reducing CVD risk, the ethical issues associated with its routine use need careful consideration.

Okitoi LO,.Kabuage LW, Muinga RW, Mukisira EA, M.S B. "Nutrition and feeding strategies for indigenous chickens in extensive management systems: a review." E. Afr. Agric. For J.. 2008;74(2):59-69.
Rotich J, Nyamota W, J. K. "Nutrition knowledge and practices in management of stage 5 chronic kidney disease by adult Patients at Kenyatta National hospital, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication . 2020;10(3):613-625. Abstract

This study sought to determine nutrition knowledge and its association with practices in management of stage 5 chronic
kidney disease (CKD) among renal adult patients in Kenyatta National Hospital. A cross-sectional analytical design was used to
facilitate collection of qualitative and quantitative data and enable identification of associations between variables. Cochran formula
was used to calculate a sample of 110 respondents. A research administered questionnaire with closed ended questions was used to
collect information. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used to describe demographic and socio-economic
characteristics of the population. Inferential statistics were done using chi square with an alpha of 0.05 to test association between
independent and dependent variables. Most participants had moderate knowledge levels whereas more than half of the participants
(66%) indicated poor nutrition management practices of their condition. There was significant association between period on dialysis
in months and practices in management of stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Knowledge on importance of diet in management of stage 5
CKD (<0.001), moderation of fluid intake (<0.001), reduction in salt/ sodium intake (<0.001), and moderation in protein intake
(<0.004) were significantly associated with nutritional management practices of stage 5 CKD. The study concluded that Knowledge
levels were low in identifying foods rich in phosphorus, calcium and fat soluble vitamins. Practice scores were also poor despite
moderate nutrition knowledge levels. Patients’ knowledge on nutrition management of their condition may be achieved through
frequent and consistent nutrition education and counseling including follow ups.
Key Terms: Knowledge, Practice, chronic kidney disease, nutrition management

AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
Nungo RA, Okoth MW, Mbugua SK. "Nutrition Status of Children Under-Five Years in Cassava Consuming Communities in Nambale, Busia of Western Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

A study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of under-five child population within cassava consuming community in Nambale of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio economic data, 24-hour food re-call and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used while Pearson’s Chi Square and correlation coefficient (R) were used to test for statistical associations. A total of 320 households with 232 children participated. The findings showed nutrition status of children to be poor (<−2 SD), 26.6% were stunted, 13.9% underweight, and 10.1% were wasting. Malnutrition had reached its peak during the third year affecting boys more than girls despite a high mean score (9.2) for household dietary diversity. The findings established cassava utilization to be high (94.3%) and mainly as “porridge, boiled roots and ugali”. Eight staples including cassava were used for weaning and 66.4% of the children were fed three times daily. Cassava utilization was not a determinant of child nutrition status. Age of child and education level of head of household had strong but negative influence on child nutrition status, (Pearson’s R = −0.207:−0.174) indicating >50% changes in stunting could not be attributed to age of child or education level of the head of household. Farm ownership was a strong positive determinant of nutrition status, Pearson’s R = 0.233. This study has established that cassava cushions hunger and there is need to improve nutrient content.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The nutritional and fermentation aspects of .". In: Proceedings; Improving young child feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa. Household . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
F.G. M, Wagaiyu EG, EM N, Gathece L, Mutara LN, T.K M. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly in Nairobi popolation.". 2008.
Ngatia EM, Gathece LW, Macigo FG, Mulli TK, Mutara LN, Wagaiyu LG. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2008;85:378-385. Abstract
n/a
Gathece LW, Macigo FG, Mulli TK, Wagaiyu EG. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi. EAMJ Vol 85(8) 378-385." East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 85(8) 378-385. 2008. AbstractWebsite

According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.

