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Ngatia TA, Mugera GM, Njiro SM, Kuria JK, Carles AB. "Arteriosclerosis and related lesions in rabbits.". 1989. Abstract

Eleven female rabbits, mainly of the NZW breed, aged between 1 and 3.5 years, were examined post mortem. All had originated over the years 1982 to 1987 from the same rabbitry where they had been fed on pellets from the same manufacturer. Apart from one rabbit, all had a history of progressive loss of bodily condition and six of them had also been infertile. Grossly, most of them were emaciated and their arteries were hardened. In some, hepatopathy, nephropathy and pulmonary emphysema were evident. In one case, mummified foetuses were recovered from the abdominal cavity. Microscopically, degenerative changes and calcification were found in the walls of arteries, kidneys, lungs, hearts and ovaries.

Ngatia TA, Mugera GM, Njiro SM, Kuria JKN, A.B. C. "Arteriosclerosis and related lesions in Rabbits." Journal of Comparative Pathology. 1989;101:279-286.
Chantler PD, Lakatta EG. "Arterial-{Ventricular} {Coupling} with {Aging} and {Disease}." Frontiers in Physiology. 2012;3. AbstractWebsite

Age is the dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the coupling between the left ventricle (LV) and arterial system, termed arterial–ventricular coupling (EA/ELV), provides important mechanistic insights into the complex cardiovascular system and its changes with aging in the absence and presence of disease. EA/ELV can be indexed by the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA; a measure of the net arterial load exerted on the LV) to left ventricular end-systolic elastance (ELV; a load-independent measure of left ventricular chamber performance). Age-associated alterations in arterial structure and function, including diameter, wall thickness, wall stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a gradual increase in resting EA with age. Remarkably there is a corresponding increase in resting ELV with age, due to alterations to LV remodeling (loss in myocyte number, increased collagen) and function. These age-adaptations at rest likely occur, at least, in response to the age-associated increase in EA and ensure that EA/ELV is closely maintained within a narrow range, allowing for optimal energetic efficiency at the expense of mechanical efficacy. This optimal coupling at rest is also maintained when aging is accompanied by the presence of hypertension, and obesity, despite further increases in EA and ELV in these conditions. In contrast, in heart failure patients with either reduced or preserved ejection fraction, EA/ELV at rest is impaired. During dynamic exercise, EA/ELV decreases, due to an acute mismatch between the arterial and ventricular systems as ELV increases disproportionate compared to EA (≈200 vs. 40%), to ensure that sufficient cardiac performance is achieved to meet the increased energetic requirements of the body. However, with advancing age the reduction in EA/ELV during acute maximal exercise is blunted, due to a blunted increase ELV. This impaired EA/ELV is further amplified in the presence of disease, and may explain, in part, the reduced cardiovascular functional capacity with age and disease. Thus, although increased stiffness of the arteries itself has important physiological and clinical relevance, such changes also have major implications on the heart, and vice versa, and the manner in the way they interact has important ramifications on cardiovascular function both at rest and during exercise. Examination of the alterations in arterial–ventricular coupling with aging and disease can yield mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions and increase the effectiveness of current therapeutic interventions.

Gakonyo J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E. "Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology." International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 2015;1:1-5. AbstractWebsite
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Gakonyo J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E. "Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology." International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 2015;1:1-5. AbstractWebsite
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Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K. "Artemisinin derivatives: a patent review (2006 - present)." Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2012;22(10):1179-1203.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO, Jepkorir MS. "Artemia salina as an animal model for the preliminary evaluation of snake venominduced toxicity." Toxicon. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2021.100082. 2021.
Okumu MO, Mbuthia… PG, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK. "Artemia salina as an animal model for the preliminary evaluation of snake venom-induced toxicity." Toxicon: X, 2021. 2021;X, 2021(X, 2021).
Kemoli AM. "ART-an alternative approach to the management of dental caries.". In: KDA Annual Conference. Panafric Hotel, Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

Introduction
Dental caries is a world-wide disease, having its aetiological factors involving cariogenic bacteria, saliva composition and flow-rate, exposure to fluoride, tooth integrity and dietary habits. The treatment of dental caries is two prong. First, through a surgical model, entailing the removal of carious materials from a dental cavity and sealing it with an appropriate dental restorative material. Second, a medical model which comprises the reduction of the risk to dental caries and controlling the carious process through a remineralization process.

Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)
Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) utilises only hand instruments for its application. This is one dental caries treatment method that incorporates certain facets of the two caries treatment models described above. ART is a simple clinical method that can be performed by any dental personnel with a reasonable clinical background knowledge on the management of dental caries. Once a tooth has been selected that needs to be treated using the ART approach, the operator isolates the tooth with cotton wool rolls. If necessary, the cavity entrance is widened using a hatchet or hoe, before removing the carious materials with an excavator. The cavity is rinsed and dried using wet or dry cotton pellets respectively. The dentine is conditioned with appropriate conditioner for 15 seconds.

After mixing the glass ionomer following the manufacturer's instructions, the mixture is inserted into the cavity using an applier or carver, overfilling it, so that by use of a gloved finger rubbed with petroleum jelly, the material is pressed into the prepared cavity and fissures (press finger technique). After 5 minutes, the excess material is removed with the carver and the occlusion checked. A thin layer of petroleum jelly is applied over the restoration to protect the restoration from moisture contamination, before discharging the patient with the instructions not to chew any food within the first one hour.

Materials used with ART
The preferred material for use with the ART technique is high viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC). This glass ionomer cements have been developed specifically for use with the ART technique. Like the other glass ionomer cements, this material is self curing, adheres to the tooth tissues, has good marginal adaptation, fluoride releasing properties, reasonably good aesthetics and biocompatible with the oral tissues.what is of importance here is that the high viscosity GCs, though still possess lower material strength, their strength is much higher than the ordinary GICs. However, That is why they still posses same some pertinent shortcomings that include the poor physical strength, water sensitive, long setting reaction, low wear resistance, low compressive and tensile strength.

Advantages and Shortcoming of ART technique
ART is a simple technique to learn and apply and does not need sophisticated dental equipment. For this reason, ART approach can be applied in the field environment, even where there is no electricity or piped water systems. However, the technique has also got its own shortcomings that include hand fatigue, poor strength of the GIC material used with the technique, poor aesthetics due to discolouration of GIC, poor attitude by some dentists who consider the technique to be of low calibre.

Success rate of ART restorations
For periods ranging up to three years, the ART restorations have been reported to have success rates of 85% or higher for occlusal restorations, but of about 49% and lower for proximal restorations. This success rate is obviously dependent on the operator experience, the caries removal from the cavity, the effectiveness of the isolation method used, the size of the cavity, the post-restoration meal consumed by the patient soon after the placement of the restoration, the cooperation of the patient during the procedure and afterwards and the type of material used for the restoration.

Future of the ART technique
ART is not a compromise treatment but an alternative treatment method that is simple and practical for the prevention of dental caries, particularly, for developing nations with scarce resources. It is a technique that is less costly than the conventional methods. ART should be able to form part of a total oral health care for promotion and prevention of dental caries, potentially in children, fearful adults and the handicapped persons, especially in restoring class I and V cavities or as interim restoration in some other cases.

