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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Assessment of cottage-derived heavy metal pollution of soils.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 1, No. 2, 52-62 (2000). Survey Review; 2000. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
Waswa F, Ombuki C, Migosi J, Metet J. "Assessment of corporate management practices in public universities in Kenya." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2013;5(2):22-32.
Mwaikenda PN, Wambua BN. "Assessment of compliance to sustainable development on mining activities in Tanzania: A case study of Kahama District." Asian Journal of Business and management. 2014;vol 1(2 no. 4 August 2014).abstract_kahama.docx
Ogendo KN, Kihara AB, Kosgei RJ, Tweya H, Kizito W, Murkomen B, Ogutu O. "Assessment of Community Led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93.
Kivai JM, KAYIMA JK, Were AO, Zahida Q. "Assessment of characteristics of patients with pregnancy related acute kidney injury in Kenyatta National hospital.". 2019. Abstract

Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) remains a grave complication of pregnancy. Studies on patient characteristics are few and demonstrate diverse patient features. Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with PRAKI at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H) Methods: We carried out a descriptive study on women with gestation age equal to or above 28 weeks and on women in postpartum, within six weeks after delivery. The principal investigator or study assistant introduced study requirements to patients with diagnosis of PRAKI. After consent, clinical and demographic information was obtained from participants through verbal interviews and from medical records using a data capture form. Follow up was until discharge or maximum of two weeks which ever came first. Management of patients was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Results Out of 2068 admissions, 66 participants were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of PRAKI was 3.2%. The mean age was 28 years with peak age between 26-30 years. Forty-two (63.6%) were referred from other health facilities, of whom, 24(57.1%) were from rural areas. Nineteen (27.8%) had pre-pregnancy medical conditions, predominantly cardiovascular. All participants developed one or more obstetric complication: -preeclampsia 28(42.4%), eclampsia eight (9.1%) and hemolysis with elevated liver enzyme low platelet (HELLP) syndrome 17(25.8%). Sixty (91%) pregnancies were delivered. Average gestation age at delivery was 35 weeks, with 33(55%) preterm births, of whom, 10 (30.3%) were fresh still births. Severity of PRAKI at presentation was evenly distributed across stages 1 to 111. Forty-one (62.1%) participants improved on conservative management and 25(37.9%) worsened, of whom, 19 (76.0%) were dialyzed. No maternal mortality was reported during the study. Conclusion: We demonstrate a prevalence of PRAKI of 3.2% in K.N.H. Hypertensive disorders were the main associated factors. There was high rate of premature births and a six-fold increase in fresh still births among participants.

Baaru MW;, Onwonga RN. Assessment of changes in natural resources: a participatory approach.; 2010. AbstractWebsite

This study analyzed changes in natural resources in Machakos District of Kenya using participatory approaches. The results show that natural resources have decreased since the ranch became a settlement scheme. Natural forests decreased, vast land was cleared, rivers dried-up while soil erosion, drought, temperatures and land degradation increased. Land productivity declined and most farmers abandoned the traditional crops for modern high value crops. However, farmers adopted various coping strategies. Drought resistant crops, early maturing crops and water harvesting were some of the strategies adopted by farmers. The results also show that resource base management at the community level was still a challenge and a lot of investment needed to be made in this area. As part of the study, farmers knowledge of changes in natural resource use was assessed in a resettlement area. Over a period of about 50 years, significant land degradation has occurred as a result of increased population pressure, poor natural resource management and climate change effects. This was reflected in poor/low land productivity and reduced availability of water. Farmers responded by moving away from growing indigenous crops to growing short-duration crop

Onwonga RN, Gachene CKK;, Baaru MW;. Assessment of changes in natural resources: a participatory approach.; 2010. AbstractWebsite

This study analyzed changes in natural resources in Machakos District of Kenya using participatory approaches. The results show that natural resources have decreased since the ranch became a settlement scheme. Natural forests decreased, vast land was cleared, rivers dried-up while soil erosion, drought, temperatures and land degradation increased. Land productivity declined and most farmers abandoned the traditional crops for modern high value crops. However, farmers adopted various coping strategies. Drought resistant crops, early maturing crops and water harvesting were some of the strategies adopted by farmers. The results also show that resource base management at the community level was still a challenge and a lot of investment needed to be made in this area. As part of the study, farmers knowledge of changes in natural resource use was assessed in a resettlement area. Over a period of about 50 years, significant land degradation has occurred as a result of increased population pressure, poor natural resource management and climate change effects. This was reflected in poor/low land productivity and reduced availability of water. Farmers responded by moving away from growing indigenous crops to growing short-duration crop

E.N. PN. "Assessment of changes in condom use among female sex workers in a prospective cohort study introducing diaphragm use for disease prevention.". 2010. Abstract

Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Sep 1;172(5):606-12. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwq158. Epub 2010 Jul 26.
Assessment of changes in condom use among female sex workers in a prospective cohort study introducing diaphragm use for disease prevention.
Gallo MF, Warner L, Bell AJ, Wiener J, Eschenbach DA, Bukusi EA, Sharma A, Njoroge B, Ngugi E, Jamieson DJ.
Source

Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3724, USA. mgallo@cdc.gov
Abstract

Changes in the rates of condom use and number of sexual partners were evaluated among 140 female sex workers in Kibera, Kenya, participating in a 6-month study of diaphragm safety and acceptability for prevention of sexually transmitted infections conducted in 2004-2005. Analyses were stratified by partner type. Multivariable Tobit regression modeling was used to assess the association between study visit and proportion of acts protected. Participants completed 140 baseline visits and 390 bimonthly follow-up visits. The mean percentage of coital acts reported as protected by a condom increased from 56% at baseline to 68% at the 6-month visit (P < 0.01). Similar increases were observed for condom use by all partner types. Additionally, the mean number of sexual partners decreased over the study. Furthermore, consistent (i.e., 100%) diaphragm use during follow-up was associated with a higher proportion of coital acts protected by a condom in analyses adjusted for study visit and coital frequency. These findings suggest that, despite concerns that introduction of the diaphragm would result in more risky sexual behaviors, reported condom use increased and number of partners decreased.

PMID:
20660519
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Mary Waceke Thongoh1*, Henry Mikiugu Mutembei2 JM3 BEK1. "An Assessment of Barriers to MSMEs’ Adoption of CSA in Livestock Red Meat Value Chain, Kajiado County, Kenya." American journal of Climate Change. 2021;(10):237-262.ajcc_2021073014503959.pdf
"Assessment of Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Qualities of Stand-pipe Drinking Water Stored in Huruma Food Kiosks of. Kenya." Veterinarian . 2007;31(2007):26-39. Abstract

A total of 104 water samples were randomly taken and analyzed to determine bacteriological and physico-chemical qualities of stand-pipe drinking water stored in Huruma food kiosks of Nairobi, Kenya. Out of these, 92 were from storage containers and 12 from stand-pipes supplying the food kiosks. The mean sample temperature ranged from 19.19°C to 23.0ºC, while the mean pH ranged from 6.75 to 7.0. All samples analyzed in this study had a residual chlorine level of 0.5 mg/l. The mean total bacterial count (TBC) for stand-pipe samples was 46 per ml, while that from stored water was 615 per ml. The mean coliform count was 7 and 64 per 100 ml for stand-pipes and stored water respectively. Faecal streptococci had mean counts of 13 and 55 per ml in stand-pipes and stored water respectively. Feacal coliforms were isolated from 2 (17%) stand-pipes and 43 (47%) stored water. Faecal streptococci was isolated from 2 (17%) and 57 (62%) stand-pipes and stored water samples respectively. A significant difference in TBC between stand-pipe and stored water (t = -4.379, df = 102, p = 0.001) was noted. Questionnaire and observation investigations revealed that 82(90%) of Kiosk workers treated their drinking water on request. Some water scooping vessels were found lying on dirty floor outside and near open drainage systems. In conclusions results from this study indicates a high risk of infections with pathogens to the consumers. It is therefore recommended that drinking water be treated before consumption

Mpatswenumugabo, JP, Bebora LC, Gitao, C.G., Kamana, O, Mobegi, VA, Irahuga B, B S. "Assessment of Bacterial contaminations andmilk handling practices along the raw milk market chain in North-western region of Rwanda." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019;13(29 ;http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2018.8919 ):640-648.second_paper_published-jean_pierre.pdf
Bebora L.C, Gitao CG, P.M M, Mobegi VA, Shumbusho B, Iraguha B. "Assessment of bacterial contamination and milk handling practices along the raw milk market chain in the North-Western region of Rwanda." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2019;13(29):640-648.abstract.pdf
Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO. "Assessment of Arabusta coffee hybrids [Coffea arabica L. X Tetraploid Robusta (Coffea canephora )] for green bean physical properties and cup quality." African Journal of Food Science. 2020;14(5):119-127.
Njagi JM, Piero MN, Ngeranwa JJN, Kibiti CM, Njue WM, Maina D, Gathumbi PK. "Assessment of Antidiabetic Potential of Ficus Sycomorus on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Diabetes mellitus is a predominant public health concern, causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications. Many of the conventional drugs used for the management of this disease are not only expensive but also have numerous side effects. Herbal medications are cheaper and locally available. Many plants have been traditionally used to manage diabetes without authentication on their antidiabetic properties and assessment of their safety. In this study aqueous stem bark extract of Ficus sycomorus was assessed for its antidiabetic potential along with evaluation its preliminary in vivo toxicity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results show that the plant harbours remarkable antidiabetic potential. It safely lowered blood glucose level to levels below what insulin, the model drug, lowers, in a dose-dependent manner.

