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G PROFGATEIDAVID. "J E Sanderson, E G Olsen, and D Gatei.Peripartum heart disease: an endomyocardial biopsy study.". In: Br Heart J. 56(3): 285. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Endomyocardial biopsies were performed in 11 African women in Nairobi who presented with the clinical features of peripartum cardiomyopathy. The samples were studied by light and electron microscopy. In five patients there was evidence of a "healing myocarditis", that is the presence of a mild inflammatory cell infiltration within the myocardium with foci of necrosis and variable amounts of hypertrophy and fibrosis. Of the nine patients who were followed up, three out of four with myocarditis had persistent heart failure and four out of five without myocarditis improved. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte cell subsets were measured in nine patients by means of monoclonal antibodies. A high helper:suppressor T cell ratio was found in three patients. Almost half of this group of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy had myocarditis in their biopsy specimens. The myocarditis may have been due to an inappropriate immunological reaction in some patients.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, MILE DRJUSTUSKITHEKA. "Justus K. Mile, Bernard M. Nzimbi and S.K. Moindi, On the characterization of Class R_1 of non-normal operators in a Hilbert space, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
2022
2021
R T. "Jinamizi la Malezi.". In: Utashi wa Dola na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Oxford University Press ; 2021.
Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J, Magambo G. "Journal of Agriculture and Food Research." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;5:100188. Abstract
n/a
2020
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2015
Maleche-Obimbo E, Wanjau W, Kathure I. "The journey to improve the prevention and management of childhood tuberculosis: the Kenyan experience." Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.. 2015;19 Suppl 1:39-42. Abstract

Child tuberculosis (TB) cases in Kenya, a high TB burden country, constitute more than one tenth of all TB cases. This paper describes Kenya's efforts in the past decade to increase awareness about policy, improve leadership and combat the multiple challenges faced in the diagnosis and management of children presumed to have TB. We describe the increasing advocacy and involvement of paediatricians and the child health sector with the National TB Programme, and the resulting improvement in leadership, policy, child-specific guidelines and training materials, health worker capacity, and the implementation of prevention and cure of child TB.

Mukungu N.A., C.K M, Sinei K.A, Mutai, E.B.K., Ongarora D.S.B, E.W. K. "Jatropha Curcas Poisoning in Children in Western Kenya – A Case Report. ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2015;18 :32-34.
Mukungu N, Maitai C, Sinei K, Mutai P, Ongarora D, Karumi E. "Jatropha curcas Poisoning in Children in Western Kenya- A Case Report." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;18:32-34.
Mukungu NA, Maitai CK, Sinei KA, Mutai PC, Ongarora DSB, Karumi EW. "Jatropha curcas poisoning in children in Western Kenya- A case report." J. Pharm. Sci. . 2015;18(2015):32-34.
NA M, CK M, KA S, PC M, DSB O, EW K. ""Jatropha curcas poisoning in children in Western Kenya- A case report." ." J. Pharm. Sci. . 2015;18(2015):32-34.
R 3. T. "Jinamizi la Ubaguzi.". In: Fimbo ya Mbali na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers 2015; 2015.
Maina SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK. "Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences." Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 2015;3(1):2320-8694 .jebas_haematol_maina_et_al.pdf
Nthiwa DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi S, Gichimu BM. "Journal of Parasitology Research." Journal of Parasitology Research. 2015. Abstract

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina
spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective
of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in
Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G.
pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs
(proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR ..

2014
Kanyinga K. "Jubilee on the right track but it has to do more on cohesion." Sunday Nation, April 10, 2014.
Rodriguez JC, Onyambu CK, Aywak AA. "JC, R, CK O, AA A. 2014. A Rare Case of Crossed Renal Ectopia without Fusion. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 19(3):112-115.AJO." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(3):112-115.
Mukhwana, A. IS&OM(eds). "Je, Sheng' niLahaja ya Kiswahili?". In: Miaka Hamsini ya Kiswahili nchini Kenya. Twaweza Communications Ltd; 2014.
Kimani G.N., N. W. "Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Headteachers in Mombasa County." African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research 2. 2014;1(ISSN 2276 – 6103):143-147.kimani_6.pdf
Dr. Maluki P, Dr.Ouma M. "Journal of Science Technology Education and Management." Arms Proliferation,Disarmament and Human Security in the Horn of Africa. 2014;6(1&2):161-178.
Odhiambo T, Siundu G. "Journeying into Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2014;1(1):1-5.
2013
Kanyinga K. "Jubilee government will be known for rule by fiat." Sunday Nation, July 29, 2013.
Kanyinga K. "Jubilee on right path, but counties may fail us." Sunday Nation, December 29, 2013.
"Jared Mecha Jared Mecha Assessment of pulmonary function in rheumatoid arthritis patients attending Rheumatology Clinics in Nairobi." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2013;1. AbstractWebsite