Muchiri J. "The Art of Narrating Pain in Margaret Ogola’s Place of Destiny." The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. 2022;13(1):221-250.the_art_of_narrating_pain_in_place_of_destiny_2022.pdf
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "The Art of A Continent.". In: Royal Academy of Arts. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Bogduk N. "Art macabre: {Is} anatomy necessary?" ANZ Journal of Surgery. 2001;71:782. AbstractWebsite
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Bogduk N. "Art macabre: {Is} anatomy necessary?" ANZ Journal of Surgery. 2001;71:782. AbstractWebsite
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Boon CJPM, Visser NL, Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE. "ART class II restoration loss in primary molars: re-restoration or not." Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2010;11(5):228-231. Abstract

AIM: The purpose of this study was to find an answer as to what to do with Atraumatic restorations (ART) failures:
re-restore or leave the preparation further unfilled?
STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study.
METHODS: In 2006 of 804 children in Kenya each had one proximal cavity treated using the ART approach. Out of the original group 192 children, who had lost their restorations but still had the treated molars in situ, were selected for further study in 2008. The length of time that the restorations had been in situ was known while the colour, hardness and the extent of infected dentine was then evaluated and documented. STATISTICS: Analysis of the data obtained was conducted using SPSS 16.0. Chi Square tests were performed with the variables of hardness, colour and infected dentine, and a 5% confidence interval was used. The Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient was also calculated.
RESULTS: The results showed that 66% of the molars that had lost restorations had hard dentine, 78% of the preparations showed dark dentine and 50.7% appeared to have no infected dentine. These percentages increased with the increase in the survival time of the restorations.
CONCLUSIONS: It is not always necessary to re-restore primary molars after ART restoration loss. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings.

OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Design for Forms 3 and 4. Heinemann Kenya Ltd. Co-authored with E. C. Orchardson-Mazrui, 1990. Pp. 123.". In: Heinemann Kenya Ltd. Co-authored with E. C. Orchardson-Mazrui, 1990. Pp. 123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Design for Forms 1 and 2. Heinemann Kenya Ltd., Nairobi 1988. Co-authored with E. C. Orchardson-Mazrui. Pp. 164.". In: University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi ,1990 pp. 139. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Craft, Teachers Guide for Lower Primary (P1-P3). Published by Curriculum Steering Committee for Primary Schools in South Sudan, Nairobi, 1998. Co-authored with V. Odula and Kizito Achoka. Nairobi, Pp. 118.". In: Published by Curriculum Steering Committee for Primary Schools in South Sudan, Nairobi, 1998. Co-authored with V. Odula and Kizito Achoka. Nairobi, Pp. 118. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1998. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Craft, Pupils.". In: Proceedings of the Third Teacher Education Conference. The Concern of Kenya, the Quality Teacher for the 21st Century and Beyond. Ministry of Education, Republic of Kenya, Published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, 1995. Pp. 73-78. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Craft, Gateway Primary Revision. Longman Kenya Ltd., Nairobi, 1989 pp. 82 Co-authored with V. O. Odula.". In: Longman Kenya Ltd., Nairobi, 1989 pp. 82 Co-authored with V. O. Odula. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
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Wanjiru KG. Art and Craft for early childhood education (Module). . NAIROBI: University of Nairobi: Open and Distance learning.; 2012.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Arshad, M.A., Mureria, N.K., Keya, S.O. 1982. Effect of termite activity on soil microflora. Pedobiologia 24, 161-167.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Arshad, M.A., Mureria, N.K., Keya, S.O. 1982. Effect of termite activity on soil microflora. Pedobiologia 24, 161-167.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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C.K. M. The arrow poisons. Nairobi: E.A. Literature Bureau ; 1973.
Odhiambo T, Muponde R. "The Arrivants.". In: Johannesburg: The Elusive Metropolis. Durham: Duke University Press; 2008.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon RK, Acharya SK.Intragastric pH and control of peptic ulcer bleeding.Am J Gastroenterol. 1991 Jan;86(1):116-7.". In: Am J Gastroenterol. 1991 Jan;86(1):116-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
Nutritional Status of 89 patients was assessed during their course of hospitalisation. All patients consumed diet deficit in protein and calories. The mean daily intake of calories was 819 +/- 425 Kcals and of protein was 22 +/- 19 g per day. 74.13 per cent patients lost weight while 31.25 per cent gained. 50% patients had fall in SKFT values during their hospital stay.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon RK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.Treating bleeding peptic ulcer with sustained achlorhydria.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1991 Jul;26 Suppl 3:62-5.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1991 Jul;26 Suppl 3:62-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
A controlled randomized study and a subsequent prospective therapeutic trial have demonstrated the efficacy of an intensive therapy comprising hourly intravenous injections of 100 mg of cimetidine along with a continuous nasogastric infusion of a liquid antacid at the rate of 0.5 ml per minute in achieving achlorhydria and controlling bleeding in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer. We recommend that this regimen should be routinely employed for treating patients with bleeding peptic ulcer, at least in center that do not practise topical therapeutic modalities for control of bleeding.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon RK, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.The role of sustained achlorhydria in bleeding peptic ulcer.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):147-53.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):147-53. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
Twenty-five patients with bleeding peptic ulcers were randomized to receive either ranitidine 50 mg 8 hourly i.v. (control group) or a continuous nasogastric antacid infusion at the rate of 0.5 ml/min along with an i.v. injection of cimetidine 100 mg/h (treatment group). Twelve patients were included in the control group and 13 in the treatment group. The mean gastric pH on therapy was significantly higher in the treatment group (7.88 +/- 0.37) than in the control group (5.00 +/- 0.55) (p less than 0.001), and the gastric pH was noted to be greater than 7 on 95% of the occasions in the treatment group and on 8.6% of the occasions in the control group. An overall control of bleeding was achieved in 92.3% of the patients in the treatment group and 50% of the patients in the control group (p less than .05). Thus, the failure of therapy was significantly more common in the control group than in the treatment group (p less than 0.05), and more patients of the control group had to undergo emergency surgery than that in the treatment group. None of the patients in the treatment group, but 16.6% of the patients in the control group, died during the study period in the hospital stay. We conclude that in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer an intensive medical therapy comprising hourly injections of cimetidine (or presumably of other H2 blockers) and continuous nasogastric antacid infusion can achieve sustained achlorhydria, better control of bleeding, and reduce the need for emergency surgery.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Tandon N, Sharma MP, Acharya SK.Constrictive pericarditis masquerading as Budd-Chiari syndrome.