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MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Housing the Urban Poor: A Study of Slum Areas in Six Kenyan Towns. The Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Kenya Government, 1981.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1981.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka, "Challenges Facing African Universities in the 21st Century. The Seed; No. 4, Vol. 12.". In: Published by UNCRD. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka, C. Resieew and A. Fowler. Women in Development in Kenya. The Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate of General Development and Co-operation, The Hague, Netherlands,.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1986.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Mobilization of Resources for Development". Paper read at the International Conference on Voluntarism, Vienna, Austria, 1976. Published by "Action" in Voluntarism: The Real and Emerging Power, Washington DC, 1976.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1976.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. The Role and Support of the Extended Family to Single Parents: A Diminishing Perspective". Proceedings of a Conference on Women and Autonomy, VENA, Leiden University, November.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Rural Transformation and Rural Development". Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, 1977.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1977.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. "Women and the Democratization Process in Kenya". SEDOS seminar proceedings, May.". In: In Journal for Ecclesiastical Review (AFER) Vol. 41, No. 4, 5, 6 December 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "The Value of the Child: The African Experience". Published for the International Year of the Child. Prospective, Belgium, 1980.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1980.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. "Urbanization in Africa: What are the Positive Aspects?" Proceedings of SEDOS Conference, Rome.". In: In Journal for Ecclesiastical Review (AFER) Vol. 41, No. 4, 5, 6 December 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Historical Relationship between Church and State in Matters of Health Proceedings of Primary Health Care Conference, NCCK, Kenya, 1981.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1981.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Socio-Anthropological Survey of Small-Scale Agriculture in Western Kenya, Ministry of Agriculture, GOK, 1985.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka, "Microfinancing Adolescent Girls from Slum Areas: An Attempt at Poverty Eradication".". In: Published by UNCRD. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka and Mary Tiffens. "Social Institutions in Machakos District: 1930-1990". Overseas Development Institute Publication.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1993.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Christianity and Traditional Marriages in East Africa". Proceeding of the Fifth Assembly of the World Council of Churches, Nairobi, 1975.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1975.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "The Impact of Christianity on Family Structure and Stability. The Case of the Akamba of Eastern Kenya". Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi, 1977.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1977.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka,. "Women in African Societies: Their Roles and Status".". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula. "Humanization and Socialization of the African Child: The Case of Kenya". Prospective, Belgium, 1980.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1980.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. "The Role of the Women in African Society and in the Church". Conference proceedings, CAFOD, England, February.". In: In Journal for Ecclesiastical Review (AFER) Vol. 41, No. 4, 5, 6 December 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. The Role of Religious Organizations in the Welfare of the People. Proceedings of Primary Health Care Conference. National Council of Churches (NCCK), Nairobi, Kenya, 1981.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1981.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka, "Formation of the Liaty as Agents of Evangelization for the Church as Family of God".". In: In Journal for Ecclesiastical Review (AFER) Vol. 41, No. 4, 5, 6 December 1999. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1999.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "J. Mbula Bahemuka. Socio-economic Role of Women in Large Scale Irrigation Schemes. Office of Women in Development, the World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1983.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1983.
Mescher A. Junqueira's {Basic} {Histology}: {Text} . 12th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2005. AbstractWebsite
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MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Development of ethnomedicines for management of malaria in Msambweni district, Kenya.". In: The Proceedings of a Workshop on Regional Networks in Africa, held on October 5 to 6th, 2010 at the Kopanong Hotel and Conference Centre in Benoni, South Africa, near Johannesburg. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria, T. E. Maitho and D. J. Muchiri (1993). Median Lethal Doses, Clinical Signs and Post-mortem Changes in Acute Pyrethrin Toxicity Study in Sheep and Rabbits. Pyrethrum post, 19(1): 26-29.". In: Pyrethrum Post. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1993. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Exploiting Natural Products from African Biodiversity in Pest Management: from Extraction of Plant chemicals to Expression in GMOs.". In: The proceedings of a continuous professional development (CPD) workshop on, . Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Gathuma, J.M. Mbaria, J. Wanyama, H.F.A. Kaburia, L Mpoke, J.N. Mwangi, Samburu and Turkana healers (2004): Efficiency of Myrsine africana, Albizia anthelmintica, Hilderbrantia sepalosa Herbal remedies against Mixed Natural Sheep Helminthosis in Samb.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. E; 2004. Abstract
The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared.  Sheep were infected orally with     10 000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%).  Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4,6,8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep.  These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05).  The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2012). Cytotoxicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan Biodiversity to the Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae).". In: The 4th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy (4th ICDDT) 2012, at Dubai men. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Joseph M. Nguta, J. Mbaria et al (2012). Cytotoxicity of Antimalarial plant extracts from Kenya biodiversity to brine shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemidae).". In: Drugs and therapy studies. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2010). Ethnodiagnostic Skills of the Digo Community for malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting?". In: The Proceedings of the Ist East and Central Africa Regional Symposium for the Carnegie-RISE Fellows held on September 15th, 2010 at Royale Imperial Hotel, Kampala-Uganda, East Africa. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni,.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128: 424. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented th species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret.(Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L.(Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Seneciosyringitolius O.Hoffman. (Compositae), OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region forthefirst time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Plants as source of drugs: Ethnopharmacology, Pharmacology and Toxicology of selected antimalarial herbal plants from Msambweni district, South coast Kenya.". In: Proceedings of a RISE AFNNET workshop-University of Nairobi Node in Chak Guest House, Nairobi, on 13th December 2011. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria (1992). Studies of Acute Toxicity and Anthelmintic Activity of Pyrethrins in Sheep and Rabbits.". In: Pyrethrum Post. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Toxicity of crude plant extracts and antitumour drugs in the Brine Shrimp Bioassay.". In: The Proceedings of the Ist International Scientific Conference, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya during June 15-17th, 2011. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J M Gathuma, JM Mbaria, JB Wanyama, HFA. Kaburia, L Mpoke, Samburu and Turkana healers (2001). Efficacy of Myrisine africana, Albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthosis in Samburu District, Ke.". In: Proceedings of the First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Held from 29th October to 3rd November 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. E; 2001. Abstract