Background: Pulmonary involvement is a frequent and among the most severe extra-articular manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) ranking as the second cause of mortality in this patient population. Rheumatoid arthritis can a ect the lung parenchyma, airways and pleura. Pulmonary complications are directly responsible for 10-20% of all mortality in RA patients. Spirometry is becoming increasingly available in Kenya and could be used in peripheral areas to screen and monitor for pulmonary function abnormalities in well characterized patient populations such as those with RA. Abnormalities detected by pulmonary function tests may precede symptoms by years and lead to early diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis in rheumatoid arthritis and
hence intervention.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis patients attending Rheumatology Clinics in Nairobi.
Design: Cross sectional descriptive study.
Setting: Nairobi Rheumatology Clinics in Kenyatta National Hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital and Mater Hospital. Methods: Rheumatoid arthritis patients aged 13 to 65 years who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria were recruited. Sociodemographic characterictics and respiratory symptoms were assessed using Lung Tissue Research Consortium questionnaire (LTRC) and RA disease activity was established by Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Pulmonary function tests were then done using Spirolab 111 according to the American Thoracic Society recommendations.
Results: One hundred and sixty six RA patients were recruited; the male to female ratio was 1:9.3, with a median age of 47 years. The overall six month prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities was 38.5% as measured by Spirometry and all our patients did not carry any prior pulmonary disease diagnosis. The predominant ventilatory defect was obstructive pattern at 20.4%, followed by restrictive pattern at 16.8% and least common being a mixed picture at 1.2%. Factors that were shown
to be independently associated with pulmonary function abnormalities were age and RA disease activity. Respiratory
symptoms that were predictive of PFTs abnormalities were cough, increased frequency of chest colds and illnesses
and phlegm.
Conclusion: High prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities was observed. Respiratory symptoms, older age and ongoing disease activity can identify patients in greatest need of further pulmonary evaluation.

Key words : Rheumatoid Arthritis, Pulmonary function test, Nairobi Rheumatology Clinics

Kimilu RK. Jatropha Biodiesel: Properties and Performance. Sunnyvale, CA: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2013.
2012
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "A joint Kenya – Ivory Coast Malaria Measurement Campaign.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Zoueu JT. A joint Kenya-Ivory coast malaria measurement campaign. ICIPE, Nairobi: AFSIN; 2012.
Okelo JA, Mbithi LM, Kiriti-Nganga. "Jounce Of The African Women Studies Centre.". 2012.Website
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Okelo JA, Mbithi LM. "Jounce Of The African Women Studies Centre.". 2012.Website
"Judy W . Kamau, Wangari Kuria, Muthoni Mathai, Lukoye Atwoli & Rachael Kangethe. Psychiatric morbidity among HIV -infected children and adolescents in a resource-poor Kenyan urban community.". 2012. Abstract

The course of HIV/AIDS in children has been transformed from an acute to a chronic one with the advent of
Anti-Retroviral Therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric
morbidity in HIV-infected children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age and the relationship between
their socio-demographic factors, immune suppression and psychiatric morbidity. The study was conducted at a
paediatric HIV clinic in Nairobi, between February and April 2010. One hundred and sixty-two HIV-infected
childrenandadolescentsagedbetween6and18yearsandtheirguardianswereinterviewed.Seventy-nine(48.8%)
of the study participants were found to have psychiatric morbidity. The most prevalent Diagnostic Statistical
Manual, 4th Edition TR psychiatric disorders were: Major depression (17.8%), Social phobia (12.8%),
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (12.1%) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (12.1%). Twenty-five
per cent of the study participants had more than one psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric
morbidity in HIV-infected children ishigher than that found in children in the general population. There is
therefore a need to integrate psychiatric services into the routine care of HIV-infected children.

MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2012). Cytotoxicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan Biodiversity to the Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae).". In: The 4th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy (4th ICDDT) 2012, at Dubai men. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2012). Natural products: An exciting source of new pharmacophores against malaria.". In: : The 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and the 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference held at Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, from 25th to 27th April 2012. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.M.Nguta, J.M.Mbaria, D.W.Gakuyab, P.K.Gathumbi, J.D.Kabasa, S.G.Kiama. Cytotoxicity of anti-malarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to the brine shrimp, artemia salina l. (artemiidae).". In: Faculty of 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and The 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference 25 - 27 April, 2012 Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi-Kenya. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 21 false false false SW X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Artemia salina (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemicals and natural products. Design and methods: In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 values) of 45 anti-malarial plant extracts and positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide were determined using Artemia salina (Artemiidae). Results: Out of the 45 organic extracts screened for activity against Artemia salina larvae, 23 (51%) of the crude extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/ml, and were categorized as having strong cytotoxic activity, 18 (40%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml, and were categorized as having moderate cytotoxicity, 2 (4.5%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity, while 2 (4.5%) of the crude extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml and were considered to be non toxic. Approximately 20% (9) of the aqueous extracts demonstrated activity at or below 100 μg/ml and were considered to have strong cytotoxic activity, 40% (18) of the screened aqueous crude extracts had LC50 values between 100 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml and were considered to be moderately cytotoxic, 16% (7) of the crude extracts had LC50 values between 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml and were considered to have weak cytotoxic activity while 24% (11) of the aqueous extracts had LC50 values greater than 1000 μg/ml and were categorized as non toxic The positive controls, cyclophosphamide and etoposide exhibited strong cytotoxicity with LC50 values of 95 μg/ml and 6 μg/ml respectively in a 24 hour lethality study, validating their use as anticancer agents. Conclusions: In the current study, 95.5% of all the screened organic extracts and 76% of the investigated aqueous extracts demonstrated LC50 values <1000 μg/ml, indicating that these plants could not make safe antimalarial treatments. This calls for dose adjustment amongst the community using the plant extracts for the treatment of malaria and chemical investigation for isolation of bioactive compounds responsible for the observed toxicity. These could make novel ingredients for anticancerous drugs. Key words: Cytotoxicity; Artemia salina bioassay; crude extracts; anti-malarial plants; Kenyan biodiversity
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "James M. Mbaria: Traditional Knowledge and Practices of Indigenous Peopes in Coping with Diabetes. Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. Held at Copenha.". In: . Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
Thuo S, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Job scheduling in grid computing using simulated annealing.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Joseph M. Nguta, J. Mbaria et al (2012). Cytotoxicity of Antimalarial plant extracts from Kenya biodiversity to brine shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemidae).". In: Drugs and therapy studies. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
NYAGA PROFGATUMUHANIEL. "July 2012 .". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2012.
2011
Savage MW, Dhatariya KK, Kilvert A, Rayman G, a. Rees JE, Courtney CH, Hilton L, Dyer PH, Hamersley MS, Joint British Diabetes Societies. "Joint {British} {Diabetes} {Societies} guideline for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2011;28:508-515. Abstract

The Joint British Diabetes Societies guidelines for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (these do not cover Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Syndrome) are available in full at: (i) http://www.diabetes.org.uk/About\_us/Our\_Views/Care\_recommendations/The-Management-of-Diabetic-Ketoacidosis-in-Adults; (ii)  http://www.diabetes.nhs.uk/publications\_and\_resources/reports\_andġuidance; (iii) http://www.diabetologists-abcd.org.uk/JBDS\_DKA\_Management.pdf. This article summarizes the main changes from previous guidelines and discusses the rationale for the new recommendations. The key points are: Monitoring of the response to treatment (i) The method of choice for monitoring the response to treatment is bedside measurement of capillary blood ketones using a ketone meter. (ii) If blood ketone measurement is not available, venous pH and bicarbonate should be used in conjunction with bedside blood glucose monitoring to assess treatment response. (iii) Venous blood should be used rather than arterial (unless respiratory problems dictate otherwise) in blood gas analysers. (iv) Intermittent laboratory confirmation of pH, bicarbonate and electrolytes only. Insulin administration (i) Insulin should be infused intravenously at a weight-based fixed rate until the ketosis has resolved. (ii) When the blood glucose falls below 14 mmol/l, 10% glucose should be added to allow the fixed-rate insulin to be continued. (iii) If already taking, long-acting insulin analogues such as insulin glargine (Lantus(®), Sanofi Aventis, Guildford, Surry, UK) or insulin detemir (Levemir(®), Novo Nordisk, Crawley, West Sussex, UK.) should be continued in usual doses. Delivery of care (i) The diabetes specialist team should be involved as soon as possible. (ii) Patients should be nursed in areas where staff are experienced in the management of ketoacidosis.

MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Biological screening of Kenyan antimalarial plant extracts in brine shrimp bioassay.". In: The first international congress on Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI): Impact, Limitations and Needs in Developing Countries in the United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from September 12th to 18th, 2011, sponsored by USDA/APHIS in collab. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Development of ethnomedicines for management of malaria in Msambweni district, Kenya.". In: The Proceedings of a Workshop on Regional Networks in Africa, held on October 5 to 6th, 2010 at the Kopanong Hotel and Conference Centre in Benoni, South Africa, near Johannesburg. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Exploiting Natural Products from African Biodiversity in Pest Management: from Extraction of Plant chemicals to Expression in GMOs.". In: The proceedings of a continuous professional development (CPD) workshop on, . Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Exploiting Natural Products from African Biodiversity in Pest Management: from Extraction of Plant chemicals to Expression in GMOs.". In: The proceedings of a continuous professional development (CPD) workshop on, . Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Natural products from plant biodiversity and malaria.". In: The 12TH International Symposium on Natural Product Chemistry and Related Biological Sciences, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS), University of Karachi, Pakistan during November 22-25, 2010. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Plants as source of drugs: Ethnopharmacology, Pharmacology and Toxicology of selected antimalarial herbal plants from Msambweni district, South coast Kenya.". In: Proceedings of a RISE AFNNET workshop-University of Nairobi Node in Chak Guest House, Nairobi, on 13th December 2011. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Toxicity of crude plant extracts and antitumour drugs in the Brine Shrimp Bioassay.". In: The Proceedings of the Ist International Scientific Conference, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya during June 15-17th, 2011. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.M.Nguta, J.M.Mbaria, D.W.Gakuya, P.K.Gathumbi, J.D.Kabasa, S.G.Kiama BIOLOGICAL SCREEIG OF KENYAN MEDICIAL PLATS USIG ARTEMIA SALINA L. (ARTEMIIDAE).". In: Pharmacologyonline 2: 458-478 (2011). Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2011.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "James M. Mbaria (2011). Lead poisoning.". In: Proceeding Continuous Professional Development (CPD) workshop on Forensic Veterinary Science. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Joseph Mwanzia Nguta, James M. Mbaria, Peter K. Gathumbi, Daniel Gakuya, John David Kabasa and Stephen Gitahi Kiama (2011). Ethnodiagnostic Skills of the Digo Community for Malaria: A Lead to Traditional Bioprospecting.". In: The 4th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy (4th ICDDT) 2012, at Dubai men. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting.The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Joseph Mwanzia Nguta1,James M. Mbaria,Peter K. Gathumbi,Daniel Gakuya,John David Kabasa, and Stephen Gitahi Kiama Ethnodiagnostic skills of the Digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting.". In: ORIGINAL RESEARCHARTICLE published: 24 June 2011 doi: 10.3389/fphar.2011.00030. Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the developmentof resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases.This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting.The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information.The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria.This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions.The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.Keywords:malaria,antimalarials,ethnopharmacology,ethnodiagnostic skills,Digo community,bioprospecting
Collins odote, Migai Akech PK-M, Mwangi G. "Judicial Reforms and Access to Justice in Kenya: Realising the Promise of the New Constitution." Kenya Civil Society Strengthening Programme ACT and PACT; 2011. Abstract
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2010
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta and J. M. Mbaria (2010). Bioavailability of cobalt and anthelmintic effects of albendazole fortified with cobalt (Vermitan super) in sheep.". In: The Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference, held on September 8th To 10th, 2010 at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta and J. M. Mbaria et al., (2010) Spectroscopic Determination of Cobalt and Copper in Grass Pastures in Kabete.". In: The Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference held on September 8th to 10th, 2010 at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2010). Ethnodiagnostic Skills of the Digo Community for malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting?". In: The Proceedings of the Ist East and Central Africa Regional Symposium for the Carnegie-RISE Fellows held on September 15th, 2010 at Royale Imperial Hotel, Kampala-Uganda, East Africa. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010). Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol. 128: 424-432.". In: J Ethnopharmacol. 128: 424-432. University of nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010). Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131: (2010) 256.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010): Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies Used by the South Coast Community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(2): 256-267.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 424. J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama; 2010. Abstract
Malariaisaseriouscauseofmortalityglobally.The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbalremedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plantsthataretraditionallyusedbytheMsambwenicommunityofKenyanSouth Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semi structured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplementedthe interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented the species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon(Rutaceae), Gerranthuslobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey(Cucurbitaceae), GrewiahexamintaBurret. (Tiliaceae), CanthiumglaucumHiern. (Rubiaceae), AmaranthushybridusL.(Amaranthaceae), CombretumpadoidesEngl and Diels.(Combretaceae), SeneciosyringitoliusO.Hoffman.(Compositae),OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae),AloemacrosiphonBak.(Liliaceae)andLaudolphiabuchananii(Hall.f)Stapf.(Apocynaceae) are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plantbased antimalarial drugs.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni,.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128: 424. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented th species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret.(Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L.(Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Seneciosyringitolius O.Hoffman. (Compositae), OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region forthefirst time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni,.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128: 424. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented th species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret.(Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L.(Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Seneciosyringitolius O.Hoffman. (Compositae), OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region forthefirst time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.M. Ngutaa, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131 (2010) 256. J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama; 2010. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "John B. Githiori and Peter K Gathumbi (2010 ) Ethnoveterinary plants used in East Africa, In: Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press).". In: J Ethnopharmacol. 128: 424-432. University of nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "John B. Githiori and Peter K Gathumbi (2010 ) Ethnoveterinary plants used in East Africa, In: Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press).". In: Ethnobotanical Medicines of Animals Health Taylor & Francis Group LLC Boca Raton, USA (In Press). Muravej S, Gathece LW; 2010. Abstract
In this study five aqueous extracts; Bidens pilosa, Strychnos henningsii, Aspilia pluriseta, Catha edulis and Erythrina abyssinica were screened for anti-diabetic activity and their in vivo safety evaluated. The anti-diabetic activity was assessed by intraperitoneally injecting varying doses of aqueous extracts of the five plants into alloxanised mice. Toxicity was determined by injecting normal mice with 450mg of the plant extract / kg body weight and observing the effects of the extracts on histology of various organs. All the extracts showed hypoglycaemic activity. At high doses, some plants proved to be highly toxic, mildly toxic and others were safe. This study has established that the five bioactive plants can be safely used in the management of diabetes.
2009
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Jefwa G. Mweri et al. Sign Language Interpreter Training in Kenya. In Jemina Napier (Ed). International Perspectives on Sign Language Interpreter Education. Washington, DC. Gallaudet University Press.". In: International Perspectives on Sign Language Interpreter Education. Gallaudet University Press; 2009. Abstract

