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M
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Mziray, Rajabu, S., Jasper K. Imungi and Edward G. Karuri, 2001. Nutrient and antinutrient contents of raw and cooked amaranthus hybridus. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 40: 53.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Kariuki PW, Mwamwenda TS. "Myths and misconceptions about global HIV/AIDS: University Students in Kenya." SYLWAN Journal. 2016;161(1):112-148.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "The myth of cultural conflict a Kenyan experience, a paper presented at a workshop organised by the School of International Learning, January.". In: Published by World Vision International, Monrovia 2000, pp (86-215). EAMJ; 1994. Abstract
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P PROFONIANG'OCLEMENTM. "Myth as a Phenomenon in Christianity.". In: Quarterly Review of Religious Studies, vol.1, No.3, pp 15-17.; 1986. Abstract
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S MRWANYAMAJOSEPH. THE MYSTERIOUS KILLER. Nairobi: Africawide Network; 2001.Website
M
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Mysterious Feminine Power Looms Over Male Innocence", A Review of Ripples in the Pool, A Novel by Rebeka Njau in Maktaba IIIm 1m 149-150.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1976. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Myristoyl Esters of Lactose", Carbohydrate Research, 125, 253-263.". In: J. Sci. Technol. (Kenya), 5, 45- 52 (1984). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1984. Abstract
   
Megerman J, Murphy RA. "Myosin from arterial smooth muscle: isolation following actin depolymerization." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;412(2):241-55. Abstract

The contractile proteins from arterial smooth muscle are highly soluble, and can be extracted at I = 0.05. However, they can be precipitated by a prolonged dialysis at pH 6 to give an actomyosin with a high, although variable, actin:myosin ratio. The sedimentation behavior of this actomyosin at high ionic strength was examined as a function of pH, protein concentration and composition by preparative ultracentrifugation. Comparisons with synthetic skeletal muscle actomyosins of similar composition demonstrated significant differences in the behaviors of these two systems. It was found that much smooth muscle actomyosin is not dissociated by normally relaxing conditions, and that it sediments at a slower rate than F-actin. The solubility of the supernatant protein (a myosin-enriched actomyosin) in 0.2 M K Cl (pH 7) depended on the pH during centrifugation. A lower solubility was associated only with a higher actin concentration in the supernatant, suggesting a dependence on actin repolymerization. Pure myosin was selectively precipitated from the supernatant by polyethylene glycol-6000, but only when the protein was soluble at low ionic strength. The solubility of purified myosin was similar to that of myosin from striated muscles. A relationship between the presence of depolymerized actin and the high solubility of smooth muscle contractile proteins is suggested.

Mbuthia P G, C BL, G M, SY S, Njagi L W. "Myopathy and parasitism in a guinea fowl: A case report.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-myopathy_and_parasitism_in_a_guinea_fowl.pdf
Mutune M;, Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Sourou SY;, Mwaniki G;, Bebora LC;, Mbuthia PG. "Myopathy and Parasitism in a guinea fowl: a case report.". 2008.
Mutune M, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Sourou SY, Mwaniki G, Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG. "Myopathy and Parasitism in a guinea fowl: a case report.". 2008. Abstract

Guinea fowls are formed and found in the wild in Africa. they are kept by farmers mainly to prodice eggs, meat and as pet birds. These birds are affected by many conditions that would cause death or reduce their proction. Some conditions are managemental in nature while others are infectious. Occurrence of diseases and conditions in therse birds are rarely reported in Africa. This is a report of a guinea folw that died after protracted diarrhea and was brought for post mortem at the poultry clinic in kabete. On examination the bird had muscular degeneratio (myopathy) involving the leg muscles and heavy ascaridia galli infestations. possible impact on guinea fowl production is discussed.

Mbuthia P.G., L.C. B, Mwaniki G., Sourou S.Y., L.W. N, M M. "Myopathy and parasitism in a guinea fowl.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi; 2008.2008_-_myopathy_and_parasitism_in_a_guinea_fowl.pdf
Rainey RL, Estes PW, Neely CL, Amick LD. "Myoglobinuria following diabetic acidosis with electromyographic evaluation." Archives of Internal Medicine. 1963;111:564-571. Abstract
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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Myoglobin Coadsorbed on Electrodes, Langmuir, Vol. 19, No. 17, 2003 6981.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
S.A.M.Johnson, D.W. Gakuya, P.G. Mbuthia, J.D. Mande, K.Afakye, N. Maingi. "Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana." Vector-borne and Zoonotic diseases. 2016;16(1):54-57.myiasis_in_dogs_in_the_greater_accra_region_of_ghana.pdf
Johnson SAM, Gakuya DW, Mbuthia PG, Mande JD, Afakye K, Maingi N. "Myiasis in dogs in the greater Accra region of Ghana." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2016;16:54-57. Abstract
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Johnson SAM, Gakuya DW, Mbuthia PG, Mande JD, Afakye K, Maingi N. "Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana." Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2016;16(1):54-57.
Wakhungu CN, Okoth S, Wachira P, N.A O. "Mycotoxins contaminating herbs and spices in Africa: A review." African Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;3(3):10-28.
and Muthomi, J. W. NGC’waLNJK. "Mycotoxin-producing fungi and aflatoxin incidence in maize from Machakos, Kenya. .". In: 11th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference . Nairobi, Kenya. ; 2008.
status in Kenya. M. "Mycotoxin status in Kenya.".; 2003.
10. Gathumbi JK. "Mycotoxin status in Kenya. .". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Nairobi Branch Scientific Conference . Nairobi, Kenya ; 2003.
MBALUKA DRMUNYAOTITUS. "Mycosis fungoides presenting at eight years of age East African Medical Journal 2011(In press).". In: Journal. Archives of Dermatology; 2011. Abstract
The chapter discusses common both infectious and non infectious skin diseases in the tropical environment in a medicine text book: Medicine: Non-communicable Diseases in Adults; which widely explores common medical diseases in the tropical setting. The chapter begins with the outline, glossary of terms and introduction to the structure and function of the skin. Skin infections are discussed under bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infestations at the end of the section.The section on Allergic or immunological disorders discusses eczema in its diversity, urticaria and adverse cutaneous drug reactions.The last section discusses acne vulgaris and the papulosquamous disorders.
and Gathumbi, J.K. BMNLCDJ. "Mycological examination of poultry feeds used in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 1996;44:19-22.
Okoth S. "Mycoflora and mycotoxins in finished fish feed and feed ingredients from smallholder farms in East Africa." Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research. 2017;43:169-176. Abstract1-s2.0-s1687428517300298-main.pdfWebsite