ABSTRACT: One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it's a good indicator of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E. coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Joseph Mwanzia Nguta, James M. Mbaria, Peter K. Gathumbi, Daniel Gakuya, John David Kabasa and Stephen Gitahi Kiama (2011). Ethnodiagnostic Skills of the Digo Community for Malaria: A Lead to Traditional Bioprospecting.". In: The 4th International Conference on Drug Discovery and Therapy (4th ICDDT) 2012, at Dubai men. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting.The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "James M. Mbaria: Traditional Knowledge and Practices of Indigenous Peopes in Coping with Diabetes. Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. Held at Copenha.". In: . Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria and L. W. Kanja local experience on conduct of acute toxicological studies: Presented in seminar on procedure of Evaluation of pesticides: toxicology Ecotoxicology and Efficacy. Workshop organized by pest control products Board (PCPB) on 16th.". In: Workshop organized by pest control products Board (PCPB) on 16th July 2008 at Agricultural information resource centre (AIRC), Nairobi, Kenya. E; 2008.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta and J. M. Mbaria (2010). Bioavailability of cobalt and anthelmintic effects of albendazole fortified with cobalt (Vermitan super) in sheep.". In: The Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference, held on September 8th To 10th, 2010 at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Biological screening of Kenyan antimalarial plant extracts in brine shrimp bioassay.". In: The first international congress on Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI): Impact, Limitations and Needs in Developing Countries in the United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from September 12th to 18th, 2011, sponsored by USDA/APHIS in collab. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010). Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131: (2010) 256.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Mbaria, T. E. Maitho and D. J. Muchiri (1991). Effects of pyrethrins on Haemonchus contortus in vitro.". In: Proceedings of the first inter-university pharmacology and Toxicology subject meeting held in Arusha, Tanzania from 24th-28th September, 1991. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1991. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Natural products from plant biodiversity and malaria.". In: The 12TH International Symposium on Natural Product Chemistry and Related Biological Sciences, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS), University of Karachi, Pakistan during November 22-25, 2010. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. K. Gikunju, J. M. Mbaria, W. Mureithi, M. N. Kyule, J. J. McDermott and T. E. Maitho (1995). Water Fluoride in Molo Division of Nakuru District Kenya. Fluoride, 28(1): 17-20.". In: Fluoride. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2011). Exploiting Natural Products from African Biodiversity in Pest Management: from Extraction of Plant chemicals to Expression in GMOs.". In: The proceedings of a continuous professional development (CPD) workshop on, . Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta, J. M. Mbaria et al., (2012). Natural products: An exciting source of new pharmacophores against malaria.". In: : The 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and the 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference held at Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, from 25th to 27th April 2012. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 2012.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J. M. Nguta and J. M. Mbaria et al., (2010) Spectroscopic Determination of Cobalt and Copper in Grass Pastures in Kabete.". In: The Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference held on September 8th to 10th, 2010 at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama (2010): Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies Used by the South Coast Community, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(2): 256-267.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology. E; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.  Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama. Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni,.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128: 424. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a serious cause of mortality globally. The disease is of regional concern in Africa and of national interest in Kenya due to its high morbidity and mortality as a result of development of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum to many existing drugs such as chloroquine. Alternative medicine using herbal remedies are commonly used to treat malaria in Kenya. However, plants used in some rural areas in Kenya are not documented. Many antimalarial drugs have been derived from plants. This study was conducted to document medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the Msambweni community of Kenyan South Coast to treat malaria, where the disease is endemic. Herbalists were interviewed by administration of semistructured questionnaires in order to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of malaria. Focused group discussions held with the herbalists supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Twenty-seven species of plants in 24 genera distributed in 20 families were reported to be used in this region for the treatment of malaria. Labiatae, Rutaceae and Liliaceae families had each eleven percent of the plant species reported and represented th species that are most commonly used. Thirteen plant species, namely; Aloe deserti Berger (Liliaceae), Launea cornuta (Oliv and Hiern) C. Jeffrey (Compositae), Ocimum bacilicum L. (Labiatae), Teclea simplicifolia (Eng) Verdoon (Rutaceae), Gerranthus lobatus(Cogn.) Jeffrey (Cucurbitaceae), Grewia hexaminta Burret.(Tiliaceae), Canthium glaucum Hiern. (Rubiaceae), Amaranthus hybridus L.(Amaranthaceae), Combretum padoides Engl and Diels. (Combretaceae), Seneciosyringitolius O.Hoffman. (Compositae), OcimumsuaveWilld(Labiatae), Aloe macrosiphon Bak. (Liliaceae) and Laudolphia buchananii (Hall.f) Stapf. (Apocynaceae) are documented from this region forthefirst time for the treatment of malaria. These results become a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant based antimalarial drugs.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "James M. Mbaria (2011). Lead poisoning.". In: Proceeding Continuous Professional Development (CPD) workshop on Forensic Veterinary Science. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal (with emphasis on anthelmintic) plants by the people of Loitoktok district in Kenya for the management of both animal and human health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between May and October 2009. Information was gathered from 23 traditional health practitioners, from across the district, by use of semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus group discussions. Voucher specimens of cited plants were collected and deposited at the botanical herbarium of the University of Nairobi. RESULTS: A total of 80 medicinal plants cited were collected and identified as belonging to 46 families and 70 genera. The plants identified were 48%, 38%, 7%, 6% and 1% trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas and lichens, respectively. Most of the plants belonged to the families Fabaceae (10%), Euphorbiaceae (6%), Rutaceae (5%) followed by Boraginaceae, Labiateae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae at 4% each. However, the six most important families by their medicinal use values in decreasing order were Rhamnaceae, Myrsinaceae, Oleaceae, Liliaceae, Usenaceae and Rutaceae. The ailments treated included respiratory conditions, helminthosis, stomach disorders, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, infertilities and physical injuries. Helminthosis in both livestock and humans was recognized as a major disease managed by use of medicinal plants (with an informant consensus factor of 0.86) in the study area. The most frequently used plant anthelmintics were Albizia anthelmintica (Fabaceae), Myrsine africana (Myrsinaceae), Rapanea melanophleos (Myrsinaceae), Clausena anisata (Rutaceae) and Olea Africana (Oleaceae) used by 70%, 70%, 26%, 13% and 9% of the respondents, respectively. Other plant anthelmintics used, each by 4% of the respondents, were Rumex usambarensis (Polygonaceae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). CONCLUSION:  It is concluded that traditional health practice in Loitoktok depend largely on naturally growing plants and that the study area has a potential for bio-prospecting of crude drugs from plants due to the large number of medicinal plants cited. There is also need for further studies to validate the plants used in medicinal remedies in this area.
Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J, Magambo G. "Journal of Agriculture and Food Research." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;5:100188. Abstract
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Mukhwana, A. IS&OM(eds). "Je, Sheng' niLahaja ya Kiswahili?". In: Miaka Hamsini ya Kiswahili nchini Kenya. Twaweza Communications Ltd; 2014.
Mukungu NA, Maitai CK, Sinei KA, Mutai PC, Ongarora DSB, Karumi EW. "Jatropha curcas poisoning in children in Western Kenya- A case report." J. Pharm. Sci. . 2015;18(2015):32-34.
Mukungu N, Maitai C, Sinei K, Mutai P, Ongarora D, Karumi E. "Jatropha curcas Poisoning in Children in Western Kenya- A Case Report." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;18:32-34.
Mukungu N.A., C.K M, Sinei K.A, Mutai, E.B.K., Ongarora D.S.B, E.W. K. "Jatropha Curcas Poisoning in Children in Western Kenya – A Case Report. ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2015;18 :32-34.
MURABA DRWANJOHIJOHN. "John M. Wanjohi, Abiy Yenesew, Jacob O. Midiwo, Matthias Heydenreich, Martin G. Peter, Michael Dreyer, Matthias Reichert,c and Gerhard Bringmannc,* (2005), Three dimeric anthracene derivatives from the fruits of Bulbine abyssinica. Tetrahedron 61, 2667 .". In: Tetrahedron 61 , 2667 - 2674. SITE; 2005. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Judith Bahemuka, Benjamin Nganda and Charles Nzioka, (Editors) (1998), Poverty Revisited: Analysis and Strategies towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya. A UNESCO/University of Nairobi publication, February.". In: international Institute for Development Studies. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
MUSILI. "The jurisdiction for the grant of a mareva injunction in kenyan courts." Law Society of Kenya journal. 2008;Vol. 4 2008 No. 1 (ISBN 9966-7237-2-2).
MUTUIRI DRBURURIAJOHN. "J. M. BURURIA, P. N. KINYANJUI, P. G. WAIYAKI AND S. M. KARIUKI Resistance of Klebsiella species Isolates from Two Institutions in Nairobi, Kenya to Commonly Prescribed antimicrobial Agents. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 10 (2007) 22-26. au-ibar; 2007. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, MILE DRJUSTUSKITHEKA. "Justus K. Mile, Bernard M. Nzimbi and S.K. Moindi, On the characterization of Class R_1 of non-normal operators in a Hilbert space, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Jaoko W.G. Muchemi G., Oguya F.O. 1996 Praziquantel side effects during treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infected pupils in Kibwezi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 1996 Aug; 73 (8): 499-501.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1996. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Four hundred and thirty six pupils in two primary schools in Kibwezi, Kenya aged between seven and sixteen years and positive for S. mansoni were treated as follows: 320 pupils with a single dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight and 116 controls with a placebo. Immediate and delayed side effects of praziquantel were observed. The main side-effects were abdominal pain (36.3%), headache (35.3%) and nausea (13.1%). There was correlation between frequencies of these side-effects and intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces. Other side-effects included dizziness (9.7%), fever (7.8%), urticaria and bloody diarrhoea. Overall, the side-effects of praziquantel were mild and transient, and did not require any intervention. For ethical reasons, all pupils who served as controls were treated with praziquantel after the study. PMID: 8898462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Gathuma, M.M. Kagiko and P.N.Nyaga. Water quality in Kajiado District, Kenya. E. Afric. Journ. Med. Res. Vol. 3 (1) 1979.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA and P. W. N. KANYARI, ( 2001). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in small ruminants in a high potential area of Central Kenya". Journal of South African Veterinary Association, 72 (3): 147 - 149.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Nyaga and P.N. Nyaga. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Kenya. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. (1985) 33: 249-251.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, and R.M. WARUIRU (2002). "The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in commercial pig farms in Thika District, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 50: 1-11.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, and R.M. WARUIRU (2003). "The control of parasitic nematodes in commercial piggeries in Kenya reflected by a questionnaire survey on management practices". Tropical Animal Health and Production. 35: 79-84.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, P.N. Nyaga, and J.N. Gicho. Isolation, cultivation and characterisation of a poxvirus from horses in Kenya. Zebl. Vet. Med. B21., 1974: 592-601.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1974. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.G. WAWERU, P. W. N. KANYARI, D.M. MWANGI, T.A NGATIA and P. NANSEN (1999). "Comparative parasitological and haematological changes in two breeds of sheep infected with Fasciola gigantica." Tropical Animal Health and Production, 31: 363 - 372.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFNYAGAP. "J. K. Omuse, P.N. Nyaga, J.M. Gathuma, J.S. Kaminjolo and F.M. Nderu. Verminous pneumonia in topi (Damalisous Korriaum) in Masai Mara area of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 26 (2), 1978: 156-160.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1978. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA. and P.W.N. KANYARI (2001). Worm control practices and 19 implications for the development of anthelmintic resistance on commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Afri.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Gathuma, P.N. Nyaga, J.K. Omuse, F.M.K. Nderu and J.S Kaminjolo. Exposure of calves to taenid of wild carnivore origin. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol.30 (1). 