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Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel (Rosaceae). ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel (Rosaceae)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukunu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2014;16(4):77-82.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mutai PC, Mukungu NA. "Anthelmintic and Antibacterial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel (Rosaceae)." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;16:75-80.
Okell CN, Mutembei HM MJCABRJRVKLRN. "Anthelmintic administration to small ruminants in emergency drought responses:." Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2016;48(3):493-500.claire-mutembei_et_al._2016-_phd_paper.pdfclaire-mutembei_et_al._2016-_phd_paper.pdf
Thoithi, G.N., Maingi, N., Gathumbi, P.K., Mwangi, J.W., Kibwage IO. "The anthelmintic activity of extracts from some medicinal plants of Kenya.". In: 9th Symposium of the Natural Product Research Network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA). Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Anterior Teeth Morpho-metric Parameters in Kenya Africans"; Archs Oral Bio, Vol39, No.4 pp. 337-342.". In: Discovery and Innovation. Vol 6 363-365. Dar-es-salaam University Press (DUP) in 1996.; 1993. Abstract

The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase.

Admani AA, Gakuya EM. "ANTERIOR SUPERIOR DISLOCATION OF THE HIP JOINT: A REPORT OF 3 CASES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014. Abstract

Traumatic anterior dislocation of the hip forms approximately 11% of hip dislocations and is divided into
superior and inferior types. Anterior superior hip dislocation accounts for 10% of anterior hip dislocations.
The clinical appearance of anterior superior hip dislocation resembles that of a fracture of the femoral neck,
whereas the radiological appearance resembles that of posterior hip dislocation.The objective of this article is to use three cases to describe the management of this condition and highlight pitfalls in the same. The article also points out unusual mechanisms causing this injury. Key words: Anterior dislocation, Hip joint, Open reduction, Iliofemoral ligament

Odwory M, Oyieke JBO, Machoki JM, Osoti A. "Antental care visits and pregnancy outcomes at a Kenyan rural District Hospita.". 2017.
Vannevel V, Vogel JP, Pattinson RC, Adanu R, Charantimath U, Goudar SS, Gwako G, Kavi A, Maya E, Osoti A, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Rulisa S, Botha T, Oladapo OT. "Antenatal Doppler screening for fetuses at risk of adverse outcomes: a multicountry cohort study of the prevalence of abnormal resistance index in low-risk pregnant women." BMJ Open. 2022;12(3):e053622. Abstract

Few interventions exist to address the high burden of stillbirths in apparently healthy pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To establish whether a trial on the impact of routine Doppler screening in a low-risk obstetric population is warranted, we determined the prevalence of abnormal fetal umbilical artery resistance indices among low-risk pregnant women using a low-cost Doppler device in five LMICs.

Onyambu CK, Tharamba NM. "Antenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Anomalies on Ultrasound Screening.". In: Midwifery. London: IntechOpen; 2021.
Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Collaborators TWHOACTIONT. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." New England Medical Journal. 2020;382(17). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a multicountry, randomized trial involving pregnant women between 26 weeks 0 days and 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who were at risk for preterm birth. The participants were assigned to intramuscular dexamethasone or identical placebo. The primary outcomes were neonatal death alone, stillbirth or neonatal death, and possible maternal bacterial infection; neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death were evaluated with superiority analyses, and possible maternal bacterial infection was evaluated with a noninferiority analysis with the use of a prespecified margin of 1.25 on the relative scale.

Results: A total of 2852 women (and their 3070 fetuses) from 29 secondary- and tertiary-level hospitals across Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan underwent randomization. The trial was stopped for benefit at the second interim analysis. Neonatal death occurred in 278 of 1417 infants (19.6%) in the dexamethasone group and in 331 of 1406 infants (23.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.97; P=0.03). Stillbirth or neonatal death occurred in 393 of 1532 fetuses and infants (25.7%) and in 444 of 1519 fetuses and infants (29.2%), respectively (relative risk, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.04); the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection was 4.8% and 6.3%, respectively (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.03). There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of adverse events.

Conclusions: Among women in low-resource countries who were at risk for early preterm birth, the use of dexamethasone resulted in significantly lower risks of neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death than the use of placebo, without an increase in the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15;37(5):1620-6. Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15;37(5):1620-6. Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15;195(2):220-9. Epub 2006 Dec 13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2004. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.
Farquhar C, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, John-Stewart GC. "Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2004;37(5):1620-6. Abstract

To determine effect of partner involvement and couple counseling on uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission, women attending a Nairobi antenatal clinic were encouraged to return with partners for voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing (VCT) and offered individual or couple posttest counseling. Nevirapine was provided to HIV-1-seropositive women and condoms distributed to all participants. Among 2104 women accepting testing, 308 (15%) had partners participate in VCT, of whom 116 (38%) were couple counseled. Thirty-two (10%) of 314 HIV-1-seropositive women came with partners for VCT; these women were 3-fold more likely to return for nevirapine (P = 0.02) and to report administering nevirapine at delivery (P = 0.009). Nevirapine use was reported by 88% of HIV-infected women who were couple counseled, 67% whose partners came but were not couple counseled, and 45%whose partners did not present for VCT (P for trend = 0.006). HIV-1-seropositive women receiving couple counseling were 5-fold more likely to avoid breast-feeding (P = 0.03) compared with those counseled individually. Partner notification of HIV-1-positive results was reported by 138 women (64%) and was associated with 4-fold greater likelihood of condom use (P = 0.004). Partner participation in VCT and couple counseling increased uptake of nevirapine and formula feeding. Antenatal couple counseling may be a useful strategy to promote HIV-1 prevention interventions.

Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Adejuyigbe EA, Althabe F, Ariff S, Ayede AI, Baqui AH, Costello A, Chikamata DM, Crowther C, Fawole B, Gibbons L, Jobe AH, Kapasa ML, Kinuthia J, Kriplani A, Kuti O, Neilson J, Patterson J, Piaggio G, Qureshi R, Qureshi Z, Sankar MJ, Stringer JSA, Temmerman M, Yunis K, Bahl R, Gülmezoglu AM. "Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent preterm birth in low-resource countries: the case for equipoise and the need for efficacy trials." British Medical Journal Global Health. 2017;2(3). AbstractWebsite

The scientific basis for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) for women at risk of preterm birth has rapidly changed in recent years. Two landmark trials-the Antenatal Corticosteroid Trial and the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial-have challenged the long-held assumptions on the comparative health benefits and harms regarding the use of ACS for preterm birth across all levels of care and contexts, including resource-limited settings. Researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policymakers and donors working in low-income and middle-income countries now face challenging questions of whether, where and how ACS can be used to optimise outcomes for both women and preterm newborns. In this article, we briefly present an appraisal of the current evidence around ACS, how these findings informed WHO's current recommendations on ACS use, and the knowledge gaps that have emerged in the light of new trial evidence. Critical considerations in the generalisability of the available evidence demonstrate that a true state of clinical equipoise exists for this treatment option in low-resource settings. An expert group convened by WHO concluded that there is a clear need for more efficacy trials of ACS in these settings to inform clinical practice.

Keywords: antenatal corticosteroids; neonatal mortality; preterm birth.

Gwako G, Qureshi Z, Kudoyi W, Were F. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr. 2013;25(1):3-9 .
G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;1(25):15-21. Abstractantenatal_corticosteroid_use_in_preterm_birth_at_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background:Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

G G, ZN Q, W K, F W. "Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 2013;25(1):15-21. Abstractfull_article.pdf

AbstractBackground: Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malfor-mations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO recommends use of antenatal steroids for all pregnant women 26-34 weeks gestation at risk of preterm delivery and after 34 weeks gestation only if there is evidence of fetal pulmonary immaturity. Despite this, ACS are widely used locally across all gestational periods.Objective: To determine the frequency of administration and impact of ACS in reducing the morbidity and mor-tality in preterm neonates born 28- 37 weeks gestation at Kenyatta National Hospital.Design: This was a hospital-based retrospective cohort study.Setting: Kenyattah National Hospital labour ward, antenatal wards, NBU, NICU.Methods: The study compared the neonatal outcomes of mothers with preterm birth who received antenatal steroids and those who did not receive. The study populations were mothers with preterm birth due to preterm labor, PPROM and severe pre eclampsia and their neonates. Mothers who met the inclusion criteria were recruit-ed immediately after delivery, interviewed, medical records scrutinized and information obtained entered into a questionnaire. Neonates were followed until discharge/death/ 7th day whichever came earlier. The outcome measures considered were the occurrence and severity of RDS, NBU admissions and neonatal deaths.Results: Two hundred and six mother/neonate pairs were recruited. Overall 35% of mothers/neonates were exposed to ACS. Forty six percent of those who delivered <34 weeks received ACS compared to 26% of those who delivered >34 weeks. Only 3% of mothers received a complete course of ACS. ACS significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of RDS in preterm neonates up to 34 weeks gestation. Sixty eight percent of neonates delivered before 34 weeks and not exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 38% of those exposed (RR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, P= 0.005). Exposure to ACS >34 weeks gestation did not reduce occurrence and severity of RDS. Forty percent of those exposed to ACS developed RDS compared to 37% of those not exposed (RR 1.2 95% CI 0.7-1.8, P =0.755). ACS reduced neonatal mortality across all gestational ages. The neonatal mortality within 7 days of life was 26% among those exposed to ACS <34 weeks compared to 38% among those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6, p=0.224). for those delivered after 34 weeks mortality was 3.3% in the exposed group compared to 9.2% in the non exposed group (RR 1.1 95%CI 1.0-1.2 p=0.443). ACS did not reduce NBU/NICU admissions across all gestational ages. Eighty five percent of neonates exposed to ACS before 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 71% of those not exposed (RR1.2, 95% CI 1-2.1, p=0.113). Fifty percent of neonates exposed to ACS after 34 weeks were admitted to NBU compared to 32.2% of those not exposed (RR 1.3 95% CI 0.9-2.1, p=0.225). Conclusions: ACS are underutilized. ACS significantly reduce the incidence/severity of neonatal RDS and mortality <34 weeks gestation.Recommendations: There is need to upscale the utilization of ACS. The study provides local evidence to discourage routine use of ACS >34 weeks.