A total of 52 samples of finished fish feeds and ingredients were collected from smallholder farmers in
Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda, and analyzed. Culture and molecular techniques were used to
identify fungal isolates from the feedstock, and mycotoxin profiles were determined using liquid chromatography–tandem
mass spectrometry. The most prevalent fungal species recovered in the samples
was Asperigillus flavus (54.5%). Other fungal species recovered from the samples were Aspergillus tamarii
(9.1%), Mucor velutinosus (9%), Phoma sp. (6.1%), Aspergillus niger (6%), Eurotium rubrum (3%) and
Penicillium chrysogenum (3%). Fourteen mycotoxins were identified: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, fumonisin
B1 and B3, deoxynivalenol (DON) and acetyldeoxynivalenol (sum of 3-ADONand 15-ADON), ochratoxin
A, roquefortine C, alternariol, T-2 toxin, and nivalenol. DON (92.9%), aflatoxins (64.3%) and
fumonisins (57.1%) were the most prevalent within locally manufactured feeds, while no contamination
was found in imported feed. Samples from Kenya were the most contaminated with aflatoxin (maximum
806.9 lgkg1
). The high levels of aflatoxin and trichothecene type A and B contamination found in this
study point to potential risks to fish performance and to the health of consumers of the fish and derived
products.

Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Okoth S, Saeger SD, Njobeh P. "Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer." International journal of food microbiology. 2018;270:22-30.
E L, M C, A O, van P C, C B, van A R, G DF, J N, B B, S L, P T, van J K, Leoncini L. "MYC-negative classical Burkitt’s Lymphoma cases: an alternative pathogenetic mechanism involving miRNA deregulation." J Pathol. . 2008;216(4):440-50.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. My sister was born yellow. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
My Sister Was Born Yellow. Nairobi: Association of Reading of Kenya; 2016.
My Sister has Got the Mumps. Nairobi: Association of Reading of Kenya; 2016.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. My sister has got mumps. Nairobi: ARK; 2016.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "My Family and My State,Mwangaza 1.2.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Samuel K. "My experience with connmen at Namanga." Standard (2008).
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""My Daughter's Blood Sister." A poem in Tender Memories. Eds. Arthur Luvai et al. Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1989. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
omari HK, Makokha M, Abdalla S. My Arabic letters book. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN. "Mworia JK. 2011. Invasive plant species and biomass production in Savannas. IN: Biomass and Remote Sensing of Biomass. Islam Atazadeh (ed). Intech Open Access Publishers. ISBN 978-953-307-490-0.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2011. Abstract
This book addresses a wide array of issues in botany through a series of chapters. The chapters have been contributed by leading botanists from South America, Africa, Europe and
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN. "Mworia JK, Wambua J.K., Omari, J. K., and J.I. Kinyamario. 2011. Patterns of seed dispersal and establishment of the invader Prosopis juliflora in the upper floodplain of Tana river, Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 28(1):35-41.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2011. Abstract
This book addresses a wide array of issues in botany through a series of chapters. The chapters have been contributed by leading botanists from South America, Africa, Europe and
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN. "Mworia JK (Editor).Botany. Intech Open Access Publishers.ISBN 978-953-51-0355-4.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2012. Abstract
This book addresses a wide array of issues in botany through a series of chapters. The chapters have been contributed by leading botanists from South America, Africa, Europe and
Wamitila KW. Mwongozo wa Walenisi. A detailed study Guide on Katama Mkangi's novel Walenisi. . Nairobi: Sasasema Publications Ltd; 2003.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Mwongozo wa Visiki (.". In: Literary Criticism), Longhorn (K) Ltd, Nairobi, September, 1997, 120 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. ""Mwongozo wa Utengano - a students Swahili Literature study guide, Heinemann Educational Books, 1984, Nairobi.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
IRIBEMWANGI PI. Mwongozo wa Utengano. Nairobi: ISBN 978-9966-25-533-8; EAEP; 2008. Abstractmwongozo_wa_utengano.pdfWebsite

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Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Meya. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishing Ltd; 2012.
Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Menya. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishing Ltd; 2012.
Wamitila KW. Mwongozo wa Kiu.; 2001.Website
evans Mbuthia DM, K.W. PW. Mwongozo wa Kitumbua Kimeingia Mchanga” . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers ; 2003.
OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. "Mwongozo wa Kina cha Maisha, a students' swahili literature study guide. Heinemann Educational Books 1986, Nairobi.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
SWALEH AMIRI. Mwongozo wa Kifo Kisimani , Nairobi, Longhorn Publishers. Nairobi: ISBN – 9966 – 49 – 778 – 1.; 1996.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Chisia M. Mwongozo wa Kidagaa Kimemwozea. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2016.mwongozo_wa_riwaya_kidagaa_kimemwozea.pdf
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Warambo JP. Mwongozo wa Damu Nyeusi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2016. Abstractmwongozo_wa_damu_nyeusi_cover_copy.pdf

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Ndungu MN. Mwongozo wa Chozi la Heri. Nairobi: One Planet; 2018.
Mbuthia DEM. Mwongozo Changanuzi wa Mstahiki Meya . Nairobi: Target Publishers ; 2012.
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli, Moruca and Selina Onochie Editors. IMAGINATION OF POETS: AN ANTHOLOGY OF AFRICAN POEMS.". In: PortHarcourt-Agbo-Benin: Penpower Books Limited, June REFEREED BY PROFESSOR CHRIS WANJALA LUKORITO AND SELINA ONOCHIE).; 2005. Abstract