1983: 55-60.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. M. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2002). An analysis of intensity of nematode infections in commercial pig farms in Thika District.". In: Annual Scientific Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association Held at Kakamega; April 2002. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, J.A. Ayoade, T.P.C. Makhambera, P.N.Nyaga and Lily Caroline Bebora (1988). Contagious ecythyma in Boer goat. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric.36: 83-85.". In: KVA meeting Mombasa, 4th September, 1989. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Joshi MD, Gathua SN, Okelo GB, Lule GN, Musewe AO. Cryptococcal hepatitis and meningitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):69-73.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):69-73. test; 1989. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA. and P.W.N. KANYARI. ( 2003). Resistance to anthelmintics in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya. Israel Journal of 20 Veterinary Medicine 58(1): 31-36.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.A. OMEGA, W.K. MUNYUA, T.A. NGATIA, E.K. KANG'ETHE and P.W.N. KANYARI ( 1998). Fasciola worms, faecal and gall bladder egg count relationships in sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 4.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, J.P.O. Wamukoya and P.N. Nyaga. A preliminary report on the occurence of a disease in broilers in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. Vol. 25, 1977: 431-434.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1977. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA and P. W. N. KANYARI, ( 2000). "The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in dogs: a retrospective study of 351 cases ( 1984 - 1998 )". Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 56: 9 - 11.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo and P.N. Nyaga. Uasin Gishu skin disease and Dermatophilus congolensis infection in the horse a review. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 31 (1), 1983: 17-20.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA, P.W.N. KANYARI (2002). Anthelmintic resistance survey in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNYAGAP. "Jane N. Maina, P.N. Nyaga (1988): Factors associated with early chick mortality in Broilers in Kenya.". In: Proceedings, Animal Production Society of Kenya, Regional Conference, Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya. November 1988. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Joshi MD, Lule GN, Otieno LS. Upper gastrointestinal tract in chronic renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. test; 1988. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2002). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in commercial chicken.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.A. OMEGA , P.W.N. KANYARI and others (1997). Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the detection of circulating Fasciola gigantica antigens in sera of experimentally infected sheep.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, P.N. Nyaga, J.K. Omuse, and E.R. Mutiga Infectious bovine rhinotracheatis infectious bovine pustulo - vulvo-vaginitis viral isolates from cattle with epididymitis and vaginitis. Amer. J. Vet Res. 36 (1975): 123-125.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.G. WAWERU, P. W. N. KANYARI, D.M. MWANGI, T.A NGATIA and P. NANSEN (1999). " A comparison of serum biochemical changes in two breeds of sheep ( Red Masai and Dorper) experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica". Ondersterpoort Journal of Veterinary .". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Jane, J. Kapkiyai, Nancy K. Karanja, Javaid N. Qureshi, Paul C. Smithson and Paul L. Woomer, 1999. Soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics in a Kenyan nitisol under longterm fertilizer and organic input management. Soil Biol. and Biochem. 31, 1773-1782.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
n/a
N. DRMUTEMIJOSEPH. "J. N. Mutemi, L.A. Ogallo, T. N. Krishnamurti, A. K. Mishra, and T.S.V. Vijaya Kumar, 2006: Multimodel based Superensemble Forecasts for Short and Medium Range NWP over Various Regions of Africa: Meteorol Atmos Phys 95, 87-113.". In: Meteorol Atmos Phys 95, 87-113. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2006. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "J.W. Kimenju, N.K. Karanja and I. Macharia, 1999. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean in Kenya and the effect of Meloidogyne infection on bean nodulation. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 489-497.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Jesus Christ Our "Muthamaki" (Ideal Elder): An African Christological Study based On the Agikuyu Understanding of Elders, Nairobi Phoenix Publishers, 1992.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Jane, J. Kapkiyai, Nancy K. Karanja, Javaid N. Qureshi, Paul C. Smithson and Paul L. Woomer, 1999. Soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics in a Kenyan nitisol under longterm fertilizer and organic input management. Soil Biol. and Biochem. 31, 1773-1782.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
n/a
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "J.W. Kimenju, N.K. Karanja and I. Macharia, 1999. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean in Kenya and the effect of Meloidogyne infection on bean nodulation. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 489-497.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "J.N.Mukabi, B.N.Njoroge, T.Toda .". In: Proceedings 14 th Road World Congress, Paris. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "JN Mukabi, BN Njoroge and N Shimizu .". In: on Construction Technology (Contec 2001). Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
NA M, CK M, KA S, PC M, DSB O, EW K. ""Jatropha curcas poisoning in children in Western Kenya- A case report." ." J. Pharm. Sci. . 2015;18(2015):32-34.