Kihara, A, Harries, AD, Bissell K, Kizito W, Van Den Berg, R, Mueke, S, Mwangi, J.W., Sitene, JC, Gathara, D, Kosgei, RJ, Kiarie, J.W, Gichangi. "Antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes in a safe motherhood health voucher system in rural Kenya: 2007-2013." 2007-2013. PHA 2015; . 2015;5(1):23-29.
Omuga DB. "Antenatal Care And Educational Problems Of Unmarried Teenage Mothers In Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 1990;67(10):699-705. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

Makokha E, WAKASIAKA S, Inyama H, Oyieke J. "Antenatal care and birth outcomes relatedto HIV status among pregnant women at Pumwani Maternity Hospital. ." Kenya Journal of Nursing & Midwifery . 2017;2(2).
Peter C, Alzen G, Omwandho COA, Bültmann E, Hertel H, Gruessner SE. "Antenatal and postnatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation diagnosed by ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Antenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM) is vital for disease surveillance and postnatal care. Ultrasonography (US) has been the imaging gold standard for antenatal CCAM assessment. However, one of the limitations of US is the “vanishing phenomenon” caused by isoechogenicity of CCAM tissue and adjacent normal lung parenchyma. Methods: Antenatal serial US were concurrently used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor macro- and microcystic lesions. Results: In both pregnant women, antenatal US and MRI confirmed the presence, in the fetus, of cystic lesions and predicted disease regression/progression as well as the need for postnatal surgical intervention. Several advantages were detected by using both—serial US and MRI (over serial US alone)—including improved signal intensity, exact volume size measurements, precise CCAM location in particular for patients with adverse ultrasound conditions. Both neonates underwent surgical resection and had an uneventful post-operative course. Conclusions: Antenatal use of MRI as well as serial US improved information regarding tissue resolution and delineation of CCAM. The information from two imaging modalities was complementary. Our literature review confirmed the emerging role of prenatal MRI for postnatal monitoring and management of CCAM.

Ouma PO, van Eijk AM, Hamel MJ, Sikuku ES, Odhiambo FO, Munguti KM, Ayisi JG, Crawford SB, Kager PA, Slutsker L. "Antenatal and delivery care in rural western Kenya: the effect of training health care workers to provide "focused antenatal care.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Background

Maternal mortality remains high in developing countries and data to monitor indicators of progress in maternal care is needed. We examined the status of maternal care before and after health care worker (HCW) training in WHO recommended Focused Antenatal Care.

Methods

An initial cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2002 in Asembo and Gem in western Kenya among a representative sample of women with a recent birth. HCW training was performed in 2003 in Asembo, and a repeat survey was conducted in 2005 in both areas.

Results

Antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance was similar in both areas (86%) in 2005 and not significantly different from 2002 (90%). There was no difference in place of delivery between the areas or over time. However, in 2005, more women in Asembo were delivered by a skilled assistant compared to Gem (30% vs.23%, P = 0.04), and this proportion increased compared to 2002 (17.6% and 16.1%, respectively). Provision of iron (82.4%), folic acid (72.0%), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (61.7%), and anthelminths (12.7%) had increased in Asembo compared to 2002 (2002: 53.3%, 52.8%, 20.3%, and 4.6%, respectively), and was significantly higher than in Gem in 2005 (Gem 2005: 69.7%, 47.8%, 19.8%, and 4.1%, respectively) (P < 0.05 for all). Offering of tests for sexually transmitted diseases and providing information related to maternal health was overall low (<20%) and did not differ by area. In 2005, more women rated the quality of the antenatal service in Asembo as very satisfactory compared to Gem (17% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions

We observed improvements in some ANC services in the area where HCWs were trained. However, since our evaluation was carried out 2 years after three-day training, we consider any significant, sustained improvement to be remarkable.

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Background.

Maternal mortality, the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, remains disturbingly high in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that 270 000 maternal deaths occurred in the region in 2005 [1]. The UN millennium Development goal (MDG) on maternal health aims to reduce the number of women who die in pregnancy and childbirth by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015 [2]. To achieve this goal, it is estimated that an annual decline in maternal mortality of 5.5% is needed; however between 1990 and 2005 the annual decline was only 0.5% in the sub-Saharan region, compared to 4.2% for the middle income countries of Asia [1,3].

Maternal mortality occurs from risks attributable to pregnancy and child birth as well as from poor availability and quality of health services [4]. The most common causes of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa include haemorrhage (34%), sepsis/infections (10%), hypertensive disorders (9%), HIV/AIDS (6%), and other direct causes (5%); other indirect causes contributed approximately 17% [5].

Experiences from different countries have shown that reducing maternal mortality may depend in part on the availability and use of a professional attendant at labour and delivery and a referral mechanism for obstetric care for managing complications, or the use of basic essential obstetric care facilities for all deliveries [6]. In many developing countries however, the majority of births occur at home, frequently without the help of a skilled assistant (midwife, nurse trained as midwife or a doctor) [7].

The effect of antenatal care on maternal mortality is unclear [8-10]. However, there is broad agreement that antenatal care interventions can lead to improved maternal and newborn health, which can also impact on the survival and health of the infant [11]. Additionally, the ANC visit, which many women in sub-Saharan Africa attend, is an opportunity to reach pregnant women with messages and interventions. A global evaluation of antenatal care has resulted in the recommendation to deliver antenatal services in 4 focused visits (Focussed antenatal care; FANC), one within the first trimester and 3 after quickening, and this schedule is now endorsed by WHO [12,13]. Proven effective antenatal interventions include serologic screening for syphilis, provision of malaria prevention, anti-tetanus immunization, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV [14,15]. To fully benefit from these interventions, it is important that women start visiting the antenatal clinic (ANC) early in pregnancy.

We evaluated maternal care in western Kenya in 2002 and showed that preventive interventions received at the ANC were inadequate in spite of high (90%) ANC attendance [16]. After this evaluation, the Kenyan Ministry of Health in conjunction with the Johns Hopkins Organization for International Education in Training and Reproductive Health (JHPIEGO) trained healthcare workers in FANC and malaria in pregnancy in part of the study area (Asembo). FANC emphasizes goal-oriented and women-centred care by skilled providers, whereby the quality instead of the quantity of visits is important [17]. The FANC training in 2003 emphasized identification of pre-existing health problems, early detection of danger signs arising from pregnancy, health promotion, provision of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), provision of iron and folate, birth preparedness, blood pressure measurement, growth monitoring, urine albuminuria and preparation for post-partum family planning. The training was short (3 days) and focused on need-to-know information. An interactive training approach with user-friendly materials was used. These materials enabled the providers to cascade the training to their colleagues in the place of work. Supportive supervision to reinforce skills was undertaken following the training in May-June 2003 in a random sample comprising of 25% of the health facilities in which health care workers had been trained (because of resource constraints not all health facilities received supportive supervision). The focus of the supportive supervision was to identify any gaps and to reinforce knowledge on focused antenatal care and malaria in pregnancy.

In April 2005, we conducted a repeat cross-sectional survey among a random sample of women with a recent birth living in the same areas as the previous survey to assess whether there were improvements in antenatal and delivery care and if there were differences between the area where service providers were trained in FANC and the area where training did not occur.

Go to:

Methods.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Kenya Medical Research Institute (CDC/KEMRI) conduct a demographic surveillance system (DSS) in western Kenya, since 2002. The DSS area is located in Asembo (Rarieda Division, Bondo district) and Gem (Yala and Wagai Divisions, Siaya District), of Nyanza province in western Kenya, and covers 217 villages (75 in Asembo and 142 in Gem) spread over approximately 500 km2 along the shores of Lake Victoria. The vast majority of the population are members of the Luo tribe who earn their living through subsistence farming and fishing [18]. Residents of the DSS are visited in their homes every 4 months to record births, deaths, pregnancies, pregnancy outcomes, immigration and out-migration [19]. Health indicators are poor in the area when compared to national figures, with infant mortality rate estimated at 125 per 1000 live births compared to the national figure of 77 per 1000 live births, under-five mortality rate of 227 per 1000 live births compared to 115 nationally, and overall life expectancy at birth at 38 years (36 for men and 39 for women) compared to 48 nationally [19]. The maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 753 per 100,000 live births in 2003 compared to 414 per 100,000 live births nationally [20]. This area traditionally experienced intense perennial malaria transmission with an estimated entomological inoculation rate of ≈ 60-300 infectious bites per person per year [21]. However, the widespread provision of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during a bed net efficacy trial reduced transmission in the study area by about 90% and continuous provision of ITNs has maintained malaria transmission at a low level [22,23]. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anaemia was 36% and 53% respectively among pregnant women in a community survey in 2003 [24]. In the 2003 Demographic and Health Survey, the seroprevalence of HIV/AIDS in Nyanza Province (15%) was about twice as high as the national average of 7% [25]. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of HIV in men and women 13-34 years old in the DSS area were 11% and 21%, respectively (P. Amornkul, personal communication). A survey among 13 antenatal clinics in Asembo in 2005 revealed that 7 ANCs did not charge for ANC visits, and 9 provided treatments such as iron and folic acid without charge (P. Ouma, personal communication). We do not have this information for ANCs in Gem.

The sample size estimate for this study was based on a comparison of IPTp use in Asembo and Gem, and aimed to detect at least 50 percentage point difference in IPTp use in Asembo compared to Gem after FANC training, with 80% power and 95% confidence interval. Allowing for 15% failure to recruit, a random sample of 830 women was selected using a list of women who had delivered between 30th of September 2004 and 30th of March 2005 in the DSS [26]. Interviews were conducted by experienced interviewers in the local language using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked questions on ANC clinic visits, services received at the clinic, where their last delivery occurred, who assisted with the delivery and satisfaction with antenatal and delivery services. Interviewers were instructed not to probe with options. Questions were similar to the 2002 survey, except for the quality assessment of the maternal services, which had not been included in the 2002 survey.

Data management and statistical methods

We first compared the two areas in the survey in 2005, and then compared the results of the survey in 2005 to the survey in 2002. We examined the use of antenatal and delivery care, and the type of ANC services received, and the satisfaction with the services (2005 only).

Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. For the comparisons of medians, we used the Wilcoxon two sample test (non-parametric). Education level was dichotomized as < 8 years or ≥ 8 years, the minimum number of years required to complete primary education in Kenya. We used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) method to generate weights for the following broad household characteristics: occupation of participant and spouse, source and quality of water, source of fuel for cooking, livestock and asset ownership, and dwelling/housing structure. The scores were used to rank the study participants in socio-economic status (SES) quintiles [27]. A medium/low SES was defined as a rank in the bottom three quintiles of the wealth index. The statistical program SAS was used for all analyses (SAS for windows version 8; SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA).

Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the institutional review boards of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (Nairobi, Kenya) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, USA).