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):178-81.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991 Apr;13(2):178-81. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and constrictive pericarditis (CP) share many common clinical features. Over the last year we encountered three patients in whom CP clinically mimicked BCS. Two of the three did not even have raised jugular venous pressure. One patient with severe jaundice and hepatic coma ultimately died. Liver biopsy features were not discriminating. The final diagnosis of CP was established by echocardiography, chest computed tomography (CT), or cardiac catheterization. We conclude that in all patients with apparent BCS and atypical features, a noninvasive test like echocardiography or chest CT should be done to rule out treatable illness like CP before embarking on such invasive procedures as liver biopsy for diagnosis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Panda SK, Berry M.Diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction in a tropical country.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991 Jul-Aug;6(4):368-73.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991 Jul-Aug;6(4):368-73. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
The present study was undertaken to define the role of ultrasonography (US) in screening and diagnosis of hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction. Forty-five consecutive patients clinically suspected to have hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction were included in the study for screening by US and for assessment of patency or block in the hepatic vein (HV) and/or inferior vena cava (IVC). Four patients were excluded from the study. Eleven patients had a diagnosis other than hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction and all these patients were found to have patent HV and IVC. Thirty patients were finally diagnosed to have hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction. Using US, as a screening test 27 (90%) out of 30 such cases were correctly identified as cases of hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction and in these cases the site of block in hepatic venous outflow tract (major HV and/or IVC) was correctly diagnosed in 90% of the cases. Our results indicate that US is a sensitive and accurate test and should be the initial investigation for screening and identifying the site of obstruction in patients with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Seth S, Sharma MP, Acharya SK, Mukhopadhayaya S.Case report: unusual CT appearances in a case of Budd-Chiari syndrome.Clin Radiol. 1991 Jun;43(6):431-2.". In: Clin Radiol. 1991 Jun;43(6):431-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991. Abstract
We describe a case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome due to hepatic venous blockage in which there were multiple space-occupying lesions on CT simulating tumour deposits. Ultrasound directed liver biopsy and laparoscopy proved these to be areas of haemorrhagic necrosis consistent with Budd-Chiari Syndrome without any evidence of malignancy. The CT finding of multiple large focal non-enhancing areas in liver does not always indicate tumour deposits in a patient suspected to have Budd-Chiari Syndrome.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Seth S, Acharya SK, Sharma MP.Hepatic coma as a presenting feature of constrictive pericarditis.Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Mar;88(3):430-2.". In: Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Mar;88(3):430-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of the interferon stimulator named Stronger Neo Minophagen-C (SNMC) derived form the plant G. glabra was studied at a dose of 40 or 100 ml daily for 30 days followed by thrice weekly intravenously for 8 wk in 18 patients of subacute hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis. The survival rate amongst these patients was 72.2 per cent, as compared to the earlier reported rate of 31.1 per cent in 98 patients who received supportive therapy (P < 0.01). Death in four of the five patients was due to associated infections leading to hepatorenal failure and terminal coma. Further studies are necessary to standardize the dose and duration of therapy with SNMC in subacute hepatic failure.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Acharya SK.Ultrasonography in portal hypertension.Indian J Gastroenterol. 1989 Oct;8(4):307.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 1989 Oct;8(4):307. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the value of needle aspiration in uncomplicated amoebic liver abscess. DESIGN–Randomised case-control study with a minimum follow up of one year, comparing patients treated with drugs alone with those treated with additional needle aspiration. SETTING–Referral based gastroenterology clinic. PATIENTS–39 Consecutive patients with amoebic liver abscess in the right lobe, of whom 37 completed the study. INTERVENTION–Metronidazole 2.4 g/day was given to all patients for 10 days. Needle aspiration of the abscess was performed in 19 patients on the day of admission to hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES–Abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, and hepatomegaly were measured. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum aspartate, and alanine aminotransferase activities, and alkaline phosphatase activity were also measured. RESULTS–Clinical improvement was similar in both groups of patients. Improvement in haematological and biochemical variables and rates of healing of cavities were also similar. CONCLUSIONS–Chemotherapy with potent tissue amoebicidal drugs such as metronidazole is optimally effective in treating amoebic liver abscess, and in uncomplicated cases routine aspiration is not required.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Arora A, Acharya SK.Prediction of severity of acute pancreatitis.Gut. 1990 Dec;31(12):1419.". In: Gut. 1990 Dec;31(12):1419. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
Nutritional Status of 89 patients was assessed during their course of hospitalisation. All patients consumed diet deficit in protein and calories. The mean daily intake of calories was 819 +/- 425 Kcals and of protein was 22 +/- 19 g per day. 74.13 per cent patients lost weight while 31.25 per cent gained. 50% patients had fall in SKFT values during their hospital stay.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Addae-Mensah I, Achenbach H, undefined, Hassanali H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya IV: Volatile and some non-volatile constituents of the stem bark of Synadenium compactum NE Br. Var. compactum." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 1999;1(1):5-7.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Addae-Mensah I, Achenbach H, Lwande W, Hassanali. H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya III: Volatile and some non-volatile constituents of Croton sylvaticus." H. Hassanali.. 1998;1:41-43.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Lwande W, Hassanali H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya II: Volatile constituents of leaf oil of Psiadia punculata (D.C.) Vatke." J. BiochemiPhysics. 1999;8:32-33.
C.K. M, S. T. Aromatic Plants of East Africa.. Nairobi: Kenya National Sci & Tech. Council.; 1982.
Amugune NO, B Anyango B, Mukiama TK. Arobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean.; 2011.
Amugune NO, B Anyango B, Mukiama TK. Arobacterium-mediated transformation of common bean.; 2011.
Kaimuri J, Otieno SPV. Aritwa. Kaimuri J, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Tisdell C. "arital Status, Farm Size and other Influences on the Extent of Cash Cropping in Kenya: A Household Case Study." Indian Development Review. 2004;2(2):205-221.
M DRININDAJOSEPH. "Arificial Weather Modification.". In: Weatherman. Kenya Met Soc; 1997.
Bulimo WD, Miskin JE, Dixon LK. "An ARID family protein binds to the African swine fever virus encoded ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, UBCv1." FEBS Lett. 2000;471:17-22. Abstractbulimo-2000-an_arid_family_prote.pdfWebsite