In Imagination of Poets: An anthology of African poems, three African academics and creative personalities organize an African poetry festival and invite poets from the continent who are lovers of music and African culture to participate. As it is expected, an African festival is multifaceted: it is full of mirth and dance: an ensemble of vibraphones which produce words of acclamation and criticisms. It is an encyclopedia of events that hinges on the poetic expressions of Afro-poets. The editors have put in print a symphony of poets. Whose voices echo from Africa and Black world; drawing from the rich idioms of African languages. Which shape words, and images that are expressed for ease of communication among the poets in the English language. The themes of the poetry in these anthology areas varied as they are the authentic to the peoples of this continent. They touch on the demographic issues, the environment, Literacy, disease, poverty, violence against women and children, family, religion and political intolerance, and peace among different African communities. 'The editors have masterfully arranged these poems according to themes viz: socio-political, femininity and womanhood, love and romance, religion and faith, culture and tradition etcetera. The festive covers transformation and reforms in the new century, society, economic issues, and the inevitable transition from life to death. The poets at the festival are held by the editors on a long rein and remain unconstrained, in the manner in which they reflect on issues of disaster and tragedy in a philosophical way. Poetry is the best medium in which campaigning against human vices and, as it were, the medium is the message:

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli, Monica John Wanjala and Irene Namsia Nato. A Comprehensive Study of HALF A DAY AND OTHER STORIES. Nairobi: Africanwide Network.". In: PortHarcourt-Agbo-Benin: Penpower Books Limited, June REFEREED BY PROFESSOR CHRIS WANJALA LUKORITO AND SELINA ONOCHIE).; 2005. Abstract

In Imagination of Poets: An anthology of African poems, three African academics and creative personalities organize an African poetry festival and invite poets from the continent who are lovers of music and African culture to participate. As it is expected, an African festival is multifaceted: it is full of mirth and dance: an ensemble of vibraphones which produce words of acclamation and criticisms. It is an encyclopedia of events that hinges on the poetic expressions of Afro-poets. The editors have put in print a symphony of poets. Whose voices echo from Africa and Black world; drawing from the rich idioms of African languages. Which shape words, and images that are expressed for ease of communication among the poets in the English language. The themes of the poetry in these anthology areas varied as they are the authentic to the peoples of this continent. They touch on the demographic issues, the environment, Literacy, disease, poverty, violence against women and children, family, religion and political intolerance, and peace among different African communities. 'The editors have masterfully arranged these poems according to themes viz: socio-political, femininity and womanhood, love and romance, religion and faith, culture and tradition etcetera. The festive covers transformation and reforms in the new century, society, economic issues, and the inevitable transition from life to death. The poets at the festival are held by the editors on a long rein and remain unconstrained, in the manner in which they reflect on issues of disaster and tragedy in a philosophical way. Poetry is the best medium in which campaigning against human vices and, as it were, the medium is the message:

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli, Monica and John Wanjala. A Comprehensive Study of Velma Pollards HOMESTRETCH. Nairobi: Africanwide Network, 2005.?". In: PortHarcourt-Agbo-Benin: Penpower Books Limited, June REFEREED BY PROFESSOR CHRIS WANJALA LUKORITO AND SELINA ONOCHIE).; 2005. Abstract

In Imagination of Poets: An anthology of African poems, three African academics and creative personalities organize an African poetry festival and invite poets from the continent who are lovers of music and African culture to participate. As it is expected, an African festival is multifaceted: it is full of mirth and dance: an ensemble of vibraphones which produce words of acclamation and criticisms. It is an encyclopedia of events that hinges on the poetic expressions of Afro-poets. The editors have put in print a symphony of poets. Whose voices echo from Africa and Black world; drawing from the rich idioms of African languages. Which shape words, and images that are expressed for ease of communication among the poets in the English language. The themes of the poetry in these anthology areas varied as they are the authentic to the peoples of this continent. They touch on the demographic issues, the environment, Literacy, disease, poverty, violence against women and children, family, religion and political intolerance, and peace among different African communities. 'The editors have masterfully arranged these poems according to themes viz: socio-political, femininity and womanhood, love and romance, religion and faith, culture and tradition etcetera. The festive covers transformation and reforms in the new century, society, economic issues, and the inevitable transition from life to death. The poets at the festival are held by the editors on a long rein and remain unconstrained, in the manner in which they reflect on issues of disaster and tragedy in a philosophical way. Poetry is the best medium in which campaigning against human vices and, as it were, the medium is the message:

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli Monica. A STUDY OF OKOT P'BITEK'S POETRY.". In: Nairobi Africa wide Network. October, (REFEREED BY PROFESSOR CHRIS WANJALA LUKORITO).; 2004. Abstract

Okot p'Bitek, a novelist, sociologist, philosopher, theologian, footballer, dancer, and above all human being, is internationally recognised as one of Africa's finest poets. He is the author of original poetry, translations of traditional literature, anthropological studies, and other essays. Edward Blishen writes: The biographical facts are themselves remarkable. He was born in 1931 at Gulu in Northern Uganda, and was educated first at Gulu High School and later at one of the most high-flying of Ugandan schools, King's College, Budo. He went on to read education at Bristol, law at Aberystwyth and social anthropology at Oxford: returning to Uganda, he lectured at the University College at Makerere. This academic versatility was matched by considerable athletic skill: among other achievements, he played football for Uganda. A drummer and a dancer, he founded an annual festival of African arts at Gulu. For a while he was Director of the National Cultural Centre in Kampala. From 1952 to 1954, Okot attended a teacher training course at the government training college, Mbarara. While at college, he wrote and produced a student opera. When he completed the training, he taught English and Religious Studies for three years at Sir Samuel Backer's School near Gulu. He liked singing, and was choirmaster at the school.

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli Monica. "THE AFRICANA WOMAN".". In: A poem published in WAJIBU: A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS ISSUES Ed. By Dr. Wanjohi. REFEREED BY DR. WANJOHI AND DR.JUSTUS MBAE.; 2002. Abstract

Okot p'Bitek, a novelist, sociologist, philosopher, theologian, footballer, dancer, and above all human being, is internationally recognised as one of Africa's finest poets. He is the author of original poetry, translations of traditional literature, anthropological studies, and other essays. Edward Blishen writes: The biographical facts are themselves remarkable. He was born in 1931 at Gulu in Northern Uganda, and was educated first at Gulu High School and later at one of the most high-flying of Ugandan schools, King's College, Budo. He went on to read education at Bristol, law at Aberystwyth and social anthropology at Oxford: returning to Uganda, he lectured at the University College at Makerere. This academic versatility was matched by considerable athletic skill: among other achievements, he played football for Uganda. A drummer and a dancer, he founded an annual festival of African arts at Gulu. For a while he was Director of the National Cultural Centre in Kampala. From 1952 to 1954, Okot attended a teacher training course at the government training college, Mbarara. While at college, he wrote and produced a student opera. When he completed the training, he taught English and Religious Studies for three years at Sir Samuel Backer's School near Gulu. He liked singing, and was choirmaster at the school.

