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1969
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JENKINSON, D.M. and MALOIY G.M.O.(1969) The distribution of nerves, monoamine oxidase and cholinesterase in the skin of the red deer (Cervus elaphus). Research in Veterinary Science 10, 448-252.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1969. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
1972
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHNSON, K.G., MALOIY, G.M.O. and BLIGH, J.(1972) Sweat gland function in the red deer. American Journal of Physiology 223, 604-607.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1972. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
1973
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "Joliso, East African Journal of Literature and Society, Edited, Nairobi, East African Literature Bureau, Vol. 1, 1, 2,.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1973. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

1974
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula, "Penetration of Christianity in to Traditional African Family". Master of Arts Thesis, (awarded with distinction), University of Nairobi, 1974.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1974.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, P.N. Nyaga, and J.N. Gicho. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of a poxvirus from horses in Kenya. Zebl. Vet. Med. B21., 1974: 592-601.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1974. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

1975
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Christianity and Traditional Marriages in East Africa". Proceeding of the Fifth Assembly of the World Council of Churches, Nairobi, 1975.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1975.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, P.N. Nyaga, J.K. Omuse, and E.R. Mutiga Infectious bovine rhinotracheatis infectious bovine pustulo - vulvo-vaginitis viral isolates from cattle with epididymitis and vaginitis. Amer. J. Vet Res. 36 (1975): 123-125.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Jeshrani MK, Gatei DG. Unusual presentation of hepatoma. East Afr Med J. 1975 Nov;52(11):605-10. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1975 Nov;52(11):605-10. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1975. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., MALOIY, G.M.O. and LYKKEBOE, G. (1975) A fish in extreme alkalinity. Respiration Physiology 24, 159-162.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
1976
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Mobilization of Resources for Development". Paper read at the International Conference on Voluntarism, Vienna, Austria, 1976. Published by "Action" in Voluntarism: The Real and Emerging Power, Washington DC, 1976.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1976.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J.G. Donders and J. Mbula. "Ethics and Values". Published in the report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies, Government of Kenya, 1976.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1976.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Jesse Mugambi and N. Kirima, The African Religious Heritage, Nairobi Oxford University Press.".; 1976. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LOMHOLT, J.P. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1976) Importance of air and water breathing in relation to size of the African lungfish (Protopterus amphibius). Journal of Experimental Biology 65, 395-399.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., WEBER, R.E. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1976) Blood respiratory properties in a mammal of low body temperature, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glabber). Respiration Physiology 28,303-314.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., WEBER, R.E. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1976) Respiratory properties of blood in awake and aestivating lungfish (Protopterus amphibius). Respiration Physiology 27, 335-345.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
1977
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Rural Transformation and Rural Development". Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, 1977.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1977.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "The Impact of Christianity on Family Structure and Stability. The Case of the Akamba of Eastern Kenya". Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi, 1977.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1977.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, J.P.O. Wamukoya and P.N. Nyaga. A preliminary report on the occurence of a disease in broilers in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. Vol. 25, 1977: 431-434.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1977. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

