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Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis." EXS. 2005;(94):17-33.
Djonov V, Makanya AN. "New insights into intussusceptive angiogenesis. In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis.". In: Mechanisms of Angiogenesis . Vol. XIV.; 2005:.
Yenesew A. "A new isoflavone from stem bark of Millettia dura." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia.. 2003;17:113-115. Abstractpaper_31_derese_et_al_bull_chem_soc._ethiopia_2003.pdf

A new isoflavone (7,3’-dimethoxy-4’,5’-methylenedioxyisoflavone) and three known isoflavones [isoerythrinin A 4’-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether, isojamaicin and nordurlettone] were isolated from the stem bark of Millettia dura (Leguminosae). The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "A new isoflavones from the stem bark of Millettia dura." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop.. 2003;17(1):113-115. AbstractWebsite

Solomon Derese, Abiy Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Matthias Heydenreich and Martin G. Peter. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 2003, 17(1), pp. 113-115.

A new isoflavone (7,3’-dimethoxy-4’,5’-methylenedioxyisoflavone) and three known isoflavones [isoerythrinin A 4’-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether, isojamaicin and nordurlettone] were isolated from the stem bark of Millettia dura (Leguminosae). The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.

KEY WORDS: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, Isoflavone, 7,3’-Dimethoxy-4’,5’-

methylenedioxyisoflavone, Isoerythrinin A 4’-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether, Isojamaicin,

Nordurlettone_

Yenesew. A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Peter MG. New isoflavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii.; 1999.
Wanjala C. "The New Jerusalem in African Literature and Literary Criticism." Literary Review. 1980:25-26.
Mukhwana A. "A New Language Policy but Old Language Practices: The Case of Kenya after 2010 Constitution." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development . 2013;2(9).
Braun HMH, Mungai DN. "A new map of agroclimatic zones of Kenya.". 1983.
Nyabuga G. "New Media and Participatory Politics in East Africa.". In: Media, Communication and Cultural Studies Association with the Association of Media Practice Educators (MeCSA with AMPE). Coventry University, U.K.; 2007.
Mueni J, Ndavula J. "New media and political marketing in Kenya: a case of 2013.". In: Kenya Elections Workshop 2013. Nairobi, Kenya; Submitted.
Varma S. "New Methods for Treatment of Angular and Flexural Limb Deformities in Foals.". In: Presented at the Scientific and Special General Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. Nairobi, Kenya; 1989.
Varma S. "New Methods for Treatment of Angular and Flexural Limb Deformities in Foals.". In: Presented at the Scientific and Special General Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association,. Nairobi, Kenya; 1989. Abstract
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Abou-Awad BA, El-Banhawy EM. "New mites of the family Eriophyidae from Kenya (Acari: Eriophidae). Acarologia, 32: 329.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1991. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X ray Structure, and Anticancer Activity." ACS Omega . 2020;5(25):14942−14954 . AbstractACS OMEGA

New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1−C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1−C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1 H and 13C NMR, UV−vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1−L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0−8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, and PC-3) and noncancerous (MCF-12A) cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Apopercentage assays, respectively. C5 demonstrated strong DNA-binding affinity for calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) with a binding constant of 8.049 × 104 M−1 . C3 reduced cell viability of all the six cell lines, which included five cancerous cell lines, by more than 80%. The C5 complex also demonstrated remarkably high selectivity with no cytotoxic activity toward the noncancerous breast cell line but reduced the viability of the five cancerous cell lines, which included one breast cancer cell line, by more than 60%. Further studies are required to evaluate the selective toxicity of these two complexes and to fully understand their mechanism of action

Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activity." ACS Omega. 2020. Abstractdx.doi.org

New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1–C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan-2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1–C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV–vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1–L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0–8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2 …

New Partnership for Africa’s Development: NEPAD a New Path?. Journal Discovery and Innovation ; 2003.
Chege F, Day R, T R, A S, Muthomi J, W O, E K, R N, J.G M’E, J J, F O, Mohamed R. "A new partnership in phytosanitary capacity development for protecting agriculture and supporting trade in Africa: The Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
McLachlan JC. "New path for teaching anatomy: {Living} anatomy and medical imaging vs. dissection." The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist. 2004;281B:4-5. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Kanyinga K. "A new political settlement is required in Kenya going to 2022." Sunday Nation, January 1, 2017.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "A new predacious mite of genus Typhlodromus Scheuten from Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Biol., 36: 531 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1976. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "New Product Development in the Micro Enterprise Sector, Report from fieldwork undertaken in Maputo, Mozambique.". In: Faculty of ADD, University of Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract

Various stakeholders come together to conceptualise, analyse and commercialise new products. This was the case recently when designers, artisans, marketers and facilitating institutions came together to engage in new product development for the micro enterprise sector. Through the effort of Terra Nuova (the facilitating agency), Department of Design (providing designers), Aid to Artisans and Institute for the Development of Local Industry (IDIL), Undugu Kenya and artisans in both Kenya and Mozambique, a number of new products were developed. The artisan works in difficult circumstances in many parts of Africa such as Mozambique and Kenya. Most artisans provide technical and entrepreneurial inputs in the enterprises and are therefore invariably referred to as artisans and entrepreneurs in this report. They support their families from proceeds of the enterprise. Often they do not pay attention to detail and not enough attention to product quality. Inspite of this, the benefits of the artisan's products to many people far outweigh these shortcomings. Customers buy from micro enterprises because their prices are fair. The entrepreneurs understand the customer tastes in terms of colour and form, and the entrepreneurs provide easy payment terms and are available or easily accessible to them. The entrepreneurs often work near their ancestral homes so they understand the culture and traditions of the customers they serve. This can be deduced from observations, interviews and sales figures. Product development can take the form of an innovation, change of use, adaptation and bundling of features among other things. This report outlines the process of product development that was undertaken in Mozambique in the course of the project. Lueti is a set of coasters developed through a product design process that took into account the various stakeholders in the success of a product. These were the designer, marketer and artisan all working together. The process involved a critical examination of material, the ability of the artisan and the availability of a market. The availability of good quality and varied hard wood in Mozambique also influenced the identification of the product. The working environment at IDIL, where equipment and machinery for working wood was also complementary to the product development. In the case of lueti there was redefinition of use and adaptation. The idea was developed through consultation, sketching and specification. A prototype was developed and after further consultation and modification a series of three coasters were available for test marketing. Lueti coasters design was inspired by the afro-comb. Afro combs can be found in most parts of the world particularly where afro hair is predominant. The original combs were made from wood whereas the more conventional ones are made from plastic. The basic shape remains the same with the teeth on one side and a handle on the other side. Whereas the basic shape has remained the same, nowadays you can find combs whose main use is adornment on walls.