KAAYA GP. "An assessment of antibiotic potentials of insect antibacterial factors." Insect Science and Its Application . 1989;10:341-346.
Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

Mosenda E, Chemining’wa G, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Assessment of Agronomic Traits of Selected Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants. 2020;9:222-241. Abstract
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J.G.N. K, W.I. T. "Assessment of Aflatoxin B1 contamination on Commercial Maize and Ground nuts in selected Markets in Nairobi County, Kenya. ." Journal of Chemical, Biological & Physical Sciences (JCBPS). JCBPS; Section A; . 2019;9(3):161-169 .
Oludhe C. "Assessment and Utilisation of Windpower in Kenya - A Review." J.of Kenya Meteorological Society. 2007;2(1):1-14.vol2_paper_4.pdf
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Assessment and monitoring of nutrients flows and stocks to determine appropriate integrated nutrient management strategies. A methodological approach adapted for arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. In: Gacimbi, L.N., Ikombo,B.M.,Itabari,J.K.,Nandwa, S.M., .". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
MWIVANDI DRKINAMAJ. "Assessment and monitoring of nutrient flows and stocks to determine appropriate integrated nutrient management strategies. Technical report on the study approach and preliminary results of Nutsal project, 2000. In: Gacimbi,L.N., Ikombo,B.M.,Itabari, J.K.,.". In: China. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Food Production in the Face of Global Environmental Deterioration (FPEC), Fukuoka, Japan in September 2004. University of nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
M. KG, O. WS, O. OS. "Assessment and Mapping of Vulnerability Due to Climate Change for Dry Forested Pastoral Ecosystem." Elixir International Journal. 2017;(110): 48286-48289. Abstractresearchgate.net

The objective of the study was assessment and mapping of the community villages in order to rank degree of vulnerabilities to climate change. On sensitivity to vulnerability, the majority of the respondents indicated that it was high (59.6%), medium (16.3%) and low (20.8%).of which on response to exposure to vulnerability, the respondents who indicated high (61.7%), medium (24.2% and low (11.3%).On vulnerabilities in response to adaptive capacity to vulnerability, was high (3.3%), medium (12.5%) and low (81.3%). This study demonstrated that participatory approach of addressing vulnerability to climate change which involved all stakeholders is effective in this dry forested pastoral ecosystem.

Bobadoye A, Ogara W, Ouma G, Onono J. "Assessing Vulnerability of Maasai Pastoralist in Kenya to Climate Change and Variability." Preprints. 2017. Abstractassessing_vulnerability_of_maasai_pastoralist_in_kenya_to_climate_change_and_variability.pdfPreprints

Human adaptive responses to climate change occur at the local level, where climatic variability is experienced. Therefore analyzing vulnerability at the local level is important in planning effective adaptation options in a semi-arid environment. This study was conducted to assess vulnerability of Maasai pastoralist communities in Kajiado County, Kenya to climate change by generating vulnerability index for the communities. Data was collected
using questionnaires that were administered to 305 households in the five different administrative wards (Oloosirkon/Sholinke, Kitengela, Kapetui North, Kenyawa-Poka and Ilmaroro) in Kajiado East. Vulnerability was measured as the net effect of adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure to climate change. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assign weights to the vulnerability indicators used for the study and also to calculate the household vulnerability index. A vulnerability map was produced using the GIS software package ArcGIS 10.2. Results showed that gender of household head, age of household head, educational level, access to extension agents, herd size, livestock diversity and access to credit facility influenced vulnerability of the Maasai pastoralists  to  climate  change  in  Kajiado  East.  The  result  showed  that  the  most  vulnerable communities with the highest negative vulnerability index value are Ilpolosat (‐2.31), Oloosirikon (‐2.22), Lenihani (‐2.05), Konza (‐1.81) and Oloshaiki (‐1.53). The communities with the highest positive vulnerability index values were Kekayaya (4.02), Kepiro (3.47), Omoyi (2.81), Esilanke (2.23), Kisaju (2.16) and Olmerui (2.15). We conclude that provision of basic amenities such as good roads and electricity; access to extension agents, access to credit facilities and herd mobility will reduce vulnerability of Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado east to climate change and variability.

A.O B, W.O O, G.O O, Onono J.O. "Assessing vulnerability of Maasai pastoralist in Kenya to climate change and variability." International journal of agriculture and environmental sciences. 2018;3(6):97-107.
Kamugisha M, Mutembei HM TT. "Assessing the value of agroforestry and food security among households in Isingiro District, South-Western Uganda." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. In Press:1-16.
Anthony Egeru, Osaliya R, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Oliver Wasonga, Barasa B, Said M, Aleper D, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo G-J. "Assessing the spatio-temporal climate variability in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region in north-eastern Uganda." International Journal of Environmental Studies. 2014;71:490-509. Abstract
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Bosire E, Opijah F, Gitau W. "Assessing the skill of precipitation forecasts on seasonal time scales over East Africa from a Climate Forecast System model." Global Meteorology. 2015;3(1). AbstractGlobal Meteorology

It is becoming increasingly important to be able to verify the skill of precipitation forecasts, especially with the advent of high-resolution numerical weather prediction models. This study focused on assessing the skill of climate forecast system (CFS) model in predicting rainfall on seasonal time scales over East Africa region for the period January 1981 to December 2009. The rainfall seasons considered were March to May (MAM) and October to December (OND). The data used in the study included the observed seasonal rainfall totals from January 1981 to December 2009 and CFS model forecast data for the same period. The model had 15 Runs. The measure of skill employed was the categorical skill scores and included Heidke skill scores, bias, probability of detection and false alarm ratio. The results from the categorical skill scores confirmed relatively higher skills during OND season as compared to MAM. When compared with individual Runs, the mean of all the 15 Runs depicted relatively higher accuracy during OND season. Some individual Runs – 1, 7, 9 and 10 – also performed better during OND season. During MAM season, the mean of all the 15 Runs showed relatively lower accuracy in predicting rainfall. Some individual Runs – 5, 10, 12 and 14 – performed better than the mean of all the 15 Runs. The prediction of seasonal rainfall over East Africa region using CFS model depends on the season considered. During MAM, the prediction of seasonal rainfall is better as Runs are fewer, which showed relatively higher averaged skills; on the other hand, during OND the prediction of seasonal rainfall is better when using the mean of all the 15 Runs.

Bosire E, Opijah F, Gitau W. "Assessing the Skill of Precipitation Forecasts on Seasonal Time Scales over East Africa from a Climate Forecast System Model." Global Meteorology. 2014;3(1). AbstractPagepress

It is becoming increasingly important to be able to verify the skill of precipitation forecasts, especially with the advent of high-resolution numerical weather prediction models. This study focused on assessing the skill of climate forecast system (CFS) model in predicting rainfall on seasonal time scales over East Africa region for the period January 1981 to December 2009. The rainfall seasons considered were March to May (MAM) and October to December (OND). The data used in the study included the observed seasonal rainfall totals from January 1981 to December 2009 and CFS model forecast data for the same period. The model had 15 Runs. The measure of skill employed was the categorical skill scores and included Heidke skill scores, bias, probability of detection and false alarm ratio. The results from the categorical skill scores confirmed relatively higher skills during OND season as compared to MAM. When compared with individual Runs, the mean of all the 15 Runs depicted relatively higher accuracy during OND season. Some individual Runs–1, 7, 9 and 10–also performed better during OND season. During MAM season, the mean of all the 15 Runs showed relatively lower accuracy in predicting rainfall. Some individual Runs–5, 10, 12 and 14–performed better than the mean of all the 15 Runs

Cherotich S, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "Assessing the Seasonal Changes on Physicochemical Parameters and Major Nutrient Levels in Water and Sediments from Sulal River, Bureti Sub County, Kericho County, Kenya." Chemical Science International Journal. 2021;30(1):46-58. AbstractChemical Science International Journal

