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Gitu PM, Yusuf A, Bhatt BM. "Application of tetralinyls as carboxamide protecting groups in peptide synthesis." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 1998;12(1):35-43.bcse_12_1_1998.pdf
BHALENDU PROFBHATT, YUSUF DROKEYOAMIR. "Application of tetralinyl group in solid-phase peptide, synthesis.". In: International Journal of Biochemisphysics vol. 6 & 7, Nos (1&2), 7 - 10. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1998. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Gitu P, Yusuf A, Ogutu V. "Application of tetralinyl group in solid-phase peptide synthesis." Int. J. BioChemiPhysics. 1998;6,7(1,2):7-10.scan0055.pdf
Otieno- Omutoko Lillian PD, Omutoko JD, Omutoko IC. "Application of Technology in Realization of Literacy and Reading Skills in Primary Schools in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Education for All (EFA) aims at provision of quality basic education for children, youth and adults to bring benefits to every individual. Realization of EFA goals can be accelerated through provision of literacy for all. There is exponential growth in the use of technology in everyday life. ICT technologies have become common in school settings, workplaces and at home. ICT can be used to improve critical cognitive skills and general literacy. Literacy pursuits should include technology based skills to enable operation in technology based settings. It is necessary to understand and conceptualize how ICT can enhance literacy and how it contributes to development of human capital. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of ICT in increasing access to literacy and improving the quality of literacy education. This paper intends to: (1) Explore how ICT technologies can be used to enhance learning and broaden access to literary education (2) Demonstrate the use of digital technologies in strengthening literacy and reading skills (3) Explain how ICT barriers to achievement of literacy can be reduced to enhance literacy. Document desk review and in depth content analysis will be used to collect information and develop innovative affordable software applications for literacy. Findings from this study will be used to develop a pilot ICT literacy program.

OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Application of Technology in Distance Education: Kenya Case.". In: International Council for Distance Education Conference held in Manchester, June 1995 . Thought and Practice; 1995. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
"Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination." Journal of Food Science and Technology, J Food Sci Technol . 2016;53:3157-3165 .
Mbuge DO, Negrini R, Nyakundi LO, Kuate SP, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Muiru WM, Baldwyn Torto RM. "Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.". In: 2nd International Conference of the Pan African Society of Agricultural Engineers (PASAE), . Rabat, Morocco; 2019.
Ochanda N, EPP H;, Lantieri D, Agatsiva JL. "Application of remote sensing to earth resources monitoring in Kenya.". 1983.Website
and Gathumbi, J.K. WMMJEWJ. "Application of rapid immunoassays in a survey of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) in foods and feeds. .". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bi-annual Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.
Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Bukachi F, Mandela KM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0185130. Abstractapplication_of_raman_spectroscopy_in_type_2_journal.pone_.0185130.pdf

Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm-1), leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm-1) and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm-1) were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm-1, 1395 cm-1 and 1437 cm-1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm-1), leucine (1395 cm-1) and isoleucine (1437 cm-1) in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds) diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat's) with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for performing comparative efficacy studies between known and new anti-diabetic drugs. Reports on use of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes mellitus screening with Raman bands associated with leucine and isoleucine molecules acting as reference is rare in literature. The use of Raman spectroscopy in pre-diabetes screening of blood for changes in levels of leucine and isoleucine amino acids is particularly interesting as once elevated levels are noticed, necessary interventions to prevent diabetes development can be initiated.

Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Bukachi F, Mandela KM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies." PloS one. 2017;12(9):e0185130. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm-1), leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm-1) and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm-1) were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm-1, 1395 cm-1 and 1437 cm-1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm-1), leucine (1395 cm-1) and isoleucine (1437 cm-1) in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds) diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat's) with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for performing comparative efficacy studies between known and new anti-diabetic drugs. Reports on use of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes mellitus screening with Raman bands associated with leucine and isoleucine molecules acting as reference is rare in literature. The use of Raman spectroscopy in pre-diabetes screening of blood for changes in levels of leucine and isoleucine amino acids is particularly interesting as once elevated levels are noticed, necessary interventions to prevent diabetes development can be initiated.

Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Sehmi PK, Nyaga NM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in comparative study of antiobesity influence of oxytocin and freeze-dried extracts of Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats." Journal of Raman SpectroscopyJournal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2020;51(3):398-405. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Obesity is a condition affecting a substantial number of people in the world. Obese people have increased risks of developing chronic metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, among others. Predicting potential development together with rapid diagnosis of the condition followed by early interventions is therefore necessary. This work investigated, first, utility of Raman spectroscopy in performing comparative antiobesity influence studies of oxytocin and a freeze-dried extract of a local herbal plant exhibiting oxytocin-like properties called Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) (UAV) on diet induced obesity in Sprague Dawley rat models. Second, we looked for obesity biomarker Raman spectral bands. The blood extracted from the rats were applied onto conductive silver paste smeared glass slides and excited using a 785-nm laser. Raman spectra of blood from oxytocin- and UAV-treated rats displayed similar profiles with low doses of UAV (100 mg/kg of body weight) being more similar to oxytocin than high doses (200 mg/kg of body weight) as revealed by cosine similarity value of 0.997. Their profiles were also different from blood of obese and nonobese (normal controls) animals. A prominent peak in spectra of treated rats centred at 401 cm?1 can be oxytocin's biomarker band in blood. Comparison of average intensity trend of fructose bands at around 638 and 812 cm?1 between prepared fructose solution and blood of treated rats revealed elevated levels of fructose in blood of rats intraperitoneally injected oxytocin and UAV extracts. The result implied upregulation of fructose in oxytocin- and UAV-treated animals. Principal component analysis confirmed that Raman spectral profiles from blood of obese rats were different from those of nonobese rats with bands ascribed to fructose (638, 812, and 1,217 cm?1) and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs; 478, 1,318, and 1,443 cm?1), being utilized in the segregation of the spectral data sets. It also showed that spectra from oxytocin-treated and UAV-treated rat's blood were similar implying identical influence of the drugs on the animals. The study showed potential of Raman spectroscopy as tool for quick obesity (or metabolic syndrome) screening with intensity of Raman bands associated with fructose and BCAAs as biomarkers. Besides, the same bands may be used in comparative efficacy studies of antiobesity drugs. The results reported here are rare in literature.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Application of Radiant Energy to the Dehydration of Foods (PhD. Thesis). University of Reading, UK.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Application of Queuing Theory in Spatial Planning. The Case of Athi River Weigh Bridge." African Habitat Review.. 2010;4 ((2010) ).
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD, Angeyo HA. "Application of principal component analysis to multispectral-multimodal optical image analysis for malaria diagnostics." Malar. J.. 2014;13(1):485. Abstract1475-2875-13-485.pdf

Multispectral imaging microscopy is a novel microscopic technique that integrates spectroscopy with optical imaging to record both spectral and spatial information of a specimen. This enables acquisition of a large and more informative dataset than is achievable in conventional optical microscopy. However, such data are characterized by high signal correlation and are difficult to interpret using univariate data analysis techniques.

Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD, Angeyo HK. "Application of principal component analysis to multispectral-multimodal optical image analysis for malaria diagnostics." Malar. J.. 2014;13:485. Abstract

Multispectral imaging microscopy is a novel microscopic technique that integrates spectroscopy with optical imaging to record both spectral and spatial information of a specimen. This enables acquisition of a large and more informative dataset than is achievable in conventional optical microscopy. However, such data are characterized by high signal correlation and are difficult to interpret using univariate data analysis techniques.

Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD, Angeyo HK. "Application of principal component analysis to multispectral-multimodal optical image analysis for malaria diagnostics." Malaria Journal . 2014;2014(13):485.
Omucheni DL, Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Bulimo WD, Zoueu JT. "Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Multispectral Imaging Microscopy for Malaria Diagnosis.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
V. O, U. Y. "Application of Polymer Based Nanocomposites for Water Shutoff-A Review." Fuels. 2021;2:304-322. AbstractWebsite

One highly undesirable characteristic of mature assets that inhibits oil recovery is high
water production. Polymer gel treatment is a popular conformance improvement technique applied
in this regard due to its cost effectiveness and proved efficiency. Despite this popularity, optimum
performance of polymer hydrogels in water shut off is inhibited by excessive aggregation, difficulty
in controlling gelation, and their instability at high temperature and high salinity reservoir conditions.
To address these shortcomings, research on the application of nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer
hydrogels to manage thermal stability and salinity sensitivity has significantly increased in the recent
past. By incorporating metal-based NPs, silica or graphene at nanoscale; the gel strength, storage
modulus, salinity tolerance and thermal stability of commonly used polymers have been greatly
enhanced. In this paper, the advances in experimental studies on polymer-based nanocomposites are
discussed and field experiences from adoption of polymer composites reviewed.

Waithaka K. "Application Of Plant Tissue Culture In Horticultural Production."; 1988. Abstract

The term 'plant tissue culture' is normally used as a 'blanket' term to cover the cultivation of all plant parts whether a single cell, a group of cells or an organ on an artificial medium. The in vitro cultures are now being used as tools for the study of various basic problems in experimental biology and agriculture. The two main applications of plant tissue culture in horticultural production are in propagation and sanitation. Tissue culture is being used effectively in asexual clonal propagation of various horticultural crops. Orchids, carnations, roses, gerbera, chrysanthemums, potatoes, strawberries, apples and coffee have all been successfully cloned in vitro and the list is increasing daily. Recovery of pathogen - free plants by meristem tip culture has become a common practice in producing virus-free stock material of vegetatively propagated plants. Other areas where tissue culture can contribute to horticulture include embryo culture and germplasm preservation and storage.

Bundi RM;, Gitau GK;, Vanleeuwen, J; Mulei CM, Vanleeuwen, J; Mulei CM. "The application of petrifilmsTM for diagnosis of bovine mastitis in Kenya."; 2013.
Bundi RM;, Gitau GK;, Vanleeuwen J;, Mulei CM. "The application of petrifilmsTM for diagnosis of bovine mastitis in Kenya."; 2013.
Lelei JK, Kariuki CN. "Application of perational Research in Public Project Management.". In: The First ORSEA Conference held in Nairobi. African Crop Science Society; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Lelei JK, Kariuki CN. "Application of perational Research in Public Project Management.". In: The First ORSEA Conference held in Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 2003. Abstract

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NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Application of Participatory Appraisal Methods in Regional Planning. A paper prepared with Mr. Z. Maleche for a Workshop on Participatory Rural Appraisal Methods. Nairobi, July 30-31. 1992.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Kariuki CN. "Application of OR in Public Project Managemnt: Issues to resolve in stakeholder Involvement.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in . Nairobi: African Crop Science Society; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Ambuko J, Maloba S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, others. "Application of off-season flower induction chemicals to address seasonality in mango fruiting and the associated postharvest losses.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Joodaki M, Kompa G, Arshad S, Kamucha G. "Application of Neural Networks for Distance Measurement in Pulsed Laser Radar (PLR).". In: Proceedings of ODIMAP III, 3rd Topical Meeting on Optoelectronic Distance Measurements and Applications. University of Pavia, Italy; 2001.
Cheruiyot EK, Mito CO, Kaduki KA. "Application of Multispectral Imagery in Monitoring of Aquatic Vegetation and Water Quality Parameters in Large Inland Waters.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "The application of monoclonal antibodies in identification of a hydatid cyst antigen found in boiled sera from individuals with hydatid disease and its significance in Diagnosis of hydatid disease caused by E. granulosus in man. The Kenya Veterinarian: 23.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
Mary T. Simiyu, Nyongesa FW, Birech Z, Njenga L, Ilin N, Thomas F. Krauss, Pitruzzello G, Aduda BO. "Application Of Molasses In Improving Water Purification Efficiency Of Diatomaceous Earth-Waste Ceramic Membranes.". In: EAI International Conference on Innovations and Interdisciplinary Solutions for Underserved Areas (INTERSOL 2022) . Nile University Of Nigeria Abuja ; 2022. Abstract

The World Health Organization predicts that 90.0% of the 2.3 million people who die annually due to water-borne diseases come from developing countries. At the same time fluorosis occurrence in the world’s geological fluoride belts has left many people maimed due to drinking highly fluoridated water. This work reports on the use of molasses in making carbon-activated diatomaceous earth waste (DE-waste) ceramic membranes with improved mechanical strength and water purification efficiency. The fabricated diatomaceous membranes were soaked in molasses for 24.0 hours and fired at 600.0 for 3.0 hours. The carbon-activated membranes were used to filter water contaminated with Escherichia coli, Rotavirus, and sodium fluoride. The activated carbon obtained in this work had a bulk density of 450.0 kg/m3 and it reduced the porosity of the DE-waste membranes by 18.0%. The activated carbon improved the modulus of rupture (MOR) of the DE-waste membrane by 47.8% and the average pore size of the active DE-waste membrane was 18.4 nm. The filtration process was found to be dependent on the contaminant’s size, concentration, and the external pressure applied to the water during the filtration process. The filtration efficiency of >99.9 in E. coli was concentration and pressure. Membranes reported efficiency of 97.1% and 98.9% in deflouridation and Rotavirus filtration. Thus, molasses is potential material in fabrication of water membranes

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Application of Microvascular Surgery in the Reconstruction of Thoracic Oesophagus (Preliminary Communication).". In: East African Medical Journal 56: (6) 248 - 253. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1967. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
kariuki J, DiasTibihika P, ManuelCurto, EsayasAlemayehu, GeroldWinkler, HaraldMeimberg. "Application of microsatellite genotyping by amplicon sequencing for delimitation of African tilapiine species relevant for aquaculture.". 2021.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, B. MF. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2018;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463
to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. AbstractJournal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Application of Many Body Scattering Theory to Molecular Structure Calculations. 1.". In: Proc. International Symposium on Atomic, Molecular and Solid State Theory,. University of Nairobi Press; 1978. Abstract
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WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mathu E, Ichang'i D. "Application of Magnetic Survey in the Investigation of Iron Ore Deposits and Shear Zone Delineation: Case Study of Mutomo-Ikutha Area, SE Kenya." International Journal of Geosciences,. 2015;6(7):729-740.
Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW, WASWA AARONK. "Application of magnetic survey in the investigation of iron ore deposits and shear zone delineation: case study of Mutomo-Ikutha area, SE Kenya." International Journal of Geosciences,. 2015;6(7). AbstractFull Text

The main objective of this research was to use ground magnetic survey to delineate shear zone and iron ore deposit within the Neoproterozoic rocks of Mutomo-Ikutha area of south eastern Kenya. Total field magnetic data was recorded by using high resolution proton precision geometric magnetometer which recorded total components of the ground magnetic anomaly data running through sixteen traverses. The field data was qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted and the results gave values for the total component measurements of ground magnetic anomaly that varied between a minimum negative peak value of about 250 nanoTesla and a maximum of about 1000 nanoTesla. 550 nanoTesla was considered to be threshold of the iron mineralization within the area. The results indicated that the western part of Mutomo-Ikutha was sheared, faulted and contained iron ore mineralization trending in the north-south direction. Areas with high anomalous values were geochemically proven to contain magnetite.