Malele CN, Lang’at-Thoruwa CC, Guantai AN, Chhabra SC. "A new pterocarpan from the leaves of Abrus precatorius L." Academic journals. 2015;9(27):749-754,. Abstract2015_-_new_pterocarpan_from_abrus_precatorius.pdf

A pterocarpan, 2,3,4,8-tetramethoxy-6a,11a-dihydro-6H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-c]chromene-7,9-diol
(compound 1) was isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Abrus precatorius L. The
structure of the compound was elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR,
distortionless enhancement by polarisation transfer (DEPT), heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation
(HMQC) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC). The crude extracts displayed brine shrimp
lethality and in vitro antimalarial activity. The methanolic crude extract demonstrated an A/B ratio of 9.7
signifying that it is more toxic against Plasmodium falciparum than brine shrimp.

Gathigi G, Brown D. "The new public-sphere: Radio and democratization process in Kenya. .". In: Media and technologies in emerging African Democracies . Lanham, MD: University Press of America; 2010.
M DRNJOKAHJOSEPHM. "A new quick method of assessing growth and Medical fitness.Medicom vol 14 no1 June(1999).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. au-ibar; 1999. Abstract
   
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "New regional initiative in pigeonpea improvement, pages 33-35. In: Silim, S., G. Mergeai and P.M. Kimani (eds) . Pigeonpea: Status and potential in Eastern and Southern Africa. Patancheru, India, ICRISAT and Gembloux University, Gembloux, Belgium. 228pp.(.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani PM;, Mergeai G;, Silim SN;, Baudoin JP;, Rubaihayo PR;, Janssens M. "New Regional Initiatives in Pigeonpea Improvement."; 2000.
Deng Z, Peng B, Chen D, Tang F, Muscat AJ. "A new route to self-assembled tin dioxide nanospheres: Fabrication and characterization." Langmuir. 2008;24:11089-11095. Abstract
n/a
Mibey RK, Kokwaro JO, Mukunya DW. "A new species and four new records of Asterina from Kenya." Nova Hedwigia. 1996;62:147-150.
Mibey RK, Kokwaro JO, Mukunya DW. "A new species and some new records of Meliolaceous fungi from Kenya." Mycotaxon 57: 87-95. 1998;57:87-95.
Mweseli M. "New Syllabus in English and Literature.". In: New English Syllabus. Anna Nanjal/Resource Centre - Lodwar; 2005.
of Group GBDVLE. "New Systematic Review Methodology for Visual Impairment and Blindness for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2013;20(1):33-39. Abstract

Purpose: To describe a systematic review of population-based prevalence studies of visual impairment (VI) and
blindness worldwide over the past 32 years that informs the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk
Factors Study.
Methods: A systematic review (Stage 1) of medical literature from 1 January 1980 to 31 January 2012 identified
indexed articles containing data on incidence, prevalence and causes of blindness and VI. Only cross-sectional
population-based representative studies were selected from which to extract data for a database of age- and sex-specific data of prevalence of four distance and one near vision loss categories (presenting and best-corrected).
Unpublished data and data from studies using rapid assessment methodology were later added (Stage 2).
Results: Stage 1 identified 14,908 references, of which 204 articles met the inclusion criteria. Stage 2 added
unpublished data from 44 rapid assessment studies and four other surveys. This resulted in a final dataset of
252 articles of 243 studies, of which 238 (98%) reported distance vision loss categories. A total of 37 studies of
the final dataset reported prevalence of mild VI and four reported near VI.
Conclusion: We report a comprehensive systematic review of over 30 years of VI/blindness studies. While there
has been an increase in population-based studies conducted in the 2000s compared to previous decades, there is limited information from certain regions (eg, Central Africa and Central and Eastern Europe, and the Caribbean
and Latin America), and younger age groups, and minimal data regarding prevalence of near vision and mild
distance VI.

Kokwaro JO. "New Taxa and combination in Rutaceae of East Africa and North-East Africa." Kew Bulletin . 1978;34(4):785-798.
Skoracki M, Klimovičová MIROSLAVA, Muchai M, Hromada M. "New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae)." Zootaxa. 2014;3768:178-188. Abstract
n/a
W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "New Technological and Developing Countries. Paper read at the International Framework. A report to UNCTC, June.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1985. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""New Technologies in Higher Education Pedagogy".". In: UNESCO Workshop on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education held in Nairobi Kenya 18-22 November 1996. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""New Technologies in Higher Education Pedagogy".". In: UNESCO Workshop on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education held in Nairobi Kenya 18-22 November 1996. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract

 

 

A.Vassiliev E. "New Tendencies in the Development of Anglophone Novel in East Africa - in: Africa in a Changing World." Moscow: Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences. 1997:331-332.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "New trends in ocular Aids in children submitted to E.A.J.O. 2005.". In: E.A.J.O. 2005.; 2005. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
Oredo J. "New Trends in Sports Marketing." MANAGEMENT October (2016).
C.K. M, R.W M. "New use of Indomethacin." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14(1):13-15.
Mwaniki JM, Kali AM, Mbugua JK, Kamau GN. "A New Variant of the Hydraulic Stirring Mechanism for Pilot Scale Wet Thermophilic Anaerobic Digester." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;Vol. 9(1):135-155. Abstract

A new variant of stirring mechanism for agitating contents of an anaerobic digester that makes
use of vertical and horizontal directed jets of liquid reactor content being re-circulated by and
electric pump, is reported. In order to demonstrate its working, a thermophilic pilot scale reactor
using waste water is described and various parameters analysed. As a sample run, raw
(untreated) waste water from the treatment works in Nairobi was used as the nutrient source,
while sludge from an anaerobic pond in the same treatment works was used as source of bacteria.
Measurement of various parameters like organic loading rate and characteristics of feed
wastewater (BOD, COD, pH, TS), biogas production rate in thermophilic anaerobic digester,
maximum gas yield and biogas quality were undertaken. The reactor was fed at a controlled
organic loading rate of 0.5 L/min. The reactor contained substrate to inoculums in the ratio 3:1
with the temperature was controlled using a thermostated heating coil. Digestion was carried out
in a pilot scale digester (with a capacity of 210 litres) under thermophilic (at 55 0C) anaerobic
conditions for a period of 15 days. The final average yield of biogas was 1.225 x 10-2 m3.
Average percentage composition of biogas produced by thermophilic digester was 66.6 vol. %
CH4, 30.4 vol. % CO2.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle.

Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle

Chepkirui C, Bourgard C, Gilissen PJ, Ndakala A, Derese S, Gütlin Y, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "A new β-hydroxydihydrochalcone from Tephrosia uniflora, and the revision of three β-hydroxydihydrochalcones to flavanones." Fitoterapia. 2022;158:105166.
N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Newborn survival revolution. East Afr Med J . 2005 Nov; 82 ( 11 ): 545-6 . No abstract available. PMID: 16463746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Were FN.". In: East Afr Med J . 2005 Nov; 82 ( 11 ): 545-6 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available.
Lucy W Njagi, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG. "Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village hens.". 2008. Abstract

Abstract
In this study, one hundred and thirty three non - vaccinated village hens in lay were tested for carriage of Newcastle disease virus and presence of antibody against the virus in sera, ovules and eggs. Blood was obtained from the hens through wing venipuncture while matched ovules and mature eggs were taken from the oviducts. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs
were collected from each hen for virus isolation. Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera and egg yolk samples. Protective serum antibody titres of ≥3 (log2) were recorded in 5.3% of the naturally exposed, indigenous village hens. Antibody titres to Newcastle disease virus in the yolks were higher than in their sera (230.08 ± 40.05; 1.56
± 0.74 for egg yolk and sera, respectively) (P<0.05). The mature egg yolks had significantly higher titres of antibodies as compared to the ovules (P<0.05). Sera and egg yolk antibodies were positively correlated (r = 0.50). Newcastle disease virus was isolated in 3.0% of the hens that were also sero - negative. The presence of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in egg yolks and Newcastle disease virus isolation in sero-negative hens, indicate previous natural exposure to the virus, hence viral endemicity in the area.

Key words: Newcastle disease, egg yolk, non-vaccinated, village chickens

L. W. Njagi., P. N. Nyaga. PGM, L. C. Bebora., J. N. Micheka. KJK, A. K.Munene. MUM. "Newcastle Disease Virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village hens." The Kenya Veterinarian . 2008;32(1):1-6.
PETER DRMUGWE. "Newton VE, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Ototo B, Kan SW.Evaluation of the use of a questionnaire to detect hearing loss in Kenyan pre-school children.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Mar;57(3):229-34.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Mar;57(3):229-34. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2001. Abstract
In developing countries, there is a lack of trained personnel and testing equipment to facilitate the early detection of hearing impairment in children. A questionnaire offers a low cost option and the value of this for detecting hearing impairment in pre-school children was determined in several districts in Kenya. The questionnaire was completed by either teachers, parents/carers or community nurses. The children were subsequently tested using pure tone audiometry and visual examination of the ear by ENT Clinical Officers, who were not given prior access to the results of the questionnaire. A total of 757 (88%) questionnaires were completed. Of the 735 children, who could be tested using pure tone audiometry, four were found to have a unilateral hearing impairment and one was detected by the questionnaire. A total of 13 children had a bilateral hearing impairment >40 dB HL. All were detected using the questionnaire. There were eight males and five females with ages ranging from 4.2 to 6.9 years, mean age 5.7 years and median age 5.8 years. Eight had a sensorineural hearing impairment and two a mixed hearing impairment. Three of the children with a sensorineural hearing loss had a family history of hearing impairment. No question detected all children with a hearing impairment and some questions were more discerning than others. There was 100% sensitivity for the questionnaire when a hearing loss of >40 dB was considered, but specificity was lower at 75%. Negative predictive value was 100%, but the positive predictive value was low, 6.75%. It was concluded that a questionnaire of this nature could be usefully applied at Primary Health Care level for detecting hearing impairment at the pre-school stage. There would be need for services available for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation before a screening programme was introduced.
Ndetei DM, Ongecha FA, Malow RM, Onyancha J, Mutiso V, Kokonya D, Khasakhala L, Odhiambo G, Rosenberg R. "Next Priorities for International in Kenya: Results from Cohort study of Drug Use, HIV and HCV Patterns in Five Urban Areas.". 2006.
Ndetei DM, Ongecha FA, Malow RM, Onyancha J, Mutiso V, Kokonya D, Khasakhala L, Odhiambo G, Rosenberg R. "Next Priorities for Intervention in Kenya: Results from a Cohort Study of Drug Use, HIV and HCV Patterns in Five Urban Areas.". 2006.next_priorities_for_intervention_in_kenya.pdf
R.M. Kweyu, T. Thenya KEKJ. "The nexus between land cover changes, politics and conflict in Eastern Mau forest complex, Kenya." Applied Geography. 2020;114(102115).
MUMMA_MARTINON CA. nflict And Litigation Between Oil Companies And Village Communities.. Rutgers University: Transaction Publishers; 2005.book_review.pdf
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "NG.". In: Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "NG.". In: Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ng.". In: Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ng.". In: Gynaec Eastern & Central Africa. March 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Ng.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Dec;68(12):980-8. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred and fifty one African children aged 13-15 years were examined for specific intra- and inter-arch malocclusions and tooth loss. The children were from 6 schools randomly selected from 154 primary schools in Nairobi. Overall, 47% of the children were found to have malocclusion, the most frequently encountered anomaly being crowding. Some of the anomalies showed prevalences which differed markedly from those previously reported for American and British Caucasians of comparable age-groups. Nineteen per cent of the children had missing teeth due to caries, 5.6% due to extractions as part of orthodontic treatment and 13% due to other reasons. The mean number of permanent teeth missing due to caries was 0.2, orthodontic treatment 0.1 and due to other reasons 0.2. Almost all the teeth lost as a result of caries were molars and those due to orthodontic indications were premolars. No teeth were recorded as missing due to periodontal disease or trauma. The study indicated a need to exercise caution in trying to relate the numerical values for prevalence of malocclusions in current textbooks to the present population. The results also showed that the proportion of permanent teeth lost was small.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1991 Oct;49(5):303-9. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the oral hygiene practices, oral hygiene status, and periodontal health among primary school children in Nairobi. The study group consisted of 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were from 6 schools randomly selected among the 154 public primary schools in the city. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1980) criteria. Although most of the children reported brushing habits, 75% of the index tooth surfaces in the younger and 55% in the older age group had visible plaque. In both age groups about 25% of the index sites had gingivitis. Moderate amounts of calculus were recorded among the older children. Only two children had periodontal pockets greater than or equal to 4 mm. There was no statistically significant difference (p greater than 0.05) between males and females recorded with plaque and gingivitis in the younger age group. In the older group, however, a significantly higher proportion of males (p less than 0.05) were recorded with plaque and gingivitis. The oral hygiene practices and oral hygiene status were poorer among children from low than from high socioeconomic status. Provision of dental health education for children in Nairobi is recommended.
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "NG.". In: Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment.; 2003. Abstract
n/a
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "NG.". In: Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment.; 2003. Abstract
n/a
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Ng'ang'a P.M., Bjorn O., Cruz R, Chindia M.L., AASRI E.: Tensile strength of orthodontic brankets bonded directly to fluorotic teeth: An invitro comparative study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