Abstract
Sulal River is a victim of nutrient pollution as it crosses different small-scale tea farms in Bureti Sub County, Kericho County. A study was conducted to evaluate different physicochemical parameters and major chemical fertilizer’s nutrients levels in water and sediments from Sulal River. In order to understand the degree of pollution in the river due to inflow of agricultural chemical fertilizer residue levels from its catchment, the samples were collected in the dry (February 2019) and wet seasons (November 2019). The ten chosen sampling sites stretched a length of 12 Km. Samples were analyzed for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sediment and water content (WC), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphorous (PO3-P) and potassium (K) using standard methods. Results were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20. The average results during dry and wet seasons in water samples for pH were 6.72±0.05 and 6.38±0.21, DO 6.78±0.59 and 9.58±0.64 mg/L, EC 174±5.02 and 205±20.14 µS /cm, TDS 92±4.59 and 120.70±19.57 mg/L, NO3-N 0.58±0.21 and 1.19±0.22 mg/L, PO3-P 0.00±0.00 and 0.13±0.84 mg/L and K 0.26±0.08 and 0.84±0.19 mg/L respectively. The average results during dry and wet seasons in sediment samples for pH were 6.62±0.20 and 6.75±0.17, EC, 67±6.66 and 52±10.19 µS /cm, WC 16.96±3.95 and 129.84±5.00%, NO3-N 0.70±0.35 and 0.42±0.23 mg/kg, PO3-P 0.49±0.25 and 1.14±0.40 mg/kg and K 1.53±0.45 and 2.86±0.31 mg/kg respectively. The levels of P in water during wet season and in sediments samples in both seasons were however, above the WHO (0.025 mg/L) and KEBS (0.030 mg/L) recommended limit for drinking and domestic use and WASREB (0.005 mg/L) level for the likelihood of eutrophication. Availability of excess phosphorus can accelerate eutrophication. The diversity of cancers has also been associated with drinking water containing phosphorous levels. The water from Sulal River may be used for irrigation purposes but not for drinking and domestic purposes. Significant seasonal variations were observed in all parameters analyzed except NO3-N in sediments. This indicates that rainfall had a great effect on some soil physicochemical properties.

W. DRKIMENJUJOHN. "Assessing the role of organic soil amendments in management of root-knot nematodes on common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Journal of Tropical Microbiology 3:14-23.". In: Socio-economic Studies on Rural Development Vol. 130. Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk Kiel KG, Kiel, Germany (ISSN 0175-2464; ISBN 3-8175- 0371-5). Ogutu J.O; 2004. Abstract

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of animal manures, cow and chicken manures, and green manures, Mucuna pruriens, Azadirachta indica and Tagetes minuta in root knot nematode suppression. The organic materials were mixed with soil at the rate of 5% (w/w) and placed in 5- kg plastic pots. The soil was infested with 4000 second-stage Meloidogyne juveniles and galling was assessed using a scale of 1 to 9. Galling was reduced in soil treated with organic amendments and ranged from 1.5 to 4.4 compared to 5.8 in the control. The amendments were ranked as chicken manure, neem, marigold, and cow manure in descending order of effectiveness in root-knot disease suppression. All the amendments were mo re effective than carbofuran, with the exception of cow manure. An analysis of the correlation between available ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and phosphorous (P) in amended soil done on one hand and nematode parameters on the other, showed significant (p < 0.01) negative relationships. The correlation coefficient (r = -0.85) between NH4-N and juvenile numbers in the soil was significant (p < 0.01). Similarly, phosphorous was negatively and significantly (p < 0.01) correlated to nematode egg mass (r = -0.79) and juvenile (r= -0.44) numbers. Microbial activity, measured using microbial biomass, carbon and nitrogen, was higher in organically amended soils than the control, with the highest figures being recorded on chicken manure. This is a clear demonstration of the potential of organic amendments in triggering the natural mechanisms that regulate plant nematodes in the soi

"Assessing the productivity of indigenous chickens in an extensive management system in southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

The present study was conducted to assess the performance of indigenous chickens under exten¬sive system in southern Nyanza, Kenya. The study was carried out in two phases in Komolorume and Kawere villages in Rongo and Rachuonyo districts, respective¬ly. The first phase was a cross-sectional study in 81 farms selected by cluster sampling to get the overview of the indigenous chicken production. A four-month prospective longitudinal study in 60 farms randomly selected from the previous 81 farms followed. Mean flock sizes per household were 20 and 18 birds in Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. Overall mean flock size was 19 birds ranging from 1 to 64. The mean clutch size, egg weight and hatchability were 12 eggs, 48 g and 81 % respectively in Komolorume and 10 eggs, 45 g and 70%, respectively, in Kawere. The chick survival rates to the age of eight weeks were 13 % and 10% in Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. Mean live weights for cocks and hens were 2096 g and 1599 g in Komolorume and 2071 g and 1482 g in Kawere, respectively. The mean household cock to hen ratio was 2:5 and 2:4 for Komolorume and Kawere, respectively. The mean chick to grower to adult ratio per household was 8: 6:6 in Komolorume and 8:4:6 in Kawere, Clutch sizes and hatchability rates were significantly higher in Komolorume village (P<0.5). The productivity of the indigenous chickens was shown to be low compared to that of the improved chickens in other parts of the world.

Jomo SM, Amugune B, Sinei KA, Oluka M. "Assessing the Prevalence and Severity of Potential Drug-drug Interactions among Mentally Ill Inpatients." Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science. 2016;8:331-343. Abstractjomo_et_al_2016.pdf

Mental health refers to a wider range of activities directly or indirectly related to the mental well-being. Mentally ill patients in Kenya are increasingly becoming prone to a high risk of polypharmacy, complex therapeutic regimen and frequent modification of therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of potential drug-drug interactions among mentally ill patients admitted at Mathari Mental Hospital in Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was designed in a retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study of medical records data of patients who had undergone mental treatment and were admitted at Mathari Mental Hospital between July and December 2013. This study focused on a population comprising of all mentally ill patients who were admitted and put on medication during the study period of either gender and ageing between 13 to 75 years. One hundred and seventy five patient files were sampled, married and unemployed patients had a statistically significant (p<0.05) association with a prevalence and severity of potentially serious drug interactions. Participants with bipolar mood disorder had a statistically significant association with potentially serious drug interactions [OR 4.39 CI (1.09, 17.46) p = 0.04].
There was a statistically significant association of potentially serious drug interactions with fluphenazine [OR 10.38 CI (4.66, 23.10) p<0.01) haloperidol [OR 4.39 CI (2.29, 8.41) p<0.01] and amitriptyline [OR 3.39 CI (1.36, 8.41) p=0.01]. Married, unemployed and patients on fluphenazine, haloperidol, amitriptyline and chlorpromazine were at a higher risk of having potentially serious drug-drug interactions. These drugs exhibited both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug interaction mechanisms. We recommend continuous electrocardiogram for patients on specific antipsychotics like haloperidol.

KEY WORDS : Mental Health, Drug Interaction, Prescriptions

Jomo SM, Amugune BK, Sinei KA, Oluka MN. "Assessing the prevalence and severity of potential drug-drug Interactions among mentally ill inpatients." Ind Res J Pharm & Sci. . 2016;3(1):331-343.
Uwizeyimana D, Karuku NG, Mureithi MS, Kironchi G. "Assessing the potential of surface runoff generated from a conserved catchment under drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda." Journal of Hydrologeology & Hydrologic Engineering. 2018;7 (1):1-9.
Midingoyi SG, Affognon HD, Macharia I, Ong’amo G, Abonyo E, Ogola G, H. DG, LeRu BP. "Assessing the long-term welfare effects of the biological control of cereal stemborer pests in East and Southern Africa: Evidence from Kenya, Mozambique and Zambia Agriculture." ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT . 2016;230:10-23.
Mutai BK. Assessing the Impacts of Vegetative Cover Change over Mau Water Towers on the Discharge of River Njoro, Kenya. Mombasa, Kenya: Kenya Meteorological Society (KMS); 2011. Abstract

Mau water catchment and its environs is a very fragile ecosystem whose dynamics exhibits oscillations in magnitude caused mainly by human impacts and other climatic factors. The most recent oscillation was accompanied by excision of the forested catchment by the communities living around, leading to additional decrease in vegetative cover. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between discharge and normalized difference vegetative index over the catchment of interest. Monthly Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI), discharge and rainfall datasets for the period 1982 and 2000 were used in this study.
Time series of the NDVI, discharge and rainfall were then obtained. In order to determine the relationship between NDVI and discharge correlation analysis was done between the two variables. The relationship between NDVI and rainfall was also determined through correlation analysis.
From the results obtained it was evident that discharge has been relatively constant over time except for a marked increase between 1996 and 1999. NDVI and rainfall had a constant trend throughout the study period. From correlation analysis it is evident that there is no statistically significant relationship between discharge and rainfall. This is explained by the fact that the clearance of vegetation has been compensated by growth of other vegetation types. NDVI only reflects the vigor of vegetation but does not distinguish between vegetation types e.g. tea from forest. NDVI and rainfall only shows a slight relationship when lagged. This is explained by the fact that the NDVI at a region only affects the rainfall forming processes later in the season, though on a very slight scale.
In conclusion, the variability in discharge is thought to be dependent on other catchment parameters e.g. vegetation type, soil type and slope .Rainfall is completely dependent on other synoptic scale parameters e.g. air masses and other mesoscale forcings e.g. Lake Victoria circulation. It should be noted that a statistically significant relationship could be attained only with the use of very high resolution NDVI.