The NH(2)-terminal end of a protein, named SMCp, which contains an ARID (A/T rich interaction domain) DNA binding domain and is similar to the mammalian SMCY/SMCX proteins and retinoblastoma binding protein 2, was shown to bind the African swine fever virus encoded ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (UBCv1) using the yeast two hybrid system and in in vitro binding assays. Antisera raised against the SMCp protein were used to show that the protein is present in the cell nucleus. Immunofluorescence showed that although UBCv1 is present in the nucleus in most cells, in some cells it is in the cytoplasm, suggesting that it shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The interaction and co-localisation of UBCv1 with SMCp suggest that SMCp may be a substrate in vivo for the enzyme.

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Arican Traditional Methods anf Education in East Africa in Presence Africaine, No. 87.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1973. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Arican Traditional Methods anf Education in East Africa in Presence Africaine, No. 87.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1973. Abstract

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WSK Ruto, JI Kinyamario, JI Kanya NKN’etich. "ariation in the Chemical Status of Water and Soil Sediments along Saiwa Swamp Ecosystem, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution. 2017;14(3):19-26.
Kanyinga K. "Are you worried about this lot of MPs? You ain’t seen nothing yet." Daily Nation, June 20, 2015.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Are Weather and Climate Forecasts by National Meteorological Centres Reliable?" Bulletin of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2012.Website
"Are we getting there? Evidence of decentralized forest management from the Tanzanian Miombo woodlands.". 2008. Abstract

Based on a village study in Tanzania, the effects of decentralized forest management on forest conservation, rural livelihoods and good governance are evaluated. Tree growth is estimated to exceed harvest, and forest utilization appears effectively controlled. Forest revenues cover the costs of management and finance local public services, but the underlying taxes and regulations have made the poorest worse off. Governance outcomes are also ambiguous. Revenues are administered transparently, but village leaders are coercive toward forest dependent minorities. The case provides a rare example of how decentralized forest management works in Africa when meaningful powers are devolved to local communities.

undefined. "Are universities losing autonomy or just resisting accountability?" Daily Nation, March 15, 2019:14.
Ondieki-Mwaura FN;, Njoroge LM;, Okello, J J; Bahemuka JM, Okello, J J; Bahemuka JM. "Are There Significant Welfare Outcomes For Farmers Who Participate In Global Commodity Chains? The Case Of Export Horticultural Farmers In Kirinyaga Region Of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine whether farmers participating in export horticulture were better off than farmers who did not. This study is informed by debates on how globalisation and specifically global trade impacts on small farmers in third world countries, with proponents arguing that it has positive impacts and opponents arguing that participation in global commodity systems has little impact or ueven detrimental to small farmers. This study aimed to compare the welfare of participants in export horticulture with those of non-participants using both income and non-income indicators. A survey of 360 farmers was carried out in Kirinyaga to obtain household data with 240 export farmers and 120 non-export farmers being interviewed. Simple mean comparisons were used to determine whether significant differences existed between French bean and non-French bean farmers. Both income and non-income indicators were used to determine welfare outcomes for the two groups of farmers. The study found that there were some differences in welfare indicators between those who participated and those who do not participate in French bean production, specifically in the type of housing, asset endowment and income. However, although export French beans,had a positive impact on participating farmers, its impact is declining as farmers’ incomes from it are reducing.

Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
Stuart-Shor EM, Wellenius GA, Iaconno DD, Mittleman MA. Are there Gender-Related Differences in Acute and Prodromal Ischemic Stroke Symptoms?. Am Heart Assoc; 2008. Abstract
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Iraki XN. "Are religion, economic growth friends or foes?" The Standard, May 26, 2015.
Stuart-Shor EM, Buselli EF, Carroll DL, Forman DE. "Are psychosocial factors associated with the pathogenesis and consequences of cardiovascular disease in the elderly?" Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2003;18:169-183. Abstract
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Mbatia PN. "Are mobile phones changing social networks? A longitudinal study of core networks in Kerala.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Mobile telephony has diffused more rapidly than any Indian technology in recent memory, yet systematic studies of its impact are rare, focusing on technological rather than social change. We employ network surveys of separate groups of Kerala residents in 2002 and again in 2007 to examine recent shifts in mobile usage patterns and social relationships. Results show (1) near saturation of mobiles among both the professionals and nonprofessionals sampled, (2) a decrease in the number of social linkages across tie types and physical locations, and (3) a shift towards friends and family but away from work relationships in the core networks of Malayalis. We interpret these findings as support for the bounded solidarity thesis of remote communication that emphasizes social insulation and network closure as mobiles shield individuals from their wider surroundings.

Kimuyu PK. "Are informal firms really different? Findings from small scale manufacturing in Kenya. Discussion Paper No.20.". In: Inst itute of Policy Analysis and Research, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1999.
Opondo C, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Wafula J, Wasunna A, Were F, Wamae A, Migiro S, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Are hospitals prepared to support newborn survival? - An evaluation of eight first-referral level hospitals in Kenya." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2009;14(10):1165-72. Abstract

To assess the availability of resources that support the provision of basic neonatal care in eight first-referral level (district) hospitals in Kenya.

Opondo C, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Wafula J, Wasunna A, Were F, Wamae A, Migiro S, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, English M. "Are hospitals prepared to support newborn survival.". 2009;14(10):1165-1172. Abstractare_hospitals_prepared_to_support_newborn_survival.pdf

objective
To assess the availability of resources that support the provision of basic neonatal care in eight first referral level (district) hospitals in Kenya.
methods
We selected two hospitals each from four of Kenya’s eight provinces with the aim of representing the diversity of this part of the health system in Kenya. We created a checklist of 53 indicator items necessary for providing essential basic care to newborns and assessed their availability at each of the eight hospitals by direct observation, and then compared our observations with the opinions of health workers providing care to newborns on recent availability for some items, using a self administered structured questionnaire.
results
The hospitals surveyed were often unable to maintain a safe hygienic environment for patients and health care workers; staffing was insufficient and sometimes poorly organised to support the provision of care; some key equipment, laboratory tests, drugs and consumables were not available while patient management guidelines were missing in all sites.
conclusion
Hospitals appear relatively poorly prepared to fill their proposed role in ensuring newborn survival. More effective interventions are needed to improve them to meet the special needs of this at-risk group.

Nyumba TO. Are elephants flagships or battleships? : understanding impacts of human-elephant conflict on human wellbeing in Trans Mara District, Kenya. England: University of Cambridge; 2018. Abstract

This thesis examines the impacts of human-elephant conflict on human wellbeing and the implications for elephant conservation and management in Trans Mara District, Kenya. The District comprises communal lands bordering the world-famous Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya. Trans Mara supports a range of land use types and provides refuge to one of Kenya’s large elephant population comprised of over 3,000 transient and 500 resident animals. This study used interdisciplinary methods to gain insights into the nature and consequences of conflict on the wellbeing of communities living with elephants. In particular, I used a combination of existing wellbeing indices and a set of indicators developed through consultations with local communities in TM to measure impacts of HEC on specific wellbeing domains. The results show that elephants still use the communal lands in Trans Mara but are increasingly restricted to the riverine forest remnants in central Trans Mara. However, there was no evidence of a further decline in the elephant range. Instead, this study points to a shift in elephant range against a background of increasing human settlement, land sub-division and agricultural expansion. The wellbeing of Trans Mara residents comprised eight indicators. Human-elephant conflict negatively affected peoples’ wellbeing, but the impacts were limited to certain dimensions. Elephants affected school-going children within elephant range. Attitudes towards elephants and its conservation in TM were influenced by the location of human residence relative to elephant refuge, diversity of income sources, and age and gender. Finally, conflict mitigation in Trans Mara is still elusive and challenging, but opportunities exist to develop simple and dynamic mitigation tools. The findings of this study have important implications for the future of elephant conservation in the face of competing human needs, both in Trans Mara District and elsewhere in Africa.

Busienei JR, Maithya JM, Mugivane FI, Chimoita E, Babu MI, Nyang’anga HT. "Are Commercial Crops Displacing Food Crops and Compromising Kenya’s Food Security”?" Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2015;5(3)( ISSN:2251-1261):pp:1794-1797.
Maithya JM, I.Mugivane F, Busienei JR, Chimoita E, Nyang’ang HT. "Are commercial crops displacing food crops and compromising Kenya’s food security?" Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM. 2015;Vol. 5(3): 1794-1797.smallholding_farming_and_diversification__in_mumias_kenya.pdf
PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO, L K, A.K VH, C S, K K, K H, H T. "Are cell lines a suitable model for studying endometriosis.". 2010.
ILAKO DR, Karimurio J. "Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. . 2010;17(1):41-9. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. "Are Blind People More Likely to Accept Free Cataract Surgery? A Study of Vision-Related Quality of Life and Visual Acuity in Kenya." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17(1):41-49. Abstract

Purpose: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and visionrelated Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.
Methods: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.
Results: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.
Conclusion: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person’s decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

Rukwaro RW, Mukono KM. "Architecture of societies in transition—the case of the Maasai of Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Historically, it has been observed that people's settlements tend to change with their changing cultural values. Societies in early and rapid transition offer rich laboratories for the testing of this observation. The Maasai of Kenya are such a group that in a relatively short period have undergone revolutionary transformation as a casual observation may reveal. This paper investigates whether there is any relationship between their new built forms and their current cultural values. Using a number of identified culture – change variables including land tenure, education, religion, occupation, and rite of passage, the paper analyses what impact changes in these variables has on the Maasai settlements. It clearly reveals that as these variables change due to contacts with western-based modernity, the settlements have undergone noticeable transformation. For example, change of land tenure from communal to individual leads to permanent settlements. While exposure through education, religion and occupation leads to a change in the spatial organisation of the dwelling and the use of new building materials. These insights are a useful background to any policy matters regarding housing that respects the cultures of the people. They are indications of what can be considered as a transitional architecture as communities struggle to modernise.