W. DRGATHECELOICE, G DRMACIGOFRANCIS, KITUKU DRMULLITONNIE, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi. EAMJ Vol 85(8) 378-385.". In: East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 85(8) 378-385. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
W. DRGATHECELOICE, G DRMACIGOFRANCIS, KITUKU DRMULLITONNIE, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Nutritional and oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi. EAMJ Vol 85(8) 378-385.". In: East Africa Medical Journal Vol. 85(8) 378-385. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
Kimani DE, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi EK. "Nutritional and sensory quality of a sorghum snack supplemented with sesame and baobab fruit powder." African Journal of Food Science. 2022;16(3):81-91.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Nutritional characteristics of selected grass and browse species from Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
Wahome RG;, Choge S;, Wamwere N;, Mnene J;, Wang'ombe; Matere J, Matere J. Nutritional evaluation of the suitability of prosopis pods for livestock feed.; 2009. AbstractWebsite

To study the suitability of prosopis pods flour as a feed ingredient in manufacture of animal feeds, prosopis pods were collected from four districts heavily affected by the invasive species. Pods were collected from trees at three levels; green but mature pods still attached to the twigs, yellow (dry) pods still attached to the tree and yellow (dry) pods that had dropped onto the ground from the tree. Pods picked from the ground were inspected against decay or insect damage. These samples were analyzed at the department of animal production laboratory University of Nairobi for proximate chemical composition, fibre composition, and calcium and phosphorus profiles. In addition cost comparisons between prosopis pod flour and animal feedstuffs with approximate chemical composition were done. Pods collected in Tana River and Garissa Districts were drier than those collected in Baringo indicating potentially better keeping quality. The pods protein content averaged 11.7% but the fibre content was on the higher side at 29.8%. The calcium and phosphorus level, at 0.3% and 0.36% respectively, were considerably higher than those found in cereals although its availability on digestion was likely to be affected by the high fibre level. Pending studies on digestibility, degradability and metabolizable energy and performance evaluation will inform appropriate level of use in animal diets. However, the researchers, from the preliminary analysis, concluded that the flour will form a valuable addition to the feed ingredient base in Kenya.

de Vila-Real CPM, Pimenta-Martins AS, Kunyanga CN, Mbugua SK, Katina K. "Nutritional intake and food sources in an adult urban Kenyan population." Nutrition Bulletin. 2022;2022:1-15.vila_real_et_al._2022.pdf
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Nutritional status of 5-15 year old children with hearing disability in comparision with those without disability.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Njama JM, Ngatia EM, Opinya GN, Gathece LW.; 2011.
Feyssa, Debela H, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Nutritional Value of Berchemia discolor: A Potential to Food and Nutrition Security of Households.". 2012. Abstract

Drylands have a multitude of livelihood problems where food insecurity is one of the serious impediments. Both transhumance and settled farmers make their living in the semiarid parts of east Shewa, Ethiopia. They adapt partly to food shortage by using natural resources. The study objective was to determine nutritional value of fruit of Berchemia discolor and analyse the use and management practices and associated indigenous knowledge. Data were collected from three study sites each in Fantalle and Boosat districts in East Shewa Zone. Before the laboratory analysis of fruit, the species was identified through focus group discussions and field observations. Mineral elements and phosphorus were determined in dry matter basis. Vitamin A and C were determined by spectrophotometer and redox titration respectively. Analysis of variance was done and means were separated by LSD at 0.05. Berchemia discolor is a candidate for dry land agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. Ten major uses of B. discolor (food, medicine, fuel wood and others) and food value were the highest. Total carbohydrates, crude protein, crude lipid, moisture and total ash contents of the fruit pulps ranged from 4.17-4.35%. The calculated energy from total carbohydrates was 314.50 kcal/100 g. Transhumance conserves Wild Edible Plants (WEPs) in pasture land and protect of vegetation, while settled farmers in traditional dryland agroforestry, in live fence and farm boarders. Berchemia discolor is one of the potential resources to enhance people’s livelihoods. Technologies for improved use and market chain need policy attention.