The history of interpratation is as old as the deaf culture itself. wherever daef people have been, intepratation has always been there. deaf people, of course, do not live in isolation. they live amid thier brothers and sisiters and other relatives. According to the Kenya campaign on disability and HIV and AIDS advocacy, propoasl 2008, approximately 3.5 people in Kenya are currently living with disabilities. This translates to an approximately 800.000 deaf people out of the population of about 35million  people in Kenya. This population makes, or will make use of interpratation in settings such as courts of law, police stations, and so forth. interpreters act as a bridge between hearing and deaf people inn terms of communication. This chapter gives an overview of the situation of kenyan sign Language(KSL)  interpratation in Kenya by giving a historical perspective, the role of Kenya National Association of the Deaf (KNAD), Kenya Sign Language Research project (KSLRP) and the role of other institutions including the Kenya Sign Language Interpreters Association (KSLIA) in interprter training and concludes by giving recommendations in the way forward.

"J.W. Mwangi, G. N. Thoithi, I.O. Kibwage on Essential oil bearing plants from Kenya: Chemistry, Biological activity and Applications. In H.Rodolfo Juliani, James E. Simon and Chi-Tang Ho (Eds). African Natural Products: New Discoveries and Challenges in C." American Chemical Society. Washington DC, USA, Chapter 27, pp 495-525.; 2009. Abstract

PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka H, Malogo R, Ndambuki R, Nyange J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Fast P, Schmidt C, Verlinde C, Smith C, Bhatt K, Ndinya-Achola J and Anzala O (2009) Pregnancy rates among female participants in Phase I and Phase IIA AIDS vaccine clinical.". In: UoN research meeting. East African Medical Journal 86(9):430-4; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka H, Malogo R, Ndambuki R, Nyange J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Fast P, Schmidt C, Verlinde C, Smith C, Bhatt K, Ndinya-Achola J and Anzala O (2009) Pregnancy rates among female participants in Phase I and Phase IIA AIDS vaccine clinical.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. East African Medical Journal 86(9):430-4; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Jefwa, G. J. (2009) Structural borrowing: The case of Kenyan sign Language (KSL) and Kiswahili Contact Signing. In Fredrick Kang.". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. USIU press; 2009.
2008
Ngugi M. "Jomo Kenyatta.". In: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO; 2008.
Yenesew A. "Joziknipholones A and B: The First Dimeric Phenylanthraquinones, from the Roots of Bulbine frutescens." Chem. Eur. J. . 2008; 14:1420-1429. Abstractpaper_45_Bringmann_et_al_joziknipholones.pdf