Mulwa JK, Soengkono S. "Application of magnetic method in geothermal resource exploration-A case study of Rotoma-Tikorangi geothermal prospect.". In: 1st KenGen/IAEA geothermal conference in Kenya. Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Electricity Generating Co./IAEA; 2002. Abstract

Rotoma-Tikorangi geothermal prospect is situated about 26 km northeast of Rotorua in New Zealand. It is associated with Okataina Volcanic Centre in the Taupo Volcanic Zone. A low level airborne magnetic survey (760 m a.s.l) covering the Rotoma-Tikorangi prospect was undertaken by staff of the Geothermal Institute in 1984. Detailed analysis of the aeromagnetic data carried out as part of the present study showed that some residual total force magnetic anomalies are independent of terrain effects. Positive magnetic anomalies are probably due to young rhyolites whereas negative magnetic anomalies are due to hydrothermal alteration. A three dimensional (3-D) magnetic interpretation indicated that hydrothermally demagnetized rocks associated with Rotoma-Tikorangi geothermal prospect have variable thickness ranging between 800 and 1250 m and dip towards the north. The geothermal prospect is characterized by concealed outflow. The results of this study also suggest that the Rotoma-Tikorangi geothermal prospect extends further to the east of a resistivity boundary delineated from previous studies. Detailed modeling of the demagnetized anomalies along respective flight lines is recommended as a follow-up to this study, to determine more accurately the extent of the hydrothermally demagnetized rocks.

Ng’ang’a JW, Odero D, Buigutt KSA. "Application of Library Service Charter in Quality Service Delivery in University Libraries." Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). . 2020;4007(4007).Website
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Application of Lactic fermentation and amylolytic enzymes in the Development of therapeutic feeding porridges in Africa,.". In: 6th International Seminar on Traditional African Fermented Foods, Sponsored by European Union, Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) and CSIR . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Application of Information Theory to Evaluate the Economic Effects of Fair Employment Laws on Occupations Progress of Black Americans, 1954-1972.". In: Read at the Forty-Ninth Annual Conference of Western Economic Association Meeting at Sahara Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 9-11, 1974. University of Nairobi.; 1974. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Application of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in Product Design within Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Mozambique and Kenya.". In: Mozambique. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract

Designers, architects and artists have invariably relied on their portfolios to record their work and to exhibit their capabilities. Unfortunately there is very little reference from which to draw tips on how to effectively utilize a portfolio. Sometimes the attention given to the production of the work is not complemented with strong oral and visual, presentations. The continued failure to pay due attention to portfolio has led to loss of job opportunities. The portfolio can open doors and close them with equal speed. To people shopping for jobs, it's a calling card, the advance guard, the marketing tool, often the only opportunity to make an impression. Many companies do not hire people but rather hire portfolios. When a prospective employer requests for a portfolio it is because they are seeking certain attributes or traits that may be of service to them. Typically, the employer will say they are looking for somebody "creative". How does your portfolio show that you are creative? Is it in the way it is organized? The work you have put in it? Or is it the bag/booklet? The answer to this is "all of the above". It does not do good work justice if it's put together in a tattered envelope. Neither can a very expensive bag/booklet camouflage bad work. There must be a sense of your presence in the work you do, the way you do it, the way you present it and what you want to do with it. And, not to forget, what you want the work to do for you.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "APPLICATION OF IMMUNOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY IN RAPID DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN B1, IN CHICKEN LIVER TISSUES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract

Existing physicochemical analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in animal tissues are expensive, cumbersome, and hazardous. To offer an alternative to these methods, a novel and highly sensitive immunochemical method for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in chicken liver tissues is described in this study. Liver tissues were homogenized with cold methanol-acetone (50:50), followed by AFB1 extraction with methanol-acetone-PBS (25:25:50). The tissue extracts were, with or without further purification by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC), applied to a highly sensitive direct ELISA for determination of AFB1. The detection limits for this assay were 15 +/- 0.77 pg/mL when standards and samples were dissolved in methanol-PBS (10:90) and 17 +/- 2.0 pg/mL when methanol-acetone-PBS (5:5:90) solution was used. The average recoveries of AFB1 were 54.3 to 65.5% in artificially contaminated tissue samples at 1 to 5 ng/g. In samples spiked with AFB1 at 1 ng/g, the method had diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% for samples processed with IAC and 91.7 and 100%, respectively, for samples without IAC purification. The test was successfully applied to the detection of AFB1 in liver tissues from chickens that were experimentally dosed with AFB1. It is hoped that this test will be applicable in rapid detection of aflatoxins in poultry meats and in diagnosis of aflatoxicosis in chicken.

Mwangi W, Isaiah N, Shadrack K. "Application of Hydrological Models In Poorly Gauged Watersheds: A Review of the usage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) In Kenya." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2017;Volume 6(Issue 08):2277-8616.
Wambugu M, Nyandega I, Kithia S. "Application of Hydrological Models in Poorly Gauged Watersheds: A review of the Usage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2017;6(8):132-141.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

D.D. K, Z.I. O, P.K. N. "Application of GIS to Water Quality Management for the City of Nairobi Water Supply." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1):5-23.oonge.docx
D.D. K, Z.I. O, P.K. N. "Application of GIS to Water Quality Management for the City of Nairobi Water Supply." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1):5-23.oonge.docx
Ruugia SK, Moturi CA. Application of GIS Spatial Interpolation Methods in Auto Insurance Risk Territory Segmentation and Rating. School of Business, University of Nairobi: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa; 2014. Abstract

Evolution in the field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has given rise to sophisticated scientific techniques for collection, analysis and visualization of location based data. These GIS analysis processes are used to reveal some critical patterns of occurrences. Due to inaccurate analysis and covering of insurance risks in Kenya, several companies have closed down prompting the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) and Association of Kenyan Insurers (AKI) set up maximum and minimum premium rates on insurance risks. The set premiums discounts are given to the insured based on records of their annual claims. The main problem here is that the rates cover the entire nation without considering the distribution of risk in various regions. The objective of the paper is to show that GIS can be used to analyse and generate auto insurance risk territories for insurance companies from which an insurance rating model can be developed. We used GIS analysis methods such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation, data smoothing and clustering techniques and data on auto insurance accidents and crime, geo-coded police stations, roads, socio-economic, aerial and satellite imagery for Nairobi County. A risk territory map showing the distribution of auto insurance risk and other related maps were generated. A prescriptive insurance rating model was then developed that uses generated risk territories to calculate varying rates for auto insurance premiums rates for the respective regions. This research shows that GIS techniques can be used for better visualization of risk at a given location for accurate risk analysis and uptake.