NGALA DRODUORJANEAKINYI. "Jane A. O "The Dholuo syllable Structure" - This paper has been posted in the Eric Data Base (Eric clearing house on languages and linguistics, Washington D.C.).". In: M.Ed theses - Kenyatta University - 1986. Odula P.O.; 1994. Abstract
The gross anatomy of the pulmonary arterial system of the giraffe with comparative data from other Artiodactyla. 
Ngugi M. "Jomo Kenyatta.". In: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO; 2008.
NGUHIU DRMWANGIJAMESA. "J. Nguhiu-Mwangi; P.M.F. Mbithi; J.K. Wabacha; and P.G. Mbuthia. Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2006 special.". In: issueProceedings of the 5th Biennial Scientific conference, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, September 6th . University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
{ The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. J. Nguhiu-Mwangi; P.M.F. Mbithi; J.K. Wabacha; and P.G. Mbuthia. Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2006 special.; 2006. Abstract

The insidious nature of laminitis makes it difficult to diagnose early enough. In most cases diagnosis is made after the condition has devastated the claw irreversibly with inevitable consequences of culling the animal. A study to determine prevalence and risk factors of laminitis was conducted on 300 dairy cows in 29 zero-grazed and 3 pasture-grazed farms within Nairobi and the peri-urban districts between December 2005 and May 2006. Locomotion score was made by walking the cows on unyielding surface to evaluate gait and straightness of the back. After washing the hind claws of each cow, they were grossly examined for any sign of claw lesions. A 1-2mm layer of horn was trimmed-off from the soles of these claws and the soles scrutinized for underlying signs of laminitis. Each weight-bearing surface of the claw was divided into 6 universally recognized zones. The prevalence of subclinical and chronic laminitis was 49.3% and 21% respectively. Claw deformities were observed in 47% of the cows but may all not have been associated with laminitis. Signs and lesions on the claws suggesting presence of laminitis but could also occur independent of laminitis were: horizontal ridges of the claw wall, sole and heel erosions, double soles and white line separation. It was observed that 82% of the cows with subclinical and chronic laminitis had sole horn haemorrhages. However, all the cows with sole haemorrhages had either subclinical or chronic laminitis. But all the cows with subclinical laminitis had haemorrhages. This implies that sole haemorrhage is mainly a good sign of subclinical laminitis. The number of zones involved determined severity of the haemorrhages. There was significant association at 95% CI between sole haemorrhage-score and number of haemorrhagic zones in which subclinical laminitis was associated with slight to moderate haemorrhages (score 1 and 2

NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Jacob, J. P., B. N. Mitaru, P. N. Mbugua and R. Blair (1996): The feeding value of Kenya sorghum, sunflower seed cake and sesame seed cake for broilers and layers. Anim Feed Sci. and Tech. 61:41-56.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Jacob, J. P., B. N. Mitaru, P. N. Mbugua and R. Blair (1997): The nutritive value of Kenyan sorghum for poultry. Trop. Sci. 37: 43-48.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1997.
NJOROGE MRGACHIESTEVE. "Joint Aspects.". In: Department of Design, UON Nairobi. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Joint exhibition of Art and Design by academics of the University of  Kentucky and University of Nairobi.
NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, M.S. Badamana. and J.M.Z. Kamau. Faecal and Urinary Losses of Nitrogen in Cobalt-Deficient Small East African Goats. Indian Journal of Animal Science 64 (1994), 1264-1267.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana. Changes in Serum Levels of Vitamin B12, Feed Intake, Liveweight and Hematological parameters in Cobalt Deficient Small East African Goats. Internat. J. Vit. Nutr.Res.63 (1993), 135-139.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana. Thyroid Hormones and Metabolic Rate During Induction of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Goats. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 42 (1994), 187-189.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
NJUGUNA DRMBURUJOHN. "J.N. Mburu, J.M.Z. Kamau and M.S. Badamana and P.N.Mbugua Use of Serum Vitamin B12 in Diagnosis of Cobalt Deficiency in Small East African Goats. Bull. Anim. Hlth.Prod. Afr. 42 (1994), 141-146.". In: Insitute for Communication Research, Stanford University. au-ibar; 1994. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity
Nthiwa DM, Odongo DO, Ochanda H, Khamadi S, Gichimu BM. "Journal of Parasitology Research." Journal of Parasitology Research. 2015. Abstract

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly (Glossina
spp.) is a major obstacle to livestock production in the tropical parts of Africa. The objective
of this study was to determine the infection rates of trypanosomes in Glossina species in
Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County, Kenya. Tsetse fly species, G. longipennis and G.
pallidipes, were trapped and DNA was isolated from their dissected internal organs
(proboscis, salivary glands, and midguts). The DNA was then subjected to a nested PCR ..

NYAGA PROFGATUMUHANIEL. "July 2012 .". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2012.