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli Monica, "DAISAKU IKEDA'S LIFE": AN ENIGMA, A PRECIOUS JEWELL" A chapter in a book entitled DAISAKU IKEDA AND AFRICA REFLECTIONS BY KENYAN WRITERS.". In: PP. 86-95 edited by Professor Henry Indangasi and Masumi Odari Nairobi: University Press.; 2001. Abstract

This book is an epic account of life, touching on diverse facets of existence with the Buddhist answers to the riddles of life and those provided by modern science towards the same or similar riddles. In this book, Ikeda catches and conveys to us the impression that living a fulfilling life is attainable, and that the splendour of living such a life has an immutable value that transcends the bounds of the physical death. Fleeting between the past, present and a possible future, the book wrestles with the giant headaches of humankind through a systematic explication of the nature of the cosmos and life, the Buddhist view of life, and the question of life and death. All this is done with the exactitude of a physician carrying out a heart surgery, and with the eloquence of a young man wooing a fair maid. On the whole, the book reduces the recurrent headaches of man to quite curable ailments, no more serious than the common cold or constipation. With respect to the nature of the cosmos and life, the author sinks his teeth into such concepts as the body and the spirit, man and nature, eyes that can see life, the riddle of time and the essence of the cosmos. On the body and the spirit, the author addresses first and foremost, the strange phenomenon of life as it manifests itself in empirical situations

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli Monica and John Wanjala. A Comprehensive Study of William Shakespeare's. THE MERCHANT OF YENICE. Nairobi: Africa wide Network February.". In: Published by Association of African Women for Research Development, AAWORD Kenya Chapter.; 1995. Abstract

This book is an epic account of life, touching on diverse facets of existence with the Buddhist answers to the riddles of life and those provided by modern science towards the same or similar riddles. In this book, Ikeda catches and conveys to us the impression that living a fulfilling life is attainable, and that the splendour of living such a life has an immutable value that transcends the bounds of the physical death. Fleeting between the past, present and a possible future, the book wrestles with the giant headaches of humankind through a systematic explication of the nature of the cosmos and life, the Buddhist view of life, and the question of life and death. All this is done with the exactitude of a physician carrying out a heart surgery, and with the eloquence of a young man wooing a fair maid. On the whole, the book reduces the recurrent headaches of man to quite curable ailments, no more serious than the common cold or constipation. With respect to the nature of the cosmos and life, the author sinks his teeth into such concepts as the body and the spirit, man and nature, eyes that can see life, the riddle of time and the essence of the cosmos. On the body and the spirit, the author addresses first and foremost, the strange phenomenon of life as it manifests itself in empirical situations

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli Monica and John Wanjala. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF JOHN RUGANDA'S SHREDS OF TENDERNESS. Nairobi: Africa wide Network. May.". In: Published by Association of African Women for Research Development, AAWORD Kenya Chapter.; 1995. Abstract

This book is an epic account of life, touching on diverse facets of existence with the Buddhist answers to the riddles of life and those provided by modern science towards the same or similar riddles. In this book, Ikeda catches and conveys to us the impression that living a fulfilling life is attainable, and that the splendour of living such a life has an immutable value that transcends the bounds of the physical death. Fleeting between the past, present and a possible future, the book wrestles with the giant headaches of humankind through a systematic explication of the nature of the cosmos and life, the Buddhist view of life, and the question of life and death. All this is done with the exactitude of a physician carrying out a heart surgery, and with the eloquence of a young man wooing a fair maid. On the whole, the book reduces the recurrent headaches of man to quite curable ailments, no more serious than the common cold or constipation. With respect to the nature of the cosmos and life, the author sinks his teeth into such concepts as the body and the spirit, man and nature, eyes that can see life, the riddle of time and the essence of the cosmos. On the body and the spirit, the author addresses first and foremost, the strange phenomenon of life as it manifests itself in empirical situations

WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "Mweseli Monica "THE BEST SLEEPER.". In: Kisumu: Kenya Women Writers Foundation ( FEMART -.; 1985. Abstract
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JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Mweri, J.G. In Okombo et. al Introduction to Theory and Skills of Teaching Kenyan sign Language: A handbook for Teachers. Nairobi:.". In: Kenya Society of Deaf Children. Kenya Society of deaf Children; 2006. Abstract