Muhwanga CN, Obiero JPO, Karanja FN. "Application of Geographic Information Systems in Groundwater Prospecting: A Case Study of Garissa County, Kenya." Journal of Geographic Information System. 2018;10:439-460.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Application of field calculations in optimization of insulator designs.". In: 4th International conference on properties and applications of dielectric materials" University of Queensland, Australia, July 1994. FARA; 1994. Abstract
When an insulator is placed in an electrode gap, its surface charge field distorts the geometric field, leading to a flashover at a voltage value dependent on the degree of the gap field distortion. This paper reports on studies conducted to determine the relationship between flashover voltages and electric filed distribution along solid insulator surfaces. The surface electric field distribution along different insulator profiles was determined using the Finite-Difference method, and the flashover of the actual profile model measured. The obtained results show that each profile had a peak surface electric field and the higher the peak value, the lower the flashover voltage. The correlation curve for peak electric field and flashover voltage was developed using a curve fitting technique based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm.
Patel JP, Karanja PK, Githiri JG, Barongo JO. "APPLICATION OF EULER DECONVOLUTION TECHNIQUE IN DETERMINING DEPTHS TO MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN MAGADI AREA, SOUTHERN KENYA RIFT." JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2016;18(1). AbstractFull Text

Magadi area is located in the southern part of the Kenyan rift, an active continental rift that is part of the East African Rift system. Thermal manifestations in the form of hot springs in the northern and southern shores of Lake Magadi and high heat flows suggest geothermal potential in the area. A ground magnetic survey was carried out in the study area with the aim of locating depths to bodies with sufficient magnetic susceptibility that may represent magmatic intrusions. The magnetic data was corrected, a total intensity magnetic contour map produced and profiles drawn across identified anomalous regions. Magnetic survey data in profile form over anomalous regions was interpreted rapidly for source positions and depths by Euler deconvolution technique. Geologic constraint was imposed by use of a structural index 1.0 that best describes prismatic bodies such as intrusive dykes. The magnetic bodies were imaged at depths ranging from 0 km to about 11 km along the profiles. The imaged depths along the profiles display discontinuities in magnetic markers due to presence of numerous faults in the area. The detected magnetic bodies may be cooling dykes that heat the underground water responsible for the numerous hot springs surrounding Lake Magadi. Such a dyke is suspected to originate from a magma chamber conducting heat to the underground water. A model whereby the faults in the region provide escape of water as hot springs is proposed.

MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two E. granulosus antigens in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. East. Afr.Med. J. 66: 738.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract

A total of 180 sera consisting of 50 sera from Kenyans with surgically confirmed hydatidosis and 130 sera from individuals without hydatid disease were examined. "Antigen 880" (which is suspected to be similar to Antigen B) showed a sensitivity of 88%. No false reactions were obtained with sera from individuals with non-hydatid infections, hence a specificity of 100% was recorded with this antigen. "Antigen 346" (which is similar to Capron's "Arc 5") showed a sensitivity of 52% and a specificity of 100%. It is concluded that "Antigen 880" may be more useful than "Arc 5" in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis in Kenya due to the high sensitivity obtained with the antigen.

Kiriinya LK, Marijnissen JCM, Agostino LF. "Application of Electrospray in thermal desalination in tropical countries.”.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
Mwega BW, Mati BM, Mulwa JK, Kituu GM. "Application of electrical resistivity method to investigate groundwater potential in Lake Chala watershed." International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary. 2015;3(7):396-403. Abstract

A geo-electrical investigation was carried out in Lake Chala Watershed in Kenya to determine the roundwater potential of the area. The Vertical Electrical Sounding using schlumberger configuration with a maximum current electrode spread varying from 250 320m and potential electrode spread of 25m was utilized to provide information of the aquifers and subsurface lithology. A total number of 50 VES were carried out. The data obtained were interpreted by computer iteration process. Interpreted results revealed four to six distinct subsurface layers which comprised of top soil (clay, sandy clay soil intercalated with silt, sand and gravel)
, highly weathered ryholite, and moderately weathered basalt volcanic ash, highly weathered fractured basalt, weathered basalt, slightly fractured dry and fresh basalt and basalt basement rock layers. The results showed that the auriferous layer was composed of highly weathered fractured basalt, moderately weathered basalt & volcanic ash and weathered basalt geological material. The layer had a resistivity range of 40 to 200 and a thickness range of 1.38 to 91m. The results showed that lake chala watershed have high groundwater potential which can be exploited as an alternative source of water in the area.

A. WG, D. A, Aluoch A. O., G.N. K, I. M. "Application of Eburru Rocks from Kenya as Urea Carrier Agents." International Journal of Recent advances in Multidisplinary Research. 2017;4(4):2532-2541.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research (IJARER). 2012;1(2):17-25. AbstractWebsite

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Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita, S.M., Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research (IJARER). 2012;1,2(4):17-25.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER). 2012;2(3):369-375. AbstractWebsite

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Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effects of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER). 2012;2(2):369-375.
Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effect of Radiation Intensity and Temperature on DSSC Performance." International Journal of Advanced Renewable Energy Research . 2012;1(2):109-116 . AbstractWebsite

Effects of radiation intensity and temperature on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar module (DSSM) have been investigated in a tropical area in Nairobi, Kenya. Outdoor measurements were performed on cloudless days at normal incidence of the incoming solar beam radiation to the module. A series of current-voltage (I-V) characterizations were carried out at different solar radiation intensities and module temperatures. The module performance parameters: Short circuit current density, (Jsc), Open circuit voltage, (Voc), Fill factor, (FF) and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency, (η) were extracted from the I-V curves. Better efficiencies were observed at lower than higher radiation intensities. There was also an overall improved performance at elevated temperatures. The results may be useful during fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells meant for use in the tropics.

Otakwa RM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Application of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology in the Tropics: Effect of Air Mass on Device Performance." International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2012;3(3):369-375 . AbstractWebsite

Abstract - The performance of a Dye-Sensitized Solar Module (DSSM) of active area 175.12 cm2 has been investigated at a tropical climate area located 1.28˚S, 35.81˚E. Outdoor current density-voltage (J-V) characterizations were carried out at different AM values. The DSSM’s performance parameters; short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) were extracted from the J-V characteristics. The DSSM’s Voc reduced linearly by 2.05% from 8.31 V to 8.14 V as AM increased from 1 to 1.09. Jsc reduced linearly by 26.06% from 1.04 x 10-3 Acm-2 to 7.69 x 10-4 Acm-2 as AM increased from 1 to AM 1.09. FF increased linearly by 19.05% from 0.51 to 0.63 as AM increased from 1 at 1.09. η increased by 32.77% from 1.77% to 1.19% as AM increased from 1 to 1.09. The DSSM performed better during afternoon than morning hours. The results may be useful in tuning Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) meant for use in the tropics. The design of Net Zero Energy (NZE) buildings in the tropics can also benefit from these findings.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The application of direct solar radiation to the dehydration of foods . Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy, Food Production and Post Harvest Technology in Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, 16-18 April 1986. ANSTI/RAIST. Pp. 53-70.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
SM Mwagha MM. "APPLICATION OF COMPUTER VISION IN DETECTING SKY OBJECTS AS WEATHER LORE CONCEPTS ." Interim: Interdisciplinary Journal. 2016;15(1):1-17. AbstractFull text link