Kalungu JW, Mbuge DO. "Assessing the impacts of Kenyan universities in adapting to climate change.". In: African Regional Conference of Vice Chancellors, Provosts and Deans of Science, Engineering and Technology (COVIDSET 2013). Gabarone, Botswana; 2013.
Githui FW, Mutua F, Bauwens W. Assessing the impacts of environmental change on the hydrology of the Nzoia catchment, in the Lake Victoria Basin. Brussel: Vrije Universiteit Brussel; 2007. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to assess the past and potential future environmental changes, and their impact on the hydrology of the Nzoia catchment. More specifically, the study has analyzed the historical climatic (1962-2004) and land cover changes (1973-2001) that have taken place in the Nzoia River catchment in Kenya, and the effect these have had on the hydrology of the catchment. It has also made use of land cover and climate change scenarios for the future to determine the potential effects these will have on the catchment. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to investigate the impact of land cover and climatic change on streamflow of the study area. The model was set up using readily available spatial and temporal data, and calibrated against measured daily discharge. The land cover changes within the watershed were examined through classification of satellite images and a land cover change model generated the land cover change scenarios for the year 2020. Climate change scenarios were obtained from general circulation models (GCMs) for the period 2010-2039 (ie 2020s) and 2040-2069 (ie 2050s). The climate change IPCC SRES scenarios A2 and B2 were selected. To this purpose, rainfall and temperature scenarios based on the GCMs CCSR, CSIRO, ECHAM4, GFDL and HADCM3 were superimposed on the calibrated SWAT model.

WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, GITHAIGA JOHNM, Karanja FK. "Assessing the Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(1):13-24. Abstractassessing_the_impacts_of_climate_variability_and_climate_change_on_biodiversity_in_lake_nakuru_kenya.pdfSMUJO (smujo.id)

Wambui MB, Opere A, Githaiga MJ, Karanja FK. 2017. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and climate change on biodiversity in Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Bonorowo Wetlands 1: 13-24. This study evaluates the impacts of the raised water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, due to climate change and climate variability. The study was to review and analyze noticed climatic records from 2000 to 2014. Several methods were used to ascertain the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall and evaporation), and also the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, and trend analysis, so the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to show a relationship between the alterations in lake conductivity to alterations in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, rainfall and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to evaluate the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance. It was noticed that there was a raise in the mean annual rainfall during the study period (2009 to 2014) which brought the increment in the lake’s surface area from a low area of 31.8 km² in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km² in Sept 2013, indicating an increment of 22.9 km² (71.92% surface area increment). Mean conductivity of the lake also lessened leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed making them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was noticed signifying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently revealed that the phytoplankton density could be a notable predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation noticed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake. It is projected that there would be an increment in temperatures, rainfall and evaporation for the period 2017 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increment in surface area and depth by the year 2100 due to increased rainfall thereby affecting the populations of the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will alter as well during the projected period.
Keywords: Biodiversity, climate change, Lake Nakuru, Kenya

WAMBUI MBOTEBETH, Opere A, Gathiga JM, Karanja FK. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIODIVERSITY IN LAKE NAKURU, KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2016. AbstractDepartment of Meteorology

Hydrological systems are potentially very sensitive to changes in climate. Recently, attention has been mainly drawn to the rising global temperatures; however, over the past century, human livelihoods have substantially been directly affected by changes in the regional hydrological balance. Lake Nakuru is one example of a hydrological system which has seen its water levels increasing since September 2010 during the beginning of the short rains making it the first lake in the Rift Valley bursting its banks, leading to decreased electrical conductivity levels as a result of water dilution. All flamingos left the lake, initially settling in the Lake Oloidien a small alkaline lake south of Lake Naivasha and Lake Bogoria. The increased water levels led to change in aquatic life and biodiversity, including submersion of habitats adjoining the lake and have therefore had major ecological implications on the lake and its environs.
This study, therefore, assesses the impacts of the increased water levels and the flooding of Lake Nakuru and its surrounding areas on biodiversity, specifically, the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo communities, owing to climate change and climate variability. The study focused on reviewing and analysing observed climatic records from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department, especially temperature, precipitation and evaporation of Lake Nakuru in order to assess how climate variability and climate change has contributed to the increased lake levels, monitoring and reviewing information on the state of past and present records of the lesser flamingo and phytoplankton communities of Lake Nakuru was undertaken, with the data sets obtained from the Kenya Wildlife Service and National Museums of Kenya database. Several methods were employed in order to determine the past and current trends of climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation and evaporation), and also for the physicochemical characteristics of Lake Nakuru (conductivity, phytoplankton, lesser flamingos and the lake depth). These included time series analysis, trend analysis and the Pearson's correlation analysis was used to correlate the changes in lake conductivity to changes in population estimates of the lesser flamingos and the phytoplankton. Data set extracted from the Coupled Model lntercomparison Project Phase 5 (CM1P5) (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) Atlas subset) models were subjected to time series analysis method where the future climate scenarios of near surface temperature, precipitation and evaporation were plotted for the period 2017 to 2100 (projection) for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 in Lake Nakuru were analysed. The results were used to assess the impact of climate change on the lesser flamingos and phytoplankton abundance.
It was observed that there was an increase in the mean annual precipitation during the study period (2009 to 2014) which caused the increase in the lake's surface area from a low area of 31.8 km2 in January 2010 to a high of 54.7 km2 in Sept 2013, indicating an increase of 22.9 km2 (71.92% surface area increase). Mean conductivity of the lake also decreased leading to the loss of phytoplankton on which flamingos feed causing them to migrate. A strong positive correlation between conductivity and the lesser flamingo population was observed implying that low conductivity affects the growth of phytoplankton and since the lesser flamingos depend on the phytoplankton for their feed, this subsequently demonstrated th&t the phytoplankton density could be a significant predictor of the lesser flamingo occurrence in Lake Nakuru. There was also a strong positive correlation observed between phytoplankton and the lesser flamingo population which confirms that feed availability is a key determining factor of the lesser flamingo distribution in the lake.
It is projected that there would be an increase in temperatures, precipitation and evaporation for the period 20 I 7 to 2100 under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 relative to the baseline period 1971 to 2000 obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble. As a result, it is expected that the lake will further increase in surface area and depth by the year 2 I 00 due to increased precipitation thereby affecting the populations of the lesser . flamingos and phytoplankton, as the physicochemical factors of the lake will change as wel I during the projected period.
Recommendation.s that can be taken to contribute to the country's biodiversity resources, specifically in Lake Nakuru through climate change mitigation and appropriate adaptations have been provided. They include: In order to assess the variability in climate, continuous monitoring and analysing meteorological parameters in the lake basin is suggested; government policy on illegal water abstractions and massive afforestation of indigenous trees need to be enforced in order to enhance precipitation regularity so as to sustainably utilize and manage Lake Nakuru 's waters; Climate vulnerability assessments need to be carried out in order to come up with mitigations and adaptations measures unique to Lake Nakuru basin to inform the measures that need to be taken in order to minimize the negative impacts of climate vulnerability/change, and exploit the beneficial ones.

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka–Volterra model." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220(1):60-70. Abstract

The Lotka–Volterra model was applied to the population densities of diamondback moth
(DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) and its exotic larval parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum
(Hellen) data that was collected earlier by icipe's DBM biological control team. The
collections were done for 15 months before the release and 36 months after release of the
parasitoid in two areas; in Werugha, Coast Province of Kenya and Tharuni, Central Province
of Kenya, respectively. For each area in pre-and post-release periods, we estimated Lotka ...

Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka-Volterra model." Ecological Modelling . 2008;220:60-70.
Deng H;, Nzuma J. "Assessing the Effects of NAFTA ON Canada/US Agricultural Trade."; 2005. Abstract

While there seems to be an agreement that Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have benefited member countries, some analysts have argued that the agreements had little effect on the bilateral Canada/US agricultural trade as many other factors have contributed to the increased trade flows. Results from this study reveal that the aggregate bilateral agricultural trade flows have generally experienced a steady growth since the implementation of NAFTA with trade flows seemingly favoring Canada more than the US since 1992. At the industry level, the impacts of NAFTA on Canada/US agricultural trade were varied with the sub-sectors analyzed responding differently to the bilateral trade liberalization

"Assessing the effectiveness of intubation as a challenge model in contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccine experiments.". 2010. Abstract

A study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of a bronchoscope in administering a pathogenic field strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (MmmSC) in cattle challenge experiments. Out of 16 animals inoculated using the bronchoscope, 10 (62.2%) showed clinical disease as evidenced by fever and 15 (93.8%) displayed typical lesions of CBPP from which MmmSC was isolated. Serum samples collected weekly were tested by Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Antibodies to MmmSC were detected in 10 out of the 16 animals by the CFT and 11 out of the 16 animals by c-ELISA. The onset of clinical disease was as early as 2 days post-inoculation, and most of the animals developed clinical disease 2 to 3 weeks post-infection. These results clearly demonstrate that nasotracheal inoculation of pathogenic strain of MmmSC with the aid of a bronchoscope can lead to early onset of clinical disease; similar to previous studies but with higher numbers of animals showing clinical disease. This is in contrast with previous studies where early clinical disease was observed in as little as 15% of inoculated animals. This nasotracheal inoculation method using a bronchoscope can, therefore, be adopted for use in experimental challenge infections of cattle. This method is found to be a better replacement to the contact transmission method whose drawback includes extra cost of donor animals and unpredictable rate and timing of transmission from intubated to challenge animals.