Milugo TK, Omosa LK, Ochanda JO, Owuor BO, Wamunyokoli FA, Oyugi JO, Ochieng JW. "Antagonistic effect of alkaloids and saponins on bioactivity in the quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra sond.): further evidence to support biotechnology in traditional medicinal plants." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:285. Abstract

The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals.

Milugo TK, Omosa LK, Ochanda JO, Owuor BO, Wamunyokoli FA, Oyugi JO, Ochieng JW. "Antagonistic effect of alkaloids and saponins on bioactivity in the quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra sond.): further evidence to support biotechnology in traditional medicinal plants." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:285. Abstract

The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals.

Siameto E. N., Okoth S, Amugune N. O, Chege NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research. 2010;1(3):47-54.
Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Chege NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma farzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research . 2010;1(3):47-54. Abstract

Species in the genus Trichoderma are important as commercial source of several enzymes and as biofungicides/growth promoters. The most common biological control agents of the genus are strains of T. harzianum, T. viride and T. viriens. In this study, sixteen selected isolates of T. harzianum from different land use types in Embu, Kenya were tested for anatognism against five soil borne phytopathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp phaseoli and F. oxysporum f. sp Lycopersici) using dual culture assay and through production of nonvolatile inhibitors. Seven isolates were further characterized using RAPD-PCR procedure to determine genetic variability. All T. harzianum isolates had considerable antagonistic effect on mycelial growth of the pathogens in dual cultures compared to the controls. Maximum inhibitions occurred in Pythium sp- 055E interactions (73%).The culture filtrates obtained from Czapek’s liquid medium reduced the dry weight (mg) of the mycelia significantly while those from the potato dextrose broth showed minimum inhibition growth. Pythium sp was inhibited the most compared to other pathogens. Genetic similarities generated using Jacquard’s coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.231 between isolates 055E and 011E to 0.857 between isolates 010E and 015E. The technique of RAPD was efficient in demonstrating the DNA polymorphism in the isolates of T. harzianum tested showing intraspecific genetic variability. Since all T. harzianum isolates evaluated were effective in controlling colony growth of the soil borne pathogens both in dual cultures and in culture filtrates they could be tried as a broad spectrum biological control agent in the green house and under field conditions.

Siameto EN, Okoth S, Amugune NO, Njoroge NC. "Antagonism of Trichoderma farzianum isolates on soil borne plant pathogenic fungi from Embu District, Kenya." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research . 2010;Vol. 1(3):47-54.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Ant microbial activities of fermented Uji. Ecology pf Food and Nutrition Journal. Vol. 28: 191 .". In: Workshop initiated by UNACC Subcommittee on Nutrition ACC/SCN), UNHCR and WFP with support by GTZ, 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Aduda BOC, Egbe PDDDAM, Musembi RJ, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Kaduki KA, Simiyu J, Agacho A, Nyongesa F. "ANSOLE Mini-Symposium in Kenya (AMSK 2013).". Submitted. Abstract
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O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "Another Triangle Inequality.".". In: American Mathematical Monthly. Vol.83 No. 3, March 1976,p. 204. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Anonymous contribution by Ndinya-Achola JO, Microbiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases:Editorial: EAMJ 66: 369 - 371, 1989.". In: EAMJ 66: 369 - 371, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
Ongeti KW. "Anomalous origin of left testicular artery from inferior polar renal artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2012;1(1). AbstractWebsite

Gonadal arteries arising from additional renal arteries present an important variation that should be noted in order to avoid inadvertent injury to these vessels in renal hilar dissection and retroperitoneal surgery. During routine dissection, we observed the unusual origin of the left testicular artery from an additional renal artery in a middle-aged male cadaver. The prevalence of variations in the origin and course of the testicular artery displays population differences. Though additional renal arteries have been reported in literature, cases of such vessels giving rise to gonadal vessels are scarce. The possible embryologic basis for this variation as well as its clinical significance are discussed.

Fu W, Zhao X, Wang K, Chen Z, Leng K, Fu D, Song P, Wang H, Deng L, Pennycook SJ, others. "An anomalous magneto-optic effect in epitaxial indium selenide layers." Nano Letters. 2020;20:5330-5338. Abstract
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Bakheit MA, Warille AA. "Anomalies of the vermiform appendix and prevalence of acute appendicitis in {Khartoum}." East African medical journal. 1999;76:338-340. AbstractWebsite
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Tole NM. "Anomalies in the radiation output of a new x-ray tube.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Cavity ionization methods have been employed to show that the amOUI1l of X-radiation produced by a newly installed x-ray tube was grossly reduced. Qualitative information based on the techniques of radiological photography suggests that there was no fault with the kilovoltage generator and that the tube was therefore the source of the anomaly. Observations of tube current avalanche and sparking at high potentials provide further clue as to the nature of the fault. A discussion of the possible causes of the anomaly is presented. This study demonstrates that, when specialised equipment for detecting the origin of some faults in x-ray machines is not available, radiation dosimetry and sensitometry can provide a most useful alternative.

Nderitu JH, Kabira J, Tigoni David Kipkoech, MKU T, Mathenge S. ANNUAL PLANNING WORKSHOP FOR NCST SEED POTATO PROJECT. THIKA: KARI; 2013.annual_planning_workshop_for_ncst_seed_potato_project_final.pdf
Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Halasa T, Toft N. "Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2012;106:244-250. Abstractinc_prev_paper.pdf

Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, ˇ, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection.
Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of ˇ was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0–63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6–8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4–11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8–43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence.

Ebrahim Y. "Annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi.". In: National Council for Science and Technology, Nairobi. KICC; 2011.
Hawary, El., Yumoto, K., Yamazaki, Y., Mahrous, A., Ghamry, E., Meloni, A., Badi K, Kianji, G., Uiso CBS, Mwiinga N, Joao, L., Affluo, T., Sutcliffe, P.R., Mengestu, G., Baki, P., Abe, Ikeda, A., Fujimoto A. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. Earth and planets space; 2012.
Hawary ELR, Yumoto K, Yamazaki Y, Mahrous A, Ghamry E, Meloni A, Badi K, Kianji G, Uiso CBS, Mwinge N, Joao L, Affluo T, Malinga S, Mengeshtu G, Baki P. Annual and semi-annual Sq variations at 960 MM MAGDAS I and II stations in Africa, Earth and planets Space. KOGOSHIMA, JAPAN; 2009.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Anne Muthanje and Collette A. Suda Gender Relations and the Utilization of Family Planning Services in Nyan.". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8, 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

Kugonza DR;, Okeyo AM;, Mutetikka D;, Mpairwe DR;, Nabasirye M;, Kiwuwa, GH; Hanotte O, Hanotte O. "Ankole cattle breed of Uganda: functions and criteria used in identification, selection and parentage assignment by herdsmen."; 2005.
Sitati FC, Mogire TS. "Ankle Arthrodesis Using a Vertical Steinman’s Pin in a Severely Osteopenic Bone." East Central Africa Journal of Surgery. 2014;19(1):125-128.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Ankel Dinkel, Ernest M. Njoroge, Anja Zimmermann, Marcus Walz, Eberhard Zeyhle, Ibrahim E. Elmahdi, Ute Mackenstedt, Thomas Romig (2004) A PCR system for the detection of species and the genotypes of the Echinococcus granulosus complex, with reference to .". In: International Journal for Parasitology 34: 645 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.
NDOTI DRKIAMBAANITA. "Anita Kiamba 'Leadership and Governance in Africa: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly.". In: paper presented at a conference organized by USIU on the "Enhancement of the study of the International Relations in Africa's May 26-27. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2006. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
NDOTI DRKIAMBAANITA. "Anita Kiamba & Attiya Waris ' An African Feminist Perspective on Security and Early Warning Mechanisms'.". In: Mwagiru Makumi & Oculli Okello '. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2006. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in two-dimensional penta-SiC 2 by strain-engineering: electronic structure and chemical bonding analysis." RSC advances. 2017;7:45705-45713. Abstract
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Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "The anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in strain-engineering two-dimensional penta-SiC $ \_2$." arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.03715. 2017. Abstract
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Aleri JW, Mogoa EGM, Mulei CM, Mande JD. "Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations.". 2009. Abstract

A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, legislations’, knowledge and sources of general information on animal welfare. The percentage responses to the questions before and after the customized lecture series were determined and differences compared using a paired t test. The level of awareness of animal welfare issues among students before and after the customized lectures was 33.11% and 68.03% respectively. Significant differences at p ≤ 0.05 on all the attributes assessed was observed. p=0.0056 on the understanding of animal welfare, p=0.0232 on what constitutes poor animal welfare and p=0.025 on conditions necessary to ensure a state of good animal welfare. A 50% increase in awareness of legislations on animal welfare was recorded after the lecture series. The major source of information on animal welfare was from the lecture series offered. This study confirms that inclusion of the customized lectures on animal welfare in training veterinary students was effective in promoting awareness on animal welfare. The contents of these lectures should be included in relevant subjects taught to students at the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine.

Mwangi WE. Animal welfare issues in transport and slaughter of swine.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Kokwaro JO. "The animal threat to Mount Kenya’s Afroapline plants." Swara . 1987;10(1):30-31.
Mutinga MJ, Kaddu, J.B., Irungu LW. "Animal model for feeding Kenyan wild-caught phebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Phlebotomidae)." Insect Sc. Appl. . 1981;2:149-152.
Mugunieri, Lawrence Godiah; Omiti JM; IP. Animal Health Service Delivery Systems in Kenya s Marginal Areas under Market Liberalization: A Case for Community-Based Animal Health Workers.; 2002. Abstract2020nw_br02.pdf

This brief is based on the results of a research project funded under the competitive grants program of the 2020 Vision Network for East Africa. A research report bearing the same title has been published by the Network and is available upon request.