From the roots of the African plant Bulbine frutescens (Asphodelaceae), two unprecedented novel dimeric
phenylanthraquinones, named joziknipholones A and B, possessing axial and centrochirality, were isolated,
together with six known compounds. Structural elucidation of the new metabolites was achieved by spectroscopic and chiroptical methods, by reductive cleavage of the central bond between the monomeric phenylanthraquinone and -anthrone portions with sodium dithionite, and by quantum chemical CD
calculations. Based on the recently revised absolute axial configuration of the parent phenylanthraquinones, knipholone and knipholone anthrone, the new dimers were attributed to possess the P-configuration (i.e., with the acetyl portions below the anthraquinone plane) at both axes in the case of joziknipholone A, whereas in joziknipholone B, the knipholone part was found to be M-configured. Joziknipholones A and B are active against the chloroquine resistant strain K1 of the malaria pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, and show moderate activity against murine leukemic lymphoma L5178y cells.

MUSILI. "The jurisdiction for the grant of a mareva injunction in kenyan courts." Law Society of Kenya journal. 2008;Vol. 4 2008 No. 1 (ISBN 9966-7237-2-2).
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria and L. W. Kanja local experience on conduct of acute toxicological studies: Presented in seminar on procedure of Evaluation of pesticides: toxicology Ecotoxicology and Efficacy. Workshop organized by pest control products Board (PCPB) on 16th.". In: Workshop organized by pest control products Board (PCPB) on 16th July 2008 at Agricultural information resource centre (AIRC), Nairobi, Kenya. E; 2008.
HURIA PROFNDERITUJOHN. "J. W. Muthomi; P. E. Otieno; G. N. Chemingw.". In: J. Entomol. 5(3): 156-163. Nderitu, J, H, and Kasina, J, M.; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
KIOGORA DRMWORIAJOHN, PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "Jane T. Munene, J.I. Kinyamario, N. Holst and JK Mworia Competition between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and wild rice (Oryza punctata) in Kenya.African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 3 (9), pp. 605-611.". In: African Journal of Midwifery, October 2008 Issue. Intech Open Access Publishers; 2008.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Jeruto, P.,Lukhoba, C., Ouma, G., Otieno, D. and Mutai. C., 2008. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Nandi people in Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116 (2) 370-376.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116 (2) 370-376.; 2008. Abstract

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance

The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests.

Aims of the study

This study therefore sought to collect information from local populations concerning the use of Nandi Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used and determine the relative importance of the species surveyed.

Materials and methods

Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. A total of 40 medicinal plants used locally for the treatment and/or control of human ailments were collected through interviews conducted with selected traditional doctors and professional healers.

Results

This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants use and that leaf material form the major component of plant parts exploited. The other harvested materials consist of stem bark, the roots and the whole plant, though at a lower intensity for making liquid concoctions from different plants. Majority of the remedies were prepared from a single species. In most cases, the mode of administration was oral. In the forest, some of the plants collected were scarce. This scarcity was attributed to indiscriminate logging, overexploitation, poor harvesting methods and current agricultural trends.

Conclusion

Conservation procedures and creation of awareness were identified as the main remedies to the current situation.

Keywords: Ethnobotany; Kenya medicinal plants; Nandi people

2007
Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Universal SCFs and Optimal Chamfering in Cross Bored Cylinders." International Journal of Pressure Vessels & Piping. 2007;84:396-404.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "John N. Kireiger, Robert C. Bailey, John C. Opeya, Benard O. Ayieko, Felix A. Opiyo, Dickens Omondi, Kawango Agot, Corette Parker, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, and Stephen Moses. Adult Male Circumcision Outcomes:.". In: Experience in a Developing Country Setting. Urol Int. 2007; 78: 235-240. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractadult_male_circumcision_outcomes.docadult_male_circumcision_outcomes.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