Weather lore is a body of informal folklore associated with weather prediction. Different types of weather lore exist and utilize almost all available human senses (feel, smell, sight and hear). Out of all the types of weather lore in existence, it is the visual or observed weather lore that is mostly used by indigenous communities to come up with weather predictions. Modern scientists also observe the sky to enhance their numerical weather prediction models. The visualization and representation of knowledge from sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars and rainbow) in forecasting weather is a significant area of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to characterize and represent weather lore knowledge on visual sky objects. This paper reports on a method of approximating the presence of astronomical and meteorological objects in the sky. To achieve this objective, we designed detectors for the sky objects and score their presence and quantity in the sky panorama. The method of recognizing objects in images using image feature extraction techniques together with benchmark of similarity of extracted object against ideal objects (ground truths) was used. The results of this study reveal that our method is ideal in unlocking the extraction and computation of similarity of visual sky objects. The recommendation of this study is to use our method as a preprocessing task (using represented weather lore concepts) in the process of predicting weather outcomes and verifying visual based weather lore. Keywords: Representation; object similarity; object recognition; weather lore; bag of words; image features; classifiers

Otieno DJ;, Omiti J;, Nyanamba T;, McCullough E. "Application of Chow test to improve analysis of farmer participation in markets in Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

High population growth rates and emergence of urban settlements provide opportunities as well as challenges to economic development in many countries. While the supply of labour and markets are potential positive outcomes of these processes, the underlying pressure on scarce resources is often intense. In low-income agriculture-dependent countries such as Kenya, inadequate food supply and lack of other basic social amenities characterize a large share of rural and urban population. The productive capacity and commercial orientation of agriculture and foodrelated sectors need to be improved in order to reduce famine, malnutrition and poverty. This would entail enhancing farmers’ access and participation in both input and out markets. Horticulture (especially vegetables) is one of the most important sectors in Kenya, where smallholder farmers account for nearly 70% of the output (McCulloch and Ota, 2002). About 23% of Kenya’s export revenue is derived from horticultural exports (CBS, 2006; Minot and Ngigi, 2003). Cultivation of vegetable crops (mainly cabbages, tomatoes, kales – sukuma wiki, onions and a variety of indigenous vegetables such as amaranthus) forms a crucial source of livelihood for many households in rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya (Omiti et al., 2004). Promoting investments in agricultural commercialization, more so in developing marketing channels are critical for poverty reduction (Geda et al., 2001). The potential benefits of higher product prices and lower input prices due to commercialization are effectively transmitted to poor households when markets function fairly (IFAD, 2001). In Kenya, recent research show evidence that prioritizing infrastructure development for vegetable production and marketing are necessary for improvement of most livelihoods (Omiti et al., 2006). Recent transformations in agri-food systems (particularly the rise of supermarkets and technological advances in developing countries’ agriculture during the last decade) offer opportunities for smallholder farmers (McCullough et al., 2008). However, these prospects might 2 be countered by population pressure, on-going global economic downturn and the adverse effects of climate change, if alternative policies and strategies are not urgently instituted to reverse the decline in real purchasing power of many households (Food Ethics Council, 2008). In order to support the process of sustained economic growth, there is need for a more refined and targeted analysis of pertinent issues that constrain farm-to-market distribution of food. The analytical role of agricultural economists must therefore expand to comprehensively capture site-specific dynamics of the agri-food systems. Previous studies on market participation (for example, Alene et al., 2008; Chianu et al., 2008; Makhura et al., 2002) have been based on single or multiple sites. However, the decision to pool data or perform separate analysis is often subjective. In these studies, authors provide elaborate discussions to differentiate sites in terms of geographic features, climatic conditions and socioeconomic profiles. Although the findings from such studies might offer useful insights on necessary policies, they lack rigorous objective criteria to support the choice between pooled versus disaggregated analyses. It is important to anchor market analysis on solid statistical criteria in order to give more credence to the resulting site-specific or nation-wide strategies. This would enable implementation of policy interventions that reliably address salient challenges which may vary across sub-regions within a country. As a standard practice, data from multiple sites should be tested to confirm similarities or differences, and to guide the process of data organization (pooling or separation) for analysis. This study contributes to knowledge on farm-level analysis of market participation through application of the Chow’s seminal test (Chow, 1960) to examine differences between data from two sites (rural and urban). A truncated regression model is applied in the analysis. The specific objectives of the study are: i. To assess difference in the level of market participation between rural and peri-urban farmers; ii. To estimate factors that influence the share of vegetable marketed by farmers.

BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Application of Carboxamide Protected Derivatives in Peptide Synthesis.". In: presented at the First NAPRECA-National Symposium on Natural Product, Nairobi, Kenya. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1992. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: FiO/Laser Science (pp. JTu4A-13). Washington DC; 2019.
Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: Laser Science. Optical Society of America; 2019:. Abstract
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Simwa, R.O.;Kithinji MM, Ottieno JAM. "Application of Burr XII Mixture Distributions to model unemployment duration in Pricing Unemployment Insurance Assuming USA Data." International Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications,. 2016;2(3):27-34. AbstractFull text link

The objective of this research is to consider varying unemployment duration in the pricing of unemployment insurance with application to USA data. The study assumes that unemployment duration follows Burr XII mixture distribution while the discount rate to use in the pricing of the scheme will bedetermined by fitting market data into the capital asset pricing model. The Burr XII mixture distribution has been used to model unemployment duration in order to allow for heterogeniety in the unemployment duration of the insured employees. The results yield a mean unemployment duration of approximately 16 weeks and premium contribution rate of 5.10% of the taxable wage base per month for a benefit of 45% of the taxable wage base per month payable on weekly basis during spells of unemployment.

Keywords
Burr XII Mixture Distribution, Unemployment Insurace, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Taxable Wage Base, Discounted Cash Flow, Mean Present Value, Premium Rate

Dr. Laban Shihembetsa EM. "Application of Brick as a Building Material for Low Cost Housing in Hot and Dry Climates." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, . 2018;Volume 8, (Issue 9, September 2018 (619-623). ISSN: 2250-3153.).
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste-Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems." MRS Advances. 2020;5(26):1339-1348.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste- Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: Materials Research Society Advances. Cambridge; 2020. Abstract

This work reports on the use of diatomaceous earth (DE) waste and organic binder derived from Corchorus olitorius, locally known as “Mrenda” in the design of an efficient water filtration membranes. Charcoal powder was incorporated to enhance the porosity of the membrane. The firing was done at temperatures varying from 700.0 °C to 1150.0 °C. The DE waste samples comprised 79.0% silica (by mass) and 11.0% total flux content compared to porter's clay that had 50.0% silica, 28.8% AL2O3 and 7.0% total flux content. On the other hand, the “Mrenda” binder contained 6.5% total organic matter. The use of the plant- derived binder enhanced the mechanical strength of the greenware by 52.7% and the fired membranes by 152.2%. The fabricated DE waste-based membranes were 15.0% stronger than clay-based ceramic membranes prepared under similar conditions. A sintering temperature of 900.0 °C was optimal in producing porous membranes for filtering of 4.1 liters of water per hour. The pore diameter of the membranes fabricated from DE waste only ranged between 2.0 nm – 99.0 nm. On micro-organisms filtering efficacy, the DE waste-based membranes and those fabricated with 5.0% charcoal were 99.9% and 88.4% effective in the removal of E. coli and Rotavirus respectively.