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science,20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia. African Journal of Range and Forage Science,20(3): 265-270.". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
Emmanuel TV, Njoka JT, Catherine LW, Lyaruu HVM. "Nutritive and anti-nutritive qualities of mostly preferred edible woody plants in selected drylands of Iringa District, Tanzania.". 2011. Abstract

Nutritional and anti-nutritional factors of preferred woody plants were evaluated in selected drylands of Iringa District. Vangueria infausta (Burch.) and Vitex mombassae (Vatke.) identified as source of edible fruits; Adansonia digitata (L.) and Sterculia africana (Lour.) were preferred for oil products whereas Opilia amentacea (Roxb.) and Maerua angolensis (DC.) were used as sources of vegetables. The nutrients and anti-nutrients were evaluated using laboratory standard methods. Results show that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in percentage moisture content, dry matter, crude protein, crude and carbohydrates in all species used as sources of oils, vegetables and fruits. Percent ash content was different among the preferred species for vegetables and fruits. S. africana as oil producing plants had higher protein content (<25%). O. amentacea and M. angolensis had higher crude protein percent (14-34%) than other species. Crude fiber for all preferred species ranged from 9-27.6% on dry weight basis. The crude lipid content of preferred species ranged from 1.2% for fruit plants to 6.80% for oily plants. V. infausta and A. digitata had high Carbohydrates whereas all edible plants had higher values of Potassium and low Copper, Iron and Zinc content. A. digitata seeds had the highest value of Vitamin C (57.31 mg/100 dry weight) and low levels of tannins and phenols. This study concludes that wild plants are nutritious and have adequate nutrients and levels of anti-nutrients are below the toxic levels. Consequently, use of wild food plants could provide a possible source of food security in Iringa District.

Baidoo SK, Mitaru BN, Aherne FX, Blair R. "The nutritive value of canola meal for early-weaned pigs.". 1987. Abstract

Four experiments using 900 crossbed pigs were conducted to determine the nutritive value of canola meal (CM) for pigs weaned at 3 or 5 weeks of age. Diets were based on barley and wheat, and CM replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of the protein supplied by soya bean meal (SBM) on an isoenergetic and isonitrogenous basis. In Experiments 1 and 2, with pigs weaned at three weeks of age, regression analyses of the results indicated that, for each percent addition of CM to the diets, there was a significant (P < 0.001) linear decrease in average daily feed intake and average daily gain by 4 and 2 g, respectively. Regression analyses of results of Experiments 3 and 4 for pigs weaned at 5 weeks of age indicated that, for each percent inclusion of CM in the diet, there was a significant (P < 0.001) linear decrease in average daily feed intake and average daily gain by 4.3 and 3.6 g, respectively. In all 4 experiments feed-to-gain ratio was not affected (P > 0.05) by the level of CM in the diet.

Eddy PO, Olweny CO, Mukabana WR. "Nutritive value of common housefly (Musca domestica) prepupae reared on broiler by-products as source of animal feed." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(10):1330-1335.
Kuria SG, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Wahome RG. "Nutritive value of important range forage species camels in Marsabit District, Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

A study carried out in the semi-arid rangelands of Marsabit during dry and wet seasons assessed the content and seasonal variation of crude protein (CP) and fibre of important forage species for camels. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, herders were interviewed and the important forage species consumed by camels identified. The respondents were mainly men and boys responsible for camel herding in the area. The identified forage species were verified through direct field observation of grazing camels. A total of 109 forages were sampled and analysed for CP, Ash and fibre. Camels preferred dwarf shrubs during the wet season, herbaceous and grass species in the dry season. The mean CP and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) contents of preferred forages were 13.9iS.0% and S3.6iI3.7% of dry matter (DM) respectively. Fibre content of the forages declined while CP increased from dry to wet season. Shrubs were lower in NDF (Sl.OiI2.6%) and ash (1S.Si7.2%) and higher in DM (SO.OiI8.2%) and CP (14.7i4.9%) compared to grasses (NDF 60.4iI4.3%, ash = 18.SiS.2%, DM = 49.7iI7.8%, CP = 12.0iS.0%). It was concluded that the combination of forage species selected by the camels across sites and seasons was adequate in terms of CP.