Ralwala AO. "Architectural reconstruction and re-interpretation of Thimlich Ohinga and Gundni Buche archaeological relics of the Luo cultural landscape." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2017;11(11):1061-1083.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural mitigation of social exclusion as ‘the wretched of the earth’ take claim to Nairobi City. ." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi. 2018;12(1):1273-1284.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural metabletica : Transformation of the Kenyan Luo dwelling unit.". In: Tropical Architecture and the Urban Challenges facing the Global South. Sub-theme: Socio-cultural issues. 9TH Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop, University of Nairobi’s Department of Architecture 4th-5th September 2019.; 2019.
Ralwala AO. "Architectural metabletica : Luo existence in informal settlements.". In: Tropical Architecture and the Urban Challenges facing the Global South. Sub-theme: Socio-cultural issues. 9TH Eastern Africa Architecture Workshop, University of Nairobi’s Department of Architecture 4th-5th September 2019.; 2019.
Kachlik D, Baca V, Stingl J, Sosna B, Lametschwandtner A, Minnich B, Setina M. "Architectonic arrangement of the vasa vasorum of the human great saphenous vein." Journal of vascular research. 2007;44:157-166. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The detailed spatial arrangement of the vasa vasorum (VV) of the human great saphenous vein (HGSV) was demonstrated in qualitative and quantitative terms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Segments of the HGSV taken from cadavers 12-24 h post mortem and from patients undergoing aortocoronary bypassing were studied by light microscopy of India-ink-injected specimens and by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. RESULTS: Arterial feeders were found to approach the HGSV from nearby arteries every 15 mm forming a rich capillary network within the adventitia and the outer two thirds of the media in normal HGSV, while in HGSV with intimal hyperplasia capillary meshes extended into the inner layers of the media. Within the media, capillary meshes ran circularly. Postcapillary venules drained centrifugally towards the adventitial venous vessels which finally formed venous drainers running adjacent to the arterial feeders. Three-dimensional morphometry of vascular corrosion casts of VV revealed that diameters of (i) arterial VV ranged from 11.6 to 36.6 microm, (ii) capillary VV from 4.7 to 11.6 microm and (iii) venous VV ranged from 11.6 to 200.3 microm. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D network of VV suggests these layers are metabolically highly active and therefore require a continuous blood supply. We conclude, therefore, that the VV network must be preserved during in situ bypassing.

"ARCHISEMIOLOGY - THEORY OF MEANING IN ARCHITECTURE ." DISCOVERY AND INNOVATION. 2006.
MARANGA DRMUSONYEMIRIAMWANGU. "Archetype or Stereotype? Fantastic Realism in Children's LiteraturePaper published in Other Worlds Other Lives.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. FARA; 1995.
Kyule MD. "Archaeology of Pli-Pleistocene Hominids in Eastern Africa.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2013. Abstract

This paper reviews recent and continuing research undertaken in eastern Africa on aspects that characterize proto-human behavioral patterns. Flaked stone from amongst other places, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Koobi Fora, Kenya, represent some of the earliest definite signs of modification of natural materials for use as tools. Fossil fauna from these sites show cut marks and other modification, which establish that hominids were using stone tools on animal tissues as early as the Lower Pleistocene; that hominids acquired meat based foods through scavenging rather than hunting; and that hominids and carnivores were in competition for carcasses and/or bones. Presently, there is no indisputable archaeological evidence for Plio Pleistocene hominid deliberate construction of habitation shelter. However, it is possible that Oldowan hominids may have used their most sophisticated organizational abilities in activities such as foraging, social relations or communication, but employed only simple organizations in the actual manufacture of stone tools.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Archaeology in the 1990s and beyond: The Kenyan case.". In: World Archaeological Congress 2, Barquisimeto, Venezuela, 4-8 Sept. 1990. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
and M. D. Kyule ANSHMP. Archaeological surveys in the Ntuka Area, Narok, Kenya: a preliminary report. Report (OP/13/001/25C 123/2) . Nairobi: Office of the President, Republic of Kenya, and the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1996. Abstract

This report describes preliminary results of ongoing research in the Ntuka area, Narok District, Kenya, where surveys and test excavations for Middle Stone Age (MSA) and early Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences were conducted in June and July of 1994 and 1995. The primary objective of the field research is to find and excavate sites with well preserved faunal remains that date to the late MSA and early LSA in order to evaluate the hypothesis that MSA/LSA transition and the origin of modern human behavior occurred first in East Africa. Other sites in the region dating earlier and later are also reported.

WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "Archaeological survey of the Athi-Kapiti Plains.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
"Archaeological research in Africa." Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA.; 1994.
M PROFNGECUWILSON. "The Archaean Sulphide rich turbidites of the Kavirondian Group, Nyanzian Shield, Western Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 28/42 pp 56-57. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 1999. Abstract
n/a
Okoth S. "Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with different soil fertility amendment practices in agricultural landscapes of Kenyan highlands." Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 2015;103(2):229-240. Abstract10.10072fs10705-015-9744-z.pdfWebsite

Several interrelated and site-specific agronomic factors ranging from agroecological conditions to systems management practices have been shown to variably affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) diversity in the soil. Also, there have been various attempts in the past to evaluate the potential of AMF field inoculation but a majority focussed on the use of exotic strains, disregarding the potential of the existing naturally occurring strains. In an attempt to address these problems, our study aimed to develop ‘best-bet practice’ based on soil fertility amendment practice (SFAP) that encourages occurrence and diversity of AMF in the soil. Control treatment (no application) was compared with three (3) SFAP used singly or in combination with AMF or two other soil nutrients enhancing organisms (Bacillus and Trichoderma) which included the following: (1) Mavuno (macro- and micronutrients and secondary nutrients) fertilizer, (2) calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) plus triple super phosphate (TSP) and (3) cattle manure. Maize (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseoli vulgaris L.) were planted at on-station and on-farm plots for two consecutive cropping seasons with the experiment replicated in two benchmark sites of Embu and Taita-Taveta Districts. Embu site recorded a lower soil pH and also very low phosphorus levels compared to Taita site. The number of AMF spores per kg of soil was very low, ranging from 30 to 100, at Embu in the first season and application of SFAP resulted in no significant difference. However, in the second season, use of Trichoderma + CAN plus TSP was shown to significantly stimulate AMF species in the soil, with a 250 % increase in species density compared to use of Bacillus + Manure. At Taita, after the first cropping season, significant change in spore density was only recorded from AMF applied singly with a 66.1 % increase in spore density compared to Control treatment. In comparison, after the second cropping season, use of AMF applied singly, AMF + CAN plus TSP and AMF + Manure increased spore density by 135.4, 109.6 and 100 % respectively compared to Control treatment. Use of AMF applied singly increased species density in the soil by 100 and 81.1 % compared to CAN plus TSP and Trichoderma treatments respectively after first season at Taita site: while after the second cropping season, application of AMF + CAN plus TSP, AMF + Manure and AMF + Mavuno increased AMF species density in the soil by 60.3, 51.5 and 55.9 % respectively compared to Control treatment. These findings provide evidence that it is possible to increase the number of AMF spores in the soil through inoculation with native species and also possibly stimulate dormant species through other SFAP treatments.