Mamadou Alieu Jallow, Weke Patrick, Lukman Abiodun Nafiu, Ogutu C. "Application of a Discrete time Semi–Markov Model to the Stochastic Forecasting of Capital Assets as Stock." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics, . 2021;63(1):1-18.
Okaru AO, Brunner TS, Ackermann SM, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Kohl-Himmelseher M, Lachenmeier DW. "Application of 19F NMR spectroscopy for content determination of fluorinated pharmaceuticals." Journal of analytical methods in chemistry. 2017;2017. Abstract
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KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Application lactic cultures on the fermentation of .". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
ADUDA JO. "The Applicability of the Constant Dividend Model for Companies Listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: Journal of Financial Studies & Research. IBIMA Publishing; 2011.
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ADUDA JO. "THE APPLICABILITY OF CONSTANT DIVIDEND MODEL An Empirical Test of Applicability of the Model by Companies Listed At the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA). AIBUMA Publishing; 2010. Abstractthe_applicability_of_the_constant_dividend_model_for_companies_listed_at_the_nairobi_stock_exchange.pdf

The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.

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Ngesa JL. Applicability of tooth size predictions in the Mixed Dentition Analysis in a Kenya Sample.. Cape Town: University of the Western Cape; 2005.
Pittman-Waller VA, Myers JG, Stewart RM, Dent DL, Page CP, Gray GA, Pruitt, Jr BA, Root HD. "Appendicitis: why so complicated? {Analysis} of 5755 consecutive appendectomies." The American surgeon. 2000;66:548-554. Abstract

A perceived high rate of complicated (gangrenous or perforated) appendicitis, despite advances in laboratory and radiographic diagnostic modalities, prompted a review of our experience with appendicitis followed by a prospective analysis that examined the time course from presentation to definitive treatment in 218 consecutive patients. In 5755 appendectomies, our overall rate of complicated appendicitis was 32 per cent; higher in males, in the young, and in the elderly; and relatively stable over each year reviewed. Prospectively, we determined that of the various time intervals, the time from the onset of symptoms to first seeking medical attention is the only significant predictor of complicated appendicitis (39.8 vs 16.5 hours for acute appendicitis). On the other hand, the time from surgical evaluation to operative intervention was significantly shorter for complicated appendicitis (3.8 vs 4.7 hours for acute appendicitis). The high rate of complicated appendicitis with its subsequent sequelae of increased morbidity and resource expenditure is primarily the direct result of patient delay in seeking medical attention and not the result of diagnostic dilemma or surgical delay. Public education, specifically targeting those groups at risk, may provide a substantial and significant solution to the complicated appendix.

Clegg-Lamptey JN, Naaeder SB. "Appendicitis {In} {Accra}: {A} {Contemporary} {Appraisal}." Ghana medical journal. 2003;37:52-6. Abstract
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Magoha GAO. "Appendicitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ." East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(10):526-30. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Appendicitis still remains a diagnostic challenge particularly in women and extremes of age. The incidence of appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis is higher but declining in the developed countries in contrast with a low but increasing incidence in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of appendicitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, with emphasis on epidemiological oddities. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a 2000 bed teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya SUBJECTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients managed for suspected acute appendicitis between July 2000 and June 2001. RESULTS: There were 116 males and 73 females. The peak incidence was in the third decade. Sixty four percent of patients were below 30 years of age. The elderly (< 60 years of age) accounted for 1.6% of cases. The rate of false appendicectomy was 18.0%. This rate of negative appendicectomies was 12.9% for males and 30.1% for females. The rate of perforation/gangrene was 29.7%. Hospital stay averaged 6.4 days. Overall morbidity was 12.3%. It was 19.4% in perforated appendicitis and 7.6% in non-perforated appendicitis. There was no mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of appendicitis has increased at Kenyatta National Hospital over the last 30 years. The disease is common in men in their third decade. These odd characteristics warrant further investigations.

Hassan S, Chavda SK, Magoha GA. "Appendicectomy for recurrent and chronic appendicitis." Tropical doctor. 2007;37:56-57. AbstractWebsite
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Perry J Pickhardt JS. "Appendiceal length as an independent risk factor for acute appendicitis." European radiology. 2013. Abstract
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Adwok J, Gichangi P, Otieno H. "Appendectomy at the Nairobi Hospital." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 1998;2:135-147.
Kamanda M, Kiboi JG. "AN APPARENTLY AGGRESSIVE CRANIOFACIAL OSTEO-DYSPLASTIC LESION PRECIPITATING DEBILITATING SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: CASE REPORT." East Afr Med J. 2012;89(6):214-6. Abstract

This is a case report of an 18 year old man with craniofacial fibro-osteo-dysplastic lesion which exhibited both exophytic and endophytic growth patterns. We discuss the extent of tumour growth and its associated secondary changes.

DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "APOSTOLATO YA BIBLIA "A" –-NAROBI, 1996.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
Sayi JG, Patel, NB, et al. "Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in elderly East Africans." East African Medical Journal. 1997;74:65-67.
Patrice K, Gideon NN, Paul NN, Christopher A, Robert K. "Apis mellifera adansonii Is the Most Defensive Honeybee in Uganda." Psyche. 2018;201:6.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Aphid vectors of potato virus diseases in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 15th African Association of Insect Scientists and the Entomological Society of Kenya conference. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
"APA in Brief."; 2009.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Aortic-pulmonary chemodectoma (non-chromaffin paraganglioma). Apropos of a case which followed an adrenal pheochromocytoma. Rev Mal Respir. 1990;7(3):283-6.". In: Rev Mal Respir. 1990;7(3):283-6. uon press; 1990. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. The authors present the 61st published case of an aorticopulmonary chemodectoma diagnosed in patient of 59 years who had been operated on 7 years previously for a right sided adrenal pheochromocytoma. The diagnosis was provided by the histological examination of the operative specimen, since computerised tomography had predicted that this large hypervascular tumour of the anterior mediastinum would be totally resectable.

Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW. "AORTIC ARCH ORIGIN OF THE VERTEBRAL ARTERY MAY HAVE CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2019;8(2):1484-1485.
Gichangi PB, Opole, IO, Saidi SH. "The aorta in health and disease." Nairobi journal of medicine. 1990;10:19-27.
Gichangi PB, Opole IO, Saidi H. "The aorta in health and disease." Nairobi Journal of Medicine. 1990;16:42-48.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Anzala F, Mor.". In: J Exp Bot. 2006;57(3):645-53. Epub 2006 Jan 16. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2006. Abstract
The Asp-derived amino acid pathway has been studied during the early stages of development in two maize genotypes, Io and F2, differing in germination efficiency and post-germination growth. In both genotypes expression of Ask2 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-2), Akh1 and Akh2 (bifunctional Asp-kinase-homo-Ser dehydrogenase-1 and 2), increased throughout germination and post-germination growth, suggesting a developmental regulation, whereas Ask1 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-1) was expressed constitutively. The major difference between Io and F2 concerned genes encoding bifunctional enzymes, particularly Akh2, the expression of which was dramatically low in F2. 15N-Asp labelling showed differences in in vivo Asp-kinase activities between the genotypes studied. Asp flux through the Met/Thr branches was higher in Io than in F2, while the latter exhibited a higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. Physiological results, together with the higher Akh2 expression in Io, suggest that bifunctional enzyme activity, favourable to Met/Thr, was higher in Io than in F2 and that the monofunctional pathway was boosted in F2 because of the lower competition by the bifunctional pathway, thus allowing for higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. In conclusion, it is suggested that F2 germination and post-germination growth might have been partially inhibited due to a limitation in Met and Thr availability. A negative physiological effect related to Lys accumulation in F2 is also discussed.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "ANZALA AO, Simonsen JN, Kimani J, Ball TB, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Kakai NJD, Plummer FA. Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Accelerated HIV-1 Disease Progression. J. Infect Dis. 2000; 182:459-66.". In: J. Infect Dis. 2000; 182:459-66.Epub 2000 Jul 12. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2000. Abstract
In Kenya, the median incubation time to AIDS in seroconverting sex workers is 4 years; this incubation time is specific to female sex workers. We studied the influence of acute sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on several immunologic parameters in 32 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive and 10 HIV-1-negative women sex workers who were followed for 1-5 months. Plasma cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, CD4 and CD8 T cell counts, and HIV-1 plasma viremia were quantitated before, during, and after episodes of STI. Increases in interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and viremia and a decline in CD4(+) T cell counts occurred during gonococcal cervicitis and returned to baseline after treatment. Increases in viremia correlated with increased IL-4 and decreased IL-6 concentrations. Similar changes were seen among women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Acute bacterial STI resulted in increased HIV-1 viremia. This may be mediated through increased inflammatory cytokines or through modulation of immune responses that control HIV-1 viremia.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "ANZALA AO, Simonsen JN, Kimani J, Ball TB, Nagelkerke NJ, Rutherford J, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA. Acute sexually transmitted infections increase human inmmunodeficiency virus type 1 plasma viremia, increase plasma type 2 cytokines, and decrease CD4 .". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):459-66.Epub2000 Jul 12. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2000. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine whether the maternal infecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 clade affects mother-to-child transmission frequency. Mothers in the mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission study in Nairobi, Kenya, were grouped by HIV-1 status of their first enrolled child: uninfected, perinatally infected, or postnatally infected. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to determine HIV-1 viral clades of nested polymerase chain reaction products from HIV-1 protease or p24 genes. When inconclusive, sequencing determined the clade. Clade distributions within the groups were compared. The 3 groups displayed a uniform clade distribution. The predominant clades were A (59%) and D (20%). Clades B, C, F, mixed, and recombinant infections comprised the remainder (21%). No significant association was seen between clades A and D and either frequency or mode of vertical transmission. RFLP analysis revealed 2 clade B infections, 9 mixed, and 5 p24/protease recombinant infections in the study population.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Anzala AO, Nagelkerke JD, Bwayo JJ, Holton D, Moses S, Ngugi EN, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA. Rapid progression to disease in African sex workers with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 686 - 689, 1995.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 171: 686 - 689, 1995. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Anzala AO, Nagelkerke JD, Bwayo JJ, Holton D, Moses S, Ngugi EN, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA. Rapid progression to disease in African sex workers with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 686 - 689, 1995.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 171: 686 - 689, 1995. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
For a HIV vaccine to be effective, it will be essential that it protect against the virus variants to which individuals are most frequently exposed. HIV-1 is predominantly a sexually acquired virus, thus, variants in genital secretions are a potentially important reservoir of viruses that are transmitted. Because there are no data available on variants in the genital mucosa, we analyzed this provirus population and compared it to the proviruses in the blood of individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. A major genetic difference between variants within a patient were insertions, which were apparently created by duplication of adjacent sequences, that resulted in acquisition of new potential glycosylation sites in V1 and V2. Comparisons of mucosal and PBMC variants suggest that these tissues harbor distinct, but related populations of HIV-1 variants. In two of three patients, the mucosal variants were most closely related to a minor variant genotype in blood. In a third individual, viruses in both tissues were surprisingly homogeneous, but the majority of variants in the cervix encoded a V1 sequence with a predicted glycosylation pattern similar to a minor variant in blood. The V3 sequence patterns of the mucosal isolates indicate they may be predominantly macrophage-tropic viruses.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "ANZALA AO, Ball B, Rostron T, Smith M, O.". In: (June 1998, The Lancet). John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Anyango B., Wilson K. J. and Giller K. (1998). Competition in Kenyan soils between Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli strain Kim5 and R. tropici strain CIAT 899 using gus marker gene. Plant and Soil 204: 69-78.". In: Plant and Soil 204: 69-78. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1998. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Anyango B., Keya,S.O and Owino F .(2005) Occurrence of nodulation in leguminous trees in Kenya .". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology.Vol.1(1) pp.21-26. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2005. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Anyango B., Giller K., Wilson K.J. and Beynon J.L. (1995). The genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in two Kenya soil types. Applied and Env. Microb. 61 : 4016-4021.". In: Applied and Env. Microb. 61 : 4016-4021. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1995. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Oyugi CCA. "Anxiety in the foreign language class." ATINER -Languages and Cultures in Contact and Contrast: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. 2011;107:133-148.
Kuria MW. "Anxiety Disorders Chapter 2.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kilonzo G, Musisi S, Sebit MB, editor Ndetei, D.M., Szabo CP. "Anxiety and Adjustment Disorders."; 2006.
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Antral mucosal diaphragm: an obstructing lesion of the stomach. East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):161-4. Meme JS, Njai DM, Kyambi JM, Kung'u A.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):161-4. Links. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract
No abstract available.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Antixenosis component of resistance to aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch (HOM., APHIDIDAE) in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.). E. A. Agric. For. J. Vol . 61: 249-253.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1996. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Wadegu. M, Bulimo. WD, Achilla. RA, Majanja. J, Mukunzi. S, Osuna. F, Wangui. J, Mitei. K, Ocholla. S, Nyambura. J, Mwangi. J, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. EK. Antiviral susceptibility of influenza A viruses obtained in Kenya 2008-2011 . Vienna, Austria; 2013. Abstract
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O PROFORINDADA. "Antiviral Activity of Partially Thiolated Plynucleotides. J.A. D.". In: Molecular Pharmacology II, 61-69, (1975). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1975. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mureithi PM, B.M. K, Onyango CM, Mathiu MP. "Antiulcerogenic Effects of Selected African Nightshades (Solanum nigrum Linn.) Genotypes on the Rat Stomach: A Morphologic and Morphometric Study." International Journal of Morphology. 2020;38(4):940-946.
O PROFORINDADA. "Antitumour Activity of Polyinosinic-polycytidylic Acid in combination with some Biologically Active Compounds. D.A. O. Orinda, D. Gerricke and P. Chandra Z. Fur Krebesforechung 78, 219 .". In: Fur Krebesforechung 78, 219 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1972. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Richard M Mariita, Callistus KPO Ogol NOO, Okemo PO. "Antitubercular and Phytochemical Investigation of Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants Used by the Samburu Community in Kenya." Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9(4): 379-385; 2010. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Antitrust Law of the United States of America: An Overview, Nairobi Law Monthly, 23,28.". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Antitrust Law of the United States of America: An Overview, Nairobi Law Monthly, 23, 28 (February).". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "AntiRetroviral Treatment Adherence Among Adolescents.". In: MSc Thesis, University of Nairobi. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
E.N. PN. "Antiretroviral therapy in a core transmission group of Kenyan female sex workers is not associated with increased sexual risk taking.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) prolongs life and reduces infectiousness, in some contexts it has been associated with increased sexual risk taking. We compared self-reported condom use, client numbers, and STI incidence in HIV-infected Kenyan female sex workers (FSW) before and after starting ART (n=62), as well in control FSWs not starting ART (n=40). Sexual behaviour with casual clients did not change after ART initiation; condom use increased and STI incidence decreased in both cases and controls, likely due to successful cohort-wide HIV prevention efforts. ART provision was not associated with increases in unsafe sex in this core transmission group.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Kamau F, Strijdom H, Mwangi P, Blackhurst D, Imperial E, Salie R. "Antiretroviral drug-induced endothelial dysfunction is improved by dual PPARα/γ stimulation in obesity.". 2019;121:106577. AbstractWebsite