This textbook does not aim at helpig teachers to acquire Kenyan Sign Language(KSL). It is meant for teachers who already have a good mastery of KSL and whose primary objective is to learn how to teach it. It thus introduces teachers to teaching of KSL as a language focusing on theory and skillsof langauge teaching in general and teaching of sign Language in particular using KSl as base language.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, W. Eason, N.Karanja, V. Rutunga, J. Roberts, F. Zapata and D.O. Nyamai. 2002. Estimation of N2- fixation in phosphorus- fertilised Leucaena leucocphala and G. sepium seedlings using S. siamea and E.grandis as reference tree.". In: Proceedings of the 9th AABNF Conference on Challenges and Imperatives for Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Research and Applications in Africa for the 21st Century, 2002 (eds. Nancy K. Karanja and James H.P. Kahindi) pp. 94-104. John Philips Africa L.; 2002. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, K.A., N.K. Karanja, F. Zapata and S.W. Maingi 1997/1998. Evaluation of phosphorus uptake from Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Growth of six Agroforestry species on an Acid soils from Western Kenya. Int. J. of Biochem Physics, Vol. 6&7 (1&2), 79-85.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, K.A., N.K. Karanja, F. Zapata and S.W. Maingi 1997/1998. Evaluation of phosphorus uptake from Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Growth of six Agroforestry species on an Acid soils from Western Kenya. Int. J. of Biochem Physics, Vol. 6&7 (1&2), 79-85.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, K.A., Eason, W., Karanja, N.K., Zapata, J., Rutunga, V. and Roberts, J. 1999. Effect of phosphorus on growth of four agroforestr tree seedlings and N2-fixation of 16 Leucena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. Nkalubo) pp. 85-84.; 1999. Abstract
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OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Mwendwa FM, Otieno CF, Kayima JK, Amayo EO, Otieno PO.Risk factor profile and the occurrence of microvascular complications in short-term type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Mwendwa FM, Otieno CF, Kayima JK, Amayo EO, Otieno PO.Risk factor profile and the occurrence of microvascular complications in short-term type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Mwendwa FM, Otieno CF, Kayima JK, Amayo EO, Otieno PO.Risk factor profile and the occurrence of microvascular complications in short-term type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S163-72.". In: Cardiovasc J. Afr. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/ < 2 years) type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study over six months. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 10.3 (7.5) months. There were 66% of the study subjects with obesity, 50% with hypertension, 29% had ideal glucose control and less than 40% had high LDL-cholesterol. Twenty eight (28%) who had polyneuropathy had significant differences in their older age, higher total and LDL-cholesterol compared with those who did not have polyneuropathy. Twenty five (25%) of the study patients had micro-albuminuria and only 1% had macro-albuminuria. There were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between study patients with and those without albuminuria. Only 7% of the study patients had retinopathy on direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSION: Microvascular complications occurred in patients with type 2 diabetes of short duration of not more than two years. The risk factors of hypertension, poor glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and cigarette smoking were present in a fair proportion of the study patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes should be actively screened for complications and the risk factors thereof, even if the diabetes was of recent onset.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Mwenda M.J., Owuor R.A., Kyama C.M., Wango E.O., Arimi M.M.and Langat D. (2006) .Khat (Catha edulis) up-regulates testosterone and decreases prolactin and cortisol levels in the baboon. J. Ethnopharmacology103,379-384.". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Mwenda J.M., Sichangi M.W., Oduor-Okello D. Wango E.O.,Langat D.K.(2003). Human endogenous retrovirus .". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Mwenda J. M., Sichangi M.W., Oduor Okelo D., Wango E.O. Langat D(2002) Human endogenous retrovirus-R (ERV3) env-like antigens expressed in baboon testes and epididymides.East African Medical Journal, 80 (5): 265-270.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
J PROFGICHAGAFRANCIS. "Mwea, S. K. and Gichaga, F.J.- Engineering properties of common.subgrade soils below pavement structures in Kenya.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT, Volume 7, March 2002. UN-HABITAT; 2002. Abstract