Jumba. IO, Kisia 1 SM, Kock' K. "Animal Health Problems Attributed to Environmental Contamination in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya: A Case Study Strongly suggest Heavy Metal Poisoning in the Waterbuek Kohiis cllipsiprymnus dcfassa (Ruppel 1K35)." ARCHIVES OF Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2007;vol 52(DOL: 10.1007/s00244-005-0241-2):270-281. Abstract

Abstract. A study was conducted in which samples ol soil. forage, as well as serum, bone, kidney, and liver of waterbuck were collected from Lake Nakuru National Park. The objective was to determine the ecosystem health status in older to establish the causes of animal health problems previously re¬corded in some sections of the Paik. Trace element analysis in serum indicated occurrence ol copper (Cu) deficiency in the north and eastern sections of the Park where mean values were marginal (range: 0.36-0.81. mean: 0.62 mg/1) compared to concentrations recorded in the western part of the Park (range: 0.69 1.48. mean: 1.22 mg/l). Bone analysis on dry matter basis (DM) indicated higher (p < 0.01) levels of cadmium (Cd. 0.437 nig/kg), fhioride (F, 3178 mg/kg). and lead (Pb. 20.62 mg/kg) in animals from the east compared to those from the west (0.002. 1492, 4.87 mg/kg. respectively), suggesting heavy exposure. In addition, samples from the east had much lower than normal calcium (Ca)-to-phosphorus (P) ratios (mean: 1.9:1) compared to those recorded in the west (2.2:1). suggesting poor bone minerali/ation There was a higher concentration of Cd in the kidney (16.24 mg/kg. p < 0.05) and Pb in the liver (58.3 mg/kg. /; < 0.01) in animals from the east compared to those in the west (12.92 and 36.2 mg/kg, respectively), but the converse was true of Cu The liver Cu status was better in animals from the west with, concentrations (mean: 21.7 mg/kg) being about twice those recorded in the east (11.9 mg/kg DM). Forage analysis revealed prospects of Ca, P, and Cu deficiencies in the entire Park. However, in the northeastern section of the Park (measuring 50 ha) where waterbuck residence times are high, forage concentrations of Cd (0.31 mg/kg DM), molybdenum (Mo. 7.20 mg/kg DM). Pb (2.88 mg/kg DM), and /inc (7.n. 126 mg/kg DM) were an order of magnitude greater (p < 0.01) than the levels recorded in the rest of the Park (ranges: 0.133 0.165, 3.69 5.61. 0.485 0.621. 11.6 17.4 mg/kg DM, respectively). These disparities were attributed to a higher soil concentration of CM (2.77 mu/ku DM). Pb (85.1 msi/k DM) and 7,n (1414mg/kg DM i n this section compared lo the rest of the Park (ranges; 0 Id o 15. 5.02 6.26. 1,49 5.44 mg/kg DM. respec¬tively), and su»ngly suggest heavy metal contamination as the source ol annual health problems in the Park.

Dywili N, Njomo N, Ikpo CO, Yonkeu ALD, John SV, Hlongwa NW, Raleie N, Iwuoha EI. "Anilino-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Intercalated with Pt Metal Nanoparticles for Application as Supercapacitor Electrode Material." Journal of Nano Research. 2016;44:79-89. AbstractJournal of Nano Research

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Nanostructured anilino-functionalized reduced graphene oxide intercalated with Pt metal nanoparticles was successfully synthesized. Graphene oxide nanosheets were synthesized using a modified Hummers method with simultaneous in-situ functionalization with aniline and ionic Pt reduction and dispersion through sonication. The nanomaterial was characterised with FTIR, UV-visible, SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD and Raman spectroscopy to ascertain surface, chemical, elemental and crystalline properties, composite structures, size, morphology and successful entrapment of metal nanoparticles while the electro-conductivity of the nanomaterial was interrogated using CV. The graphene oxide was successfully functionalized with aniline with new peaks belonging to the NH and CN group being present and calculated band gaps of 5.35 eV and 4.39 eV which are attributed to …

Losovyj YB, Ruihua Cheng, J Carvell, E Ayieta. "Angle resolved photoemission study of surface states on the Pt (997) vicinal surface." Physics Letters A. 2010;374(30):3080-3083. Abstract

One-dimensional atomic chains can be synthesized on stepped surfaces and the electronic
structure of the high vicinal surface plays an essential role in determining the physical
properties of atomic chains grown on top of it. We have applied surface analysis techniques
to study the surface of a Pt (997) single crystal. The STM image of the surface showed that
the surface was uniform with a well defined distance between the terraces. Angle resolved
photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) was used to characterize the electronic states of …

Awange DO. "Angioneurotic Oedema.". 1991.Website
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Angawa, J.A., Karanja, N.K. and Odee, D. 1998. Estimation of the effects of NO3-N on nodulation, dry matter yield and N2 fixed by Calliandra calothyrsus. (ed. F.D. Dakora) pp 6-7.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1989. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ang."; 2002. Abstract
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Mbuthia, Sanja SF. "Anew Historicism Approach to Paradox in the Religious Faith in Selected Kiswahili Novels." Journal of International Journal of Science, Arts and Commerce - IJSA . 2017;1(12): 65-78.
Ogeng'o JA, Otieno B. "Aneurysms in the arteries of the upper extremity in a Kenyan population." Cardiovasc. Pathol.. 2011;20(1):e53-e56. Abstract

Aneurysms in the arteries of the upper extremity are rare but important in predicting aortic aneurysms and their potential to thromboembolize and cause limb loss. Their localization, age, and gender distribution vary between countries depending on ethnic background and cause. These data are valuable in the management of aneurysms, but are largely lacking from the Kenyan population.

Ogeng'o JA, Otieno B. "Aneurysms in the arteries of the upper extremity in a Kenyan population." Cardiovasc. Pathol.. 2011;20(1):e53-6. Abstract

Aneurysms in the arteries of the upper extremity are rare but important in predicting aortic aneurysms and their potential to thromboembolize and cause limb loss. Their localization, age, and gender distribution vary between countries depending on ethnic background and cause. These data are valuable in the management of aneurysms, but are largely lacking from the Kenyan population.

MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Anderson A J Harvey A L and Mbugua P M (1985): Effects of fasciculin 2, an anticholinesterase polypeptide from green mamba venom, on neuromuscular transmission in mouse diaphragm preparations Neurosci. Lett. 54: 123.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract
Anderson AJ, Harvey AL, Mbugua PM. Fasciculin 2, a polypeptide from green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom, causes an increase in the twitch response of mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations to indirect stimulation. Intracellular recording reveals that fasciculin 2 augments neuromuscular transmission by increasing the amplitude and duration of endplate potentials. Its action is not reversed by washing. Interactions with neostigmine confirm that fasciculin 2 acts as an anticholinesterase. It has no presynaptic actions on transmitter release or postsynaptic receptor blocking actions. On chicken muscle preparations, fasciculin 2 has no anticholinesterase actions. Because of this selectivity and its apparent irreversibility, fasciculin 2 should be useful in characterizing different forms of acetylcholinesterase. PMID: 2986055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ANDERSEN, J., ZACHARIASSEN, K.E., MALOIY, G.M.O. and KAMAU,J.M.Z.(1986) Adaptation of carabid beetles to dry habitats in East Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2, 127-138.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Ngugi RW. "Andati Samuel Obulemire, Duration dependence in stock prices: A duration analysis of bull and bear markets on NSE, University of Nairobi, 2004." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and Ruigu, G., Co-operative Farming in Nandi, South Nyanza and Nyandarua: FISS Baseline Studies, Ministry of Cooperative Development, Nairobi, June 1981.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1981. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and Rosemary Atieno, Achievements and Constraints of Structural Adjustment on the Micro-economy in Africa: Perspectives of Small Entrepreneurs and Farmers. Chapter in Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID). JICA.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1978. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and R. Atieno, Agricultural Policy in Kenya, Future Agriculture Consortium, IDS Sussex.". In: Agricultural Policy in Kenya, Future Agriculture Consortium, IDS Sussex. International Union of Crystallography; 2006. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
M.M. O, C.M R. and Procedures in Project Planning and Management. Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and Omosa M., Rural Development Policies In Kenya. A Paper prepared for the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) Workshop on "From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment - Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate".". In: "From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment - Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate". International Union of Crystallography; 1995. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and Oluoch-Kosura, eds, Regional Development Policies and Practices in Africa and Asia: A Comparative Study, UNCRD Africa Office, Nairobi-Kenya 2000 ISBN 4-9062367-7.". In: 'Policies, Regulations and Organisational Capacity of Women Street Vendors in Kenya, IDS Discussion Paper No.299. International Union of Crystallography; 2000. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and M. Omosa, Rural Development Policies in Kenya - in N. Ng'ethe and W. Owino, eds. From Sessional Paper No.10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate. The Regal Press Kenya.". In: From Session al No. 10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate, IPAR, The Regal Press Kenya Ltd. International Union of Crystallography; 1999. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and G.K. Ikiara Co-operative Banking in Kenya: Twenty-Five Years.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1993. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and G. Ruigu, Evaluation of The Kenya Freedom from Hunger Council for National Development Projects Programme, 1975-1982, Report to FAO/KFFHC, October 1982.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1982. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and G. M. Nyambati, 'Science and Technology Management in Kenya: Trends and Prospects'. Paper presented at UNESCO Workshop on Science and Technology Management in Africa, Ile Ife Nigeria, 1990.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1990. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "and G. K. Ikiara, The Indigenisation of the National Economy Through Co-operatives, Ministry of Co-operative Development, Nairobi, July 1987.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1987. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
WINIFRED KAMAU W. "and Discrimination: The Legal Perspective on HIV and AIDS." Health Rights Advocacy Forum (HERAF) Annual Conference on Right to Health: An Assessment of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
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SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Ancient and modern ceramic traditions in the Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya.". In: Azania, 25: 69-78. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Ogot M, Nganga W. "Anchoring and Weighting Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Indices as improved measures of a country’s readiness for the Knowledge Economy: A case study of Kenya.". 2012;4(10):25-40. Abstract

This study sought to develop a set of indices better able to track a country's readiness for the knowledge economy. The new indices, the Anchored Knowledge Index and the Anchored Knowledge Economy Index are based on the World Bank (WB) knowledge economy framework. The rationale for the introduction, and the procedures to calculate the new indices are presented. The WB indices provide for rank-ordered normalization based on the latest data available for a benchmarking group of countries. The proposed anchored set of indices, however, provides for a relative ordering of the data. Relative-order (weighting) determines by how much each country, along a particular indicator, is better (or worse) than the others. The new indices address the short-coming of rank-order where as long as the relative positions of the benchmarking countries remain the same, the indices do not change even though the gaps between countries could be decreasing (desired) or increasing (cause for alarm). Further, the subject country now appears twice, based on both the latest data available, and a baseline (anchor) from the World Bank Knowledge Assessment Methodology 2009 data. Using Kenya as a case study, a basic scorecard for Kenya is proposed and used for the calculation of the indices for Kenya and ve benchmark countries, Singapore, South Africa, Japan, South Korea. The results clearly illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in tracking a countries readiness for the knowledge economy.