Information related to bonding of orthodontic brackets to fluorotic teeth is scanty. The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, the tensile bond strength and the bond failure site of brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth. The etching patterns were also evaluated. The study involved 26 teeth classified as score 3 and 4, and 26 as score 0 with the Thylstrup and Fejerskov's (TF) fluorosis index. In addition to the clinical classification, difference in the concentration of fluoride in the teeth was verified by acid etching. Brackets were bonded with a composite resin after etching the enamel surface with 40% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds. Tensile bond strength was determined with an Instron testing machine. The bond failure site was assessed by the percentage of residue cement on the tooth surface after debonding and the etching pattern by SEM. The mean concentration of fluoride was 2888.5 ppm (SD 1081.7) in the fluorotic teeth and 1227.1 ppm (SD 526.3) in the nonfluorotic teeth. The mean bond strength was 7.8 N/mm2 (SD 1.47) for the fluorotic teeth and 8.6 N/mm2 (SD 2.19) for the nonfluorotic teeth. The difference between the means for bond strength was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Bond failure site was primarily at the bracket-adhesive interface. The mean percentage of adhesive on the enamel surface after debonding was 70% (SD 25.90) for the fluorotic teeth and 75% (SD 24.66) for nonfluorotic teeth. The difference in the means was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05).

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Ng'ang'a PM, Chindia ML, Hassanali J. Clinical report on longitudinal post-eruptive changes in fluorotic enamel observed in 10 cases over a 2 1/2 year period. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):17-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):17-23. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1990. Abstract
The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Chindia ML, Hassanali J. Clinical report on longitudinal post-eruptive changes in fluorotic enamel observed in 10 cases over a 2 1/2 year period.East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):17-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jan;67(1):17-23. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Grimsdottir MR. Possible hazards of the transpalatal bar: report of cases.ASDC J Dent Child. 1992 Jul-Aug;59(4):282-4.". In: ASDC J Dent Child. 1992 Jul-Aug;59(4):282-4. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
University of Oslo, Department of Orthodontics, Dental Faculty, Norway. PMID: 1430499 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Guthua SW, Ng'ang'a RN. Multiple supernumerary teeth in association with malocclusion: report of two cases.East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):221-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):221-3. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Ng'ang'a PM, Guthua SW, Ng'ang'a RN.Multiple supernumerary teeth in association with malocclusion: report of two cases.East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):221-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):221-3. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ng'ang'a RN. Maxillary incisor root forms in orthodontic patients in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):101-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):101-4. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract
{ Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, radiographically, the root forms of maxillary incisors in a sample of patients seeking orthodontic treatment in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A retrospective study of maxillary incisor root forms based on periapical radiographs. SETTING: A private dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 393 maxillary incisors in 100 consecutive subjects (51 boys, 49 girls) aged 9-24 years. Intra-oral periapical radiographs of the incisors were evaluated. An index was used to categorise the roots as follows: 0=normal
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ogaard B, Cruz R, Chindia ML, Aasrum E. Tensile strength of orthodontic brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth: an in vitro comparative study.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Information related to bonding of orthodontic brackets to fluorotic teeth is scanty. The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, the tensile bond strength and the bond failure site of brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth. The etching patterns were also evaluated. The study involved 26 teeth classified as score 3 and 4, and 26 as score 0 with the Thylstrup and Fejerskov's (TF) fluorosis index. In addition to the clinical classification, difference in the concentration of fluoride in the teeth was verified by acid etching. Brackets were bonded with a composite resin after etching the enamel surface with 40% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds. Tensile bond strength was determined with an Instron testing machine. The bond failure site was assessed by the percentage of residue cement on the tooth surface after debonding and the etching pattern by SEM. The mean concentration of fluoride was 2888.5 ppm (SD 1081.7) in the fluorotic teeth and 1227.1 ppm (SD 526.3) in the nonfluorotic teeth. The mean bond strength was 7.8 N/mm2 (SD 1.47) for the fluorotic teeth and 8.6 N/mm2 (SD 2.19) for the nonfluorotic teeth. The difference between the means for bond strength was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Bond failure site was primarily at the bracket-adhesive interface. The mean percentage of adhesive on the enamel surface after debonding was 70% (SD 25.90) for the fluorotic teeth and 75% (SD 24.66) for nonfluorotic teeth. The difference in the means was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ogaard B, Cruz R, Chindia ML, Aasrum E.Tensile strength of orthodontic brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth: an in vitro comparative study.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992 Sep;102(3):244-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