G PROFGATEIDAVID, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Jeshrani MK, Gatei DG, Onyango JN. A case of multifocal eosinophilic granuloma. East Afr Med J. 1977 Aug;54(8):455-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Aug;54(8):455-9. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1977. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "Jiversen J. Mbaya, E.S. Kilelu (1977). Determination of the rate of reaction for biological specimen obtained from industrial area Journal of Biochemistry. Vol.97 No. 99 p72 -80.". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1977. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
1978
N PROFNYAGAP. "J. K. Omuse, P.N. Nyaga, J.M. Gathuma, J.S. Kaminjolo and F.M. Nderu. Verminous pneumonia in topi (Damalisous Korriaum) in Masai Mara area of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 26 (2), 1978: 156-160.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1978. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "The Role of Youth in National Development". Published by Commonwealth Secretariat in Youth in Nation Building, 1978.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1978.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR, Bradbrook ID.Pharmacokinetics of intravenous cyclophosphamide in man, estimated by gas-liquid chromatography.Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1978;1(4):229-31.". In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1978;1(4):229-31. UN-HABITAT; 1978. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
1979
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Gathuma, M.M. Kagiko and P.N.Nyaga. Water quality in Kajiado District, Kenya. E. Afric. Journ. Med. Res. Vol. 3 (1) 1979.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.First pass hepatic metabolism of cyclophosphamide [proceedings]Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Apr;7(4):422P.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Apr;7(4):422P. UN-HABITAT; 1979. Abstract
1 The concentrations of cyclophosphamide in plasma and saliva were determined in seven patients following administration of single doses of cyclophosphamide during chemotherapy for lymphoma. 2 The saliva/plasma ratio was 0.77 +/- 0.24 (s.d.) and showed no time-dependence being rapidly established following intravenous and oral administration. 3 The T 1/2 of cyclophosphamide (8.38 +/- 2.25 h) determined from salivary measurements was not significantly different from that in plasma (8.24 +/- 2.60 h). It was not possible to estimate the apparent volume of distribution or total body clearance utilizing the salivary cyclophosphamide concentration without appropriate correction for the saliva/plasma concentration ratio. 4 The binding to the plasma protein of normal plasma of cyclophosphamide was 13.4 +/- 5.3%. The Scatchard plot for binding to bovine serum albumin indicates only weak binding to non-specific sites. 5 Salivary cyclophosphamide therefore indicates the concentration of the unbound fraction of plasma cyclophosphamide.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and alkylating activity in man after intravenous and oral administration.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Sep;8(3):209-17.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Sep;8(3):209-17. UN-HABITAT; 1979. Abstract
1 The concentrations of cyclophosphamide in plasma and saliva were determined in seven patients following administration of single doses of cyclophosphamide during chemotherapy for lymphoma. 2 The saliva/plasma ratio was 0.77 +/- 0.24 (s.d.) and showed no time-dependence being rapidly established following intravenous and oral administration. 3 The T 1/2 of cyclophosphamide (8.38 +/- 2.25 h) determined from salivary measurements was not significantly different from that in plasma (8.24 +/- 2.60 h). It was not possible to estimate the apparent volume of distribution or total body clearance utilizing the salivary cyclophosphamide concentration without appropriate correction for the saliva/plasma concentration ratio. 4 The binding to the plasma protein of normal plasma of cyclophosphamide was 13.4 +/- 5.3%. The Scatchard plot for binding to bovine serum albumin indicates only weak binding to non-specific sites. 5 Salivary cyclophosphamide therefore indicates the concentration of the unbound fraction of plasma cyclophosphamide.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.The kinetics of salivary elimination of cyclophosphamide in man.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Nov;8(5):455-8.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979 Nov;8(5):455-8. UN-HABITAT; 1979. Abstract
1 The concentrations of cyclophosphamide in plasma and saliva were determined in seven patients following administration of single doses of cyclophosphamide during chemotherapy for lymphoma. 2 The saliva/plasma ratio was 0.77 +/- 0.24 (s.d.) and showed no time-dependence being rapidly established following intravenous and oral administration. 3 The T 1/2 of cyclophosphamide (8.38 +/- 2.25 h) determined from salivary measurements was not significantly different from that in plasma (8.24 +/- 2.60 h). It was not possible to estimate the apparent volume of distribution or total body clearance utilizing the salivary cyclophosphamide concentration without appropriate correction for the saliva/plasma concentration ratio. 4 The binding to the plasma protein of normal plasma of cyclophosphamide was 13.4 +/- 5.3%. The Scatchard plot for binding to bovine serum albumin indicates only weak binding to non-specific sites. 5 Salivary cyclophosphamide therefore indicates the concentration of the unbound fraction of plasma cyclophosphamide.
1980
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Adelescent Fertility: A Challenge to Family Life Education". Paper presented at the International Symposium of Youth and Fertility, Manzini, Swaziland, 1980.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1980.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Humanization and Socialization of the African Child: The Case of Kenya". Prospective, Belgium, 1980.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1980.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "The Value of the Child: The African Experience". Published for the International Year of the Child. Prospective, Belgium, 1980.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1980.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., KORNERUP, S. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1980) Temperature insensitive O2 binding in blood of the tree frog(Chiromantis petersi). Journal of Comparative Physiology 136, 71-76.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide, phosphoramide mustard and nor-nitrogen mustard studied by gas chromatography in patients receiving cyclophosphamide therapy.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1980 Oct;10(4):327-35.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1980 Oct;10(4):327-35. UN-HABITAT; 1980. Abstract
Cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics were studied in seven patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearances 0-51 ml . min-1), and compared with a matched control group of patients with normal renal function. The mean half-life of cyclophosphamide following intravenous administration in the normal group was 8.21 +/- 2.33 (SD) h whilst that in renal failure was 10.15 +/- 1.80 h: these were significantly different. The total body clearance in the normal control group was 58.6 +/- 10.9 ml . kg-1h-1 which was significantly larger than in renal failure where it was 48.8 +/- 10.9 ml . kg-1h-1. Vd beta, Vdss and Vc were not significantly different between the two groups. A linear relationship exists between beta, the first order disposition rate constant and endogenous creatinine clearance since this drug shows a relatively small degree of compartmentalisation. The plasma half-life of phosphoramide mustard, a cytotoxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide, shows a parallel and significant increase in renal failure with the parent compound. The t1/2 in normal patients was 8.33 +/- 2.0 h, whilst in the renal failure group it was 13.37 +/- 4.23 h. Total alkylating activity as measured by the nitrobenzyl-pyridine reaction showed a significant increase in renal failure. This data suggests that in pharmacokinetic terms it may not be necessary to alter the dose of cyclophosphamide until there is severe renal impairment. Further studies correlating the efficacy and toxicity of the drug with its pharmacokinetics in renal failure are necessary.
1981
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Historical Relationship between Church and State in Matters of Health Proceedings of Primary Health Care Conference, NCCK, Kenya, 1981.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1981.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Housing the Urban Poor: A Study of Slum Areas in Six Kenyan Towns. The Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Kenya Government, 1981.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1981.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. The Role of Religious Organizations in the Welfare of the People. Proceedings of Primary Health Care Conference. National Council of Churches (NCCK), Nairobi, Kenya, 1981.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1981.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Rogers HJ, Trounce JR.Effect of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and some of its metabolites.Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;19(6):443-51.". In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;19(6):443-51. UN-HABITAT; 1981. Abstract
Cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics were studied in seven patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearances 0-51 ml . min-1), and compared with a matched control group of patients with normal renal function. The mean half-life of cyclophosphamide following intravenous administration in the normal group was 8.21 +/- 2.33 (SD) h whilst that in renal failure was 10.15 +/- 1.80 h: these were significantly different. The total body clearance in the normal control group was 58.6 +/- 10.9 ml . kg-1h-1 which was significantly larger than in renal failure where it was 48.8 +/- 10.9 ml . kg-1h-1. Vd beta, Vdss and Vc were not significantly different between the two groups. A linear relationship exists between beta, the first order disposition rate constant and endogenous creatinine clearance since this drug shows a relatively small degree of compartmentalisation. The plasma half-life of phosphoramide mustard, a cytotoxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide, shows a parallel and significant increase in renal failure with the parent compound. The t1/2 in normal patients was 8.33 +/- 2.0 h, whilst in the renal failure group it was 13.37 +/- 4.23 h. Total alkylating activity as measured by the nitrobenzyl-pyridine reaction showed a significant increase in renal failure. This data suggests that in pharmacokinetic terms it may not be necessary to alter the dose of cyclophosphamide until there is severe renal impairment. Further studies correlating the efficacy and toxicity of the drug with its pharmacokinetics in renal failure are necessary.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Practical therapeutics–the use of antibiotics and related chemotherapeutic agents.East Afr Med J. 1981 Dec;58(12):901-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Dec;58(12):901-6. UN-HABITAT; 1981. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of pindolol was studied in 8 normal Africans following administration of a single oral 10 mg dose. The mean peak concentration was 30.2 +/- 5.0 ng X ml-1, the mean half-life (t1/2) of the elimination phase was 3.4 +/- 1.1 h, and the total body clearance was 628 +/- 13 ml X min-1. The apparent volume of distribution was 3.0 +/- 1.31 X kg-1. The values are the same as those reported in Europeans.
1982
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, C.K. Maitai, and Talalaj (1982). Essential oil content of Eucalyptus citriodora (Hooker) growing in Kenya. Kenya J. Sci. Tech. 3: 55-56.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Tech. 3: 55-56. The Kenya Medical Association; 1982. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Jeshirani, M.K., Bencivenga, A., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda, P.K., Gakuu, L.N. The management of post-traumatic limb length discrepancies Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. pp 181-186 vol 5 1982.". In: Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. pp 181-186 vol 5 1982. University of Nairobi.; 1982. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Jeshirani, M.K., Bencivenga, A., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda, P.M., Gakuu, L.N.Non-union of Humerus: The consequences of unstable intramedullary nailingProc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. pp 171-175 vol. 6 1982.". In: Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. pp 171-175 vol. 6 1982. University of Nairobi.; 1982. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Jesse Mugambi, J. Mutiso-Mbinda and J. Vollbrecht, Ecumenical Initiatives in Eastern Africa, Nairobi: AACC/AMECEA, 188 pp.".; 1982. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