A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Mwea, S. K (2008), The Way forward in Civil Engineering Training.". In: 1st International Symposium on RE-Orienting Civil Engineering Education and Training held in Mombasa between 25th and 26th September 2008. Longhorn; 2008. Abstract
The civil engineering teaching involves provision of sound professional education so that upon graduation the student is able to fit into the various disciplines of civil engineering. These disciplines can be broadly described as transportation, structural, water and waste water engineering. This paper suggests that besides instilling the core engineering knowledge, the teaching of civil engineering should include other subjects which have a big impact in the work of civil engineers. These areas include entrepreneurship, environmental, and social studies. Additionally a study abroad is recommended for those students who are likely to work outside their counties of birth.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Mwea S K and Helen N. 2004, Difficulties experienced in the planning of transportation facilities in unplanned settlements.". In: Accepted for presentation in the Conference for Sustainable Building 2004: Africa Stellenbosch, South Africa, 13th to 18th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
The development of transportation infrastructure in unplanned settlements is a major prerequisite to both economic growth and poverty alleviation. This is largely so because they promote livable environments and contribute to the reduction of adverse external effects and production costs. Transportation planning within Kibera Settlements is concerned with the design of transportation systems that will maximise accessibility for essential movements between linked activities, giving due consideration to safety, comfort, amenity, economy and hygiene. Given the many roles that such transportation systems play in the congested and unhygienic settlements, proper planning of these transportation systems will enable the households in the settlements better access to there daily livelihoods and promote service delivery. In the long run, the improvement of the transportation systems in the Kibera slum settlements will indirectly lead to improved housing conditions, minimising the frequent fire hazard costs and other related environmental losses. There is also an element of gender and human rights, as the poor and often neglected majority urban residents will receive some attention. This paper highlights some difficulties experienced in planning of transportation facilities in Kibera. In addition it makes some proposals on how to overcome some of the difficulties experienced
Mwavyaji wa Roho na Hadithi Nyingine, . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2011.
KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Mwaura J.G., Nguu E.K., Limo M. K. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TRYPANOLYSIN FROM THE MIDGUT OF A NON-VECTOR INSECT; DESERT LOCUST (Schistocerca gregaria).". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Kisipan, M.L.; 2008.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B.(1990). Biological Nitrogen Fixation: An overview. University of Nairobi Publication, Science News Vol. 2.6:100-102.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B.(1987). Nitrogen Fixation Associated with Maize plants (Zea mays L) in a Temperate and a Tropical Soil. PhD. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1987. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B.(1986). Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) to straw amendment and Inoculation with N2 .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B.& D. WIDDOWSON (1992). Isolation of acetylene-reducing bacteria from the roots of Cyperus papyrus L. in a tropical swamp. In Recent Developments in Biological Nitrogen Fixation Research in Africa (Sadiki, M. & A. Hilali eds.) pp.531-541.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. (1992). Effect of Inoculant application rate on nodulation and growth of Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris in a tropical soil. In Plant .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. (1989). Effect of inoculation and straw amendment on the growth of maize plants (Zea mays L.) under water-limiting conditions. In Proc. IFS Conference on Cereals of the semi-arid Tropics, Garoua, Cameroon, II- 16 September.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1989. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & U. GRANHALL(2002). Invasion and Colonisation of Maize plant Rhizosphere by two Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). International J. of BioChemiPhysics. Vol. 13 & 14.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & U. GRANHALL(1993). Induction of Bacterial Nitrogenase activity in a Maize-diazotroph Association. In;Nitrogen Fixation with nonlegumes (Hegazi, N., Fayez & Monib eds) American University in Cairo: Cairo, Egypt.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & U. GRANHALL(1986). Nitrogen Fixation (C2H2 Reduction) Associated with Maize (Zea mays L.) in a Swedish soil. Swedish J. Agric. Res. 16:49-59.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & D.WIDDOWSON(1992). Nitrogenase activity in the papyrus swamps of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Hydrobiologia 232:23-30.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & D. WIDDOWSON(1998). Some physiological studies of diazotrophic bacteria associated with maize in a temperate and a tropical soil In:Nitrogen fixation with Non-legumes (K,Malik, M.S. Mirza & J.K. Ladha eds) pg. 261-264. Kluwer Academic Publis.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & D. WIDDOWSON (1988). Effect of Inoculation on the growth and yield of three maize cultivars. In Proc. 3rd African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Conference, Dakar, Senegal.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "MWAURA F.B. & D. MASAKE (Eds.) (2002).Proceedings of the First Joint COASAD/UN - HABITAT workshop on Food Security for parliamentarians from English-speaking African countries. Nairobi, 30 April .". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mwanyumba F, Claeys P, Gaillard P, Verhofstede C, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Temmerman M.Mwanyumba F, Claeys P, Gaillard P, Verhofstede C, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Temmerman M.J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001 Jan;21(1).". In: J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001 Jan;21(1):27-31. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
{ This article aimed to examine the association between maternal and infant HIV infection and low birth weight (LBW <2500 grams). Data from 8563 singleton liveborns in Mombasa, Kenya, were analysed. Maternal HIV infection was found in 14.1% of the women and 9.6% of neonates had a birth weight of <2500 grams. In multivariate analysis, maternal HIV infection was independently associated with LBW (RR=1.46, 95% CI=1.20-1.79
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mwanyumba F, claeys P, Gaillard P, Verhofstede C, Chohan v, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Temmerman M. Correlation between maternal and infant HIV infection and low birth weight: a study in Mombasa, Kenya. Journal of Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 21:1:27.". In: Journal of Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 21:1:27-31. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A.Factors Contributing to Recurrent Water Shortages in Nairobi City.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y.Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line:.". In: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y. Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001.". In: Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Occupational Diseases and Other Related Health conditions.". In: Workshop Organised by Kenya Medical Association, Serena Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. MBChB Community Health Diagnosis Programme Perspective.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Eastern Africa.". In: Dar-es Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Emerging effects of industrial revolution on 29 1993 Health and environment in developing countries.". In: Tanzania Public Health Association & the East Southern and Central Africa Public Health Association, Arusha, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya. Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Agrochemicals pose health risks to coffee factory workers in Githunguri, Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Agrochemicals pose health risks to coffee factory workers in Githunguri, Kenya.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, N.V. Pesticides hazards.". In: An International Journal of Health Development WHO; Geneva, 11:430, 1990. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals: Potential health hazards in Africa.". In: Africa Health,6:18-19, 1994. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1994. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Africa: The changing Environment and Health. International.". In: Journal of Environmental Health Research, 2:84-88, 1992. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. A safe adequate water supply and basic sanitation.". In: Health for All at The Year 2000: Wishful Thinking or Realistic Goal, 5-7 April 2000, Silver Springs, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. "Kenya: An Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Pesticide Handling at community level,".". In: International Family Health Seminars at The University of Texas, School of Public Health, USA. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Mwanthi, M.A, Nyabola, L, Tenambergen, E. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi. International J. of Environmental Health Research, 7, 345 - 353 (1997).". In: East Afrina Medical Journal, 2001; 78:370. UoN; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact on neutrophils if adriamycin is administered at 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide at 600/m2 (AC 60/600); and at 50 mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2 (50/500) in the treatment of breast cancer. DESIGN: Restrospective analysis of nadir neutrophil counts in female mammary carcinoma patients treated with adriamycin/cyclophosphamide combination. SETTING: Hurlingham Oncology Clinic, Nairobi and The Nairobi Hospital between March 1995 and August 1999. SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients with breast cancer were treated either for adjuvant purposes or for metastatic disease. INTERVENTION: Chemotherapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide at 60/600 or 50/500. Patients were advised to avoid crowded places and given prophylactic broadspectrum antibiotics whenever grade 4 neutropenia occurred at nadir. RESULTS: Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 75.5% of treatments at 60/600 and in 56.8% of the treatments at 50/500. Febrile neutropenia followed only one treatment and did not result in death. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia is frequent and severe at A/C 60/600 and need to be watched out for. Sepsis on the other hand is prevented if meticulous attention is given and corrective measures taken. A/C 50/500 was associated with less occurrences of neutropenia though still very high. Neutropenia should therefore be checked and steps be taken to prevent sepsis even at this dosage.