Information related to bonding of orthodontic brackets to fluorotic teeth is scanty. The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, the tensile bond strength and the bond failure site of brackets bonded directly to fluorotic and nonfluorotic teeth. The etching patterns were also evaluated. The study involved 26 teeth classified as score 3 and 4, and 26 as score 0 with the Thylstrup and Fejerskov's (TF) fluorosis index. In addition to the clinical classification, difference in the concentration of fluoride in the teeth was verified by acid etching. Brackets were bonded with a composite resin after etching the enamel surface with 40% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds. Tensile bond strength was determined with an Instron testing machine. The bond failure site was assessed by the percentage of residue cement on the tooth surface after debonding and the etching pattern by SEM. The mean concentration of fluoride was 2888.5 ppm (SD 1081.7) in the fluorotic teeth and 1227.1 ppm (SD 526.3) in the nonfluorotic teeth. The mean bond strength was 7.8 N/mm2 (SD 1.47) for the fluorotic teeth and 8.6 N/mm2 (SD 2.19) for the nonfluorotic teeth. The difference between the means for bond strength was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Bond failure site was primarily at the bracket-adhesive interface. The mean percentage of adhesive on the enamel surface after debonding was 70% (SD 25.90) for the fluorotic teeth and 75% (SD 24.66) for nonfluorotic teeth. The difference in the means was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ogaard B. Dental caries and fluorides in relation to fixed orthodontic treatment: a review.East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):75-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):75-7. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Dental School, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. This paper reviews the cariological aspects of fixed orthodontic treatment and discusses the role played by topical fluorides. During fixed orthodontic treatment, carious lesions may occur in the form of white spots. These may constitute an aesthetic problem. The clinical management of white spot lesions remains unresolved. In order to prevent development of these lesions, the use of topical fluorides is advocated. The need for patient co-operation in the use of self-administered topical fluorides is critical. To reduce this critical need, the use of fluoride-releasing orthodontic cements is recommended. The literature suggests that calcium fluoride, which is the major reaction product on enamel during topical fluoride application, plays an important role in the cariostatic mechanism.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Ohito F, Ogaard B, Valderhaug J. The prevalence of malocclusion in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi, Kenya.Acta Odontol Scand. 1996 Apr;54(2):126-30.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1996 Apr;54(2):126-30. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. Data on occlusal features and the need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya is scanty. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children in Nairobi, Kenya. Nine hundred and nineteen children aged 13-15 years (468 male, 451 female) were examined. The registration method used was that described by Bjork et al. The prevalence of malocclusion was 72%. The predominant anteroposterior relationship of the dental arches was neutral occlusion (93%). Specific malocclusion traits were highest for crowding (19%), rotations (19%), posterior crossbite (10%), maxillary overjet (10%), and frontal open bite (8%). There was no statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion between males and females, but some occlusal traits were significantly higher in males. Although the findings indicate that the present population is not characterized by a substantial difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion compared with other communities, some traits differed in prevalence from those reported elsewhere.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Stenvik A, Ohito F, Ogaard B. The need and demand for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-olds in Nairobi, Kenya.Acta Odontol Scand. 1997 Oct;55(5):325-8.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1997 Oct;55(5):325-8. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya was previously not been investigated. This study was undertaken to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi. The objective need was assessed in 919 children by using the Norwegian treatment need index, and the subjective need was assessed in 739 children by using a structured questionnaire. Objective treatment need was recorded in 29% and subjective need in 33% of the children. Less than 1% were allocated the 'very great need' category. Relatively more girls than boys were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and a significantly higher number of girls (P < 0.001) said they would like to have their teeth straightened. The children's perceived need for treatment correlated significantly with the treatment need index. Fixed appliances were found necessary for correcting malocclusion in 23% of the children and removable appliances in 6%. Future studies in Kenya should be directed at determining the societal perception of malocclusion, upon which treatment standards may be based.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Valderhaug J. Dental caries in primary school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Valderhaug J.Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary schoolchildren in Nairobi, Kenya.Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Feb;21(1):15-8.". In: Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Feb;21(1):15-8. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 513 primary school children in Nairobi. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight using Thylstrup & Fejerskov's index (TFI). Overall, 18% of 6-8-yr-olds had dental fluorosis in the primary dentition and 76% of 13-15-yr-olds in the permanent dentition. There was no significant sex difference (P > 0.05) in either the prevalence or the severity of fluorosis. In children with mixed dentition, the prevalence and severity of fluorosis was higher in the permanent teeth. In the permanent dentition, no clear difference was demonstrable in the severity between the anterior and the posterior teeth. The degree of fluorosis in most of the children in the area served with river water (0.2-0.4 ppm F-) was of a very mild form. However, in the area served with borehole waters, 48% of the children and 40% of the teeth were found to have TFI scores > or = 5. Measures to reduce dental fluorosis are necessary in the latter area.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM, Valderhaug J.The prevalence of fractured permanent incisors in 13 to 15-year-old school children in Nairobi.Afr Dent J. 1988 Oct;2(2):76-9.". In: Afr Dent J. 1988 Oct;2(2):76-9. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a PM.Status of orthodontic services in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2004 Jan;81(1):1-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jan;81(1):1-2. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. RESULTS: About 96% of the children had been breastfed 46.7% of them for 12-24 months (46.7%), and the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.17 months. The most commonly consumed foods on a daily basis were fruits, vegetables bread, ugali, porridge and milk. The level of malnutrition was low with underweight at 16% stunting 4.3% and wasting 1.0%. The factors that positively correlated with child nutritional status were the age of the mother and father. CONCLUSIONS: The children were consuming a variety of foods both at home and in school, and this together with the high literacy levels the parents/guardians could have contributed towards the good nutritional status.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Ng'ang'a RN, Ng'ang'a PM. Hypodontia of permanent teeth in a Kenyan population.East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):200-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):200-3. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Nga Nguyen, L. Gasquire, S.Alberts, Wango E.O. and J.Altmann (2006).Late pregnancy glucocorticoids levels predicts responsiveness in wild baboon mothers. (Hormone, Brain).". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Ngakinya N.M., Ngotho, B.N., Kariuki, H.N., and Kaimenyi, J.T. (1997). Periodontal health status of patients attending diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Indian Journal of Dental Research 8:105-114.". In: Indian Journal of Dental Research 8:105-114. African Meteorological Society; 1997. Abstract