1983
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Socio-economic Role of Women in Large Scale Irrigation Schemes. Office of Women in Development, the World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1983.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1983.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Gathuma, P.N. Nyaga, J.K. Omuse, F.M.K. Nderu and J.S Kaminjolo. Exposure of calves to taenid of wild carnivore origin. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol.30 (1). 1983: 55-60.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo and P.N. Nyaga. Uasin Gishu skin disease and Dermatophilus congolensis infection in the horse a review. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 31 (1), 1983: 17-20.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "JAMES, R.M., CHINDIA, M.L., and GUTHUA, S.W: Postoperative rehabilitation of Maxillofacial Structures using prostheses Therapy in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. Medi. Journal.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHNSTON, I.A., BERNARD, L.M. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1983) Aquatic and aerial respiration rates, muscle capillary supply and mitochondrial volume density in the air-breathing catfish (Clarius mossambicus) acclimated to either aerated or hypoxic water. Journa.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHNSTON, I.A., EDDY, F.B. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1983) The effects of temperature on muscle pH, adenylate and phosphogen concentrations in Oreochromis alcalicus grahami: a fish adapted to alkaline hot springs. Journal of Fish Biology 23, 717-724.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Gitau W, Gachoka C.The use of HBA1c in evaluation of diabetic control in Kenya Africans.East Afr Med J. 1983 Jan;60(1):60-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Jan;60(1):60-3. UN-HABITAT; 1983. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of pindolol was studied in 8 normal Africans following administration of a single oral 10 mg dose. The mean peak concentration was 30.2 +/- 5.0 ng X ml-1, the mean half-life (t1/2) of the elimination phase was 3.4 +/- 1.1 h, and the total body clearance was 628 +/- 13 ml X min-1. The apparent volume of distribution was 3.0 +/- 1.31 X kg-1. The values are the same as those reported in Europeans.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Pharmacokinetics of pindolol in Kenyan Africans.Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;25(3):425-6.". In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;25(3):425-6. UN-HABITAT; 1983. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of pindolol was studied in 8 normal Africans following administration of a single oral 10 mg dose. The mean peak concentration was 30.2 +/- 5.0 ng X ml-1, the mean half-life (t1/2) of the elimination phase was 3.4 +/- 1.1 h, and the total body clearance was 628 +/- 13 ml X min-1. The apparent volume of distribution was 3.0 +/- 1.31 X kg-1. The values are the same as those reported in Europeans.
1984
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J.K. Musuva and G.O. Rading "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Proc. of ANSTI, Ibadan, Nigeria (1984).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1984. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Jitta, J.N.S., Wafula, E.M., Wasunna, A. The Comatose Child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital. E Afr Med J 61: 917-924, 1984.". In: E Afr Med J 61: 917-924. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1984. Abstract
PIP: A study of 125 children aged 0-6 months who were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital for acute diarrhea was conducted between 1982-1983 to determine the benefits of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in treatment of diarrheal illness. At admission, specimens of stool, blood and urine were collected and examine for bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents (including malaria), serum electrolytes, urea, white cell counts and hematocrit. Children were started on oral rehydration solution (ORS) unless severly dehydrated, in which case intravenous therapy was initiated. 84% of the children were successfully treated with ORS alone regardless of etiological agent found; 15% required IV therapy initially, then were placed on ORS. Average hospital stay was 56.2 hours. Cost of treatment by ORT is less than 20% the cost of IV therapy. When investigators surveyed other health institutions, they found that ORT was used alone in less than 10% of all children seen with diarrhea. A side benefit of ORT is the utilization of mothers in preparation and administration of solution, reducing the demand on hospital staff. Since 20% of all pediatric admissions at Kenyatta are due to acute diarrheal disease, use of ORT would reduce costs tremendously. Initiation of ORT at home may prevent development of dehydration altogether.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD, Gitau W, Bwibo NO, Gachoka C.Haemoglobin A1C in children with sickle cell disease.East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):32-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):32-4. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Effect of liver failure on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide.Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;26(5):591-3.". In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;26(5):591-3. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide was investigated in 7 patients in severe liver failure. The pharmacokinetic data were compared with those derived from a matched control group of patients with normal liver function. The half-life (t1/2) of cyclophosphamide following intravenous administration in patients with liver failure was 12.5 +/- 1.0 h (m +/- SD), which was significantly longer than in the normal controls in whom it was 7.6 +/- 1.4 h (p less than 0.001). The mean total body clearance (Clt) was significantly smaller in liver failure at 44.8 + 8.61 X kg-1 than in the controls in whom it was 63.0 +/- 7.61 X kg-1 (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that severe liver disease has a significant effect on the disposition of cyclophosphamide, and that it could lead to accumulation of the drug in the body.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Practical therapeutics malaria chemoprophylaxis.East Afr Med J. 1984 Mar;61(3):254-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Mar;61(3):254-9. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Practical therapeutics: treatment of clinical attack of malaria.East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):86-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jan;61(1):86-9. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide was investigated in 7 patients in severe liver failure. The pharmacokinetic data were compared with those derived from a matched control group of patients with normal liver function. The half-life (t1/2) of cyclophosphamide following intravenous administration in patients with liver failure was 12.5 +/- 1.0 h (m +/- SD), which was significantly longer than in the normal controls in whom it was 7.6 +/- 1.4 h (p less than 0.001). The mean total body clearance (Clt) was significantly smaller in liver failure at 44.8 + 8.61 X kg-1 than in the controls in whom it was 63.0 +/- 7.61 X kg-1 (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that severe liver disease has a significant effect on the disposition of cyclophosphamide, and that it could lead to accumulation of the drug in the body.
1985
M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "J. M. Khalagai, "On the Operator Equation TST* = S. Unitary Solutions.". In: Kenya J. Science Technology Series A 6(2): 157-163. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 1985. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Socio-Anthropological Survey of Small-Scale Agriculture in Western Kenya, Ministry of Agriculture, GOK, 1985.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Nyaga and P.N. Nyaga. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Kenya. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. (1985) 33: 249-251.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, A.N. Guantai and Gichuru Muriuki (1985) Eucalyptus citriodora .". In: E. Africa Agric. For. J. 46: 89-96. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1985.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, A.N. Guantai and Gichuru Muriuki (1985) Eucalyptus citriodora .". In: E. Africa Agric. For. J. 46: 89-96. The Kenya Medical Association; 1985. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
1986
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka, C. Resieew and A. Fowler. Women in Development in Kenya. The Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate of General Development and Co-operation, The Hague, Netherlands,.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1986.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Joshi YK, Tandon BN, Acharya SK, Babu S, Tandon M.Acute hepatic failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury.Liver. 1986 Dec;6(6):357-60.". In: Liver. 1986 Dec;6(6):357-60. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""Justice, Peace and Integrity of Creation in Ecumenical Agenda", ibid.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

1987
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. The Family and Its Resources. UNICEF, 1987.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1987.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Juma FD.Disposition of antipyrine in African patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1987 Dec;24(6):809-11.". In: Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1987 Dec;24(6):809-11. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract

The pharmacokinetics of antipyrine were studied in 12 healthy volunteers and 10 patients of Kenya African origin with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The half-life of antipyrine was 12.2 +/- 1.3 h (mean + s.d.), while the apparent volume of distribution (V) was 0.67 +/- 0.11 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) and the total body clearance was 40.7 +/- 3.2 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) in the healthy volunteers. The antipyrine half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was 17.1 +/- 2.7 h (mean +/- s.d.). The apparent volume of distribution was 0.72 +/- 0.14 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) which was larger than in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.05). The total body clearance was 30.3 +/- 9.4 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean + s.d.) and this was reduced compared with that in healthy volunteers (P less than 0.02). After cytotoxic therapy the half-life in the patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma was significantly decreased to 8.3 +/- 1.3 h (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.07), and the apparent volume of distribution was reduced to 0.65 +/- 0.07 l kg-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.05) while the total body clearance increased to 52.8 +/- 5.5 ml kg-1 h-1 (mean +/- s.d.) (P less than 0.01).

1988
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "J.E.O. Rege and R.O. Mosi (1988). A comparison and Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) procedures of sire evaluation in Kenya.". In: Proc. Anim. Prod. Soc. Kenya 17;63-72. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, J.A. Ayoade, T.P.C. Makhambera, P.N.Nyaga and Lily Caroline Bebora (1988). Contagious ecythyma in Boer goat. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric.36: 83-85.". In: KVA meeting Mombasa, 4th September, 1989. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai and W. Lwande (1988). Volatile constituents of Ocimum fischeri Guerke. Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121.". In: Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121. The Kenya Medical Association; 1988. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
N PROFNYAGAP. "Jane N. Maina, P.N. Nyaga (1988): Factors associated with early chick mortality in Broilers in Kenya.". In: Proceedings, Animal Production Society of Kenya, Regional Conference, Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya. November 1988. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, H., ALLIANGANA, D.M.I., BECH, C., MALOIY, G.M.O. and JOHANSEN, K.(1988) Thermal balance in the crested guinea fowl. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 132(2), 36A.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Joshi MD, Lule GN, Otieno LS. Upper gastrointestinal tract in chronic renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. test; 1988. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

JAMES PROFODEK. "The Judiciary in Sensitive Areas of Public Law: Emerging Approaching to Human Rights Litigation in Kenya, Netherlands international Law at 29-52 (co-Author).". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1988. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai and W. Lwande (1988). Volatile constituents of Ocimum fischeri Guerke. Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121.". In: Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121. Ivan Addae-Mensah,t Rahab Munenge and Anastasia N. Guantai; 1988. Abstract

Cardiovascular activities of nitidine chloride from Zanthoxylunt chalybeum have been compared with those of 9-methoxychelerythrine. Whereas nitidinc chloride was found to show significant hypotensive activity in rabbits, 9-methoxychelerythrine chloride showed no hypotensive activity. The effect of nitidine chloride on isolated rabbit heart was also compared with those of adrenaline and acetylcholine. 9-Methoxychelerythrine, which has hitherto been regarded as an artefact formed by recrystallization of chelerythrine base from methanol, has been shown in this work to be a true natural constituent of Zanthoxylum chalybeum. Keywords: 9-inethoxychelerythrine; nitidine chloride; cardiovascular properties; hypotensive effect; Zanthoxylum chalybeum.