Angwere OW, Koech OK. "ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION AND USE ON THE TRANSITION TO A GREEN ECONOMY IN KENYA." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2016;19(2016):327-335.
Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, others. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLoS one. 2021;16:e0246248. Abstract
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Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, Omangi S. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(1):e0246248-. AbstractWebsite

Transportation infrastructure, such as railways, roads and power lines, contribute to national and regional economic, social and cultural growth and integration. Kenya, with support from the Chinese government, is currently constructing a standard gauge railway (SGR) to support the country’s Vision 2030 development agenda. Although the actual land area affected by the SGR covers only a small proportion along the SGR corridor, a significant proportion of the area supports a wide range of ecologically fragile and important ecosystems in the country, with potential wider impacts. This study used a qualitative content analysis approach to gain an understanding and perceptions of stakeholders on the potential ecological impacts of the interactions between the SGR and the traversed ecological systems in Kenya. Three dominant themes emerged: 1) ecosystem degradation; 2) ecosystem fragmentation; and 3) ecosystem destruction. Ecosystem degradation was the most commonly cited impact at while ecosystem destruction was of the least concern and largely restricted to the physical SGR construction whereas the degradation and fragmentation have a much wider footprint. The construction and operation of the SGR degraded, fragmented and destroyed key ecosystems in the country including water towers, protected areas, community conservancies and wildlife dispersal areas. Therefore, we recommend that project proponents develop sustainable and ecologically sensitive measures to mitigate the key ecosystem impacts.

Mumma-Martinon CA, Ododa O. "Assessing the Defector Rehabilitation Programmes in Countering Violent Extremism in Somalia. Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue.". In: Religious Extremisim and Violence in Africa . Nairobi : Hekima Institute of Peace Studies and International Relations ; 2019.
Mumma-Martinon CA, Ododa O. "Assessing the Defector Rehabilitation Programmes in Countering Violent Extremism in Somalia. Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue.". In: Religious Extremism and Violence in Africa: Reviewing the Practice of Intervention and Inter-Religious Dialogue. Nairobi: HIPSIR - Editor. Opongo E.O; 2019.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Assessing the ability of two soil types in the removal and retention of N and P nutrients from fish pond effluents. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 4:75-83.".; 2004. Abstract

Effectiveness of two soil types found at Sagana, Kenya, black clay soil (eutric Vertisol) and a red clay soil (chromic Cambisol), in retaining nutrients from pond effluent was investigated. A laboratory experiment was conducted with soil columns containing either of the two soils. Pond effluent application intensities of 31, 81 and161 mm day-1 were tested on both soils. Both soils retained over 60% of total P from pond effluents, with red clay retaining 27% more P than black clay. At the high effluent loading rate, low % N removal was observed in both soils. Total N removal efficiency declined with time after 21 days at the high rate, and after that time no N removal was observed where red clay was used. Black clay was more enriched by N than red clay, while P enrichment was higher in red clay than in black clay. It appears that land application can remove substantial amounts of P and N from pond effluent.

Kihuba E, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Mogoa W, Nyamai R, English M. "Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya." Glob Health Action. 2014;7:24859. Abstractassessing_the_ability_of_health_information_systems_in.pdf

Hospital management information systems (HMIS) is a key component of national health information systems (HIS), and actions required of hospital management to support information generation in Kenya are articulated in specific policy documents. We conducted an evaluation of core functions of data generation and reporting within hospitals in Kenya to facilitate interpretation of national reports and to provide guidance on key areas requiring improvement to support data use in decision making.

Kihuba E, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Mulaku M, Kosgei R, Mogoa W, Nyamai R, English M. "Assessing the ability of health information systems in hospitals to support evidence-informed decisions in Kenya." Glob Health Action. 2014;7:24859.
Hedden-Dunkhorst B;, Denich M;, Mburu J;, Mendoza-Escalante A;, Borner J. "Assessing Technological Innovations for Smallholder Agriculture in the Eastern Amazon Region — Implications for Technology Adoption and Dissemination."; 2004. Abstract

Over the last four decades smallholder agriculture in the Amazon region continuously adapted to changing economic conditions. This had environmental implications on a local and global scale. In order to reduce pressure on the environment as well as poverty through sustainable production, technological innovations need to be ecologically sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable at the same time. Various research activities currently conducted in the Amazon region investigate the potential of alternative technologies for smallholder agriculture. The session presents selected findings of a research project carried out by the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, and its Brazilian partners (Embrapa Amazˆonia Oriental and Federal University of Par´a — NAEA, Bel´em) during the past twelve years. The project developed, tested, and economically evaluated fire-free alternatives to slash-and-burn practices in the eastern Amazon region. The fire-free technologies aim at maintaining the existing fallow system while integrating “modern”, productivity increasing inputs like fertiliser and mechanisation. Fallowing provides important economic and ecological services, such as temporary carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation, which most technologies for continuous cropping do not accomplish. The presentations first introduce various technologies for smallholders that are currently under investigation. Secondly, a cost-benefit analysis of on-farm trial data highlights the private and social determinants of technology profitability. Moreover, results of a profit function analysis based on representative farm household data reveal the quantitative importance of fallow as a production factor and the role of fertiliser and product prices in production decisions. Finally, the impact of technology adoption on land use and household welfare is assessed in a set of technology and policy simulations using a bio-economic farm-household model including uncertainty. The results indicate that the economic impact of environmental degradation is still too low for many farmers to switch from traditional technologies to more sustainable — but cost and / or labour intensive — technologies without substantial government support. Moreover, institutional frame conditions and infrastructure at the municipal level favour technological innovation in some districts, while holding it back in others. Especially, in the latter areas, cash and liquidity constraints represent the main obstacle to technological innovation among smallholders. Concluding remarks reflect on: 1. the research design and the methodological approaches employed in the project, 2. interdisciplinary research that combines ecological as well as socio-economic aspects, 3. and the need to adopt a broader perspective including technological and institutional innovations to stimulate farmers’ adoption behaviour. Finally, a discussion of implications for policy action that arise from the project findings will open the session to a broader debate.

Busolo DN, Samuel Ngigi. "Assessing Sustainability of Rural Community Radio in Kenya: A Case of Radio Mangelete." New Media and Mass Communication. 2016;53:23-32.
Njeru CM, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, Kinyamario JI, Kiboi S, Maeda EE. "Assessing stock and thresholds detection of soil organic carbon and nitrogen along an altitude gradient in an east Africa mountain ecosystem." Geoderma Regional. 2017;10:29-38.
Wasonga VO, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK. "Assessing socioecological change dynamics using local knowledge in the semi-arid lowlands of Baringo district, Kenya." Environmental Research Journal. 2011;5:11-17. Abstract
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Wasonga VO;, Nyariki DM, Ngugi RK. "Assessing Socio-Ecological Change Dynamics Using Local Knowledge in the Semi-Arid Lowlands of Baringo District, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A clear understanding of the social and ecological change dynamics in pastoral ecosystems is imperative for formulation of appropriate policies that ensure sustainable resource use and livelihood security of pastoral households. Spatial and temporal ecological knowledge expressed by those with long familiarity with the ecology has been shown to be more superior in quality and resolution than those gathered remotely and modelled digitally. This study adopted a local-perceptions approach in assessing the social and ecological change dynamics in the Njemps Flats of Baringo district over a period of four decades. The results reveal a changing vegetation structure, declining diversity and increasing soil erosion that are attributed to the rise in both human and livestock populations. The results also show a rising trend in diversification of asset portfolios in response to impoverishment as a result of the declining pasture and livestock productivity. These findings suggest that pastoralism in Baringo is a system in transition, attempting to maintain itself while at the same time trying to adapt progressively to a continuously shrinking resource base.