Ogot M, Nganga W. "Anchoring and Weighting Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Indices as Improved Measures of a Country's Readiness for the Knowledge Economy: A Case Study of Kenya." OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 2012;4:25-40. Abstract

This study sought to develop a set of indices better able to track a country's readiness for the knowledge economy. The new indices, the Anchored Knowledge Index and the Anchored Knowledge Economy Index are based on the World Bank (WB) knowledge economy framework. The rationale for the introduction, and the procedures to calculate the new indices are presented. The WB indices provide for rank-ordered normalization based on the latest data available for a benchmarking group of countries. The proposed anchored set of indices, however, provides for a relative ordering of the data. Relative-order (weighting) determines by how much each country, along a particular indicator, is better (or worse) than the others. The new indices address the short-coming of rank-order where as long as the relative positions of the benchmarking countries remain the same, the indices do not change even though the gaps between countries could be decreasing (desired) or increasing (cause for alarm). Further, the subject country now appears twice, based on both the latest data available, and a baseline (anchor) from the World Bank Knowledge Assessment Methodology 2009 data. Using Kenya as a case study, a basic scorecard for Kenya is proposed and used for the calculation of the indices for Kenya and five benchmark countries, Singapore, South Africa, Japan, South Korea. The results clearly illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in tracking a countries readiness for the knowledge economy.

Carl JL, Julius O, Nancy K. "Anchored vs. relative best–worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best–worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country.". 2012. Abstract

Applying best–worst (BW) scaling to a multifaceted feature, e.g. food quality, is challenging as attribute non-attendance or lack of attribute discrimination risks invalidating the transformation of choice data to unidimensional scale. The relativism of BW scaling also typically prevents distinction of respondents or groups of respondents based on similarities to the study object. A dual-response BW scaling method employed here to obtain an anchored scale allowed comparisons of importance ratings across individuals. Attribute importance ratings and rankings obtained were compared with those from relative BW scaling. Latent class (LC) and hierarchical Bayesian (HB) analyses of individual specific BW choice data were also compared for ability to consider within- and between-respondent choice heterogeneity. Personal interviews with 449 consumers provided data on the importance of 16 food quality attributes of kale produced in peri-urban farming in Kenya. Major findings were that the anchoring model improved individual choice predictions compared with conventional relativistic BW scaling, i.e. was more reliable in measuring consumer preferences, and that HB analysis fitted the data better than LC analysis. HB analysis also successfully obtained individual parameter estimates from sparse data and is thus a promising tool for analysis of BW choices in sensory and consumer-orientated research.

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Anchored vs. relative best-worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best-worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country.". In: Food Quality and Preference. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Mwanyumba PM, Wahome RG, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS. "An anaylsis of factors affecting smallholder mixed farming activities, performance and interactions in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;22.
JA O’o. "Anatomy Training for surgeons: Which way for the future? ." Ann Afr Surg . 2009;4:24-27.
McLachlan JC, Patten D. "Anatomy teaching: {Ghosts} of the past, present and future." Medical education. 2006;40:243-53. Abstract
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McLachlan JC, Patten D. "Anatomy teaching: ghosts of the past, present and future." Medical Education. 2006;40:243-253. AbstractWebsite

‘Ghost of the Future,’ he exclaimed, ‘I fear you more than any spectre I have seen. But as I know your purpose is to do me good, and as I hope to live to be another man from what I was, I am prepared to bear you company, and do it with a thankful heart. Will you not speak to me?’ Ebenezer Scrooge (Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol) Introduction  Anatomy teaching has perhaps the longest history of any component of formalised medical education. In this article we briefly consider the history of dissection, but also review the neglected topic of the history of the use of living anatomy. Current debates  The current debates about the advantages and disadvantages of cadavers, prosection versus dissection, and the use of living anatomy and radiology instead of cadavers are discussed. The future  Future prospects are considered, along with some of the factors that might inhibit change.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Anatomy teaching: Flexnerian model to contexualized vertical integration? Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2009; 4: 1-2.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Abstract Background: Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Methods: Clinical charts for patients admitted and treated for perforated peptic ulcer disease were reviewed. Data sought included patient demographic data, clinical presentation, and time from onset of symptoms to treatment, operative findings and treatment complications. The determinants of post-operative complications were evaluated using univariate analysis. Results: Forty four patients with perforated ulcers were admitted and treated over a two year study period. Twenty eight were analyzed (retrieval rate 63.6%). Males (86.2%) and those 35 years of age and younger (57.1%) predominated. Alcohol, smoking and prior use of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were respectively documented in 39.3%, 39.3% and 10.7% of patients. The complication rate was 25%. Four patients died. The factors significantly related to complications was treatment delay (p=0.007) and acute perforation (0.027) Conclusion: Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications.
Swamy M, Searle RF. "Anatomy teaching with portable ultrasound to medical students." BMC Medical Education. 2012;12:99. AbstractWebsite

PMID: 23088725

Jastrow H, Vollrath L. "Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed {WWW} atlas of human gross anatomy–reference for medical education." Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2002;15:402-408. Abstract

We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on: http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/vishuman/Eready.html.

Turney BW. "Anatomy in a {Modern} {Medical} {Curriculum}." Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 2007;89:104-107. AbstractWebsite

Anatomy in undergraduate education has been in decline for many years. Some suggest that it has fallen below a safe level. Balances between detail and safety, and assimilation and application of anatomy have yet to be established as the methods of teaching undergo another metamorphosis. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice and communicate safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Integration of newer teaching modalities and modern technology will encourage interest and retention of anatomical knowledge and its clinical relevance. Anatomy has a promising future in postgraduate specialist and surgical training. Detailed knowledge should be integrated into specialist training when it is clinically relevant allowing specialists of the future to practice safely and accurately and also to provide a strong base for future clinical developments.

Karau PB, Ogengo JA, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Anatomy and prevalence of atlas vertebrae bridges in a Kenyan population: An osteological study." Clin Anat. 2010;23(6):649-53. Abstract

Atlas bridges are bony outgrowths over the third segment of the vertebral artery. They may exist as incipient, incomplete, or complete bridges, converting the groove into a deep sulcus, incomplete, or complete foramen respectively. These bridges and their associated foramina display bilateral and sex differences in their prevalence and type. Occurrence of these bridges may predispose to vertebrobasilar insufficiency and Barre-Lieou syndrome. The coexistence of lateral and posterior bridges as well as side predilection is not clear in either sex. Their relative occurrence may also point to some evolutionary patterns. We studied the prevalence, side predilection, coexistence, and anatomical features of atlas bridges using 102 dry atlases (49 males and 53 females) obtained from the osteology department of the National Museums of Kenya. Complete posterior bridges occurred in 14.7% and 13.7% on the right and left sides, respectively. A lateral bridge was found in 3.9% of cases on the right side only. There was positive correlation in the coexistence of the bridges. A retrotransverse foramen was found in 13% of cases. This study has found that posterior and lateral atlas bridges occur in association especially on the right side. Complete bridges were more prevalent in females and were more often present on the right side. This pattern seems to mirror the sexual predilection of vertebral artery compression syndromes. Gender roles may have an influence on the occurrence of these bridges and therefore the syndromes as well.

OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "Anatomy and prevalence of atlas bridges in a Kenyan population: An osteological study.". In: Journal of Clinical Anatomy. 23(6):649-653. Karau P.B, Ogeng; 2010.
Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

Antonini A, Fagiolini M, Stryker MP. "Anatomical {Correlates} of {Functional} {Plasticity} in {Mouse} {Visual} {Cortex}." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1999;19:4388-4406. AbstractWebsite

Much of what is known about activity-dependent plasticity comes from studies of the primary visual cortex and its inputs in higher mammals, but the molecular bases remain largely unknown. Similar functional plasticity takes place during a critical period in the visual cortex of the mouse, an animal in which genetic experiments can readily be performed to investigate the underlying molecular and cellular events. The experiments of this paper were directed toward understanding whether anatomical changes accompany functional plasticity in the developing visual cortex of the mouse, as they do in higher mammals. In normal mice, transneuronal label after an eye injection clearly delineated the monocular and binocular zones of area 17. Intrinsic signal optical imaging also showed monocular and binocular zones of area 17 but revealed no finer organization of ocular dominance or orientation selectivity. In normal animals, single geniculocortical afferents serving the contralateral eye showed great heterogeneity and no clustering consistent with the presence of ocular dominance patches. Growth and elaboration of terminal arbor continues beyond postnatal day 40 (P40), after the peak of the critical period. After prolonged monocular deprivation (MD) from P20 to P60, transneuronal labeling showed that the projection serving the ipsilateral eye was severely affected, whereas the effect on the contralateral eye’s pathway was inconsistent. Optical imaging also showed profound effects of deprivation, particularly in the ipsilateral pathway, and microelectrode studies confirmed continued functional plasticity past P40. Reconstruction of single afferents showed that MD from P20 to P40 promoted the growth of the open eye’s geniculocortical connections without causing the closed eye’s contralateral projection to shrink, whereas MD from P20 to P60 caused an arrest of growth of deprived arbors. Our findings reveal numerous similarities between mouse and higher mammals in development and plasticity, along with some differences. We discuss the factors that may be responsible for these differences.

J O’o, J M, I O, T A. "Anatomical Variations of the Fifth Lumbar Artery in a sample Kenyan population." Ann Afr surg. 2022;19(2):100-107. AbstractWebsite

bstract
Background: Anatomical variations of lumbar arteries predispose them to iatrogenic injury during endovascular intervention or surgery. Due to limited morphological data on lumbar arteries in our setting, we aimed to determine their variant anatomy among Kenyans.

Methods: We performed the study on 90 cadaveric specimens and 120 computed tomography (CT) scans. Cadavers were dissected to expose the aorta and the lumbar arteries emerging from them. The number, origins, location relative to the vertebral bodies, and relations to aortic bifurcation were determined in cadavers and CT scans. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0).

Results: On average, 3 (3/90 [3.3%]), 4 (63/90 [70%]) or 5 (24/90 [26.7%]) pairs of lumbar arteries were observed among the cadaveric specimens, whereas 4 (100/120 [83.3%]) or 5 (20/120 [16.7%]) pairs were observed in CTs. Differences in the number of pairs observed in the cadaveric versus CT study were not statistically significant (P = .542). There were no sex differences in the number of lumbar artery pairs observed in CT scans (P = .178). The first 3 lumbar artery pairs had a single-origin, whereas the fourth lumbar artery had a common-stem origin. The first, second, and third lumbar arteries mostly originated at the upper third of their respective vertebral bodies. The fourth lumbar artery predominantly originated at the lower third.

Conclusion: Our study's findings show unique variation in the lumbar arteries' relation to the vertebral bodies and the distances between artery pairs.