ONDOH MRNYABOLALAMBERT. "Mwanthi, M.A, Nyabola, L, Tenambergen, E. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes. J. Env. Health, 1997,23-29.". In: East Afrina Medical Journal, 2001; 78:370. UoN; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact on neutrophils if adriamycin is administered at 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide at 600/m2 (AC 60/600); and at 50 mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2 (50/500) in the treatment of breast cancer. DESIGN: Restrospective analysis of nadir neutrophil counts in female mammary carcinoma patients treated with adriamycin/cyclophosphamide combination. SETTING: Hurlingham Oncology Clinic, Nairobi and The Nairobi Hospital between March 1995 and August 1999. SUBJECTS: Eighteen patients with breast cancer were treated either for adjuvant purposes or for metastatic disease. INTERVENTION: Chemotherapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide at 60/600 or 50/500. Patients were advised to avoid crowded places and given prophylactic broadspectrum antibiotics whenever grade 4 neutropenia occurred at nadir. RESULTS: Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 75.5% of treatments at 60/600 and in 56.8% of the treatments at 50/500. Febrile neutropenia followed only one treatment and did not result in death. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia is frequent and severe at A/C 60/600 and need to be watched out for. Sepsis on the other hand is prevented if meticulous attention is given and corrective measures taken. A/C 50/500 was associated with less occurrences of neutropenia though still very high. Neutropenia should therefore be checked and steps be taken to prevent sepsis even at this dosage.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes. Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L. O; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L. O; Tenambergen, T. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Status and Future of Applied Epidemiology Course for Anglophone (African) countries.". In: Benin. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Role of Employers and Stakeholders in Control of Occupational Hazards. Submitted in January 2010 to African Journal for Community Health and Development.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 21: (1).15-17, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Role of Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations in Mitigation of Stigma and Discrimination Among HIV/AIDS Persons in Kibera, Kenya,.". In: Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Presence of three pesticides in rural drinking water sources in Kenya.(.". In: A doctoral dissertation, April 1996) School of Public Health Library, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Pesticides as Occupational Health Hazards in the Kenya Flower Industry.". In: Workshop Organized by the International Labor Organization, Kenya Human Rights Commission and The Workers Rights Organization, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Occurrence of three pesticides in community water supplies, Kenya. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1998. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Occurrence of three pesticides in community water supplies, Kenya.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. MPH Curriculum and Health.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Justification for senior environmental health specialists in Kenya.". In: International Seminar on "Environmental,Sustainable Development and Human Health". Banaras, Hindu University,India. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Exposure to pesticides through drinking water in a rural community in Kenya.". In: International& Family Health Seminar, School of Public Health, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Challenges on Attaining the Millennium Development Goals in Africa at the African management Communication.". In: Hilton Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N. Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. .". In: UNIDO-RENPAP Workshop, BOGOR, INDONESIA, 18-20 Sept.2006. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A and Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "MWANIKI, D.L., GUTHUA, S.W., Incidence of impacted third molars among dental patients in Nairobi, Kenya. Tropical Dental Journal; 19(74); 17-19, June 1996.". In: Tropical Dental Journal; 19(74); 17-19. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
Gangrenous stomatitis (cancrum oris) is a lesion involving the orofacial structures that is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene. The general clinical features, associated etiologic factors, and ensuing complications in eight consecutive cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 are presented and discussed.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "MWANIKI, D.L., GUTHUA, S.W. Traumatic fractures of the mandible: An appraisal of the weak regions. East Afr. med. Jr; 68(4):255-260, 1991.". In: East Afr. med. Jr; 68(4):255-260. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilateral impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "MWANIKI, D. L., GUTHUA, S.W., Occurrence and characteristic of traumatic fractures of the mandible in Nairobi, Kenya. Br. J. Oral & Maxillofac. surg; 28:200-202, 1991.". In: Br. J. Oral & Maxillofac. surg; 28:200-202. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilateral impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "MWANIKI, D. L., GUTHUA, S.W., Occurrence and characteristic of traumatic fractures of the mandible in Nairobi, Kenya. Br. J. Oral & Maxillofac. surg; 28:200-202, 1991.". In: Br. J. Oral & Maxillofac. surg; 28:200-202. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilateral impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Mwaniki DL, Hassanali J. The position of mandibular and mental foramina in Kenyan African mandibles.East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1992. Abstract
Analysis of 79 adult African mandibles indicated that 64.6% of the mandibular foramina were located below the level of the posterior extension of the occlusal plane while 30.7% were located along this plane. 56.1% of the mental foramina were located below the second premolar while 31.1% were between the second premolar and first molar. The remainder were located between the premolars. The mental foramen opened posterosuperiorly in 72.5% of the surfaces. Multiple mental foramina were found on 4.5% of the mandibles. While emphasising the importance of palpation prior to administration of mental nerve block, these observations suggest that in case of uneffective mandibular nerve block, for a significant proportion of Kenyan Bantus, attempts to place the anaesthetic solution slightly below the occlusal plane be considered.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Mwaniki DL, Guthua SW.Occurrence and characteristics of mandibular fractures in Nairobi, Kenya.Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1990 Jun;28(3):200-2.". In: Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1990 Jun;28(3):200-2. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Mwaniki DL, Guthua SW.Mandibular fractures: an appraisal of the weak regions.East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):255-60.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):255-60. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
There is no uniformity in the role of different aetiologic factors in mandibular fractures in different cities of the world. Cultural and socioeconomic factors appear to have important contribution to the aetiologies. The condyle and the angle-body regions are most commonly fractured. There is no obvious relationship between aetiology and the site of fracture. Structural considerations suggest that differences between dentate (open section structure) and non dentate (closed section structure) regions are important determinants of fracture sites. Some modifications of standard teaching materials are recommended.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "MWANIKI D.L., GUTHUA, S.W.: Occupational exposure to Glutaraldehyde in tropical climates. Lancet. Vol. 340:1476 -1477, 1992.". In: Lancet. Vol. 340:1476 -1477. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Mwaniki D., J. Hassanali;The position of mandibular and mental foramina in Kenyan Africans' mandibles. East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Apr;69(4):210-3. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1992. Abstract
Analysis of 79 adult African mandibles indicated that 64.6% of the mandibular foramina were located below the level of the posterior extension of the occlusal plane while 30.7% were located along this plane. 56.1% of the mental foramina were located below the second premolar while 31.1% were between the second premolar and first molar. The remainder were located between the premolars. The mental foramen opened posterosuperiorly in 72.5% of the surfaces. Multiple mental foramina were found on 4.5% of the mandibles. While emphasising the importance of palpation prior to administration of mental nerve block, these observations suggest that in case of uneffective mandibular nerve block, for a significant proportion of Kenyan Bantus, attempts to place the anaesthetic solution slightly below the occlusal plane be considered.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Mwania, N. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Ethiopian cereals markets held in Addis Ababa, 19th July 2002.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Ethiopian cereals markets held in Addis Ababa, 19th July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