1989
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.A. Mwangi; P.K. Gathumbi; D.O. Kihurani; P.M.F.Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki. (1989). Cutaneous Actinobacillosis in cattle. Clinical observations, diagnosis and treatment in eighteen cases. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 1: 119-121.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, Kabete, April, 18-2.0, 1990. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1989. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "J.N.K. Mugambi, African Christian Rehology, Nairobi: Heinemann.".; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "J.N.K. Mugambi, God Humanity and Nature in Relation to Justice and Peace, Geneva: WCC/Church and Socity Documents, No. 2.".; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "J.N.K. Mugambi, The Biblical Basis of Evangelization, Nairobi: Oxford University Press.".; 1989. Abstract

African Christian Theology, Nairobi, Heinemann, 1989

M. DRKILELUEDWARDS. "JB Nyamwange S. Nyamwange E.S.Kilelu 1989 canine urolithiasis in a German shepherd dog makerere Veterinary Journal Kampala. Vol. 17 no 9 P 37 .". In: World Veterinary Congress/ xxv World Veterinary Association 1997. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JEWELL, P.A. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (eds.) (1989) The Biology of Large African Mammals in their Environment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, XVII + 304 pp.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Joshi MD, Gathua SN, Okelo GB, Lule GN, Musewe AO. Cryptococcal hepatitis and meningitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):69-73.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):69-73. test; 1989. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

"J.N. Ombega and I.O. Kibwage (1989). Curriculum Development: What considerations. Abstract.". In: Pharm. J. of Kenya. 2(3): 87 - 89. Pharmacother. Bull. 1(1): 6 - 7.; 1989. Abstract

The relative bioavailability of two brands of chlorpropamide, Dibonis, and Diabinese has been evaluated in four healthy male volunteers in a randomized, balanced, cross-over study. No statistically significant differences were observed in the absorption rate constant, ka, time to reach peak serum concentration, tp, maximum serum concentration, Cmax, the overall elimination rate constant, kel, and the area under the curve, AUC, at 95% confidence level.

1990
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, I. Addae-Mensah, R.M Munavu and W. Lwande (1990). Essential oils of Lippia ukambensis chemotypes and Lippia somalensis in Kenya. Journal Essential Oil Research 3 (6) : 413-417.". In: Journal Essential Oil Research 3 (6) : 413-417. The Kenya Medical Association; 1990. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Jama, M.A, (1990) Rural Energy in an Arid Sub-location of Meru District, Kenya, in Conservation for Development, Editor Rodger Yeager, Africa-Caribbean Institute.". In: Africa-Caribbean Institute. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jessamine PG, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Wainberg MA, Wamola I, D'Costa LJ, Cameron DW, Simonsen NJ, Plourde P, Ronald AR. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin synergism in HIV 1 transmission. Scand. J. Infect Dis. 69(supp.". In: J. Infect Dis. 69(suppl.):181 - 186, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Jitta J, Nduati RW Growth monitoring and promotion during early childhood development. In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers. Ed. Mukelebai K, Bwibo NO, Onyango FE. 2nd edition, UNICEF.". In: Book. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Jorgensen E, Kaimenyi JT.The status of periodontal health and oral hygiene of Miraa (catha edulis) chewers.East Afr Med J. 1990 Aug;67(8):585-90.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Aug;67(8):585-90. African Meteorological Society; 1990. Abstract
Two hundred and thirty one miraa chewers and 199 non miraa chewers were assessed for gingivitis, loss of attachment and oral hygiene status. The mean gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.6 and 1.7 among non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The mean facial gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.5 and 1.6 among non miraa chewers (P greater than 0.05). The mean distal gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.5 and 1.7 among non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The mean lingual gingivitis score among miraa chewers was lower than that of non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The means of loss of attachment of the teeth of miraa chewers were equal to those of non miraa chewers. Although the mean surface plaque scores of miraa chewers were generally lower than those of non miraa chewers, only the mean lingual plaque score of miraa chewers was found to be significantly lower than that of non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that the oral hygiene status of miraa chewers was generally better than that of non miraa chewers and there was no evidence to show that chewing miraa is detrimental to periodontal health.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu-Mwangi and Mbithi, P.M.F. (1990). Effect of location on severity and prognosis of limb cellulitis in cows. Vet. 125, 152.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

1991
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria, T. E. Maitho and D. J. Muchiri (1991). Effects of pyrethrins on Haemonchus contortus in vitro.". In: Proceedings of the first inter-university pharmacology and Toxicology subject meeting held in Arusha, Tanzania from 24th-28th September, 1991. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "J.J. Bwayo, A.M. Omari, A.N. Mutere, W.Jaoko, C. Sekadde-Kigondu, J. Kreiss, F.A. Plummer. Long distance drivers: Prevalence of sexually transmitted disease. E.A. Med. J. 68 (6) 425, 1991.". In: E.A. Med. J. 68 (6) 425, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "J.J. Bwayo, A.N. Mutere, M.A. Omari, J.K. Kreiss. W. Jaoko, C. Sekadde-Kigondu, F.A. Plummer. Long distance truck driver: Knowledge and attitudes concerning sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour E.A. Med. J. 68 (90), 714, 1991.". In: E.A. Med. J. 68 (90), 714, 1991. uon press; 1991. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, I. Addae-Mensah, R.M Munavu and W. Lwande (1991). Essential oil of Kenyan Lippia species. Part III: Flavour and Fragrance Journal 6 (3): 221-224.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. The Kenya Medical Association; 1991. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Jama, M.A., (1991) Rural Energy in an Arid Sub-location of Meru District, Kenya. Published by African-Caribbean Institute.". In: African-Caribbean Institute. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Jorgensen, E, and Kaimenyi, J.T. (1991). The effects of chewing miraa (Catha Edulis) on teeth. Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 3:115-117.". In: Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 3:115-117. African Meteorological Society; 1991. Abstract
The oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of 541 Kenyan children from a peri-urban and urban school and aged 9-15 years, were investigated. 80.2% of the urban children and 43.1% of the peri-urban children had visited a dentist before. 12.4% of the urban children and 9.2% of the peri-urban children knew that bacteria cause dental caries. Over 87% of the children from either school knew that dental caries and periodontitis can be prevented. The main reason for visiting a dentist was to have tooth extraction. Failure to brush teeth was believed to be the cause of gingival bleeding by 38.9% of the peri-urban children and 37.6% of the urban children. 67.2% of the peri-urban children and 39.5% of the urban children brushed their teeth thrice daily. 21.1% of the peri-urban children and 2% of the urban children used a chewing stick to brush their teeth. More urban children (96.5%) used a toothbrush than peri-urban children (64.8%). None of the children from either school admitted using traditional cleaning aids such as the finger and charcoal. It is concluded that there were no consistent differences in oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness between peri-urban and urban children.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi, Peter M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1991). Necrosis and sloughing of skin associated with limb cellulitis in 4 cows and a calf; predisposing causes, treatment and prognosis. Vet. Rec. 129, 129-195.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Four cows and a calf with non-suppurative limb cellulitis were observed subsequently to suffer skin necrosis and sloughing in the affected limbs, either on or distal to the metacarpus or metatarsus. In comparison with six cows with suppurative Corynebacterium pyogenes limb cellulitis, topical therapy or the cases with skin necrosis and sloughing was adequate and the prognosis was good, when compared with the rigorous systemic therapy applied to the cows with suppurative cellulitis, some of which died. The skin necrosis and sloughing resulting from limb cellulitis seemed to be encouraged by the paucity of tissue between the skin and the bone, by poor vascularity of the area and by the causative bacteria.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi, Peter M.F. Mbithi, S.J.M. Munyua, S.M. Mbiuki and E.G. Mogoa (1991). Large animal abdominal hernias.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1991). The breaking strength and resistance to abrasion of some plaster of Paris Casing bandages. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 143-146.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