O
O PROFORINDADA. "Johansen MV, Simonsen PE, Butterworth AE, Ouma JH, Mbugua GG, Sturrock RF, Orinda DA, Christensen NO. A survey of Schistosoma mansoni induced kidney disease in children in an endemic area of Machakos District, Kenya.Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8.". In: Acta Trop. 1994 Oct;58(1):21-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
Danish Bilharziasis Laboratory, Charlottenlund. The association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and kidney lesions was investigated in school children selected from three primary schools in Machakos District, Kenya, namely Miu (n = 159), Kitengei (n = 160) and Misuuni (n = 99) schools. The children were examined parasitologically for S. mansoni infection, clinically for enlargement of the liver and spleen, and biochemically for proteinuria and serum and urine creatinine. High prevalences of S. mansoni infection, ranging from 84-96%, were seen in all the schools, but the geometric mean intensity of egg excretion varied, being relatively low in Misuuni (31 eggs/g), medium in Miu (182 eggs/g) and high in Kitengei (413 eggs/g). The prevalence of pathological proteinuria (> or = 200 mg/l) in the schools ranged from 10.1% in Miu to 28.8% in Kitengei. No difference in the levels of proteinuria was noted between age or sex groups. No association between intensity of infection and pathological proteinuria was observed in any of the schools, nor was any correlation between organomegaly and proteinuria observed. However, significant correlations between malaria and organomegaly (p < 0.001) and between malaria and proteinuria (p < 0.05) were observed when pooling data from all schools. These findings suggest that S. mansoni induced nephrotic syndromes are not common in children from this highly endemic area of Kenya.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "J.E.O. Rege and R.O. Mosi (1988). A comparison and Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) procedures of sire evaluation in Kenya.". In: Proc. Anim. Prod. Soc. Kenya 17;63-72. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, S. M. Mutuli and G.O. Rading Stress Characterization in Autofrettaged Thick Walled Cylinders Int. J. Mechanical Engineering Education. 31(4) (2003) p 370-389.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2003. Abstract

The inaccessibility of commercial software has necessitated the development of low-cost, general-purpose finite element method (FEM) computer programs for structural analysis. Using the FEM program, the elastic, elastic-plastic, residual and service stresses and displacements in a closed ended, thick-walled cylinder under internal pressure were established. The displacement formulation was implemented and eight-noded brick isoparametric elements chosen. The frontal solution technique and the incremental theory of plasticity were used, as only limited computing facilities were available. The results were found to be in very good agreement with the through-thickness analytical values. The benefits of autofrettage were demonstrated and an optimum overstrain of 16% established for a cylinder with a thickness ratio of 2. The material economy achieved through autofrettage and the limitations imposed are illustrated. The FEM program could therefore be reliably used for other complex geometries and load conditions.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, G. O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Transition, Convergence and Constancy in Radiused Entry Cross-Bored Cylinders Trans. Canadian Society of Mechanical Engineers 28 (2B) (2004) p 343-353.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2004. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "Judicial Review of Administrative Action, in European Environmental Law: A Comparative Perspective, in G. Winter (ed), Tempus Series, Dartmouth (1996), at p. 129.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Jitta, J.N.S., Wafula, E.M., Wasunna, A. The Comatose Child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital. E Afr Med J 61: 917-924, 1984.". In: E Afr Med J 61: 917-924. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1984. Abstract
PIP: A study of 125 children aged 0-6 months who were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital for acute diarrhea was conducted between 1982-1983 to determine the benefits of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in treatment of diarrheal illness. At admission, specimens of stool, blood and urine were collected and examine for bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents (including malaria), serum electrolytes, urea, white cell counts and hematocrit. Children were started on oral rehydration solution (ORS) unless severly dehydrated, in which case intravenous therapy was initiated. 84% of the children were successfully treated with ORS alone regardless of etiological agent found; 15% required IV therapy initially, then were placed on ORS. Average hospital stay was 56.2 hours. Cost of treatment by ORT is less than 20% the cost of IV therapy. When investigators surveyed other health institutions, they found that ORT was used alone in less than 10% of all children seen with diarrhea. A side benefit of ORT is the utilization of mothers in preparation and administration of solution, reducing the demand on hospital staff. Since 20% of all pediatric admissions at Kenyatta are due to acute diarrheal disease, use of ORT would reduce costs tremendously. Initiation of ORT at home may prevent development of dehydration altogether.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "J.W. Wakhungu and Bwanga, C.O. Preweaning mortality of dairy cattle on smallholdings in Western Kenya.". In: Proceedings in Annual Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, Kabete, Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1995.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J.K. Musuva and G.O. Rading "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" Proc. of ANSTI, Ibadan, Nigeria (1984).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1984. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFBWIBONIMROD, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Jitta J, Nduati RW Growth monitoring and promotion during early childhood development. In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers. Ed. Mukelebai K, Bwibo NO, Onyango FE. 2nd edition, UNICEF.". In: Book. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, G. O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Overstraining of Plain Cross-Bored Cylinders J. Mechanical Engineering Science Vol. 218(2) (2004) p 143-153.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2004. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O DROPEREALFRED. "J. Muthama, A. O. Opere and C. B. Lukorito (2003): Utilization of Meteorological products in Agriculture and Water sectors in Central and Eastern Kenya. Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no1, (2003), p7-1.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.6.no1, (2003). A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2003. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""Judicial Review of Administrative Action, in European Environmental Law: A Comparative Perspective, in G. Winter (ed), Tempus Series, Dartmouth (1996), at p. 129.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "J. O. Owino, C. Mwathi, Miheso M. O.". In: In Proceedings of the International Congress on Mathematics Instruction, ICMI-1, S. Africa. 1999; 2006. Abstract
n/a
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J.M. Kihiu, G.O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Geometric Constants in Plain Cross-Bored Cylinders J. Pressure Vessel Technology, 125 (2003) p 446-453.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2003. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Jan. 29-30, 2007 .". In: Regional Conference on Capacity Building for the Fast Tracking of the East African Market, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
n/a
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Martin Jr, HL, Bwayo J, Nyange PM, Rakwar JP, Kashonga F, Mandalya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK,Acceptability of HIV Vaccine Trials in High-Risk Heterosexual Cohorts in Mombasa, Kenya.AIDS 9: 1297-83 1995.". In: AIDS 9: 1297-83 1995. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