Keywords

Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi Soil fertility amendment practices Native species Spore density Species density AMF inoculation

Muigua K. "Arbitration Institutions in East Africa.". In: The Transformation of Arbitration in Africa: The Role of Arbitral Institutions. Amsterdam: Kluwer Law International, The Netherlands; 2016.05_onyema_ttaa_ch.4_kariuki_muigua.pdf
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Arbib F, Thevenet F, Gamondes JP, Heyraud JD, Gontier C, Loire R. Primary tumor of the thoracic wall unusual in aged patients: costal osteosarcoma. Rev Pneumol Clin. 1991;47(5):220-4.". In: Rev Pneumol Clin. 1991;47(5):220-4. uon press; 1991. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. Osteosarcoma is a tumour that is encountered in children and young adults but is exceptional in elderly people. Moreover, it is very rarely located in the chest. A case of costal osteosarcoma revealed by a pleural blood effusion is reported in a 66-year old male patient. Full surgical excision completed by parietal reconstruction was performed. The diagnosis of osteosarcoma was definitely confirmed at pathological examination. A few months later, a local recurrence associated with ipsilateral lung metastasis, was discovered and the patient was put on chemotherapy. The clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspects of this case are discussed.

R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Araya,MR Ngugi,RK Musimba NKR and Nyariki DM(2003). Effect of acacia. Acacia tortilis pods on intake, digestibility and nutritive quality of goat diets in south-western Eritrea. African Journal of Range forage science 20 (i), 59-62.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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R. PROFMUSIMBANASHONK, M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Araya, MR Ngugi, RK, Musimba, NKR and Nyariki, DM (2003). Feeding value of Acacia tortilis pods in goats. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 73(7), 826-828.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Araya M.R., Ngugi, R.K., Musimba, N.K.R. and Nyariki, D.M. (2003). Feeding value of Acacia tortilis pods in goats. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 73(7), 826-828.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Araya M.R., Ngugi, R.K., Musimba, N.K.R. and Nyariki, D.M. (2003). Effect of Acacia tortilis pods on intake, digestibility and nutritive quality of goat diets in south-western Eritrea. African Journal of Range & Forage Science, 20(1), 59-62.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Arara B.K. and M.J. Ntiba. The reproductive biology of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskal, 1775) Pisces: Lutjanidae) from Kenya inshore marine waters.". In: Hydrobiologia, 353: 153-160. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Arara B.K. and M.J. Ntiba. Length-weight relationship, condition factors and the food of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskal, 1775) (Pisces: Lutjanidae) from Kenya marine inshore waters. J. E. Afr. Agri. Forest., (In Press).". In: In the Proceedings of Lake Victoria 2000: A New Beginning, International Conference, May 15-19, Jinja, Uganda. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Arama, F.P., D. M. Mukunya and R.A. Buruchara, 1989. The influence of temperature on infection of Rhynchosprium sequels on susceptible and resistant Kenya barley varieties.". In: Proceedings of 1st Plant Pathology Society of Kenya Conference, 23-24 Nov. 1989. Nairobi, Kenya. 15P. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1989. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Arabic Stracture.; 2010.
SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Arabic Morphology.; 2012.
omari HK, Makokha, Abdalla S. Arabic for all. Nairobi: Chance Publishers; 2020.
Ogana W, Oyieke H, Ntiba MJ. Aquatic Resources Sector, in F.M. Mutua and F. K. Karanja (eds),Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Kenya . UNDP/GEF Project, Building Capacity in Sub-Sahara Africa to respond to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). ; 1998.
Kokwaro JO. Aquatic resources of Kenya. Mombasa, Kenya; 1981.
Odingo RS, Dadzie S, Ongoma A. "Aquatic Ecology and Fisheries .". 1979.Website
Kariuki CN. "Apriori determinants of performance of entrepreneurs in Jua Kali Sector: The case of Nairobi Eastlands.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi, . African Crop Science Society; 1989. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

N. DRIRAKIW. "April 14, 2007: Remittances, The good and the Ugly, SIRAS Conference, Frankfort, KY.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2007.
Kipchirchir IC. "An Approximation of the Fisher’s Information for the Negative Binomial Parameter k." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics. 2011;34(2):129-138.
W DRBARJALINON. "Approximation Method for solving some Nonlinear Equations.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol. 13, No. 2, p25, December 2004. ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

Board MPD. Approved {Training} {Institutions} - {Medical} {Practitioners} and {Dentists} {Board}.; 2015. Abstract

Ensuring the provision of quality & ethical health care.

Awori RM, Ng'ang'a PN, Nyongesa LN, Amugune NO. "approved with reservations.". 2016.
Ocholla S, Jumba G, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu MO, Mukunzi S, Majanja JM, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Coldren R. The Appropriateness of WHO influenza B vaccine component to Kenya in 2011-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: In the 1980’s, influenza B viruses were discovered to belong to two evolutionary groupings (B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses) that continue to co-circulate globally in the human population. These viruses exist as independent lineages. Information about lineage of circulating influenza B viruses in a country is important for determination of the appropriateness of either a trivalent or a quadrivalent vaccine composition for that country.Objective: To genetically analyze the HA1 of influenza B viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2011-2012 season with reference to WHO vaccine strains recommended for Kenya.Method: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens obtained from patients meeting WHO definition criterion for ILI were screened by real-time PCR for influenza B viruses. Influenza B virus positive samples were inoculated onto MDCK cells and the lineages of the isolates determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). To confirm the lineages, HA1 gene segments of selected isolates were amplified by PCR and sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics tools.Results: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the 24 influenza B viruses that circulated between 2011- 2012 were closely related to B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine Strain. Comparison of the HA1 amino acid sequences of influenza B viruses with the reference vaccine strain (B/Brisbane/60/2008 lineage) revealed substitutions at 19 amino acid positions. FLU-MBG-11-02-010 had R188K amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to B/Brisbane vaccine reference strain. FLU-MBG-12-05-011 had V124I amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to the vaccine reference strain. The majority (87.5%) had I146V/A amino acid change in the 150-loop antigenic receptor binding site. All the Kenyan isolates had D197N amino acid change in the 190-helix antigenic receptor site. The other fifteen positions that showed polymorphisms were outside of the antigenic sites with these mutations being randomly distributed among the isolates.Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the WHO vaccine strain recommendations for the southern hemisphere were appropriate for use in Kenya.