Level of evidence: IV (cross-sectional study).

Clinical relevance: Variations in the anatomy of the lumbar arteries should be taken into consideration, especially in surgical or interventional procedures to avoid inadvertent injury of the vessels.

D A, H S, JA O’o, KO A. "Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans. ." East Afr Med J. 2008;85 (5):244-247. AbstractWebsite

Background: Prolapsed intervertebral disk (PID) disease can be managed conservatively or surgically with different reported outcomes.Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the management and outcomes of slipped intervertebral disk disease at the Kenyatta National hospital.Study Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study.Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) a referral and teaching Hospital in Kenya.Patients and Methods: Consecutive files of all cases of slipped intervertebral disk disease from January1997 to December 2007 were retrieved from the Medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The biodata, management methods and the outcomes of the procedures were recorded. The collecteddata was analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 for Windows.Results: Six hundred and three cases were reviewed. All patients received analgesics and bed rest.Five percent of the patients were put on bilateral traction for two weeks while 4% of the patients had corsets. Thirty five per cent of the patients were surgically managed. Over a third of the surgically managed patients had laminectomies. Microdiscectomy was increasingly popular in the latter half ofthe study period. Of the managed patients 95% reported improvement while 92% were complication free. The rate of reherniation and reoperation was 1.5% and 1.2% respectively.Conclusion: The management of PID at Kenyatta National Hospital is largely successful with few cases of complications. In selected patients both conservative and surgical care are used in tandem. Microdiscectomy is an increasingly popular surgical procedure at the KNH.

Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. "Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(5):244-7. Abstract

To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans.

Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. "Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans.
DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected.
RESULTS:
The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively.
CONCLUSION:
The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck

ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE, ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE. "Anatomical Variation of Position and Location of the Fibula Nutrient Foramen in Adult Kenyans.". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2007.
Ogeng’o J, Bundi PK, Obimbo MM, Ongeti KW. "Anatomical Variation of Position and Location of the Fibula Nutrient Foramen in Adult Kenyans.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

Background: The fibula though transmits insignificant force in walking, is an important bone for muscle attachment and significant source of bone grafts.
Objectives: To determine the position, location and number of the nutrient foramina of the fibula among Kenyans.
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study.
Subjects: Two hundred right and left dry fibulas for male and female Kenyans were obtained.
Setting: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi and the Osteology Department, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.
Methods: The number and position of the nutrient foramina were determined. The distance of the nutrient foramen from the styloid process of the head and the length of the fibula were measured by a tape. The data obtained was analyzed by a computer package, SPSS 11.5.0. The means of each value was compared between right, left and the gender groups.
Results: Five point five percent of fibula did not have any nutrient foramen. Most (53.4%) of the nutrient foramina were located posteriorly. The average length of the fibula was 365±30 mm long while the nutrient foramen was located 153±24mm from the tip of the styloid process of the head of the fibula; it was 3 cm proximal to the mid length of the fibula.
Conclusions: Fibula of 28.6 cm – 41.2 cm is available for grafting among Kenyans. The metric estimation of the position of the nutrient foramen of the fibula could assist in harvesting vascularised graft of the bone.

Mandiola E, del Sol M, Sanz ME, Olave E, Gabrielli C, Prates JC. "Anatomical variability of superior cerebellar artery medial and lateral branches." Revista chilena de anatomía. 1997;15:85-91. AbstractWebsite
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Kachlik D, Baca V, Bozdechova I, Cech P, Musil V. "Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights." Surgical and radiologic anatomy: SRA. 2008;30:459-466. Abstract

The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

Ogeng'o J, Ongeti K, Malek A, Were F, Misiani M. "Anatomical Risk factors for atherosclerosis of left common carotid artery in a black Kenyan population. ." Res Open J Anat. 2013;1(1):1-7.
Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW, Malek A, Were FN, Misiani M, Waisiko B, Murunga A, Machira J. "ANATOMICAL RISK FACTORS FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION." Research Open Journal of Anatomy . 2013;1(1):01-07. AbstractANATOMICAL RISK FACTORS FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATIONWebsite

Carotid birfucation anatomy influences predisposistion to atherosclerosis, which is a common cause of ischaemic stroke. Due to increased prevalence of stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa, this study undertook to establish whether or not the population has geometric risk factors for atherosclerosis. Common carotid arteries were exposed by dissection in 208 cadavers and autopsy specimens of adult black Kenyans. The arteries were cleared of fibrofatty tissue and internal jugular vein and nerves retracted away. Mandible was also removed, branches exposed and followed to their destinations. Pattern of termination of common carotid artery was recorded and representative photographs taken with a high resolution digital camera. Angles of bifurcation were measured. Internal diameters of common, internal and external carotid arteries were measured and outlet: inlet area ratios calculated. Intimomedial thickness was determined and correlated with pattern of termination, bifurcation area ratio and angle. Frequencies, means and standard deviations were determined using SPPS17.0 for windows.
The commonest mode of termination was bifurcation (58.9%) followed by trifurcation (26.8%), quadrififcation (5.4%) and pentafurcation (1.7%). Mean bifurcation outlet: inlet ratio was 1.05, with 35.7% being above 12 and 30.4% being below 1.0. The mean angle of bifurcation was 24.1° (Range 9° to 39°). Most of the cases were between 20° and 30°. Among the cases studied, 30.4% were below 20° while 19.6% were above 30°. Intimomedial thickness increased with number of branches, bifurcation angle and area ratio.
Over 25% of the carotid bifurcations in the study population have anatomical risk factors for atherosclerosis, namely additional branches, wide bifurcation angle and non-optimal area ratio. Control measures against atherosclerosis should start early.

T
Ogeng’o J, Amuti T, Rwegasira E, Ouko I, Ongeti K. "THE ANATOMICAL PATTERN OF THE DORSALIS PEDIS ARTERY AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2019;8(1):1444-1451. Abstract

Knowledge of the anatomical pattern of dorsalis pedis artery is important during evaluation of peripheral
circulation, peripheral vascular disease, microvascular flap, ankle and foot surgery. Reports from other
populations on the pattern show wide disparity suggesting ethnic and geographical differences. Data
from black African populations is scanty. This study therefore examined the anatomical pattern of dorsalis
pedis artery among adult black Kenyans. The cadaveric dissection study on 30 formalin fixed specimens
evaluated the origin, position, course and branching pattern of the dorsalis pedis artery. The data were
analysed using SPSS for means, frequency and standard deviation. Student t – test was used to determine
side differences at 95% confidence interval where P – Value of <5% was taken as statistically significant.
The artery was consistently present, as a continuation of the anterior tibial artery. It ran 4.6 mm ± 2.1
mm from the medial malleolus, and about 2.5 ± 0.3mm from the medial border of the base of the first
metatarsal bone. The mean was 4.76 mm on the right, and 4.56 mm on the left. The difference was
statistically significant (P<0.05). Three branching patterns were observed. The conventional pattern was
observed in only 47% of cases. The extensor hallucis longus tendon most frequently crossed the artery
above the ankle joint. There were no cases of crossing below the ankle. These observations reveal that
the dorsalis pedis artery is consistently present, high, relatively medialised, and displays an atypical
branching pattern. Due care should be taken during surgery. Preoperative ultrasound evaluation is
recommended.

A
T A, L O, I O, I O, J O’o. "Anatomical Pattern of Dorsal Metatarsal Arteries in a black Kenyan Population." J Morphol Sci. 2019. Abstract

Introduction Knowledge of anatomical variations in the origin and in the course of the dorsal metatarsal arteries (DMTAs) is valuable for many procedures, including reconstructive surgeries and flap selection. However, there is a paucity of data on these arteries among black Africans. Materials and Methods The present study studied the origin and the location of DMTAs in 30 formalin-fixed cadaveric feet of adult black Kenyans at the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Results Dorsal metatarsal arteries were present in all of the cases. Of the right dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the 2nd to 4th DMTAs were given off as branches from the arcuate artery (AA). On the left feet, in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the rest were given off as branches from the AA. In relation to the dorsal interossei muscles, all of the the arteries were either within the muscle fibers (53%) or beneath them (47%), on the right side. On the left side, the 1st DMTA was above the muscles in 40% of the cases; within the muscles in 53%; and beneath the muscles in 7%. The 2nd and 3rd DMTAs were above the muscles in 57% and in 53% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion These results reveal that the DMTAs show variation in their origin and position relative to the dorsal interossei muscles. These variations display bilateral asymmetry.

Ominde BS, Awori KO, Olabu BO, Ongen'o JA. "Anatomical Measurements of the Distal Clavicle in a Kenyan Population." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2015;4(1):450-456.
Ogeng’o JA, Masaki CO, Malek AA, Were FN, Olabu BO, Misiani MK, Murunga AK. "ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF RENAL ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION: CORRELATION WITH MARKERS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2016;5(1):650-660. Abstractanatomical_features_of_renal_artery_in_a_black.pdfWebsite

Knowledge of anatomical features of the renal artery is important in prediction, management and control
of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. These features show population variations but data from black
African populations are scarce. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the anatomical features
of the renal artery in a black Kenyan population. Six hundred and ten (610) single renal arteries from
305 adult black Kenyans [206 males, 99 females; age range 22 – 79 years] were studied by dissection
at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Specimens with macroscopic features
of stenosis and dilatation were excluded. The implantation angle, length and branching pattern were
studied. These features were correlated with intima-media thickness and luminal diameter. The latter
were determined by micrometry on Eosin/hematoxylin stained 5 micron sections obtained from the
proximal segment of the renal artery. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16.0. Student’s t-test, was
used to test for statistical significance at 95% confidence interval where P value of < 0.05 was taken as
significant. The results are presented in a bar graph, tables and macrographs. The mean implantation
angle was 940±150 (range 580-1250). In 26.7% cases, the angle was more than 1000. Mean length was
34±1.4 mm with 21.6 % of arteries measuring ≤ 20 mm. Variant branching pattern was present in 40.5
% of cases. It comprised trifurcation (33 %), quadrifurcation (6.6 %) and pentafurcation (0.8 %). Higher
implantation angle, short arteries and variant branching were associated with statistically significant
higher intima - media thickness and luminal diameter. These results suggest that higher implantation
angle, shorter length and variant branching pattern constitute geometric risk factors for renal artery
atherosclerosis. Ultrasound screening for individuals with suboptimal geometric features for renal artery
atherosclerosis is recommended.