Jacob JP, Mitaru BN, Mbugua PN, Blair R. "The nutritive value of Kenyan sorghum for poultry.". 1997.
Muthuri FM, Kinyamario JI. "Nutritive value of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus, Cyperaceae), a tropical emergent macrophyte.". 1989. AbstractNutritive value of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus, Cyperaceae), a tropical emergent macrophyte

Papyrus (Cyperus papyrus, Cyperaceae) covers large areas in tropical African wetlands. Analysis of its nutritive value has revealed that crude protein is higher in umbels than culms. Ruminai dry matter digestibility of papyrus is, however, higher in culms than umbels. Both the crude protein and ruminai dry matter digestibility decrease with increasing age of the plant. Values for crude protein and ruminai dry matter digestibility are similar to those reported for the range grasses that constitute the greatest percentage of forage in East Africa. In general, papyrus has some grazing potential and could be used as fodder especially in the dry season when other forage is scarce and of low nutritive value.

Mitaru BN, Reichert RD, Blair R. "Nutritive value of reconstituted sorghum grains for weanling pigs.". 1984. Abstract

Grains from a high and low tannin sorghum were reconstituted by adding distilled water at a 30% level (w/w) and stored for 20 d at 25 C with an acetic-propionic acid mixture added to deter fungal growth. Another batch of grain from the same sources was used as control (no moisture treatment). The grains treated as above were incorporated at a 75% level in soybean meal-based starter diets for pigs. Reconstitution reduced the tannin content of high tannin sorghum significantly. The weight gains and feed consumptions with untreated and treated sorghums were not different (P>.05). Feed efficiency (G/F) was better (P<.05) with reconstituted than with the untreated sorghums. Dry matter digestibility was improved (P<.05) by reconstitution. The diets containing high tannin sorghum had lower (P<.05) digestible energy than the diets containing low tannin sorghums. Reconstitution improved (P<.05) the protein digestibility of the high tannin sorghum, but not that of the low tannin sorghum.