For a HIV vaccine to be effective, it will be essential that it protect against the virus variants to which individuals are most frequently exposed. HIV-1 is predominantly a sexually acquired virus, thus, variants in genital secretions are a potentially important reservoir of viruses that are transmitted. Because there are no data available on variants in the genital mucosa, we analyzed this provirus population and compared it to the proviruses in the blood of individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. A major genetic difference between variants within a patient were insertions, which were apparently created by duplication of adjacent sequences, that resulted in acquisition of new potential glycosylation sites in V1 and V2. Comparisons of mucosal and PBMC variants suggest that these tissues harbor distinct, but related populations of HIV-1 variants. In two of three patients, the mucosal variants were most closely related to a minor variant genotype in blood. In a third individual, viruses in both tissues were surprisingly homogeneous, but the majority of variants in the cervix encoded a V1 sequence with a predicted glycosylation pattern similar to a minor variant in blood. The V3 sequence patterns of the mucosal isolates indicate they may be predominantly macrophage-tropic viruses.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Rakwar JP, Chohan B, Mandalya K, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJD, Kreiss JK, Moses S. Urethral Infection in a Workplace Population of East African Men: Evaluation of Strategies for screening and Management. J. Inf. Dis 175: 833-8, 19.". In: J. Inf. Dis 175: 833-8, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Transport workers (n = 504) in Mombasa, Kenya, were screened for urethral infection by history, clinical examination, and laboratory testing of urethral swabs and first-catch urine specimens. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 3.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.6%, and Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.0%; more than two-thirds of infections were asymptomatic. A complaint of urethral discharge, dysuria, or both was twice as sensitive as the sign of discharge on physical examination (34.5% vs. 15.5%) in identifying infection. A positive leukocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test on urine predicted infection with a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 59.3% in symptomatic men and with a sensitivity of 55.3% and a specificity of 82.8% in asymptomatic men. Demographic and behavioral factors were not independent predictors of infection. In resource-poor settings with high prevalences of urethral infection, an effective screening and management strategy would be to treat symptomatic men, as well as asymptomatic men with a positive LED test, for all three infections.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Rakwar JP, Richardson BA, Mandalya K, Chohan BH, Bwayo J, Ndinya Achola JO, Martin Jr HL, Moses S Kreiss JK.Decreased Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Trucking Companies in Kenya: results of a Risk-Reduction Programme AIDS II: .". In: results of a Risk-Reduction Programme AIDS II: 903-09, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Transport workers (n = 504) in Mombasa, Kenya, were screened for urethral infection by history, clinical examination, and laboratory testing of urethral swabs and first-catch urine specimens. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 3.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.6%, and Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.0%; more than two-thirds of infections were asymptomatic. A complaint of urethral discharge, dysuria, or both was twice as sensitive as the sign of discharge on physical examination (34.5% vs. 15.5%) in identifying infection. A positive leukocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test on urine predicted infection with a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 59.3% in symptomatic men and with a sensitivity of 55.3% and a specificity of 82.8% in asymptomatic men. Demographic and behavioral factors were not independent predictors of infection. In resource-poor settings with high prevalences of urethral infection, an effective screening and management strategy would be to treat symptomatic men, as well as asymptomatic men with a positive LED test, for all three infections.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "John N. Kireiger, Robert C. Bailey, John C. Opeya, Benard O. Ayieko, Felix A. Opiyo, Dickens Omondi, Kawango Agot, Corette Parker, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, and Stephen Moses. Adult Male Circumcision Outcomes:.". In: Experience in a Developing Country Setting. Urol Int. 2007; 78: 235-240. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractadult_male_circumcision_outcomes.docadult_male_circumcision_outcomes.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jessamine PG, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Wainberg MA, Wamola I, D'Costa LJ, Cameron DW, Simonsen NJ, Plourde P, Ronald AR. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin synergism in HIV 1 transmission. Scand. J. Infect Dis. 69(supp.". In: J. Infect Dis. 69(suppl.):181 - 186, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "John GC, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Welch M, Richardson BA, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Krieger J, Onyango F, Kreiss JK.Genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA during pregnancy: association with immunosuppression, abnormal c.". In: J Infect Dis. 1997 Jan;175(1):57-62. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in genital secretions may be a determinant of vertical HIV-1 transmission. Cervical and vaginal secretions from HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women were evaluated to determine prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-infected cells in the genital tract. HIV-1 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32% of 212 cervical and 10% of 215 vaginal specimens. Presence of HIV-1 DNA in the cervix was associated with cervical mucopus and a significantly lower absolute CD4 cell count (354 vs. 469, P < .001). An absolute CD4 cell count <200 was associated with a 9.6-fold increased odds of cervical HIV-1 DNA detection compared with a count > or = 500 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-34.2). Detection of vaginal HIV- 1 DNA was associated with abnormal vaginal discharge, lower absolute CD4 cell count, and severe vitamin A deficiency. Presence of HIV-1-infected cells in genital secretions was associated with immunosuppression and abnormal cervical or vaginal discharge.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "John GC, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Panteleeff D, Mwatha A, Overbaugh J, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Correlates of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: association with maternal plasma HIV-1 RN.". In: J Infect Dis. 2001 Jan 15;183(2):206-212. Epub 2000 Dec 15. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding among HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels >43,000 copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7-571.0) were associated with late transmission (occurring >2 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "J. Maalu, et al Micro and Small Enterprises Financial Services in Kenya, IDS Occasional Paper No.65, August.". In: From Session al No. 10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate, IPAR, The Regal Press Kenya Ltd. International Union of Crystallography; 1999. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "J. P. O. Obiero. 2006. Rainwater Harvesting. Electronic based training material developed for open and distance learning in Wedusoft e-learning environment (internet based) as well as on stand alone interactive CD developed using Dream Weaver Software.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Odhiambo T. "Juvenile Delinquency and Violence in the Fiction of Three Kenyan Writers." Tydskrif vir Letterkunde. 2007;44(2):134-148.