Estambale BB. "Journal of Helminthology.". 1991.
1992
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria (1992). Studies of Acute Toxicity and Anthelmintic Activity of Pyrethrins in Sheep and Rabbits.". In: Pyrethrum Post. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1992). Mechanical properties of available plaster casting bandages in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian: 16:30-33.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "J.E.O. Rege and J.W. Wakhungu. (1992). An assessment of level and effects of inbreeding in a closed sahiwal cattle herd in Kenya. Page 244. a.". In: paper presented at the all africa conference on animal, agriculture: achievements, challenges and prospects, noveber 23-27, 1992, Nairobi, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C. De Greef, E.B. Songa, and R. Hamers. The resistant specific MRNA is lost during transformation of the serum resistant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense into procyclic form.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development, Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21st, February, 1992. pp 240-242. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1992. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, E.B.Songa, B. Najib. I. Roditi and R. Hamers. Procyclin gene activation in Trypanosoma Evansi.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1992. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "J.W. Mwangi, I. Addae-Mensah, G. Muriuki, R.M Munavu and W. Lwande. Essential oils of Kenyan Lippia species. Part IV: Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) and larvicidal activity. International.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
   
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "J.W. Wakhungu and J.J. Otim.(1992). The production environment and choice of dairy cattle improvement programmes-an overview. Page 751 a.". In: paper presented at the All Africa conference on animal agriculture: achievements, challenges and prospects, November 23-27, 1992, Nairobi, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Jama, M.A., Kulundu D., (1992) "Smallholder Farmers Credit Repayment Performance in Lugari Division, Kakamega District, Kenya". East African Economic Review, Vol. 8, No.2.". In: East African Economic Review, Vol. 8, No.2. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
AKINYI DRDWASIJANE. "Jane A. Dwasi, et al, Women and the Criminal Justice System in Kenya, Kenya Law Reform Commission,.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Jesus Christ Our "Muthamaki" (Ideal Elder): An African Christological Study based On the Agikuyu Understanding of Elders, Nairobi Phoenix Publishers, 1992.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Jua Kali In Kasfir, SCL. (ed.) Jua Kali Iwowa City Third World Mode of Production or The New African Aesthetics,.". In: Trienvia Symposium in African Art. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Maguru PJ. "JOURNAL OF "RUPSEA" Harare, Zimbabwe Sites and Services for Low Income Housing: Turner and the World Bank ." Association of Rural and Urban Planners in Southern and Eastern Africa ( RUPSEA ). 1992;Vol 1(No.): pp. 35-56.
1993
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "J. Hassanali, P. Amwayi. Biometric analysis of dental casts of Maasai who had extractions of mandibular central incisors and of the Kikuyu. European Journal of Orthodontics ; 15: 513-518 (1993).". In: European Journal of Orthodontics ; 15: 513-518. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1993. Abstract
Dental plaster casts of 93 Maasai and 79 Kikuyu children age 12-15 years were analysed. Four biometric measurements were taken of the maxillary and mandibular casts: intercanine distance (C-C), inter-molar distance (M-M), canine arch circumference (C-C ACirc.), and molar arch circumference (M-M ACirc.). Incisor space (IS) was also measured in the mandibular casts. The mean values of all measurements except (M-M) in the mandibular casts were significantly reduced in the Maasai who had permanent central incisors extracted compared to the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. The mean incisor space in the Maasai with extractions was 6.3 mm compared to 11.7 mm in the non-extracted Maasai group. The extent of reduction of IS, C-C, C-C ACirc. and M-M ACirc. following extractions of the incisors may depend on the mesial drift of lateral incisors, jaw growth and soft tissue influence. The position of the tongue and occlusal relationship of the molars may prevent bucco-lingual movements maintaining a constant M-M. There was no significant difference in the mandibular cast dimensions of the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. Analysis of the maxillary cast dimensions of the Maasai with extraction, non-extracted Maasai and Kikuyu showed no significant differences suggesting that the extraction of mandibular incisors has no effect on maxillary arch dimensions. The variability in growth of the dento-alveolar complex itself may explain why the dental arch dimensions are similar in the Maasai and Kikuyu despite ethnic differences. There was no significant difference between the male and female dental arch dimensions.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria, T. E. Maitho and D. J. Muchiri (1993). Median Lethal Doses, Clinical Signs and Post-mortem Changes in Acute Pyrethrin Toxicity Study in Sheep and Rabbits. Pyrethrum post, 19(1): 26-29.". In: Pyrethrum Post. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1993. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka and Mary Tiffens. "Social Institutions in Machakos District: 1930-1990". Overseas Development Institute Publication.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. The Role and Support of the Extended Family to Single Parents: A Diminishing Perspective". Proceedings of a Conference on Women and Autonomy, VENA, Leiden University, November.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993.
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, J.A.N. NGUHIU, S.M. MBIUKI (1993) Cestrum poisoning in a young horse - A case report. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 41: 139-141.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1993). Resistance to abrasion of plaster casting bandages available in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 41: 151 -153.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1993). The breaking strength and resistance to abrasion of some casting bandages. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 41: 143 -146.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "J.J.N. Ngeranwa; P.K Gathumbi and E.R Mutiga (1993). Pathogenesis of Trypanosoma (brucei) evansi in small East African goats. Res. Vet. Sci. 54: 283-289.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Embu April 22-24, 1998. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1993. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana. Changes in Serum Levels of Vitamin B12, Feed Intake, Liveweight and Hematological parameters in Cobalt Deficient Small East African Goats. Internat. J. Vit. Nutr.Res.63 (1993), 135-139.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Jahil R A, Ashley F P Wilson R.F. Wagaiyu E.G Concentrations of thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, .". In: J Periodontal Res. 1993 Mar;28(2):130-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, United Medical School of Guy's Hospital, London, UK. Resting and stimulated whole saliva was collected from 94 children aged 12-14 years and analyzed for thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. Clinical assessments of the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation were made, and plaque was collected for determination of dry weight. An inverse relationship was observed between salivary thiocyanate concentrations in both resting and stimulated saliva and the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation in these subjects (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amounts of plaque and gingivitis (p < 0.05). 'Total' lysozyme concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amount of plaque (p < 0.05), and the 'free' lysozyme concentration in the same saliva was directly related to the amount of gingivitis (p < 0.05). The direct relationship observed between clinical measurements and both lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in saliva may have been due to contributions from gingival crevicular fluid. Cluster analysis identified three groups of subjects with different profiles in resting whole saliva, and in particular with different levels of secretory IgA. A statistically significant difference was observed in the quantity of plaque collected from subjects in two of these groups (p < 0.05). These results from cluster analysis using resting whole saliva from children confirmed the findings of a previous study with young adults.