Obesity rates are rising in HIV-infected populations; however, the putative role of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the development of endothelial and cardiovascular derangements in the presence of pre-existing overweight/obesity is unclear. Although dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha/gamma (PPARα/γ) stimulation mitigates HAART-induced metabolic dysfunction, vascular effects are unresolved. To investigate whether HAART induces vascular dysfunction in obesity and to explore the underlying mechanisms of PPARα/γ stimulation, male Wistar rats were placed on a high-calorie diet for 16 weeks. After 10 weeks, HAART (lopinavir/ritonavir, azidothymidine/lamivudine) with/without PPARα/γ agonist, Saroglitazar, was administered daily for six weeks. Excised thoracic aorta rings were subjected to isometric tension studies and Western blot measurements. HAART+Saroglitazar-treated obese animals recorded lower adiposity indices (4.3 ± 0.5%) vs. HAART only-treated obese rats (5.6 ± 0.3%; p < .01). Maximum acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation (Rmax), was lower in obese+HAART group (76.10 ± 3.58%) vs. obese control (101.40 ± 4.75%; p < .01). However, Rmax was improved in obese+ HAART+Saroglitazar (101.00 ± 3.12%) vs. obese+HAART rats (p < .001). The mean LogEC50 was improved in obese+HAART+Saroglitazar vs. obese+HAART group; p = .003. Improved endothelial function in obese+ HAART+Saroglitazar group was associated with upregulation of eNOS, PKB/Akt and downregulated p22-phox expression vs. obese+HAART group. Therefore, PPARα/γ stimulation attenuated HAART-induced endothelial dysfunction by upregulating vasoprotective eNOS, PKB/Akt signaling and downregulating pro-oxidative p22-phox expression.

Graham SM, Masese L, Gitau R, Jalalian-Lechak Z, Richardson BA, Peshu N, Mandaliya K, Kiarie JN, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Antiretroviral adherence and development of drug resistance are the strongest predictors of genital HIV-1 shedding among women initiating treatment." J. Infect. Dis.. 2010;202(10):1538-42. Abstract

Persistent genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present a transmission risk. We investigated the associations between genital HIV-1 suppression after ART initiation and adherence, resistance, pretreatment CD4 cell count, and hormonal contraceptive use. First-line ART was initiated in 102 women. Plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA levels were measured at months 0, 3, and 6. Adherence was a strong and consistent predictor of genital HIV-1 suppression (P < .001), whereas genotypic resistance was associated with higher vaginal HIV-1 RNA level at month 6 (P = .04). These results emphasize the importance of adherence to optimize the potential benefits of ART for reducing HIV-1 transmission risk.

Obel AO, J N, W G. "Antipyrine half - life in hyperthyroidism." East African Medical Journa l . 1981;(58):258-62.
Obel AO. "Antipyrine and progranolol disposition in malnutrition." East African Medical Journal. 1978;(55):20-24.
Yenesew A., and N. Mascolo, A. Pinto DE. "Antipyretic and analgesic studies of the ethanolic extract of Teclea nobilis Delile." Phytotherapy Research. 1988; 2:154-156. Abstractpaper_6_mascolo_et_al_phytotherapy_1988.pdf

The crude ethanol extract of the leaves of an African medicinal plant Teclea nobilis has been studied for its antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The extract exhibited marked antipyretic and analgesic activities while it was found to be weakly active against carrageenin oedema.

Oketch HA, Dossaji SF. "Antiprotozoal Compounds from Asparagus africanus." J. Natural Products. 1997;60(10):1071-1022.Website
Chikwana N, Maina EN, Gavamukulya Y, Bulimo W, Wamunyokoli F. "Antiproliferative Activity, c-Myc and {FGFR}1 Genes Expression Profiles and Safety of Annona muricata Fruit Extract on Rhabdomyosarcoma and {BALB}/c Mice." Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2021:30-46. AbstractWebsite
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Chikwana N, Maina EN, Gavamukulya Y, Bulimo W, Wamunyokoli F. "Antiproliferative Activity, c-Myc and FGFR1 Genes Expression Profiles and Safety of Annona muricata Fruit Extract on Rhabdomyosarcoma and BALB/c Mice." Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2021;14(4):30-46.
Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

Andima M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Wong VKW, Ngule CM, Heydenreich M, Ndakala AJ, Yenesew A, Derese S. "Antiproliferative Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam: In vitro and in silico Studies." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1). AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Background: Plant derived compounds have provided proming leads in search for safer anticancer chemotherapies. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides is a common medicinal plant in Uganda whose bioactive composition has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative potential of compounds isolated from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and their probable in silico anticancer mechanisms of action. Methods: Column chromatography was used to isolate compounds from MeOH: CH2Cl2 (1: 1) extract of the stem bark extract of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Using in silico docking, the interaction of the compounds with key target proteins in the p53 pathway was determined. Results: From the root bark of this plant five compounds were isolated, namely; dihydrochelerythrine (1), skimmianine (2), tridecan-2-one (3), sesamin (4) and hesperidin (5). Dihydrochelerythrine (1) inhibited proliferation of liver cancer (HCC) cells (IC50 21.2), breast cancer (BT549) cells,(IC50 21.2 μM). Similarly, sesamin (4) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against BT549 cancer cells (IC50 47.6 μM). Hesperidin (5) showed low inhibitory activity against A549 and HEp2 (Larynx) cells but was significantly toxic to normal liver and lung cells.
In silico docking studies showed that all the compounds strongly bind to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK6) and weakly bind to caspases 3 and 8 suggesting that they inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Conclusion: This study indicates …

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