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "J. P. O. Obiero and Fuchaka Waswa. 2004. Dryland Farming Technologies. Book Chapter under review.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "J. P. O. Obiero. 2007. Soil Erosion Engineering. Lecture notes developed for open and distance learning in an e-learning interactive CD based on the the Webscript software.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Odhiambo T, Siundu G. "Journeying into Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2014;1(1):1-5.
OGONYO DRBOSIREKEFA. "Jae Sung Lee, Jong Suk Lee, Jae Don Yoon, Sung-Mok Beak, Kefa O. Bosire, Yong Soo Lee, Jung-Ae: Production of lignin Peroxidase by Phellinus igniarius and Cytotoxic effects of Ligin hydrolysates derived from wood biomass on cancer cells. J. Appl. Pharmaco.". In: J. Appl. Pharmacol. 12, 3, (2004) 189-193. Folio Morphol; 2004. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Okelo JA, Mbithi LM, Kiriti-Nganga. "Jounce Of The African Women Studies Centre.". 2012.Website
Okeyo MP, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Judicial Evaluation Model and Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Construction Projects: the Case of Road Construction Projects in Kenya." Strategic Journal of Business and Change Management. 2020:527-540.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., MALOIY, G.M.O. and LYKKEBOE, G. (1975) A fish in extreme alkalinity. Respiration Physiology 24, 159-162.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LOMHOLT, J.P. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1976) Importance of air and water breathing in relation to size of the African lungfish (Protopterus amphibius). Journal of Experimental Biology 65, 395-399.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHNSTON, I.A., BERNARD, L.M. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1983) Aquatic and aerial respiration rates, muscle capillary supply and mitochondrial volume density in the air-breathing catfish (Clarius mossambicus) acclimated to either aerated or hypoxic water. Journa.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHNSON, K.G., MALOIY, G.M.O. and BLIGH, J.(1972) Sweat gland function in the red deer. American Journal of Physiology 223, 604-607.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1972. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., WEBER, R.E. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1976) Respiratory properties of blood in awake and aestivating lungfish (Protopterus amphibius). Respiration Physiology 27, 335-345.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHNSTON, I.A., EDDY, F.B. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1983) The effects of temperature on muscle pH, adenylate and phosphogen concentrations in Oreochromis alcalicus grahami: a fish adapted to alkaline hot springs. Journal of Fish Biology 23, 717-724.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JEWELL, P.A. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (eds.) (1989) The Biology of Large African Mammals in their Environment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, XVII + 304 pp.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JENKINSON, D.M. and MALOIY G.M.O.(1969) The distribution of nerves, monoamine oxidase and cholinesterase in the skin of the red deer (Cervus elaphus). Research in Veterinary Science 10, 448-252.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1969. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., WEBER, R.E. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1976) Blood respiratory properties in a mammal of low body temperature, the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glabber). Respiration Physiology 28,303-314.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., KORNERUP, S. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1980) Temperature insensitive O2 binding in blood of the tree frog(Chiromantis petersi). Journal of Comparative Physiology 136, 71-76.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "JOHANSEN, H., ALLIANGANA, D.M.I., BECH, C., MALOIY, G.M.O. and JOHANSEN, K.(1988) Thermal balance in the crested guinea fowl. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 132(2), 36A.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "A joint Kenya – Ivory Coast Malaria Measurement Campaign.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Zoueu JT. A joint Kenya-Ivory coast malaria measurement campaign. ICIPE, Nairobi: AFSIN; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "J. Orem, P. Fu, A. Ness, W.O. Mwanda, S. C. Remick. Oral combination chemotherapy in the treatment of AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. EAMJ, 2005; 82 (9): S144-S150.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9 Suppl):S144-9. MBA; 2005. Abstract

{ Uganda Cancer Institute, Mulago Hospital and the Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of an oral combination chemotherapy regimen administered to patients with AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, pilot phase II clinical trial. SETTING: Consecutive patient recruitment occurred at two medical centers in the United States: Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, where patients were recruited prior to December 31, 1996 (pre-HAART era); and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, where patients were recruited after January 1, 1997 (HAART era). INTERVENTION: Oral chemotherapy consisted of lomustine (100 mg/m2 day I for cycle one and odd cycles thereafter); etoposide (200 mg/m2 days 1 through 3); and cyclophosphamide and procarbazine (each 100 mg/m2 days 22 through 31). Cycles were repeated every six weeks. Colony-stimulating factor support (G-CSF in all instances) was allowed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical demographic variables, peripheral blood counts, serum chemistries, CD4 lymphocyte count, histopathological subtype of Hodgkin's disease were identified for all patients, who were staged according to Ann Arbor criteria. DATA ANALYSIS: Common Toxicity Criteria were utilized to assess safety; response was assessed using ECOG criteria; and survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methods and difference of survival between pre-HAART and HARART era was compared using log-rank test. RESULTS: Eleven patients (six in pre-HAART era), all but one male, with a median age of 36 years, excellent performance status and advanced International Prognostic Score were treated. Myelosuppression was the major side effect and there were minimal other grade 3 or greater toxicity all of which were promptly reversible. An overall objective response rate of 82% (with 18% complete responses) and median survival duration of 24 months (range 2.5 +/- 68) were observed. Survival was markedly improved in patients treated in the HAART era (median not reached versus 7.25 months

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