A. MRJALEHAALEXC. "Jaleha A.A. "The implications of Motor vehicle thefts on the underwriting processes in Kenya", MBA Research Project,.". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 1993. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Jalil RA, Ashley FP, Wilson RF, Wagaiyu EG.Concentrations of thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA in resting and stimulated whole saliva of children aged 12-14 years and the relationship with plaque accu.". In: J Periodontal Res. 1993 Mar;28(2):130-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Resting and stimulated whole saliva was collected from 94 children aged 12-14 years and analyzed for thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. Clinical assessments of the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation were made, and plaque was collected for determination of dry weight. An inverse relationship was observed between salivary thiocyanate concentrations in both resting and stimulated saliva and the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation in these subjects (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amounts of plaque and gingivitis (p < 0.05). 'Total' lysozyme concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amount of plaque (p < 0.05), and the 'free' lysozyme concentration in the same saliva was directly related to the amount of gingivitis (p < 0.05). The direct relationship observed between clinical measurements and both lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in saliva may have been due to contributions from gingival crevicular fluid. Cluster analysis identified three groups of subjects with different profiles in resting whole saliva, and in particular with different levels of secretory IgA. A statistically significant difference was observed in the quantity of plaque collected from subjects in two of these groups (p < 0.05). These results from cluster analysis using resting whole saliva from children confirmed the findings of a previous study with young adults.

ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Jama, M.A., Kabubo, J. W. (1993) Factors Influencing the Supply of Wheat: An Analysis for Kenya 1970-1989 (submitted to East African Economic Review).". In: East African Economic Review. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG (1993) Detection of circulating immune complex associated parasite antigen in human loiasis: A new approach to diagnosis. Masters in Tropical Medicine Thesis, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool.". In: Masters in Tropical Medicine Thesis, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Mechanical strength of some plaster of Paris casts. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, Salvagyps, Helm, Plasrum-gyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on breaking strength. Helm plaster of Paris had a significantly higher mean maximum load compared to all the other products (p-0.050. Plasrun-gyps supported the highest mean maximum load per unit thickness. Based on this study, Helm and Plasrun-gyps are recommended as more suitable for cast application on the basis of their superior breaking strength.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Radiological evaluation of plaster cast bandages. Bull. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, salvagyps, helm, Plasrunpgyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on their resistance to abrasion. The mean loss in mass per square area for Nairobi enterprises and Salvagyps was significantly lower (P<0.05) indicating that these two products were more resistance to abrasion. A new method of evaluation of resistance to abrasion is also described.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). The resistance to abrasion of Plaster of Paris casts P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Radiological evaluation of plaster cast bandages. Bull. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, salvagyps, helm, Plasrunpgyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on their resistance to abrasion. The mean loss in mass per square area for Nairobi enterprises and Salvagyps was significantly lower (P<0.05) indicating that these two products were more resistance to abrasion. A new method of evaluation of resistance to abrasion is also described.

1994
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka,. "Women in African Societies: Their Roles and Status".". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. "African Women: Their Hopes and Sufferings". SEDOS seminar proceedings, May.". In: In Journal for Ecclesiastical Review (AFER) Vol. 41, No. 4, 5, 6 December 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. "The Role of the Women in African Society and in the Church". Conference proceedings, CAFOD, England, February.". In: In Journal for Ecclesiastical Review (AFER) Vol. 41, No. 4, 5, 6 December 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. "Urbanization in Africa: What are the Positive Aspects?" Proceedings of SEDOS Conference, Rome.". In: In Journal for Ecclesiastical Review (AFER) Vol. 41, No. 4, 5, 6 December 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. "Women and Development: Methodological and Theoretical Consideration". Proceedings of Women in Development Conference, Kenyatta University, February.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. "Women and the Democratization Process in Kenya". SEDOS seminar proceedings, May.". In: In Journal for Ecclesiastical Review (AFER) Vol. 41, No. 4, 5, 6 December 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1994) Clinical evaluation of some plaster casting bandages available in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 42: 103-107.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1994. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "J.D. MANDE, P.M.F. MBITHI, S.M. MBIUKI (1994). Radiological evaluation of plaster casting bandages available in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Productivity in Africa. 42: 51 -53.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1994. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, G.K. Gitau, and A.G. Thaiyah (1994). Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial organisms isolated from eye swabs of cattle with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (pink eye). Indian Journal of animal science 64(7): 739-741.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Annual Scientific Conference, 22nd - 24th April, 1998), Embu, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1994. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, G.K. Gitau, and A.G. Thaiyah. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial organisms isolated from eye swabs of cattle with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (pink eye) in Kenya. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. (1994) 64 (7): 739-741.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences.; 1994. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana and P.N.Mbugua Use of Serum Vitamin B12 in Diagnosis of Cobalt Deficiency in Small East African Goats. Bull. Anim. Hlth.Prod. Afr. 42 (1994), 141-146.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana. Thyroid Hormones and Metabolic Rate During Induction of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Goats. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 42 (1994), 187-189.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, M.S. Badamana. and J.M.Z. Kamau. Faecal and Urinary Losses of Nitrogen in Cobalt-Deficient Small East African Goats. Indian Journal of Animal Science 64 (1994), 1264-1267.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, W. Alwande and A.Hassanali (1994). Composition of the Essential oil of Ocimum keniense Ayobangira. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 75-76.". In: Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 75-76. The Kenya Medical Association; 1994. Abstract
A methanol extract of Syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/ml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ug lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ug when the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%, 36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on rabbit isolated ileum supports the folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Jama, M. A., Onjala, J. (1994), Transport and Industrial Energy Conservation in Kenya Environmental Aspects (submitted to Energy Policy Journal).". In: submitted to Energy Policy Journal. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Jama, M.A., Onjala, J O. (1994) Energy-Economy Interactions in Kenya (submitted to Energy Policy Journal).". In: Energy Policy Journal. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
NGALA DRODUORJANEAKINYI. "Jane A. O "The Dholuo syllable Structure" - This paper has been posted in the Eric Data Base (Eric clearing house on languages and linguistics, Washington D.C.).". In: M.Ed theses - Kenyatta University - 1986. Odula P.O.; 1994. Abstract
The gross anatomy of the pulmonary arterial system of the giraffe with comparative data from other Artiodactyla. 
O PROFORINDADA. "Johansen MV, Simonsen PE, Butterworth AE, Ouma JH, Mbugua GG, Sturrock RF, Orinda DA, Christensen NO. A survey of Schistosoma mansoni induced kidney disease in children in an endemic area of Machakos District, Kenya.Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8.". In: Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlottenlund. The association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and kidney lesions was investigated in school children selected from three primary schools in Machakos District, Kenya, namely Miu (n = 159), Kitengei (n = 160) and Misuuni (n = 99) schools. The children were examined parasitologically for S. mansoni infection, clinically for enlargement of the liver and spleen, and biochemically for proteinuria and serum and urine creatinine. High prevalences of S. mansoni infection, ranging from 84-96%, were seen in all the schools, but the geometric mean intensity of egg excretion varied, being relatively low in Misuuni (31 eggs/g), medium in Miu (182 eggs/g) and high in Kitengei (413 eggs/g). The prevalence of pathological proteinuria (> or = 200 mg/l) in the schools ranged from 10.1% in Miu to 28.8% in Kitengei. No difference in the levels of proteinuria was noted between age or sex groups. No association between intensity of infection and pathological proteinuria was observed in any of the schools, nor was any correlation between organomegaly and proteinuria observed. However, significant correlations between malaria and organomegaly (p < 0.001) and between malaria and proteinuria (p < 0.05) were observed when pooling data from all schools. These findings suggest that S. mansoni induced nephrotic syndromes are not common in children from this highly endemic area of Kenya.
JAMES PROFODEK. "Joy K Asiema and Francis D.P Situma, Indigenous Peoples and the environment. The Case of the Pastoral Maasai of Kenya, in the Colorado Journal of internation Environmentional Law and Policy, volume 5.Number 1, winter 1994,p.149.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1994. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
K MRSASIEMAJOY. "Joy K. Asiema and Francis D.P. Situma,"Indigenous Peoples and the Environment: The Case of the Pastoral Maasai of Kenya", in the Colorado.". In: Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, Volume 5, Number 1, p.149. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1994). Clinical evaluation of casting bandages available in Kenya. Bull. Amim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42, 103-107.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1994. Abstract