MATHENGE DRMURIITHIIAN, NTHAMBI DRMWANGOGLADYS. "Mwango GN, Muriithi IM. Wandering Spleen: Case Report. EAMJ.2010;87:84-86. .". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EAMJ; 2010. Abstract
Wandering spleens are rare clinical entities found more commonly in women aged 20-40 years. We report one such case found in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with low abdominal pains of sudden onset and splenomegaly. An emergency abdominal CT scan showed an enlarged spleen located in the right lumbar region and extending into the pelvis. There was a long splenic pedicle containing tortuous vessels. A review of literature and the postulated aetiological factors and associations are discussed.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW, PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Mwangi,R.W. and Mukiama, T.K. (1992). Irrigation scheme or mosquito hazard: a case study in Mwea Irrigation Scheme. Hydrobiologia. 23: 19-22.". In: Hydrobiologia 232,19-22. WFL Publisher; 1992. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW, PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Mwangi,R.W. and Mukiama, T.K. (1992). Irrigation scheme or mosquito hazard: a case study in Mwea Irrigation Scheme. Hydrobiologia. 23: 19-22.". In: African Journal of Science & Technology: 3,20-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi,R.W. and Kabaru, J.M. (1991). Insect antifeedant and growth regulator compounds in different parts of Melia volkensii.". In: Proc. 4& NAPRECA Symp. on Natural products pp. 13-14. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, S.W. (2003) Challenges of Urban Environmental Governance: Participation and Partnerships in Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. AGIDS, University of Amsterdam. 319 pages. [Co-supervised PhD Research with Prof. Dr. G. A. Bruijne, Prof. Dr. Isa Baud and Dr.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2003. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Rembold, H. (1988). Growth-inhibiting activity of Melia volkensii extracts on larvae of Aedes aegypti. In Natural pesticides from the Neem tree and other tropical plants Vol. 3 (ed. H. Schmutterer) (GTZ) 3, 669-681.". In: Proc. 3rd NAPRECA Symp. on Natural Products and their applications. pp. 40-57. ISBN 9987 8814 32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Rembold, H. (1987). Growth-regulating and larvicidal effects of Melia volkensii extracts on the larvae ofAedes aegypti. Entomol. Exp. & Appl. 46, 103-108.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria, June. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Rembold, H. (1986). Growth-regulating activity of Melia volkensii extracts on the larvae of Aedes aegypti.". In: 3rd Int. Neem Conf. p. 68. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Ndiritu, D.A. (1984). The use of State lands for apiculture in Kenya.". In: Proc. 3 int. Conf. trop. climates. 235-237 (1985). The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW, PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Mwangi, R.W. and Mukiama, T.K. (1990). Studies of insecticidal and growth regulatory activity in extracts of Melia volkensii (Gurke) and indigenous tree in Kenya. East Afric. For. & Agric. J; 54: 165-173.". In: Hydrobiologia 232,19-22. WFL Publisher; 1990. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW, PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Mwangi, R.W. and Mukiama, T.K. (1990). Studies of insecticidal and growth regulatory activity in extracts of Melia volkensii (Gurke) and indigenous tree in Kenya. East Afric. For. & Agric. J; 54: 165-173.". In: Proc. Mosq. Vector Control assoc. 59:62-63.40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW, PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Mwangi, R.W. and Mukiama, T.K. (1988). Evaluation of Melia volkensii extract fractions as mosquito larvicides. -J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 4, 442- 447.". In: J.Amer.Mosq.Control Assoc. 4,442-447. WFL Publisher; 1988. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW, PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "Mwangi, R.W. and Mukiama, T.K. (1988). Evaluation of Melia volkensii extract fractions as mosquito larvicides. -J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 4, 442- 447.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria, June. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Goldsworthy, G.J. (1980). The effect of allatectomy and ovariectory on haemolymph protein and lipid mobilization in Locusta . J. Insect Physiol. 26,741-747.". In: Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Endocrinol. p. 92. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1980.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Goldsworthy, G.J. (1977). Diglyceride- transporting lipoproteins in Locusta. J. Comp. Physiol. 114, 177-190.". In: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Goldsworthy, G.J. (1977). Age-related changes in the response to adipokinetic hormone in Locusta migratoria. Physiological Entomology, 2,37-42.". In: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Goldsworthy, G.J. (1975). Age-related changes in the response to adipokinetic hormone in Locusta.". In: Proc. VIIIth Conf. Europ. Comp. Endocrinol. p. 52. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1975.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and G.O. Seko (1992). Practical Biology for Schools. Longman Publishers 250 pp.". In: Longman Publishers 250 pp. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. and Awiti, L.R.S. (1989). Hypertrehalosaemic activity in corpus caridacum-corpus allatum-aorta complex and locust adipokinetic hormone response of Glossina morsitans. Physiological Entomology 14, 6 1-66.". In: Proc. 3rd NAPRECA Symp. on Natural Products and their applications. pp. 40-57. ISBN 9987 8814 32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1993). Cell Biology for Distance Education (manuscript completed for CEES).". In: African Journal of Science & Technology: 3,20-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1988). Interpreting electron micrographs for Biology and Biological Sciences. Phoenix Publ.ishers (ISBN 9966 47 180 4). 50 pp.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria, June. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1985). Geographical distribution and biological characteristics of Apis mellifera varieties in Kenya.". In: Proc. xxxth Int. Apic. Congress. p. 56. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1985.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1984). Reasons for low levels of hive occupancy in Kenya. Proc. 3 int.Conf. Apic. trop. climates. 61-63 (1985).". In: Proc. xxxth Int. Apic. Congress. p. 56. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1982). Locust antifeedant activity from Melia volkensii. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 32, 277-280.". In: Proc. 3 int. Conf. trop. climates. 235-237 (1985). The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1981). Inhibition of ovarian development vitellogenin accumulation by rabbit anti-brain serum in Locusta.". In: Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Endocrinol. p. 92. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1981.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R.W. (1977). The effects of ovariectomy and allatectomy in adult female locusts on the response to adipokinetic hormone.". In: Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology. p. 21. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. and  oldsworth ; G. J. (1978). Diglyceride-ransporting lipoproteins and flight in Locusta. In Comparative Endocrinology (Elsevier-N. Holland) (ed.Gailland) 459-464.". In: Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Endocrinol. p. 92. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1978.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. and Goldsworthy, G.J. (1981). Diglyceride- transport lipoproteins and flightin Locusta. J. Insect Physiol. 27, 47-50.". In: Proc. 3 int. Conf. trop. climates. 235-237 (1985). The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1981.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. and Goldsworthy, G.J. (1976). Age-related changes in the response to Adipokinetic hormone in Locusta. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 29, 291.". In: Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology. p. 21. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. and Goldsworthy , G.J. (1977). Interrelationships between haemolymph lipid and carbohydrate during starvation in Locusta. J. Insect Physiol. 23, 1275-1280.". In: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. and G. 0. Seko (1992). Practical Biology for Schools. Longman Publishers 250 pp.". In: Proc. 3rd NAPRECA Symp. on Natural Products and their applications. pp. 40-57. ISBN 9987 8814 32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. and four others (2006). Greening the brown. A case study of the ASALS in Kenya. Egerton University Press.". In: Egerton University Press. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. (1986). Distribution and biological characteristics of Apis mellifera varietieb in Kenya. Apimodia. 30, 115-1 18.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria, June. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Mwangi, R. W. (1 977). Factors affecting lipid mobilization in Locusta migratoria,.". In: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Mwangi, J.M., Otieno, G.O., Suda,C., Gitau, T., McDermott,J.J., Waltner-Toews,D., Gathuma, J.M., Kangethe, E.K., Kimani,V.W.,Kilungo,J.K., Muni, R.K. and Khasiani, S.A.(1998). Social economic constraints to agricultural productivity in Kiambu District. Ke.". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.

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