Gitau PW, Kunyanga CN, Abong’ GO, Ojiem JO, Muthomi JW. "Assessing Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference of Legume-Cereal-Root Based Porridges in Nandi County." Journal of Food Quality. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3035418.
Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Ommeh. M. "Assessing Progress with the Implementation of the Public Transport Policy in Kenya.". In: 31st Southern African Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
V.N W, J. M, R O, R N. "Assessing Profitability Of Selected Agro-Ecological Intensification Techniques In Sorghum And Cassava Based Cropping Systems In Yatta Sub County, Kenya." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH . 2016;5(6). AbstractWebsite

As the world population increases there is pressure on agriculture to supply more food, fiber and fuel. This has led to the continual
expansion of agricultural land in to arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) resulting in land degradation. In particular, in sub-Sahara Africa, low soil fertility is
one of the most constraining factors to agriculture productivity. Initiatives to address soil fertility through use of inorganic fertilizers have yielded below
average results in increasing productivity. Agro-ecological intensification (AEI) technique uses alternative knowledge and local materials to improve soils
and increase productivity. This study assesses the economic returns of using AEI techniques compared to simplified conventional agricultural systems.
Data was collected from on farm experiment that involved mono cropping, crop rotation and intercropping and application of organic inputs. Survey was
used to collect data on farmers‘ costs of production, yields and commodity prices from a sample of 140 households in Yatta, Kenya. Both plot and survey
data showed that significantly greater revenues were attained with the application of the AEI practices. Using legumes in intercrop system with
application of farmyard manure had the highest profit while crop rotation without application of organic input had the least. At least 28 percent of farmers
that adopt all components of the AEI technique attained significantly higher profits than farmers without any organic inputs. The study concludes AEI is a
profitable soil fertility management technique. Thus policy should recognize and promote its uptake.
Key words: Agro-ecological Intensification, Profitability, Soil Management, Cassava, Sorghum, Yatta, Kenya.

Borner J;, Mburu J;, Guthiga P, Wambua S. "Assessing opportunity costs of conservation: Ingredients for protected area management in the Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The Kakamega Forest is the only remaining tropical rainforest fragment in Western Kenya and hosts large numbers of endemic animal and plant species. Protected areas were established decades ago in order to preserve the forest's unique biodiversity from being converted into agricultural land by the regions large number of small-scale farmers. Nonetheless, recent research shows that degradation continues at alarming rates. In this paper we address an important challenge faced by protected area management, namely, the design of a cost-effective incentive scheme that balances local demand for subsistence non-timber forest products against conservation interests. Using primary data collected from 369 randomly selected farm-households we combine a farm-household classification with mathematical programming in order to estimate the opportunity costs of conserving the Kakamega Forest and restricting access to non-timber forest product resources. We validate our model and analyze the impact of changes in major economic frame conditions on our results before we derive recommendations for an improved protected area management in the study region. Our findings suggest that a more flexible approach to determining the price of recently established forest product extraction permits would greatly enhance management efficiency without significantly compromising local wellbeing.

PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Assessing Management of Medical Needs of Orphans in Orphanages in Nyanza Province (Submitted) Sahara Journal, 2005 Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG.". In: AWC/FES Research Publications. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Assessing Local Administrative Capacity for Development Purposes: A Kenyan Case," in The African Review, Vol. 5, No. 3.". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1975. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Baldyga TJ, Miller SN, Driese KL, Gichaba CM. "Assessing Land Cover Change in Kenya’s Mau Forest Region using Remotely Sensed Data ." The Authors Journal Compilation. 2007. Abstract

Kenya's Rift Valley has been undergoing rapid land cover change for the past two decades, which has resulted in ecological and hydrological changes. An effort is under way to quantify the timing and rate of these changes in and around the River Njoro watershed located near the towns of Njoro and Nakuru using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) methods. Three Landsat TM images, representing a 17-year period from 1986 to Z003 in which the area underwent a significant land cover transition, were classified and compared with one another. Vegetation diversity and temporal variability, common to tropical and sub-tropical areas, posed several challenges in disaggregating classified data into sub-classes. An iterative approach for the resolving challenges is presented that incorporates unsupervised and supervised classification routines in coordination with knowledge- based spatial analyses. Changes are analysed at three spatial scales ranging from the highly impacted and deforested uplands to the watershed and landscape scales. Land cover transitions primarily occurred after 1995, and included large forest losses coupled with increases in mixed small-scale agriculture and managed pastures and degraded areas. These changes in cover type are highly spatially variable and are theorized to have significant impacts on ecological and hydrologic systems-with implications for environmental sustainability.

Keywords: accuracy assessment. deforestation, Landsat, scale

Nyamongo IK. "Assessing Intracultural Variability Statistically Using Data on Malaria Perceptions in Gusii, Kenya.". In: Field Methods, Vol. 14(2): 148-160. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Okoth S, Lindy J Rose, Abigael Ouko, Nakisani EI Netshifhefhe, Henry Sila, Viljoen A. "Assessing genotype-by-environment interactions in aspergillus ear rot and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines." Agronomy. 2017;7(4):86.
Opondo M, Abdi U, Nangiro P. "Assessing gender in resilience programming: Uganda." BRACED Resilience Intel. 2016;2(2). Abstractassets.publishing.service.gov.uk

There are a number of opportunities that the project can harness to increase its gender-related impact and drive resilience in the region, including a committed team with strong technical capabilities, a strong legal and policy framework on gender equality and Mercy Corps’ own experience from the field of gender and resilience in the Sahel and Somalia.

P O, C O, R K. "Assessing Efficacy of Kenya’s Spatial Planning Tools Towards Sustainable Management of the Land-Sea Interface." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH AND KNOWLEDGE. 2019;Volume-4(Issue-5):33-43.
MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE. "Assessing community attitude towards home-based care for people with AIDS (PWAs) in Kenya. Olenja JM. J Community Health. 1999 Jun;24(3):187-99.". In: J Community Health. 1999 Jun;24(3):187-99. University of Nairobi Press; 1999. Abstract
This paper presents data on an assessment of community attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and home based care. The findings indicate that due to inadequate information about the disease and care expectations, people were ambivalent toward the sick and in some instances out-right rejection prevailed. This formed the basis for their preference for institutional based care as opposed to home based care. This was further compounded by the economic status of the household/family. Sheer poverty militates against providing adequate home care in as much as families may be willing to do so. It also confirms that one may perhaps be too taken in by the romanticized idea of unswerving community support. This may further relegate the burden to the primary unit, the family and especially the women who ultimately carry the load with limited resources. This emphasizes the need to initially share the issue with the community in order to work out the mechanisms that will lessen the burden of, and facilitate home care. Training in the care of AIDS patients is crucial yet lacking at the family and community level. Whereas care, counseling and social support are particularly important prerequisites for home-based care, these were conspicuously lacking. Very few caregivers had appropriate training and were worried about their lack of knowledge and yet they had to care for patients. It was evident that they lacked a framework that would provide the capacity to facilitate home care. Such a framework would bridge the gap between the noble concept of home-based care and the realities of home based care.
Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Assessing Climate Change Trends within the Sondu Miriu River Basin and Impacts on Hydropower Generation, Kenya." International Journal for Innovative Research and Development. . 2019;8(2):18-28.
Bobadoye AO, Ogara WO, Ouma GO, Onono JO. "Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among rural Maasai Pastoralist in Kenya." American Journal of Rural Development. 2016;4(6):120-128. AbstractResearchGate

The aim of this study is to assess adaptation and coping strategies of Maasai pastoralist to climate change and identify viable adaptation options to reduce the impact of climate change among Maasai pastoralist in the arid and semi-arid (ASALS) in Kenya. The study was carried out in Kajiado County and multiple data collection
techniques such as in-depth interview with 305 households, focus group discussion, and key informant interview
were used to assess adaptation strategies of pastoralist household and identify viable adaptation options for the study area. Rainfall data used for the study was also collected from Kenya Meteorological Service (KMS) and used for standard precipitation index (SPI) analysis. SPI was used to analyze drought severity in the study area between 1970 and 2013. SPI was designed to quantify precipitation deficit for multiple time scale. Results showed that drought is the major climatic challenge affecting pastoralist in the study area. The SPI result showed increase in drought occurrence in Kajiado County in recent years with six years (2000, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2011) having negative SPI values between 2000-2011. The year 2000 was also the driest year recorded in the study with an SPI value of -3.09. The study also showed that Maasai pastoralists already have many adaptation measures to cope with the impacts of climate extremes. However, increase in drought occurrence in the last few years is reducing their resilience. This study observed that most of the adaptation and coping strategies adopted by Maasai pastoralist are autonomous and are unlikely to build resilience of pastoralist livelihoods and ecosystems to cope with the projected magnitude and scale of climate change in the 21st Century. The study identified adaptation strategies such as effective early warning system, water harvesting, rapid infrastructural development, encouraging table banking and cooperative societies, Building and equipping schools, migration, livestock diversification and child education as long term no regret adaptation option that can enhance resilience of Maasai pastoralist to climate change and its extremes in the arid and semi arid lands of Kenya.