The ease of cast breakage, the extent of cast wearing at the foot, the ability to bear weight on the cast limb, athe severity of lameness and cast related complications were compared clinically in three groups of six calves each, cast with three different plaster of Paris bandages namely Plasrun-gyps, Veronese and Salvagyps, and oberstaions made over the next 21 days. The casts were applied following aseptic joint surgery for immobilization. Cast breakage was seen in only one case in which Plasrun-gyps was used but observed most of the cases cast with Salvagyps and Veronese. Cast breakage was most often seen at the foot, in all plaster casts. All casts enables weight bearing in all calves and when lameness was seen to be severe this was due to broken casts whose edges impinged on soft tissue causing pain. On the basis of its having minimal breakages on clinical application, Plasrun-gyps was the most suitable for use on the limbs of calves.

"J.W. Muritu, I.O. Kibwage, C.K. Maitai and J. Hoogmartens. Evaluation of tetracycline raw materials and finished products found on the Kenyan market. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 12(12):1483-8." J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994 Dec;12(12):1483-8.; 1994. Abstract

Contents of tetracycline, its degradation products (epitetracycline, epianhydrotetracycline, anhydrotetracycline) and a fermentation impurity (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamidotetracycline) were determined in four raw materials, 12 batches of six ointment products, four eye ointment products and nine batches of five capsule products, all sampled from the Kenyan market. The analytical method was liquid chromatography on a column packed with a poly(styrenedivinyl-benzene) material (8-microns PLRP-S 100 A). All raw materials and finished products had tetracycline contents and impurity levels within the prescribed compendial limits.

K MRSASIEMAJOY. "Joy K. Asiema, " The Green Revolution in Africa", in the Biotechnology and Development Monitor.". In: Journal of the Department of International Relations and Public International Law of the University of Amsterdam. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract

Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.

Owakah F. Justice in the State: the Case of Nyerere’s Philosophy of Ujamaa. Monyenye S, Ochieng-Odhiambo F, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
1995
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. K. Gikunju, J. M. Mbaria, W. Mureithi, M. N. Kyule, J. J. McDermott and T. E. Maitho (1995). Water Fluoride in Molo Division of Nakuru District Kenya. Fluoride, 28(1): 17-20.". In: Fluoride. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, K.J. Achola, R. Laurent, W. Lwande and A. Hassanali (1995). Essential oil constituents of Sphaeranthus cyathuloides. J. Essential Oil Research. 7: 177-178.". In: J. Essential Oil Research. 7: 177-178. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

O DRBWANGACALEB. "J.W. Wakhungu and Bwanga, C.O. Preweaning mortality of dairy cattle on smallholdings in Western Kenya.". In: Proceedings in Annual Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, Kabete, Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1995.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Martin Jr, HL, Bwayo J, Nyange PM, Rakwar JP, Kashonga F, Mandalya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK,Acceptability of HIV Vaccine Trials in High-Risk Heterosexual Cohorts in Mombasa, Kenya.AIDS 9: 1297-83 1995.". In: AIDS 9: 1297-83 1995. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
For a HIV vaccine to be effective, it will be essential that it protect against the virus variants to which individuals are most frequently exposed. HIV-1 is predominantly a sexually acquired virus, thus, variants in genital secretions are a potentially important reservoir of viruses that are transmitted. Because there are no data available on variants in the genital mucosa, we analyzed this provirus population and compared it to the proviruses in the blood of individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. A major genetic difference between variants within a patient were insertions, which were apparently created by duplication of adjacent sequences, that resulted in acquisition of new potential glycosylation sites in V1 and V2. Comparisons of mucosal and PBMC variants suggest that these tissues harbor distinct, but related populations of HIV-1 variants. In two of three patients, the mucosal variants were most closely related to a minor variant genotype in blood. In a third individual, viruses in both tissues were surprisingly homogeneous, but the majority of variants in the cervix encoded a V1 sequence with a predicted glycosylation pattern similar to a minor variant in blood. The V3 sequence patterns of the mucosal isolates indicate they may be predominantly macrophage-tropic viruses.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Jama, M.A. (1995) Impacts of Rural Energy Availability in Kenya: The Case of Kiambu district, Environmental Economics Unit, Working Paper, 1995: 2, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.". In: University of Gothenburg, Sweden. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG (1995) Loa loa antigen detection by ELISA: A new approach to diagnosis. East African Medical Journal 72(3): 176-9.". In: East African Medical Journal 72(3): 176-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1995. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
YUKO- DRJOWICHRISTINEA. "Joshi, Micheal Mugo, Jean Kachner,Lucio Parenzan.Journal of catherterization and cardiovascular diagnosis.36;189-193 1995.". In: Journal of catherterization and cardiovascular diagnosis.36;189-193 1995. uon press; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine efficacy and safety of the new multi-track catheter system for percutaneous baloon mitral valvotomy. DESIGN: Open, non-randomised intervention. SETTING: Cardiac catheterisation Laboratories of Mater Misericordiae Hospital (1997) and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi(1994). PATIENTS: Twenty four consecutive patients with symptomatic severe pure mitral stenosis (less than 2+ mitral regurgitation) and suitable mitral valve apparatus(leaflets, chordae and papillary muscles) for successful commissurotomy. INTERVENTION: Percutaneous mitral baloon valvotomy under local anaesthesia. Standard left and right heart catheterisation for mitral valve disease. Transeptal left atrial entry using standard septal puncture technique and left ventricle position secured by single long-stiff guide-wire. Double-baloon mitral valvotomy on single guide-wire using multi-track baloon catheters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mitral valve area, left atrial pressures, mitral regurgitation grade. RESULTS: Mitral valve area increased from 0.65 +/- 0.15cm2 to 1.98 +/- 0.34cm2 (P < 0.01), left atrial pressures from 30.5 +/- 9.1 to 11.9 +/- 5.1mmHg (P < 0.01). No significant change in mitral regurgitation grades. No complications related to multi-track technique. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous baloon mitral valvotomy using the multi track technique is effective and safe.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "JUMBA M.M., N.B. MIRZA, & F.B. MWAURA(1995). Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi antibodies in Kenya. E.Afr.Med.J.Vol.72,12: 75-757.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
"J. A. Alouch-Orwa, C.O. Ondari, I.O. Kibwage and J Hoogmartens (1995). Quality of intravenous infusion fluids manufactured in Kenya: E.Afr. Med. J. 72 (12) :800-804)." E. Afr. Med. J. 72 (3): 194-197; 1995. Abstract

The incidence and nature of microbial contamination of intravenous fluids prepared by four manufacturing establishments in Kenya was evaluated using the European Pharmacopoeia membrane filtration method for sterility testing. The percentage failures were 28.6% for source D, 18.8% for source A, 12.5% for source B and 10.5% for source C. The major contaminant was aspergillus which was isolated from samples from three sources. Candida and Staphylococcus accounted for the contamination of samples from two sources. Failure rates due to the chemical composition of the products was 66.7% for Source A, 60.0% for D, 41.7% for C and 13.3% for B. The experience of the manufacturing sites appeared to correlate with the quality of the products, with the older manufacturing establishments showing lower percentage failures.