Odhiambo T. "Juvenile Delinquency and Violence in the Fiction of Three Kenyan Writers." Tydskrif vir Letterkunde. 2007;44(2):134-148.
M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "J. H. Nderitu, E. M. Wambua, F. Olubayo, J. M. Kasina, C. N. Waturu. 2007. Evaluation of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars and Breeding lines for Resistance to Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Pests in Kenya.". In: Journal of Entomology 4 (3): 2002-209. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
MUTUIRI DRBURURIAJOHN. "J. M. BURURIA, P. N. KINYANJUI, P. G. WAIYAKI AND S. M. KARIUKI Resistance of Klebsiella species Isolates from Two Institutions in Nairobi, Kenya to Commonly Prescribed antimicrobial Agents. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 10 (2007) 22-26. au-ibar; 2007. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "J. P. O. Obiero. 2007. Soil Erosion Engineering. Lecture notes developed for open and distance learning in an e-learning interactive CD based on the the Webscript software.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Jan. 29-30, 2007 .". In: Regional Conference on Capacity Building for the Fast Tracking of the East African Market, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
n/a
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Jaoko WG, Michael E, Meyrowitsch DW, Estambale BB, Malecela MN, Simonsen PE.Immunoepidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: parasite transmission intensity, filaria-specific antibodies, and host immunity in two East African communities. Infect Immun.". In: Infect Immun. 2007 Dec;75(12):5651-62. Epub 2007 Oct 1. Taylor & Francis; 2007. Abstract
We compared the age profiles of infection and specific antibody intensities in two communities with different transmission levels in East Africa to examine the contribution of humoral responses to human immunity to the vector-borne helminth Wuchereria bancrofti. The worm intensities were higher and exhibited a nonlinear age pattern in a high-transmission community, Masaika, in contrast to the low but linearly increasing age infection profile observed for a low-transmission community, Kingwede. The mean levels of specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2, IgG4, and IgE were also higher in Masaika, but intriguingly, the IgG3 response was higher in Kingwede. The age-antibody patterns differed in the two communities but in a manner apparently contrary to a role in acquired immunity when the data were assessed using simple correlation methods. By contrast, multivariate analyses showed that the antibody response to infection may be classified into three types and that two of these types, a IgG3-type response and a response measuring a trade-off in host production of IgG4 and IgG3 versus production of IgG1, IgG2, and IgE, had a negative effect on Wuchereria circulating antigen levels in a manner that supported a role for these responses in the generation of acquired immunity to infection. Mathematical modeling supported the conclusions drawn from empirical data analyses that variations in both transmission and worm intensity can explain community differences in the age profiles and impacts of these antibody response types. This study showed that parasite-specific antibody responses may be associated with the generation of acquired immunity to human filarial infection but in a form which is dependent on worm transmission intensity and interactions between immune components.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Michael E, Meyrowitsch DW, Estambale BB, Malecela MN, Simonsen PE.Immunoepidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: parasite transmission intensity, filaria-specific antibodies, and host immunity in two East African communities.Infect Immun.". In: Infect Immun. 2007 Dec;75(12):5651-62. Epub 2007 Oct 1. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2007. Abstract
We compared the age profiles of infection and specific antibody intensities in two communities with different transmission levels in East Africa to examine the contribution of humoral responses to human immunity to the vector-borne helminth Wuchereria bancrofti. The worm intensities were higher and exhibited a nonlinear age pattern in a high-transmission community, Masaika, in contrast to the low but linearly increasing age infection profile observed for a low-transmission community, Kingwede. The mean levels of specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2, IgG4, and IgE were also higher in Masaika, but intriguingly, the IgG3 response was higher in Kingwede. The age-antibody patterns differed in the two communities but in a manner apparently contrary to a role in acquired immunity when the data were assessed using simple correlation methods. By contrast, multivariate analyses showed that the antibody response to infection may be classified into three types and that two of these types, a IgG3-type response and a response measuring a trade-off in host production of IgG4 and IgG3 versus production of IgG1, IgG2, and IgE, had a negative effect on Wuchereria circulating antigen levels in a manner that supported a role for these responses in the generation of acquired immunity to infection. Mathematical modeling supported the conclusions drawn from empirical data analyses that variations in both transmission and worm intensity can explain community differences in the age profiles and impacts of these antibody response types. This study showed that parasite-specific antibody responses may be associated with the generation of acquired immunity to human filarial infection but in a form which is dependent on worm transmission intensity and interactions between immune components.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Javvaji S, Kumar A, Madan K, Garg PK, Acharya SK.Management of gastric variceal bleeding.Trop Gastroenterol. 2007 Apr-Jun;28(2):51-7.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2007 Apr-Jun;28(2):51-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the value of clinical symptomatology, abdominal ultrasound (US), triple-phase CT (TPCT) and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) estimation in predicting presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, Child's A/B cirrhosis patients were subjected to clinical evaluation, US, TPCT and serum AFP estimation. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical symptoms and of AFP at different cut-off levels were determined. Detection rate of HCC and agreement between US and TPCT was estimated. RESULTS: A high proportion of enrolled subjects had HCC at first presentation (40.7%). Significantly higher prevalence of abdominal pain, weight loss, and anorexia was seen in patients with cirrhosis with HCC compared to those without HCC. Sensitivity and specificity of any of these symptoms was 73 and 79%, respectively (positive and negative predictive values of 65 and 85%, respectively). A 100% agreement between TPCT and US was observed for diagnosing HCC cases. However, TPCT detected a greater number of smaller HCCs. Sensitivity of AFP at 400 ng/ml cut-off was only 25.7%, too low to be useful. Best mix of sensitivity (77.2%) and specificity (78.1%) of AFP was found to be at 10.7 ng/ml cut-off which falls within the conventional limits of normalcy. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of symptomatology of weight loss, abdominal pain or anorexia as markers for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. AFP was not found to be a useful screening test. TPCT should be undertaken in all cirrhotics presenting to the hospital for the first time. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