Ocholla S, Jumba G, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu MO, Mukunzi S, Majanja JM, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, others. "The appropriateness of WHO influenza B vaccine component to Kenya in 2011-2012.". 2014. Abstract
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.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Appropriate Technology and Prospects in Grain Storage. Kenya Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal. 1(3): 36 - 42.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
in and of indigenous and neglected plants and fruits ATPP. "Appropriate Technologies in Processing and Preservation of indigenous and neglected plants and fruits."; 1988.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Appropriate Style and Technical Competence", Review of Introduction to the African Novel in Dhana (1972) 2, 1, Reprinted in The Season of Harvest.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1978. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Appropriate Strategies for Industrial Developemnt in Kenya.". In: paper presented at Workshop on Parastatal Efficiency. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1985. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Ebrahim YH. Appropriate roofying and energy considerations for warm-humid climates. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2008.
W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Appropriate conditions for handling grain on the farm and their effect on grain quality.". In: Grain milling stakeholders workshop . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
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A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "Appropriate Building Materials & Construction Technology For Primary Schools In Kerio Valley.". In: International Course Of Organized Self-Help Housing Planning & Development. HRDU, University of Nairobi; 1985. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
Mugambi MM. "Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2017;Volume 4(Issue 10):92-106.inclusive_education_pdf.pdf
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Approaches to Family Planning in East Africa". Co-authored with J. Mbula Bahemuka and Speciosa Kabwegyere. ROMA: FEDEREZIONI ORGANISMI CRISTIANI SERVIZIO INTERNAZIONALE VOLONTARIO (FOCSIV) CENTRO STUDIE RESERCHE AFRICA. Collana CONTRIBUTI 15. NOVEMBRE 19.". In: Magazine of the Kenya Medical association. April 1992. Volume 11 No. 4. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
A PROFODHIAMBOJACK. "Approach to lthe endomonic absolute aim - 1992.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1992. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Wanjala G, L.P O. "Appraising Teacher Creativity and Collaborative Skills in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub- County, Kenya ." International Journal of Education and Research . 2019;7(6):207-218 .abstract-.pdf
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Macharia JN, Mwaniki G, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN. "Appraisal of Village Chickens Potential in Egg Production.". 2005. Abstract

A study was carried out on the laying capacities of Village / indigenous and exotic / commercial hens that were brought to the Agricultural Society of Kenya show, Nairobi, over a period of 10 years. The parameter of egg-production capacity was estimated by the pliability of bones, especially the pubic bone spread and the space between the pubic bone and the keel bone; measured as number of fingers that can fit between each space, respectively. The results showed that some of the indigenous birds had good laying capacities, contrary to popular belief. Some indigenous birds were close to, and others had higher laying capabilities than the respective commercial ones. This observation indicates that, with a little extra effort in management and genetic selection, these village birds have a potential of increasing their egg yields.

. BLC, Mbuthia P.G., J.M M. "Appraisal of the village chicken’s potential in egg production.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi; 2004.2004_-_appraisal_of_village_chickens_potential_in_egg_production.pdf
L.C. B, P.G. Mbuthia, J.M.Macharia, Mwaniki G, L.W. Njagi. "Appraisal of the village chickens potential in egg production." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:10-13.abstract-appraisal_of_village_chickens-kvaj-2005.pdf
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An appraisal of the postgraduate diploma in computer science of the University of Nairobi, Institute of Computer Science.". In: Proceedings of International Congress on Education and Informatics. 1989 Paris. pp. 545-650 UNESCO. 3. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
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UNPAD. "Appraisal of the African Problem: A Case of Administration on Crisis Management." UNPAD Journal of International Law. 2005;Vol. 4. No. 1, pp. 31 – 58.
Kihu S.M, Gitao C.G, Bebora L.C, J NM, Wairire G.G, Maingi N, R.G W. "Appraisal of Peste des petits ruminants disease by Turkana pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya. ." American Journal of Research Communication . 2014;2(10):186.abstract.pdf
Kihu. SM, Gitao. CG, Bebora. LC, Njenga. MJ, G.G. Wairire, Maingi. N, Wahome. RG. "Appraisal of Pese des petitis ruminants disease by Turkana Pastoral community of Turkana County in Kenya." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(10):186-214.kihu_vol210.pdf
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractenieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186. Abstractnieindia.org

Kajiado County is predominantly inhabited by the Maasai nomadic pastoralists who rely on natural systems for their provisions and production needs. Traditionally, communal land management has been the norm in the area but that has evolved under the swift development context with the private holding of land becoming prevalent. The land-use transformation has curtailed the traditional seasonal movement of livestock and that has exposed the Maasai community to production risks which have contributed to the widespread food insecurity in the area. To address this gap, the study investigated land-use transformation in the area using Landsat 8, 4 and 5 datasets, where 1987, 2000 and 2015 epochs with a spatial resolution of 30*30m were sourced from www.glovis.usgs.org Remote sensing technology used to evaluate biophysical attributes showed changes in land-use patterns with the bare area, built-up area, cropland, forested land, grassland, riverine, shrubland, waterbody and wetland having undergone significant changes in their respective sizes. These land-use transformations have been compounded with the spread of invasive species to the point of threatening pastoralism. However, the successive governments have shown a marked disdain for resource use patterns. Thus, there is need for an all-inclusive land-use policies to inform adaptation and resilience planning in Kajiado County, Kenya.

Keywords

Natural Resource; Pastoralism; Biophysical Attributes, Land-Use Transformation; Remote Sensing; Masai Pastoralists

Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Appraisal of Land Use Transformation using Remote Sensing in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020;46(2):177-186.
and Inkani, A.I KNGOIA. "An Appraisal of Institutional Strategies of Managing Rural Water Supply in Katsina State, Nigeria." Abuja Journal of Business and Management. 2014;Vol.1(No. 2):137-147.
UngaiShihembetsa DL. "An Appraisal of Community Initiative in the Provision and Management of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Kiambiu Slum Settlement in Nairobi." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), . 2018;Volume 23, (Issue 10, Ver. 1(October. 2018) 49-62. e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845).
Zachariah R, Reid T, Van den Bergh R, Dahmane A, Kosgei RJ, Hinderaker SG, Tayler-Smith K, Manzi M, Kizito W, Khogali M, Kumar AMV, Baruani B, Bishinga A, Kilale AM, Nqobili M, Patten G, Sobry A, Cheti E, Nakanwagi A, Enarson DA, Edginton ME, Upshur R, Harries AD. "Applying the ICMJE authorship criteria to operational research in low-income countries: the need to engage programme managers and policy makers." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2013;18(8):1025-8.applying_the_icmje_authorship_criteria_to_operational_research_in_low-income_countries_the_need_to_engage_programme_managers_and_policy_makers.pdf
H. A, T. T. Applying Genetic Algorithm to Labeling. Nairobi, Kenya; 1997.
"Njiraine D", "LeRoux". "Applying Earl’s KM model in IK management: with reference to Kenya and South Africa. ." The Electronic Library. 2011;29(6):817-827 .
"Applying Earl’s KM Model in IK Management.". In: Proceedings of International Conference on Information Management and Evaluation (ICIME). University of Cape Town; 2010.
AM K, F C. "Applying Bayesian model to predict socio-demographic and occlusal determinats of early childhood caries (ECC)." Brazilian Research in Paed Dent Intergr Clin.. 2017;2017; 17(1): e3452(2017; 17(1): e3452):2017; 17(1): e3452.
KIMINGICHI WABENDE, PARK JEONGKYUNG. "APPLIED THEATRE AS A MEDIUM OF COMMUNAL COMMUNICATION: 'ACCESS TO JUSTICE' PROJECT IN KWALE, KENYA.". In: THE PELGRAVE HANDBOOK OF GLOBAL ARTS EDUCATION. LONDON: SPRINGER NATURE; 2017.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Applied Geomorphology in Natural Hazard Surveys. Paper presented at the first symposium on Disaster Management in Kenya. Sirikwa Hotel, Eldoret. 12th-16th September,.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1990. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor David W. Lutz. Applied Ethics in Religion and Culture: Contextual and Global Chalenges. Nairobi: Acton; 2012.
Ogallo LA, et al. "Applications of Seasonal Interannual climate prediction in Agricultural planning and operations." Agricultural and forest Meteorology. 1999;103:159-166.
M. MRMAINASAMUEL. "Applications of glass.". In: Nairobi. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
Ijumba N, Gakuru M, Abungu NO. "Applications of electric field calculations in optimization of insulator design.". In: The 4th IEEE International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Material. The IEEE International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials; 1994. Abstract