JI Sagala, Gachuiri CK, Kuria SG, Wanyoike MM. "Nutritive value of selected preferred forage species by lactating camels in the peri-urban area of Marsabit town, Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):218-226.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The nutritive value of the wild tree foods in Turkana district Northern arid Kenya, and their role in food security and human welfare development. Submitted to Ecology of Food and malnutrition Journal, USA.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "The Nuts and Bolts for Effective Literacy and Numeracy Instruction in Early Childhood." University of Dar es salaam School of Education Journal of Education and Development (ISSN 0856-4027). 2017;(35):17-40.
ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Nyabola, L.O. Interpretation of Diagnostic Data in Clinical Medicine. The New African Journal of Medicine, 1995, 1:21-22.". In: East Afrina Medical Journal, 2001; 78:370. UoN; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact on neutrophils if adriamycin is administered at 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide at 600/m2 (AC 60/600); and at 50 mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2 (50/500) in the treatment of breast cancer. DESIGN: Restrospective analysis of nadir neutrophil counts in female mammary carcinoma patients treated with adriamycin/cyclophosphamide combination. SETTING: Hurlingham Oncology Clinic, Nairobi and The Nairobi Hospital between March 1995 and August 1999. SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients with breast cancer were treated either for adjuvant purposes or for metastatic disease. INTERVENTION: Chemotherapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide at 60/600 or 50/500. Patients were advised to avoid crowded places and given prophylactic broadspectrum antibiotics whenever grade 4 neutropenia occurred at nadir. RESULTS: Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 75.5% of treatments at 60/600 and in 56.8% of the treatments at 50/500. Febrile neutropenia followed only one treatment and did not result in death. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia is frequent and severe at A/C 60/600 and need to be watched out for. Sepsis on the other hand is prevented if meticulous attention is given and corrective measures taken. A/C 50/500 was associated with less occurrences of neutropenia though still very high. Neutropenia should therefore be checked and steps be taken to prevent sepsis even at this dosage.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Nyaga P.N. and Bebora L.C. (1988): Zoonotic human chlamydiosis of avian origin.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1988.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C. and Njagi L.W. (2000): Production status of indigenous ducks from peri-urban villages in Kenya.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 2000.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P. N., Gathuma, J.M. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1983). Experimental Infection in Marabou storks with Salmonella typhimurium and fowl pox virus. The Kenya Veterinarians 5 (2), 10 .". In: journal. FARA; 1983. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P. N., Gathuma, J.M. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1983). Experimental Infection in Marabou storks with Salmonella typhimurium and fowl pox virus. The Kenya Veterinarians 5 (2), 10 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P. N., Kaminjolo, J. S., Gathuma, J. M., Omuse, J.K., Nderu, F. M. K. and Gicho, J.M. (1981). Prevalence of antibodies to Parainfluenza-3 (P13) virus in various wildlife species and domestic cattle sharing the same habitats in Kenya. J. Wildlife Di.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P. N., Kaminjolo, J. S., Gathuma, J. M., Omuse, J.K., Nderu, F. M. K. and Gicho, J.M. (1981). Prevalence of antibodies to Parainfluenza-3 (P13) virus in various wildlife species and domestic cattle sharing the same habitats in Kenya. J. Wildlife Di.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N. and Gathuma, J.M. (1979). Some observations on Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenya slaughter cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 27 (1), 51 .". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N. and Gathuma, J.M. (1979). Some observations on Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenya slaughter cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 27 (1), 51 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Gathuma, J.M. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1983). Parasites found on and in five Marabou storks (Leptoptillos crumeniferus) in a sub-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 31 79 .". In: journal. FARA; 1983. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Gathuma, J.M. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1983). Parasites found on and in five Marabou storks (Leptoptillos crumeniferus) in a sub-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 31 79 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1982). Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, in vitro bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermented milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 (1) 19 .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1982). Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, in vitro bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermented milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 (1) 19 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Nyaga, P.N., Kaminjoro, J.S., Mutiga, E.R. and Bebora, L.C. 1979. Occurrence of a typical fowlpox in poultry farms in Kenya. Avian Diseases 23 (3) : 745-752.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1979. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Nyaga, P.N., Kaminjoro, J.S., Mutiga, E.R. and Bebora, L.C. 1979. Occurrence of a typical fowlpox in poultry farms in Kenya. Avian Diseases 23 (3) : 745-752.". In: Proc. 2nd World Confr. on Embryo Transfer and vitro fertilization. Annecy France. Abst. Erick Onyango Odada; 1979. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Nyaga, P.N.; Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1980). Some observations on the hygiene and antimicrobial sensitivity of organisms in traditionally fermented and fresh milk from nomadic herds in Kenya (Abstract). Paper read at the Six International Conferenc.". In: journal. FARA; 1980. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Nyaga, P.W., S.M. Njiro, C.G. Ndiritu, S.W. Mbugua (1980) Pulmonary geotrichosis in Kenya: Bulletin of Animal Production in Africa, Vol, 4 No. 1 pg 6-9.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1980. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Nyakalo, S., M.S. Badamana and M. Wanyoike (1989). The Effect of Increasing Chicken Manure Levels in Supplemental Diets for Lactating Galla Goats on Milk Production.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1989. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Nyakalo, S., M.S. Badamana and M. Wanyoike (1989). The Effect of Increasing Chicken Manure Levels in Supplemental Diets for Lactating Galla Goats on Milk Production.". In: Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Nyakalo, S., M.S. Badamana and M.M. Wanyoike (1990). Milk production and kid performance of Galla Goats supplemented with Poultry waste.". In: In the Proceedings of the 8th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 7th . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1990. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Nyakalo, S., M.S. Badamana and M.M. Wanyoike (1990). Milk production and kid performance of Galla Goats supplemented with Poultry waste.". In: In the Proceedings of the 8th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 7th . Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990.

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