The periodontal health status of diabetic patients and the association between periodontal disease and treatment mode, age and duration of diabetes were investigated in 86 dentulous men and women aged between 20 years and 69 years. 43 were diabetics regularly controlled at Kenyatta National Hospital Diabetic Clinic and 43 were non-diabetics attending medical outpatient clinic at the same hospital for minor ailments. Diabetic patients were found to have significant severer levels of periodontal disease than the non-diabetics. The difference persisted with increasing age. No correlation was found between treatment mode and duration of diabetes on one hand and the severity of periodontal disease on the other.
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Nganda B.; J Wang.". In: International Union Against Tuberculosis & Lung Disease. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Nganda B.; Wang.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Nganda, B. ., (1998), The Equity Objective in the Kenyan Health Policy: An Interpretation. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, OSSREA, Volume XIV No. 1, January.". In: Eastern Africa Social Research Review (OSSREA). Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Nganda, B. M., (1996), The Role of Markets in the Worsening Epidemiological Environment. Environment and Development Economics Policy Forum, Vol. 1, Part 3, July.". In: Environment & Development Economic Policy Forum. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Nganda, Benjamin M (2002) .". In: African Development Bank Review. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
D DRNJUGUNAKARANJA. "Nganga J C, Karanja D N and Mutune M N. The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in pigs in Kenya.". In: Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 40:331-334. Springer; 2008.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Nganga P., M. Chindia, J. Hassanali; Clinical report on longitudinal post eruptive changes in fluorotic enamel observed in ten cases over a period of 2 1 / 2 years. East African Medical Journal 67:No 1(1990).". In: East African Medical Journal 67:No 1. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1990. Abstract
The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Kanyari, P.W.N. and Munyua, W.K. (1994): Isolation of Besnoitia wallacei in Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 52: 203-206.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Maingi, N. Kanyari, P.W.N.and Munyua, W.K. (2004). Development, survival and availability of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep on pastures in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya. Vet. Res. Communic. 28:491-501.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Maingi, N., Kanyari, P.W.N. and Munyua, W.K. (2004). Gastrointestinal nematode infections in Dorper lambs in semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 52: 160-166.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Maingi, N., Munyua, W.K. and Kanyari, P.W.N. (2004). Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminth infections in Dorper sheep in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya. Onderst. J. Vet. Res. 71: 219-226.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Munyua, W.K. and Kanyari, P.W.N. (1994). Recovery and identification of Besnoitia and other coccidia from cat faeces around Kabete in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42: 187-191.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Nganga, C.J., Munyua, W.K., Maingi, N., and Kanyari, P.W.N. (2004). Occurrence of peri-parturient rise in trichostrongylid nematode egg output in Dorper ewes in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya - Acta Trop. 92: 213-218.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J. K. 1987: Meteorological Application to air pollution research in tropical regions. An invited paper. Proceedings of the First Technical Conference for Meteorological Reseach in Eastern and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 6-9 January 1987, pp. .". In: Proceedings of the First Technical Conference for Meteorological Reseach in Eastern and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 6-9 January 1987, pp. 283-286. SMA; 1987. Abstract
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K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J.K., 1990: Air pollution problem in African cities. African Urban Quarterly. Vol 5: No. 1, pp. 30-33.". In: African Urban Quarterly. Vol 5: No. 1, pp. 30-33. SMA; 1990. Abstract
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K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J.K., : On the Frequency and Stability Wind Roses in a Tropical Region. Journal of Air, Water and Soil Pollution, Vol. 16: pp. 385 - 386.". In: Journal of Air, Water and Soil Pollution, Vol. 16: pp. 385 - 386. SMA; 1981. Abstract
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K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Nganga, J.K., and Ngugi, G. K, 1986: Indices of comfort in some Towns in Kenya, w. pp. 190- 199.". In: Indices of comfort in some Towns in Kenya, w. pp. 190- 199. SMA; 1986. Abstract
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A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Ngare D, Obondo A. A, Neema S, Oladimeji B.Y, Ndetei D, M, Chikovore J. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "NGASSAPA D.N.B., HASSANALI J., AMWAYI P., GUTHUA, S.W.: Essentials of Orofacial Anatomy: (Dar-es-Salaam University Press - Sponsored by Royal Dutch Embassy, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) Published April, 1997. Contributions: 1. Chapter 2: Orofacial Muscles: Pa.". In: Quintessence International 28:277-281. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUTHONI DRNGATIAEDITH. "Ngatia EM, Ng'ang'a PM, Muita JW, Imungi JK. Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):520-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):520-5. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. RESULTS: About 96% of the children had been breastfed 46.7% of them for 12-24 months (46.7%), and the mean breastfeeding duration was 20.17 months. The most commonly consumed foods on a daily basis were fruits, vegetables bread, ugali, porridge and milk. The level of malnutrition was low with underweight at 16% stunting 4.3% and wasting 1.0%. The factors that positively correlated with child nutritional status were the age of the mother and father. CONCLUSIONS: The children were consuming a variety of foods both at home and in school, and this together with the high literacy levels the parents/guardians could have contributed towards the good nutritional status.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Ngatia T.A. and Kiptoon J.C. *(1989): .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Ngatia T.A., Kiptoon J.C., Njiro S.M. and Kuria J.K.N. (1988). Some rabbit diseases around Kabete area of Kenya: A review of postmortem cases; Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. Vol.36 p.243-244.". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1988.
MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER. "Ngatia T.A., P.W.N. Kanyari, P.M. Mathiu, and A. Oyejide (2004). Some postmortem observations on Unhatched Ostrich embryos in a selected locality in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian, 26: 55-58.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER. "Ngatia T.A., P.W.N. Kanyari, P.M. Mathiu, K.K. Srivastava, S.T. Wilson and A. Oyejide (2004). Postmortem observations on Ostrich chicks in a commercial farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 52: 59-62.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER. "Ngatia T.A., P.W.N. Kanyari, P.M. Mathiu, P.K. Gathumbi, K.K. Srivastava, S.T. Wilson and A. Oyejide (2005).Oedema (exudative diathesis) in Ostriches in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 28: 11 .". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Ngatia, E. M., Nyanga, P. M., Imungi, J. K., Muita, J. W. and Ogard, B. 2001b. Association between breast/bottle feeding and sucking habits among 3-5 year olds in Nairobi. AJOHS 2(2): 44.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Ngatia, E. M., Nyanga, P. M., Imungi, J. K., Muita, J. W. and Ogard, B. 2001b. Association between breast/bottle feeding and sucking habits among 3-5 year olds in Nairobi. AJOHS 2(2): 44.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Ngatia, E.M., Nyanga, P.M., Imungi, J.K., Muita, J.W. and Ogarrd, B. 2001a. Artificial sucking habits and malocclusion in 3-5 year-olds in Nairobi. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences (AJOHS 2(2): 27.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract

To determine the prevalence of sucking habits and its association with anterior open bite, posterior cross-bite and transverse dimensions of the Jaws In 3-5-year-olds in Nairobi. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and four children aged 3-5 years (155 boys and 149 girls). Results: The prevalence of digit suckers was 15.8%, nd pacifier users 1.0%. Those with anterior open bite constituted 7.6%. The average intercanine archwidth between 53-63 was 3d.8mm and between 73-83 was 25.4mm. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson!)was observed between digit-sucking and anterior open bite (P<0.01). Concluslon: The present study forms a baseline for future trends in sucking habits among children in Nairobi, Kenya. Low prevalence of sucking habits was found. The average difference between the upper and lower intercanine arch widths was relatively high and prevalence of postenor cross-blte was low. A significant correlation was observed between anterior open bite and digit sucking. The need for orthodontic treatment due to sucking habit was low among children in Nairobi.

M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Ngatia, T.A. Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Njiro, S.M., Kantar, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K., Weda, E.H. & Goth, J.W., 1996. Gross lesions encountered in slaughtered wild animals in a game ranching farm in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 44: 101-4.". In: In: The proc. of the 1st ARF Workshop on Funding of Agricultural Research: Experiences and Future Perspectives, Nairobi, Kenya, March 11-12. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Ngatia, T.A. Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Njiro, S.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K. Weda, E.H. & Ngotho, J.W., 1998. Sarcocystisin slaughtered wild animals in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 46: 1-4.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Ngatia, T.A. Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Njiro, S.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K., Weda, E.H. & Ngotho, J.W., 1998. Verminous pneumonia and other microscopic lung lessions in wild animals in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 46: 153-55.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Ngatia, T.A. Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Njiro, S.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K., Weda, E.H. and Ngotho, J.W.,1997.Parasites and microscopic lesions in the livers of slaughtered wild animals in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 45: 211-15.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., M.N.Njenga, P.G. Mbuthia, and H.C.W. Mbugua. 2005. Occurrence and pathology of caprine encephalitis in young goats in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 53: 77 .". In: 5th Biennual FVM scientific conference and exhibition, 2006. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Ngatia, T.A., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Njiro, S.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K., Weda, E.H. and Ngotho, J.W. (1997). Parasites and microscopic lesions in the livers of slaughtered wild animals in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 45: 211-215.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Ngatia, T.A., Mulei, C.M., Gathumbi, P.K. and Wabacha, J.K. (2001). Oedema disease of Swine. A toxaemia or an infection?". In: Bull. Anim. Prod. Hlth. Afr. 49:292-298.; 2001.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1996. Gross lesions encountered in slaughtered wild animals in a game ranching farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1996.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1998. Parasites and microscopic lesions in the livers of slaughtered wild animals in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in A.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1998. Sarcocystis in slaughtered wild 8 animals in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46 (1): 1-4.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1998. Verminous pneumonia in five species of wild ruminants in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 153 -155.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Ngatia, T.A.; Kanyari, P. W.N., Mathiu, P.M., Gathumbi, P.K.; Srivastava, K.K.; Wilson, S.T. and Oyejide, A. (2005). Oedema (exudative diathesis) in ostriches in Kenya. The Kenya veterinarian. 28: 11-15.". In: Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2005. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "NgatiaT.A. and Kiptoon, J.C. (1989): .". In: Project workshop, FAO-TCP Helminth Control Project (TCP/KEN/8822(A), Nairobi - Kenya, 20th December, 2000. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1989.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "NGAU, P. M. AND MWANGI, I. K. (2003 EDS) Nyandarua District Regional Development Plan, 2001 .". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2003. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "NGAU., P. and MWANGI, I.K. (2004 ed) District Regional Development Plan: An Integration Plan for Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNCRD Africa Office. UNCRD Textbook Series No. 11.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ngecu, W.M. and Ichang'i, D.W. The environmental impact of landslides on the population living on the eastern footslopes of the Aberdare ranges in Kenya.". In: A case study of Maringa Village Landslide. Journal of Environmental Geology , 38, No. 3, 259-264. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
.
MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER. "Ngecu, W.M., Nyamai, C.M. and Erima, G. 2004. The extent and Significance of mass-movements in Eastern Africa: Case studies of some major landslides in Uganda and Kenya. Environmental Geology, Vol. 46, pp 1123-1133.". In: Ist intern. Geol. Field conf. on Oban-Odudu Massif, S.E Nigeria Calabar Univer., Scientific Programme and Abstracts pp17-18. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2004.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ngeranwa, J. J. N., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Gathumbi, P.K. and Munyua, W.K. (1991). The effects of experimental Trypanosoma (trypanozoon) (brucei) Evansi infection on fertility of male goats. Vet. Res. Communic. 15.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1991. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Ngeranwa, J.J.N., Gathumbi, P.K., Agumbah, G.J.O. and Mutiga, E.R. 1993. Pathogenesis of Trypanosoma (brucei) (evansi) in Small East African goats. Res. Vet. Sci. 54: 283-289.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ngeranwa, J.J.N., Gathumbi, P.K., Mutiga, E.R. and Agumbah G.J.O. (1993). Pathogenesis of Trypanosoma Brucei evansi in small East African goats. Res. Vet. Sci. 54 283 - 89.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1993. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Ngeranwa, J.J.N., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Gathumbi, P.K. and Munyua, W.K. 1991. Effect of experimental Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) (Brucei) evansi infection of the fertility of male goats. Vet. Research Commu. 15 : 301-308.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1991. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Ngeranwa, J.J.N., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Gathumbi, P.K. and Munyua, W.K., (1991): The effects of experimental Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) (brucei) evansi infection on the Fertility of male goats. Vet. Res. Commun. 15: 301-308.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N, H.H.G. Savenije and F.N. Gichuki. 2006. Hydrological impacts of rainwater harvesting and management on dry seasons' irrigation water abstraction in upper Ewaso Ng'iro river basin, Kenya. Paper submitted to Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environme.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N, H.H.G. Savenije and F.N. Gichuki. 2006. Land use changes and hydrological impacts related to up-scaling of rainwater harvesting and management in upper Ewaso Ng 'iro river basin, Kenya. Land Use Policy (in press).". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 1994. The environmental impacts of irrigation development. Term paper adopted as Chapter 8: Ecology and Irrigation Development, in 'Social and Physical Ecology' M.Sc. lecture textbook edited by Prof. D.B. Thomas, Dept. of Agricultural Engineer.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1994. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 2002. Review of irrigation development in Kenya. In: Blank, H.G., C.M. Mutero and H. Murray-Rust (eds.). 2002. The changing face of irrigation in Kenya: Opportunities for anticipating change in Eastern and Southern Africa. IWMI, Colombo, Sri L.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2002. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 2003. Rainwater harvesting for improved food security: Promising technologies in the Greater Horn of Africa. Greater Horn of Africa Rainwater Partnership (GHARP), Kenya Rainwater Association (KRA), Nairobi, Kenya./) 266.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2003. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 2003. What is the limit of up-scaling rainwater harvesting in a river basin? Physics & Chemistry of the Earth, 28:943-956.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2003. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N. 2006. Hydrological impacts of land use changes on water resources management and socio-economic development of upper Ewaso Ng'iro river basin in Kenya. Ph.D. dissertation, UNESCO-IHE/Technical University of Delft, Netherlands. A. A. Balkema Pu.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J. Rockstrb'm and H.H.G. Savenije 2006. Assessment of rainwater retention in croplands due to conservation tillage and hydrological impacts in Ewaso Ng'iro river basin, Kenya. Physics & Chemistry of the Earth (in press).". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J. Rockstrom and C.K.K. Gachene. 2005. Hydro-economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Fanners' investment options and risks in semi-arid Laikipia district of Kenya. Physics & Chemistry of the Earth, 30:772-782.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2005. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J.N. Thome and R.K. Muni. 2006. Rainwater harvesting and management systems and complementary technologies: Multi-sectoral approach towards sustainable livelihoods of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in semi-arid districts of Kenya. GHA.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
NJUGUNA DRNGIGISTEPHEN. "Ngigi, S.N., J.N. Thome, J. Rockstrom, F.W.T. Penning de Vries, and H.H.G. Savenije 2005. Agro-hydrological evaluation of on-farm rainwater storage systems for supplemental irrigation in Laikipia district, Kenya. Agricultural Water Management, 73(1): 21-4.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 2005. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
OWANO MRSOCHIENOLYNN. "NGO.". In: conference of house maids and bar maids. oxford press; 1995. Abstract