2006
Rading GO. "J M Kihiu, G O Rading and S M Mutuli: Overstrain in Flush Optimum Chamfered Cross Bored Cylinders." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 2006;220:15-25.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. J. Nguhiu-Mwangi; P.M.F. Mbithi; J.K. Wabacha; and P.G. Mbuthia. Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2006 special.; 2006. Abstract

The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2

"J.W. Mwangi, GN. Thoithi, I.0. Kibwage. Essential Oil of Cymhopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and Antimicrobial Activity.". 2006. Abstract

The hydro-distilled essential oil (1.6%) of fresh aerial parts of wild Cymbopogon
winterianus Jowitt was analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty compounds representing 96.5% of the oil were
identified. The main components of theoil were linalool (27.4%), citronellol (l 0.9%), geraniol (8.5%),
u-calacorene, cis-calamenene (4.3%), l3-elemene(3.9%) and longifolene (3.5%). The oil exhibited low
antimicrobial activity.

Thenya T, Verburg P, Wassmann R, Verchot L, Mungai D. "Journal of Environmental Management." Dynamics of Resource Utilization in a Tropical Wetlan. 2006.
Kogi-Makau W;, Mwangi AM;, Mwikya SM;, Ngala S;, Sehmi JK;, Obudho E;, Mugo J. "The Joy and Challenges of Capacity Building for Better Nutrition in Africa.".; 2006. Abstract

partners to recognize the need for tangible support in capacity building at institutions of higher learning for better nutrition in Africa. Objective: To articulate the experience of capacity building in nutrition in Africa using the Applied Nutrition Programme of University of Nairobi as a case. Design: Case study. Setting: Applied Nutrition Programme, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition University of Nairobi, Kenya The Experiences: In response to lack of critical mass of qualified nutrition professionals for effective mainstreaming of nutrition at community and national levels in Africa, the Applied Nutrition Programme of the University of Nairobi, since 1985, has been providing sound nutrition training at postgraduate degree level, to international students; mainly from Africa and with some from New Zealand, Sweden and Brazil. The Programme also conducts capacity building in form of short courses for Government Ministries, development partners and communities and will be launching a BSc degree programme in nutrition and dietetics this year (2005). The capacity building venture has helped integrate regional indigenous nutrition knowledge and local technologies with mainstream nutrition training, producing graduates who know both their subject and field. The Programme has expanded into nutrition in emergencies, interventions, dietetics, food as a human rights and nutrition policy, inline with its goal of contributing to regional development. Lack of consistent long-term funding is a major challenge. Others include the rigid nature of donor funding, increasing competition for students and delay, though in the phase-out, in timely completion of the degree programme. Conclusion: There is adequate demand for training and the Programme has the potential to meet a substantial portion especially if provided with the necessary support. The Programme is flexible and vibrant in keeping with the dynamism that nutrition, health and development challenges require. There is a need to define and impart a critical portion of nutritional knowledge to all working in development in Africa. Recommendations: The nutrition fraternity must define a package of critical nutrition knowledge for developmental communication, increase opportunities for training and lobby for responsive policy and partnership environment that supports all aspects of capacity building including technical, infrastructure, information communication technology, equipment and scholarships either in form of direct funding or through commissioned assignments.

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