When an insulator is placed in an electrode gap, its surface charge field distorts the geometric field, leading to a flashover at a voltage value dependent on the degree of the gap field distortion. This paper reports on studies conducted to determine the relationship between flashover voltages and electric filed distribution along solid insulator surfaces. The surface electric field distribution along different insulator profiles was determined using the Finite-Difference method, and the flashover of the actual profile model measured. The obtained results show that each profile had a peak surface electric field and the higher the peak value, the lower the flashover voltage. The correlation curve for peak electric field and flashover voltage was developed using a curve fitting technique based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm.

Oludhe C, et al. Applications of Climate Forecasts for Agriculture. Banjul, Gambia: WMO; 2002.
MBUYA TO, Sinclair I, Soady KA, Reed PAS. "Application of X-Ray Microtomography to Evaluate Complex Microstructure and Predict the Lower Bound Fatigue Potential of Cast Al–7(0.7)Si–4Cu–3Ni–Mg Alloys." Advanced Engineering Materials. 2017;19(11):1700218. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201700218

The 3D architecture of intermetallics and porosity in two multicomponent cast Al–7(0.7)Si–4Cu–3Ni–Mg alloys is characterized using conventional microscopy and X-ray microtomography. The two alloys are found to contain intermetallic phases such as Al3Ni, Al3(NiCu)2, Al9FeNi, and Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 that have complex networked morphology in 3D. The results also show that HIPping does not significantly affect the volume fraction, size, and shape distribution of the intermetallic phases in both alloys. A novel technique similar to serial sectioning that circumvents quantification difficulties associated with interconnected particles is used to quantify the intermetallics. The largest particle size distribution is then correlated to fatigue performance using extreme value analysis to predict the maximum particle size in a sample of S-N fatigue specimens and subsequently, the lower bound fatigue life. The predictions are found to correlate well with fatigue data. The effect of HIPping on porosity characteristics is also characterized. Large pore clusters with complex morphology are observed in the unHIPped versions of both alloys, but more significant in the low Si (Al–0.7Si–4Cu–3Ni–Mg) alloy. However, these are significantly reduced after HIPping. The differences between 2D and 3D pore morphology and size distribution is discussed in terms of the appropriate pore size parameter for fatigue life prediction.

Nyangeri EN, Omosa I, Shikoli. "Application of water demand management strategies in Kenya journal of civil engineering research and practice under review.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.

E.M N, P.M.F M, J.M G, T.M W. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 2000. Abstract

Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67:251-255 A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonography. A total of 1 390 goats were examined, 43,6 % (606/1390) of them from north-western Turkana, Kenya, and 56,4 % (784/1390) from Toposaland, southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts were visualized in 1,82 % (11/ 606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4,34 % (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland. Keywords: Goats, hydatid cysts, Kenya, north-western Turkana, prevalence, southern Sudan, Toposaland

Muchai K, Gathuma J, Njoroge EM, Mbithi PMF, Gathuma JM, Wachira TM, Magambo JK, Zeyhle E. "Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan.". 1970.
Gitau M, Omwenga EI. "Application of the UTAUT Model to understand Factors Influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in e-learning in Kenyan Public Universities." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(4):204-209. Abstractjournal_vol7no4_6_miriam_omwenga.pdfJournal website

The introduction of Web 2.0 tools has led to enhanced communication and collaboration in both social and academic environments. The focus of this study was to identify factors influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in e-learning in Kenyan Public Universities. The tools can then be introduced and used to aid in successful collaborative learning. A descriptive survey research design was used. Data was collected through questionnaires from both students and lecturers. Purposive sampling was used for the selection and the respondents, who included e-learning instructors and students. A total of 48 lecturers and 136 students participated in the study. The results of the study showed that the most common tools used for elearning
in Kenyan Public Universities were social networks, which included YouTube and Facebook. It was also interesting to note how learners perceived the tools. The major challenges relating to these tools were also identified.
Finally, Performance expectancy was identified as the main factor influencing the use of Web 2.0 tools in Public Universities in Kenya.
Keywords: E-learning, learning management systems, unified theory of acceptance and use of technology

ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "An Application of The Transportation Model: The case of Inter-factory Transfer of Bulk Whole Milk at The Kenya co-operative Creameries (KCC) Limited (MBA Research project paper of the University of Nairobi).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Lagat CK. "An application of the Transportation Model in the distribution of UHT milk.". In: The African Journal of Finance and Management, vol. 8 no. 2 January. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This paper, using data from factories and depots of KCC that handle UHT milk, develops a model for the optimal allocation of milk from factories to the deports in various parts of Kenya. In developing of this model, the paper takes into consideration the characteristics visual depots, such as access roads, demand, storage capacities and KCC's distribution policy. By use of a case study approach, a transportation model is developed. It shows how distribution costs can be reduced through the use of operations research (OR) models. However, given the structures of the industry, the paper suggests that there should be an integrated transportation model that would analyze the allocation of products to individual depots while minimizing both transport and storage costs.

Liqiang Sun LO, et al. "Application of the NCAR regional climate model to East Africa 1. Simulation of the short rains of 1988." Journal of Geophysical Research. 1999;104(D6):6529-6548.
Wakiaga J, Kisumbi BK. "Application of the microabrasion technique in the management of enamel fluorosis: A preliminary report.". In: JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH. Vol. 76. AMER ASSOC DENTAL RESEARCH 1619 DUKE ST, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314; 1997:. Abstract
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Kiluva VM, Mutua F, Makhanu SK, Ong’or BTI. "Application of the Geological Streanflow Model in the Yala River Basin of Western Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction (IJDMRR) (ISSN: 1992-27. 2011;Vol. 3(3):pp 22-33.
Opijah F, et al. "Application of the Ems-Wrf Model in Decadal Rainfall Prediction over the Gha Region." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences . 2014;1-1.f.opijah.pdf

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