Keywords: adaptation strategies, drought, climate change, Maasai pastoralist

A.O B, W.O O, G.O O, Onono J.O. "Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among Rural Maasai pastoralist in Kenya." American Journal of Rural Development. 2016;4(6):120-128.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya. Roberts M, Wangombe J. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5.". In: AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5. SITE; 1995. Abstract
PIP: A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were–or were suspected to be–HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.
Opanda S, Bulimo W, Gachara G, Ekuttan C, Amukoye E. "Assessing antigenic drift and phylogeny of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in Kenya using HA1 sub-unit of the hemagglutinin gene." PLoS One. 2020;15(2):e0228029. Abstractpone.0228029.pdf

Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus emerged in North America in 2009 and has been established as a seasonal strain in humans. After an antigenic stasis of about six years, new antigenically distinct variants of the virus emerged globally in 2016 necessitating a change in the vaccine formulation for the first time in 2017. Herein, we analyzed thirty-eight HA sequences of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 strains isolated in Kenya during 2015-2018 seasons, to evaluate their antigenic and molecular properties based on the HA1 sub-unit. Our analyses revealed that the A (H1N1) pdm09 strains that circulated in Kenya during this period belonged to genetic clade 6B, subclade 6B.1 and 6B.2. The Kenyan 2015 and 2016 isolates differed from the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 at nine and fourteen antigenic sites in the HA1 respectively. Further, those isolated in 2017 and 2018 correspondingly varied from A/Michigan/45/2015 vaccine strain at three and fifteen antigenic sites. The predicted vaccine efficacy of A/California/07/2009 against Kenyan 2015/2016 was estimated to be 32.4% while A/Michigan/45/2015 showed estimated vaccine efficacies of 39.6% - 41.8% and 32.4% - 42.1% against Kenyan 2017 and 2018 strains, respectively. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay using ferret post-infection reference antiserum showed that the titers for the Kenyan 2015/2016 isolates were 2-8-fold lower compared to the vaccine strain. Overall, our results suggest the A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses that circulated in Kenya during 2015/2016 influenza seasons were antigenic variants of the recommended vaccine strains, denoting sub-optimal vaccine efficacy. Additionally, data generated point to a swiftly evolving influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in recent post pandemic era, underscoring the need for sustained surveillance coupled with molecular and antigenic analyses, to inform appropriate and timely influenza vaccine update.

Koech R, Koroti E, Aboge G, Mwangi A, Odhiambo J;, Ouma E;, Staal S;, McDermott J;, Kangethe E;, Arimi S;, Omore A. "Assessing and managing milk-borne health risks for the benefit of consumers in Kenya.". 2002.
and Munyasi J W OMFMDM. "Assesment of the Potential of small scale Sisal Industry in Katanga Division, Machakos District.". In: proceedings of the 11th Biennial Conference. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute- Nairobi- Kenya.; 2008.
Wamukowa N. "An Assesment of the Impact of Remote Sensing on Geography Teaching ." UN/SIDA International Training Course in Remote Sensing Proceedings. 1998.
OGOLLAH ENNEDY, NJUNGE GEOFFREYTHIGE, Mburu DK. "AN ASSESMENT OF THE EFFECT OF OVER INDEBTEDNESS ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN KENYA (CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI COUNTY)." International journal of Reaserch & Development organization. 2015;1(1).
DAVID MUNYASI. ASSESMENT OF STONE CRUSHING CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A STONE CRUSHER FOR SMALL SCALE ENTREPRENEURS.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012. Abstract

ABSTRACT.
In Civil Engineering and Construction Industry, crushed stones are known as aggregates and are the basic materials in modern construction work. The current methods for crushing stones to produce aggregates are characterized by the use of large, expensive and centralised crushing plants, which are beyond the reach of small scale entrepreneurs. In addition, such centralized plants are often located too far away from the point of use of aggregates leading to prohibitively high cost of the same.
On the other hand there is widespread practice of manual “hammer and anvil” stone crushing especially in rural areas. Though, the practice is hazardous, laborious and hardly profitable, the technology is common in Kenya. It is against this background that the proposed research work has been formulated in order to study the crushing characteristics of various stones and to subsequently come up with an optimum, dynamical ad structural design of a small stone crusher for small scale entrepreneurs. The study will contribute to the body of knowledge in the domain of innovative development of Engineering products; the case in point being a small- mechanised stone crusher that is cost effective, environmentally and user friendly. Further, the study will generate information on stone characteristics that are relevant in aggregate formation.

J.M.Mahasi, H.A.Ogot, Okoth SA, G.O.Obiero. "Assesment of Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) disease severity in selected districts of Western Kenya." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;11(2):50-53.
K'AKUMU OA. "Asserting the nature of man as zoon politikon.". In: City. Taylor and Francis; 2010. Abstract

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Asseri L, Nguvumali HI, Matee MI, Chindia ML.Chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible following tooth extraction in HIV infection.Oral Dis. 1997 Sep;3(3):193-5.". In: Oral Dis. 1997 Sep;3(3):193-5. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1997. Abstract
A case is presented of refractory chronic osteomyelitis of the left mandible arising after a tooth extraction in HIV infection. The challenges of prompt diagnosis and the dilemma of satisfactory management are highlighted. It is imperative that dental and oral health providers have a particularly high index of suspicion of conditions that occur in HIV infection so that early identification and appropriate management may be instituted.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Assenga SP, You M, Shy CH, Yamagishi J, Sakaguchi T, Zhou J, Kibe MK, Xuan X, Fujisaki K. (2006). The use of a recombinant baculovirus expressing a chitinase from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis and its potential application as a bioacaricide for .". In: Parasitology Research 98, 111-118. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
Baculoviruses are specific insect pathogens used as selective biological insecticides on lepidopteran insects. We have tested a recombinant baculovirus expressing a chitinase gene for its efficacy as a tick bioacaricide. The recombinant Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus expressing a chitinase enzyme (AcMNPV-CHT1) from the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, was constructed and found to have a novel bioacaricidal effect against ticks. The recombinant baculovirus was used to express the chitinase enzyme in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Topical application of the supernatant harvested from the insect cell culture was found to cause mortality in nymphal ticks of H. longicornis. High temperature (>30 degrees C) and infrared radiation affected the chitinase enzyme activity and recombinant baculovirus infectivity by reducing the speed of tick killing by 60%. A mixture of recombinant virus and chitinase was found to kill ticks faster (p < 0.01) than pure chitinase and recombinant virus alone. Thus, the recombinant virus showed a synergistic effect with the foreign chitinase gene. In order to reduce the excessive use and cost of acaricides, it was found that a mixture of recombinant virus and flumethrin could halve the dose of the chemical acaricide used. These findings are important for the safe use of the recombinant virus expressing chitinase as a bioacaricide against ticks.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Assembly of electroactive ordered multilayer films of cobalt pthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and polycations, J.". In: colloid and Interface Science, 212, 570-575, 1999. Survey Review; 1999. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
W. MUTHOMIJ, K. MUREITHIB, N. CHEMINING'WAG, K. GATHUMBIJ, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Aspergillus species and Aflatoxin b1 in soil, maize grain and flour samples from semi-arid and humid regions of Kenya." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(1):22-34.
Muthomi J., Mureithi B. C’wa GMGJE. "Aspergillus species and Aflatoxin b1 in soil, maize grain and flour samples from semi-arid and humid regions of Kenya." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(1):22-34. Abstractaspergilllus_species_and_aflatoxin_b1.

Recurrent outbreaks of Aflatoxin (AF) poisoning in maize continue to exacerbate the food security crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the distribution and contamination levels of Aspergillus spp. and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in soil, maize and maize-based products. Maize grain samples (n=256), semi-processed grain (n=56), flour (n=52), hammer mill dust (n=11), and soil (n=117) were collected during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. Aspergillus spp. was isolated and AFB1 was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Aspergillus flavus was frequently isolated in maize samples from the semi-arid regions. The frequency of A. flavus was higher in semi-processed grain than in whole grain and packed flour samples. AFB1 was not detected in samples from the humid regions. AFB1 was detected at levels exceeding the Kenyan legal limit of 10 μg/kg in 20% of the samples, at maximum of 136 μg/kg for semi-processed maize,77 μg/kg for whole grain and 41 μg/kg for flour sold in open bags. The high temperature and periodic drought prevalent in the semi-arid regions could explain the higher levels of A. flavus and AFB1 contamination in that climate. In addition, unfavourable drying and storage practices may aggravate the problem. Therefore, it is recommended that the careful monitoring of AF be continued.