1996
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "J.K. Musuva, " Recent Past and Present Operational Performances and Restructuring Exercises in Kenya Railways " presented at the ISTED Railway Component Steering Committee Meeting, Paris, France 30th September 1996.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1996. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
K PROFMUSUVAJEREMIAH. "J.K. Musuva, D.W. Odette and S. Ouna, " Restructuring of Railway : Kenya Railways Experience " Proceedings of MAPS Seminar on Railways Restructuring, Why and How?, Rabat, Morocco, 20th-25th May 1996.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1996. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Jacob, J. P., B. N. Mitaru, P. N. Mbugua and R. Blair (1996): The feeding value of Kenya sorghum, sunflower seed cake and sesame seed cake for broilers and layers. Anim Feed Sci. and Tech. 61:41-56.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996.
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Jaoko W.G. Muchemi G., Oguya F.O. 1996 Praziquantel side effects during treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infected pupils in Kibwezi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 1996 Aug; 73 (8): 499-501.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1996. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Muchemi G & Oguya FO (1996) Praziquantel side-effects during treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infected pupils in Kibwezi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal 73(8):499-501.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(8):499-501. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1996. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko WG, Muchemi G & Oguya FO (1996) Praziquantel side-effects during treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infected pupils in Kibwezi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal 73, 499-501.". In: East African Medical Journal 73, 499-501. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1996. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "Judicial Review of Administrative Action, in European Environmental Law: A Comparative Perspective, in G. Winter (ed), Tempus Series, Dartmouth (1996), at p. 129.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""Judicial Review of Administrative Action, in European Environmental Law: A Comparative Perspective, in G. Winter (ed), Tempus Series, Dartmouth (1996), at p. 129.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "JUMBA M.M, N.B. MIRZA, & F.B. MWAURA(1996). Agglutinins for Brucella antigens in blood sera of an urban and a rural population in Kenya E. Afri. Med.J., Vol.73, 33: 204-206.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
1997
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.A. OMEGA , P.W.N. KANYARI and others (1997). Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the detection of circulating Fasciola gigantica antigens in sera of experimentally infected sheep.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Rakwar JP, Chohan B, Mandalya K, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJD, Kreiss JK, Moses S. Urethral Infection in a Workplace Population of East African Men: Evaluation of Strategies for screening and Management. J. Inf. Dis 175: 833-8, 19.". In: J. Inf. Dis 175: 833-8, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Transport workers (n = 504) in Mombasa, Kenya, were screened for urethral infection by history, clinical examination, and laboratory testing of urethral swabs and first-catch urine specimens. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 3.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.6%, and Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.0%; more than two-thirds of infections were asymptomatic. A complaint of urethral discharge, dysuria, or both was twice as sensitive as the sign of discharge on physical examination (34.5% vs. 15.5%) in identifying infection. A positive leukocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test on urine predicted infection with a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 59.3% in symptomatic men and with a sensitivity of 55.3% and a specificity of 82.8% in asymptomatic men. Demographic and behavioral factors were not independent predictors of infection. In resource-poor settings with high prevalences of urethral infection, an effective screening and management strategy would be to treat symptomatic men, as well as asymptomatic men with a positive LED test, for all three infections.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Rakwar JP, Richardson BA, Mandalya K, Chohan BH, Bwayo J, Ndinya Achola JO, Martin Jr HL, Moses S Kreiss JK.Decreased Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Trucking Companies in Kenya: results of a Risk-Reduction Programme AIDS II: .". In: results of a Risk-Reduction Programme AIDS II: 903-09, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Transport workers (n = 504) in Mombasa, Kenya, were screened for urethral infection by history, clinical examination, and laboratory testing of urethral swabs and first-catch urine specimens. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 3.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.6%, and Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.0%; more than two-thirds of infections were asymptomatic. A complaint of urethral discharge, dysuria, or both was twice as sensitive as the sign of discharge on physical examination (34.5% vs. 15.5%) in identifying infection. A positive leukocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test on urine predicted infection with a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 59.3% in symptomatic men and with a sensitivity of 55.3% and a specificity of 82.8% in asymptomatic men. Demographic and behavioral factors were not independent predictors of infection. In resource-poor settings with high prevalences of urethral infection, an effective screening and management strategy would be to treat symptomatic men, as well as asymptomatic men with a positive LED test, for all three infections.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Jacob, J. P., B. N. Mitaru, P. N. Mbugua and R. Blair (1997): The nutritive value of Kenyan sorghum for poultry. Trop. Sci. 37: 43-48.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. ""Jahanamu"- published in an anthology entitled: Pendo la heba.". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1997. Abstract
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HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""James Baldwin and Africa." In East Africa and the US. Ed. Hamza Njozi.Dar es Salaam: Institute of Kiswahili Research.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1997. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "John GC, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Welch M, Richardson BA, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Krieger J, Onyango F, Kreiss JK.Genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA during pregnancy: association with immunosuppression, abnormal c.". In: J Infect Dis. 1997 Jan;175(1):57-62. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in genital secretions may be a determinant of vertical HIV-1 transmission. Cervical and vaginal secretions from HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women were evaluated to determine prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-infected cells in the genital tract. HIV-1 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32% of 212 cervical and 10% of 215 vaginal specimens. Presence of HIV-1 DNA in the cervix was associated with cervical mucopus and a significantly lower absolute CD4 cell count (354 vs. 469, P < .001). An absolute CD4 cell count <200 was associated with a 9.6-fold increased odds of cervical HIV-1 DNA detection compared with a count > or = 500 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-34.2). Detection of vaginal HIV- 1 DNA was associated with abnormal vaginal discharge, lower absolute CD4 cell count, and severe vitamin A deficiency. Presence of HIV-1-infected cells in genital secretions was associated with immunosuppression and abnormal cervical or vaginal discharge.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Joint Implementatio of Global Environmental Agreements: Socio-Economic Dimensions', in Kalipada Catterjee ed., Activities Implemented Jointly to Mitigate Climate Change - Developing Countries Perspectives (New Delhi: Development Alternatives, 1997), p. 3.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Malonza IM;, Omari MA;, Bwayo JJ;, Mwatha AK;, Mutere AN;, Murage EM;, Ndinya-Achola. "JOCommunity-acquired bacterial infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility in Nairobi EAMJ 74: 166-70, 1977.". 1997.Website
1998
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "J. W. Kimenju, S. W. Waudo, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, vol.4 pp.479-487 (1999) (ISSN 1023-070X/99). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1998. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

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