Winkelmann A. "Anatomical dissection as a teaching method in medical school: a review of the evidence." Medical Education. 2007;41:15-22. AbstractWebsite

Context  Discussions about dissection as a teaching method in gross anatomy are characterised by a lack of objective evidence. Methods  A search for such evidence in the literature produced 14 relevant papers. These were reviewed for objective data on the effect of cadaver dissection on cognitive learning outcomes. Results  All reviewed studies compared groups of students exposed to different teaching approaches, including active dissection, learning on prosected material, or a combination with computerised teaching aids. Study and course designs varied substantially and student groups compared were not always homogeneous. In all studies, compared learning experiences differed in more than 1 variable, and assessment of anatomical knowledge was not standardised. Discussion  It is difficult to interpret and generalise from the results of the reviewed studies. Considering the bias that must be assumed for teachers who develop new course designs and compare these with traditional ones, the review shows a slight advantage for traditional dissection over prosection. Conclusions  More sophisticated research designs may be necessary to solve the general problem of the small measurable impact of educational interventions and to come to scientifically sound conclusions about the best way to teach gross anatomy. Such research will have to include sufficient sample sizes, the use of validated assessment instruments, and a discussion of the educational significance of measured differences. More educational research in anatomy is necessary to counterbalance emotional arguments about dissection with scientific evidence. Anatomical knowledge is too important to future doctors to leave its teaching to the educational fashion of the day.

Okahara M, Kiyosue H, Mori H, Tanoue S, Sainou M, Nagatomi H. "Anatomic variations of the cerebral arteries and their embryology: a pictorial review." European radiology. 2002;12:2548-2561. AbstractWebsite
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Bulsara KR, Zomorodi A, Provenzale JM. "Anatomic variant of the posterior cerebral artery." American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007;188:W395. AbstractWebsite
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THUKU FM, Butt F, Guthua SW, Chindia M. "An Anatomic study of the Facial Nerve Trunk and Branching Pattern in an African population." J. CranioMaxillofacial Trauma and Reconstruction Open (CMTR Open 2018). 2018:e31-e37.
Mwachaka P, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Anatomic position of the pterion among {Kenyans} for lateral skull approaches." Int. J. Morphol. 2008;26:931-933. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Anatomic position of the pterion among {Kenyans} for lateral skull approaches." Int. J. Morphol. 2008;26:931-933. AbstractWebsite
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JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Anatomic position of the Pterion among Kenyans for lateral skull approaches. International Journal of Morphology 26: 931-933 (2008).". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. International Journal of Morphology 26: 931-933 (2008); 2008. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "Anatomic position of the pterion among Kenyans for lateral skull approaches.". In: Int. J. Morphol., 26(4): 931-933,. Mwachaka P, Hassanali,J & Odula P; 2008. Abstract
Anatomic position of the pterion among Kenyans for lateral skull approaches. 
Mwachaka P, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Anatomic position of the pterion among Kenyans for lateral skull approaches." Int. J. Morphol. 2008;26:931-933. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Anatomic position of the asterion in {Kenyans} for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity." Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:30-33. Abstract

The asterion, defined as the junction between lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures, has been used as a landmark in posterolateral approaches to the posterior fossa. Its reliability however has been put into question due to its population-specific variability in position, using external palpable landmarks and its relation to the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. This study aimed at determining the anatomic position of the asterion in a Kenyan population. Measurements from the asterion to the root of zygoma and the tip of mastoid process, respectively were taken on both left and right sides of 90 (51 male, 39 female) human skulls. The relation of the asterion to the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction was also determined. The distances on the right and left sides from the asterion to the root of the zygoma were 58.85 +/- 2.50 mm and 58.44 +/- 2.12 mm, respectively. The asterion was 47.89 +/- 3.72 mm above the tip of mastoid process on the right side and 47.62 +/- 2.87 mm on the left side. This point was significantly higher in males (48.36 +/- 2.72 mm) than in females (46.62 +/- 3.37 mm) with a P-value of 0.041. Regarding its position from the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction, it was at the junction in 72 cases, below it in 17 cases (average 3.68 mm) and only one case had the asterion above this junction (2.57 mm). The asterion therefore can reliably be ascertained using the parameters from the root of the zygoma and the tip of the mastoid process. The safest approach would be posteroinferior to the asterion so as to avoid lacerating the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex.

Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Anatomic position of the asterion in {Kenyans} for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity." Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:30-33. Abstract

The asterion, defined as the junction between lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures, has been used as a landmark in posterolateral approaches to the posterior fossa. Its reliability however has been put into question due to its population-specific variability in position, using external palpable landmarks and its relation to the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. This study aimed at determining the anatomic position of the asterion in a Kenyan population. Measurements from the asterion to the root of zygoma and the tip of mastoid process, respectively were taken on both left and right sides of 90 (51 male, 39 female) human skulls. The relation of the asterion to the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction was also determined. The distances on the right and left sides from the asterion to the root of the zygoma were 58.85 +/- 2.50 mm and 58.44 +/- 2.12 mm, respectively. The asterion was 47.89 +/- 3.72 mm above the tip of mastoid process on the right side and 47.62 +/- 2.87 mm on the left side. This point was significantly higher in males (48.36 +/- 2.72 mm) than in females (46.62 +/- 3.37 mm) with a P-value of 0.041. Regarding its position from the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction, it was at the junction in 72 cases, below it in 17 cases (average 3.68 mm) and only one case had the asterion above this junction (2.57 mm). The asterion therefore can reliably be ascertained using the parameters from the root of the zygoma and the tip of the mastoid process. The safest approach would be posteroinferior to the asterion so as to avoid lacerating the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex.

OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "Anatomic position of the asterion in Kenyans for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity.". In: Journal of Clinical Anatomy.23 (1): 30-33. Mwachaka P, Hassanali,J and P. Odula; 2009.
Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Anatomic position of the asterion in Kenyans for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity." Clinical anatomy (New York, {N.Y.)}. 2010;23:30-33. Abstract

The asterion, defined as the junction between lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures, has been used as a landmark in posterolateral approaches to the posterior fossa. Its reliability however has been put into question due to its population-specific variability in position, using external palpable landmarks and its relation to the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex. This study aimed at determining the anatomic position of the asterion in a Kenyan population. Measurements from the asterion to the root of zygoma and the tip of mastoid process, respectively were taken on both left and right sides of 90 (51 male, 39 female) human skulls. The relation of the asterion to the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction was also determined. The distances on the right and left sides from the asterion to the root of the zygoma were 58.85 +/- 2.50 mm and 58.44 +/- 2.12 mm, respectively. The asterion was 47.89 +/- 3.72 mm above the tip of mastoid process on the right side and 47.62 +/- 2.87 mm on the left side. This point was significantly higher in males (48.36 +/- 2.72 mm) than in females (46.62 +/- 3.37 mm) with a P-value of 0.041. Regarding its position from the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction, it was at the junction in 72 cases, below it in 17 cases (average 3.68 mm) and only one case had the asterion above this junction (2.57 mm). The asterion therefore can reliably be ascertained using the parameters from the root of the zygoma and the tip of the mastoid process. The safest approach would be posteroinferior to the asterion so as to avoid lacerating the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex.

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Anatomic position of the Asterion among Kenyans for posterolateral surgical approaches to cranial cavity. Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula P. Clinical Anatomy (2009).". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. Clinical Anatomy (2009); 2009. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
Onyambu DCK, Aywak DAA, Osiemo DS, Mutala DTM. "Anaphylactic reactions in radiology procedures.". In: Asthma. Intechopen; 2020.
Onyambu CK, Angeline Anyona Aywak, Osiemo SK, Mutala TM. "Anaphylactic Reactions in Radiology Procedures.". In: Asthma. London: IntechOpen; 2021.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI, KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2008 May;85(5):244-7.". In: Trop Doct. 2008 Apr;38(2):87-9. Folio Morphol; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected. RESULTS: The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively. CONCLUSION: The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI, KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Anangwe D, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J, Awori KO. Anatomical variations of the carotid arteries in adult Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2008 May;85(5):244-7.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the topography and anatomical variations of the carotid arteries among Kenyans. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty carotid arteries of forty cadavers were dissected. RESULTS: The bifurcation of the commonest carotid artery was high (above the reference points) in 63.8% of vessels and the external carotid was antero-lateral to the internal carotid artery in 30% of the vessels. A linguo-facial trunk was the most common variation of the external carotid artery. The origin of the right common carotid artery was high and low in 10% and 2.6% of vessels respectively. CONCLUSION: The carotid arteries show important variability and thus emphasise caution for clinicians during surgical procedures in the neck.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Anand AC, Irshad M, Acharya SK, Gandhi BM, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.Fibronectin in acute and subacute hepatic failure.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989 Jun;11(3):314-9.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989 Jun;11(3):314-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
The mean plasma fibronectin (FN) concentrations in 30 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and in 10 patients with subacute hepatic failure (SAHF) were 111.2 +/- 70 and 123.5 +/- 46.5 micrograms/ml, respectively, significantly lower than that of normal controls (362.0 +/- 69.2 micrograms/ml) and patients with uncomplicated viral hepatitis (320 +/- 58.5 micrograms/ml) (p less than 0.001). Plasma FN levels showed significant negative correlation with serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase values in the FHF group (p less than 0.02) and with prothrombin time in the SAHF group (p less than 0.02). Serial estimation of plasma FN showed that failure of FN levels to rise despite fresh plasma infusions indicates poor prognosis in these patients. The reduced availability of FN may be responsible for the impaired Kupffer cell function and consequent increased susceptibility to endotoxemia and the bacterial infections seen in these patients.
Olali T, Karani R. "Analyzing the Perspectives and Strategies in Localizing Software in Kiswahili." International Journal of Applied Linguistics and Translation. . 2019;5(1):15-20.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mwabu D, Ndenge G. "Analyzing the Correlates of Poverty in Kenya: An Institutional Approach." African Journal of Economic Policy. 2009;16(1):1-35.Website
Omondi FA, Ever E, Sh P, Gemikonakli O. "An Analytical Model for Bounded WSNs with Unreliable Cluster Heads and Links." The 40th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), October 26-29, 2015, Clearwater Beach, Florida, USA. 2015. Abstract

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), performance and availability are important in providing Quality of Service (QoS). WSNs are prone to failures that may result from software and hardware malfunctions, battery drain, tampering and link failures. In addition, sensors are resource constrained in terms of inadequate processing capacity, limited storage memory and restricted power supply. Alternating sensor operations between sleep and active modes whilst saving energy, has also introduced more challenges to the performance and dependability of WSN systems. This paper therefore seeks to investigate performance and availability concerns resulting from link and node failures in addition to the buffer restrictions and challenges caused by alternating sensor operations between active and sleep states. First, a finite queue capacity analytical model integrating performance and availability in the presence of node and channel failures and repairs is developed. Using the model, we analyse performance and availability of WSNs in terms of network throughput, delays and dependability. Finally, the model is used to evaluate tradeoffs between performance metrics. The analytical solutions using Spectral Expansion and Kolmogorov Forward equations as well as the simulation results are in good agreement.