matina ma nguku

Owano OL. "NGO.". 1995.Website
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "NGO's and Consumer Issues in Africa Today- in Voices From Africa, Issues Number 2, NGOs and Grassroots Development, Published by UN Non-Governmental Liaison Services, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "NGO's and Consumer Issues in Africa Today- in Voices From Africa, Issues Number 2, NGOs and Grassroots Development, Published by UN Non-Governmental Liaison Services, Geneva, Switzerland.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ngoka, WAMOLA I.A and Dunlop. The role of Neisseria gonorrhoea in causing infertility. Paper read and published by Society of Obs and Gynae. Nairobi, (1979).". In: Society of Obs and Gynae. Nairobi, (1979). IBIMA Publishing; 1979. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "NGOs in Kenya: The Context of NGOs Coordination Act of 1990 in Kenya. (a paper co-authored with Dr. Njuguna Ng.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Ngugi and the National Language Issues", Sunday Nation 5 August 1979.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1979. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Cameron DW, Bosire M, Waiyaki P, Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO.Prevention of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Africa: Effectiveness of condom promotion and among prostitutes. Lancet ii:887 - 890, 1988.". In: Lancet ii:887 - 890, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Ngugi M Piero, Murugi N Joan, Kibiti M Cromwell, Ngeranwa J Joseph, Njue M Wilson, Maina Daniel, Gathumbi K Peter and Njagi N Eliud Hypoglycemic Activity of Some Kenyan Plants Traditionally used to Manage Diabetes Mellitus in Eastern Province.". In: Piero et al. J Diabetes Metab 2011, 2:8. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract
In this study five aqueous extracts; Bidens pilosa, Strychnos henningsii, Aspilia pluriseta, Catha edulis and Erythrina abyssinica were screened for anti-diabetic activity and their in vivo safety evaluated. The anti-diabetic activity was assessed by intraperitoneally injecting varying doses of aqueous extracts of the five plants into alloxanised mice. Toxicity was determined by injecting normal mice with 450mg of the plant extract / kg body weight and observing the effects of the extracts on histology of various organs. All the extracts showed hypoglycaemic activity. At high doses, some plants proved to be highly toxic, mildly toxic and others were safe. This study has established that the five bioactive plants can be safely used in the management of diabetes.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "NGUGI M. PIERO1, NJAGI M. JOAN, KIBITI M. CROMWELL, NGERANWA J.N. JOSEPH, NJAGI N.M. ELIUD, NJUE M. WILSON, GATHUMBI K. PETER. HERBAL MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS: A RAPIDLY EXPANDING RESEARCH AVENUE.". In: International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research Vol 4, Issue 2, 2012. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
Conventional drug therapy though effective in the management of diabetes mellitus is expensive and has toxic side effects. Herbal medicine would thus provide alternative therapy if effective and less toxic. This paper reviews the use of various antidiabetic plants in management of diabetes mellitus. Their documented modes of actions along with in vivo are also discussed. Keyword: Herbal medicine, Diabetes mellitus, Antidiabetic plants, Toxic side effects.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Ngugi Mathew, Murugi Joan, Kibiti Cromwell, Ngeranwa, Joseph, Njagi Eliud, Njue Wilson, Maina Daniel and Gathumbi Peter Hypoglycaemic activity of some Kenyan plants traditionally used to manage diabete mellitus in eastern Province .". In: International Journal of diabetes and nutrition after minor revision. International Journal of diabetes and nutrition after minor revision; 2009. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ngugi N, Mcligeyo S.O., Kayima J.K.:The emergency treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellular gradient in patients with renal failure - effects of various therapeutic approaches. East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(8):, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract

Four hundred and three teenage secondary school students (50.6% males) from two girls' and two boys' Nairobi City Schools, selected by stratified sampling, were screened to determine the prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, nitrituria and hypertension. Nine students (2.2%) had significant proteinuria while 14 (3.5%) had microscopic haematuria. Two students had combined proteinuria and haematuria. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of proteinuria and/or haematuria between the sexes. Other urinary abnormalities detected were leucocyturia in 14(3.5%) and nitrites in four (1%). Leucocyturia was commonner in females (p = 0.001). Cloudy urinary appearance was significantly associated with the presence of leucocyturia (p = 0.0028) and proteinuria (p = 0.0276). Neither personal history of recurrent sore throat and skin infections nor family history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or kidney disease was significantly associated with proteinuria or haematuria. Blood pressure tended to increase with age. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in boys than girls in the age group 15-18 years (P < 0.001). Of the 397 students whose blood pressures were measured, four (1%) were found to be hypertensive. Weight and body mass index were strong positive correlates of blood pressure. The prevalence of proteinuria, haematuria, other urinary abnormalities and hypertension ranges between 1% and 3.5% among teenage secondary school children. The majority are asymptomatic and have no significant associations. It is recommended that routine urinalysis and blood pressure measurements should be part of the school health service so as to identify asymptomatic students who require close monitoring and/or intervention.

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