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Analytical Issues in Standard Kiswahili Phonology." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2017;6(1):52-68.20180523_172417.jpg20180523_172417.jpg
Steven Awino, Afullo A. "Analytic BER of OFDM Powerline Communication at different IAT of Impulsive Noise.". In: SAUPEC. StellenBosch, South Africa; 2017.
Mwang'ombe AW, Kipsumba PK, Ochieng JW, Kiprop EK, Olubayo FM. "Analysis of" -Kenyan isolates' of Fusarium "safani f. sp. phaseoli from common bean using colony characteristics, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA.". 2008. Abstract

Fusarium solani (Mart) f.sp. phaseoli (Burk) Synd. and Hans., is a plant pathogeniC fungus that causes root rot in garden bean (Phaseo/us vulgaris L.). To evaluate methods used in classifying strains of this pathogen, 52 Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli isolates from infected bean plants grown on different farms in Taita hills of Coast province, Kenya, were cultured and characterized using morphology, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA. All the isolates showed high variability in aerial mycelial growth, mycelia texture, pigmentation (mycelia colour) when cultured on potato dextrose agar medium, and conidial measurements on Spezieller Nahrstoffarmer agar medium. Colonies were grouped into luxuriant, moderately luxuriant and scanty on aerial mycelial growth; fluffy and fibrous based on mycelial texture; purple, pink and white based on mycelia colour; and long, medium and short macroconidiallength. All the isolates were pathogenic on GLP-2 (Rosecoco), a susceptible bean variety commonly grown in Kenya. DNA analysis showed that the isolates carried a high genetic diversity (gene diversity = 0.686; mean number of alleles = 9). Neighbour-Joining phylogenetic clusters reconstructed using microsatellite variation showed three major clusters. However, the microsatellite groupings were independent of the altitude, colony characteristics and virulence of the isolates.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Waveguide-backed Inhomogeneously-filled Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen." World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). 2007. AbstractWebsite

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Waveguide-backed Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen." World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS). 2008. AbstractWebsite

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

Abungu NO, Konditi DB, Otieno AV. "Analysis of Waveguide-backed Apertures of Arbitrary Shape in a Thick Conducting Screen.". In: 1st JKUAT Scientific, Technological and Industrialization Conference. The JKUAT Scientific, Technological and Industrialization Conference 2006; 2006. Abstract

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "Analysis of van der Waal equation near the critical point.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 6 No. 1 (June 2004) pp.11-14. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
Ikamari LDE, Odwe G. Analysis of Unintended Pregnancy and pregnancy termination among women in selected urban settlements in Nairobi. Nairobi: African Population and Health Centre; 2010.
Mavuti K, Moreau J, Munyandorero J, Plisnier PD. "Analysis of trophic relationships in two shallow equatorial lakes Lake Naivasha (Kenya) and Lake Ihema (Rwanda) using a multispecifies trophic model.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

A multispecifies trophic model called ECOPATH II, which can be used to describe the trophic relationships in aquatic ecosystems on a quantitative basis, is briefly presented. When properly used, it can help to explain the trophic relationships in ecosystems and possible evolution of fishstocks after modifications of the environment (e.g. eutrophication, introduction of a new population and/or a significant increase of the fishing effort), and to compare the trophic structure of several ecosystems. Examples are provided on two shallow lakes: Lake Ihema and Lake Naivasha. They are compared with Lake George which was previously documented

Ogana W. "Analysis of transonic integral equations: Part II - Boundary element methods." AIAA Journal. 1990;Vol 28(No. 3):pp. 556-558.
Ogana W. "Analysis of transonic integral equations: Part I - Artificial viscosity." AIAA Journal. 1990;Vol. 28(No. 2):pp. 362-364.
Ndiritu AW, Kimani DG, NYAGAH DGRACE. "AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND ITS EFFECT ON SCHOOL EFFICIENCY.". In: 7th Annual International Conference.; 2011. Abstract

Education is a fundamental human right enshrined in all major United Nations and other international charters, and need to be provided in the most efficient manner. Education has been found to play a major role in social, political, economic and cultural perspectives of a country (Mbeche and Ndiritu, 2005). It is therefore important to find out how education can be achieved in the most efficient manner. Like any other organization, the success and failure of the school is associated with the quality of its leadership (Schultz (2003). Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations (Kouzes and Posner, 2002). The current study links transformational leadership with school efficiency. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership styles of secondary school principals and school efficiency as measured by academic performance and discipline in Nairobi Province. Kouze’s and Posner’s Leadership Practice Inventory(LPI) was used to measure the transformational leadership styles of school principals while information on school discipline and academic performance was gathered from the questions attached to the LPI. Data was analysed by the use of Pearson correlation coefficient and ANOVA. The findings indicated that transformational leadership is correlated with the two variables. The findings of also provide implications for the leadership of secondary school principals as they practice transformational leadership in their schools. This has a direct implications for institutions that prepare secondary school principals to come up with programs that will enhance secondary school principals skills to create learning organizations Secondary school principals must exhibit strong leadership skills in all five of the practice areas measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory in order to succeed in today’s high stress and ever-changing world of educational leadership..

Ndavi PM, Muia EG OJ, et al. An analysis of Training in the Provision of Family Planning Services in Factors thatContribute to the Utilization of Quality RH Care: Findings from Further Analysis of the Service Provision Assessment of 1999: . Nairobi: Ministry of Health, National Council for Population and Development-Ministry of Planning and National ; 2003.
Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256.
Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2018;4(8):252-256. Abstract

Description

Unsustainable industrial development has created negative impacts to global ecosystem quality and biodiversity due to increased load of chemical and biological contaminants released into environment. Ecological sustainability of Nairobi River Basin in Kenya, hangs in the balance between socioeconomic exploitation and environmental management. Nairobi, Ngong and Mathare rivers constitute the three main tributaries of Nairobi River Basin. The basin has witnesssed increased pollution load, destruction of the wetlands and encroachment of the buffer zones due to rapid urbanisation. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contamination in Mathare and Ngong rivers. We collected water from eight sampling sites constituting the upstream, midstream and downstream of the two rivers. The samples were extracted using HPLC grade dichloromathane and analysed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) using a Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Ionisation Detector. TPH in Mathare River ranged from 59.66±8.64 to 463.92±2.63 µg/L, whereas levels in Ngong’River ranged from 11.85±0.10 to 1,219.95 µg/L. The concentration increased downstream indicating the influence of industrial and urbanistion on the pollution load. The results suggest that industries and municipal activities in the City are contributing to TPH contamination in the Nairobi River Basin tributaries and therefore they are likely to jeopardize ecological quality of the rivers ecosystems if protective measures are not taken.

Masenge EM, Wandiga SO, Shiundu PM, Madadi VO. "Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water from Ngong and Mathare Rivers, Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2018;4(8):252-256. Abstract

Unsustainable industrial development has created negative impacts to global ecosystem quality and biodiversity due to increased load of chemical and biological contaminants released into environment. Ecological sustainability of Nairobi River Basin in Kenya, hangs in the balance between socioeconomic exploitation and environmental management. Nairobi, Ngong and Mathare rivers constitute the three main tributaries of Nairobi River Basin. The basin has witnesssed increased pollution load, destruction of the wetlands and encroachment of the buffer zones due to rapid urbanisation. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contamination in Mathare and Ngong rivers. We collected water from eight sampling sites constituting the upstream, midstream and downstream of the two rivers. The samples were extracted using HPLC grade dichloromathane and analysed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) using a Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Ionisation Detector. TPH in Mathare River ranged from 59.66±8.64 to 463.92±2.63 µg/L, whereas levels in Ngong’River ranged from 11.85±0.10 to 1,219.95 µg/L. The concentration increased downstream indicating the influence of industrial and urbanistion on the pollution load. The results suggest that industries and municipal activities in the City are contributing to TPH contamination in the Nairobi River Basin tributaries and therefore they are likely to jeopardize ecological quality of the rivers ecosystems if protective measures are not taken.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Analysis of Time Use among First Year Students of Moi University.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Augustus ON, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "An Analysis of the Use of Mass Media during Commuication Campaigns for Mental Health in Nairobi County." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies. 2015;Vol. 3(Issue 2).
Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Ngaina JN. "Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Total Column Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone over Nairobi, Kenya using OMI Measurements." Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2015;8(5):530-540.
Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ngaina JN. "Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Total Column Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone over Nairobi, Kenya using Daily OMI Measurements." Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 2015;8(5):530-540. Abstractanalysis_of_the_temporal_evolution_of_total_column_nitrogen_dioxide_and_ozone_over_nairobi_kenya_using_daily_omi_measurements.pdfAfrican Journals Online(AJOL)

Concurrent measurement and analysis of Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)and Ozone (O3) are essential for improved understanding of ozone distribution. This study sought to analyse the temporal evolution of total column NO2 and O3 over Nairobi using satellite-derived daily data between 2009 and 2013. Seasonality is observed in O3 distribution with minimum and maximum occurring during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Additionally, a lag of about a month or two occurs between the onset of a season and corresponding minimum or maximum NO2 and O3 concentration. The established association between monthly NO2 and O3 is such that, above average concentration of NO2 is likely to lead to above average levels of O3 during the same month (r=0.79) and below average levels about 5 months later (r=0.39). The Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) is the main phenomenon behind the oscillating biennial feature exhibited by NO2 and O3 interannual trend. The study shows that NO2 and O3 are increasing at annual average rates of about 0.27% and 0.46% per year compared to mean values, respectively. Daily variation of both NO2 and O3 depicts stagnating trends over the entire period of study. This difference is attributed to the fact that, whereas daily NO2 and O3 are influenced by mechanisms that control the slow shift between the dry and wet periods within the course of a year, interannual variability is driven by the differences in each year’s general weather conditions.

Key Words: Evolution, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Total Column, Quasi Biennial Oscillation

Munyasi D, Mutuli SM, ODUORI MF. "Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Kinematics.". 2013.Website
Munyasi D, Mutuli SM, ODUORI MF. "Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Kinematics.". 2013.Website
Munyasi D, Mutuli SM, ODUORI MF. "Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Kinematics.". 2013.Website

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