Muthomi J.W., Mureithi B.K. C’wa GMGNJK. "Aspegillus species and Aflatoxin B1 in soil, Maize grain and flour samples from semi arid and humid regions of Kenya." international Journal of AgriScience. . 2012;2(1):22-34.
MITEMA PROFSEO, OLE DRMAPENAYISAACM, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "ASPECTS OF THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF DOXYCYCLINE GIVEN TO HEAL.". In: journal. EAEP; 1997.
MITEMA PROFSEO, OLE DRMAPENAYISAACM, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "ASPECTS OF THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF DOXYCYCLINE GIVEN TO HEAL.". In: journal. de Gruyter; 1997. Abstract

The effect of experimentally induced Pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia on the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline (Doxycen Retard) administered intramuscularly was studied in seven East African dwarf goats. The study was conducted in two consecutive phases, separated by a washout ~eriod of four weeks. The experimental infection, induced by intratracheal administration of 5 ml of 10 to 109 cfu/ml of Pasteurella haemolytica, produced a temperature rise, depression and laboured breathing within 6-12 days after inoculation. The concentrations of doxycycline in the serum were determined by a quantitative microbiological assay using an agar-gel diffusion method employing Bacillus cereus var mycoides (ATCC 11778) as the test organism, with a level of detectability of approximately 0.05 ug/ml. The concentration-time curve of doxycycline in the serum after intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg bodyweight of the long-acting formulation before and after experimental infection was adequately described by a one-compartment open model. The maximum serum concentrations (CmaJ of doxycycline were lower in pneumonic goats than in healthy goats (3.87±0.52 and 5.56±0.213 ug/ml, respectively), suggesting an increased distribution volume in the peripheral compartment. The mean ± SEM absorption rate (ka) before infection (1.13 ± 0.02 h-l) was smaller than that after infection (8.23 ± 3.81 h-l), but the difference was not significant. The apparent elimination half-life (tI/2~) (24.51 ±0.02 h) after infection was significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the corresponding rate constant (p) was decreased (p < 0.01). The absorption half-life (t1/2J (0.137±0.03 h) was significantly decreased (p<0.01) after infection. The distribution volume (Vd(~) was significantly increased after infection (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, although experimental infection had an effect on the disposition kinetics of doxycycline, this was not sufficiently pronounced to require alteration of the dosage during disease

MITEMA PROFSEO, OLE DRMAPENAYISAACM, ELIAS PROFMAITHOT. "ASPECTS OF THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF DOXYCYCLINE GIVEN TO HEAL.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 1997.
Nyandemo S, Singh. Aspects of project planning, monitoring, evaluation and implementation. Bishen Sighn Publishers; 2004.
Kyule MD. "Aspects of modern human behavior during the late Pleistocene: insights from southwest Kenya.". In: Conference on Current Archaeology and Paleoanthropological research in Kenya . National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Aspects of East African Literature,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Aspects of East African Literature,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1977. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

"Aspects of Discourse Structure: A Case of Particles.". In: The Language Loss of the Indigenous. London & New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis; 2016.
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "Aspects of Discourse Structure.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. Upcoming (Orient Blackswan); 2012. Abstract
It is debatable whether speakers of any language are wholly responsible for discourse organization of an utterance or whether recipients indirectly impose on speakers an organizational paradigm for the success in communication. While some linguists  advocate for the latter position, the former argument is embraced by those who see communication as fundamentally designed for recipients who indirectly impose structure to it. This former position is held by scholars who see recipient design as a fundamental principle for any interaction. This paper argues for a blending of both positions using illustration from Lubukusu language while arguing that milieu informed by the application of politeness principles is responsible for discourse organization. The paper will focus on the use of particles in Lubukusu and show how relevance theory proposed by Sperber & Wilson (1986/95/2002/2004) captures this blend.
B DRESHUNFRANCIS. "Aspects of Akan Phonology. University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.". In: Occasional Papers in Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, 2004. UN-HABITAT; 1993. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "Aspects of age determination from dental radiographs Forensic Odontology Vol. 21 1991.". In: Forensic Odontology Vol. 21 1991. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

Clough JM, Midiwo JO. Aspects of African Biodiversity.; 2008.
OGIK MRRAOWYCLIFE. "Aspects of (p,q)-summing multipliers,.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):340-7. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2010. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
Nyariki BN, S.M O, S. N. "Aspects African History Nairobi:." Catholic University Press. 2008.
B.N N. Aspects African History Nairobi. Nairobi: Catholic University Press ; 2008.
OGONYO DRBOSIREKEFA. "Asiatic acid induces apoptosis in SK-MEL-2 human melanoma cells.Park BC, Bosire KO, Lee ES, Lee YS, Kim JA. Cancer Lett. 2005 Jan 31;218(1):81-90.". In: Cancer Lett. 2005 Jan 31;218(1):81-90. Folio Morphol; 2005. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Wairire GG. "The Asians in the Kenyan Industry.". In: Commerçants et industriels d'origine indo- pakistanaise au Kenya. Regards sociologiques", in Michel ADAM (Eds) ‘‘L’Afrique Indienne Les Minorite’s d’origine Indo-Pakistanaise en Afrique Orientale’. Paris: IFRA - Karthala Publishers; 2009.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "The Asian Question in Uganda" The Black 1, June 1973.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1973. Abstract
n/a
Silvestrov K, Ogutu C, Silvestrov S, Weke P. "Asian Options, Jump-Diffusion Processes on a Lattice and Vandermonde Matrices.". In: Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics. London: Springer; 2014. Abstract

Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics. Springer, London, Chapter 20, pages 337 – 366, XIX, 387 pages.
Summary:
Risk is the uncertainty of an outcome and it can bring unexpected gains but can also cause unforeseen losses, even catastrophes. They are common and inherent in financial and commodity markets; for example; asset risk, interest rate risk, foreign exchange risk, credit risk, commodity risk. Investors have various attitudes towards risk, that is, risk aversion, risk seeking and risk neutral. Over the past few years financial derivatives have become increasingly important in the world of finance since they are kind of a risk management tool. A financial derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on other fundamental financial assets, called underlying assets, such as stocks, indexes, currencies, commodities, bonds, mortgages and other derivatives (since we can have a derivative of a derivative). As an underlying asset one can also use a non-financial random phenomenon like for instance, weather conditions e.g. temperatures. Pricing derivatives accurately and quickly is important for risk management. This is important for both those who trade in derivatives and those who are willing to insure them. In this paper some lattice methods for pricing Asian options modeled using a jump diffusion process will be described. These methods can often be adapted to pricing of other derivatives or solving other types of problems in financial mathematics, for instance a jump diffusion process can be used to describe incoming claims to an insurance company, see [20].

Dorothy McCormick, Goldstein, Andrea; Pinaud N; RH. "The Asian Drivers and Africa: Learning from Case Studies.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

When the OECD Development Centre launched research in 2005 to document the economic, political and social impacts of China’s and India’s economic growth on sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the arrival (or resurgence) of new important players had triggered concerns among traditional donors. Accusations ran from free riding on Western debt relief over violation of governance standards and unfair company competition to fragmentation of aid delivery. At the same time, there was a tendency to neglect the diversity of SSA in terms of resource endowments, trade links and industrial development. It was time then to promote African voices from various backgrounds to reflect Africa’s heterogeneity. The introductory section presents a summary of findings about the economic impact of the two Asian giants in SSA countries by Africa-based economists, with three practical conclusions. First, African countries should favor strategies that minimize areas of direct competition with the Asian giants. Second, industrialization strategies are required to exploit opportunities complementary to the Asian development path. Third, sectors of mutual interest should be identified in order to develop long-term views on how to cooperate with China and India and these views should be mainstreamed into national development plans.

W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Asian and the Economic Underdevelopment of East Africa.". In: Paper presented at the annual meeting of Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast ASPAC Anaheim, California June 9-11.; 1978. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Ashley F.P., Usiskin L.A., Wilson R.F and Wagaiyu E.G. The relationship between irregularity of the incisor teeth, plaque and gingivitis: a study in a group of school children aged 11-14 years. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS 20: pg. 65-72, 1998.". In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Nalule, A S; Mbaria KOJM; JW;. Ascaricidal activity of Rhoicissus tridentata root-tuber ethanolic and water extracts.; 2012. Abstract

This study was conducted to determine in vitro ascaricidal activity of ethanolic and water extract of root tuber Rhoicissus tridentata against adult nematodes. Adult worm motility inhibition assay was conducted using Ascaris suum model. Ethanolic and water root tuber Rhoicissus tridentata extracts were used in serial dilutions including 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64mg/ml and; 8,16, 32, 64 and 128mg/ml respectively, parallel to Albendazole and Goodwins’ controls in three replicates. Ten adult Ascaris suum were added to each concentration and controls and incubated at 370C for 48hours. Standard phytochemical analysis methods were used to determine the secondary plant metabolites in the extracts. A significant motility inhibition in all dose levels that was dose-dependent was observed (F (5, 53) = 4.14, p =0.005; R2 = 0.90). There was however, no significant interaction between methods of extraction and the dose effect on motility inhibition in R. tridentata (F (10, 53) =1.02, p =0.450). The ethanolic and water extracts maximum response did not significantly differ (p=0.082) although their median effective doses were 12.3 and 23.5mg/ml respectively. R. tridentata extracts have immense in vitro ascaricidal potential supporting its use in ethno-veterinary medicine although anthelmintic potency of plant extracts depend on solvent used for extraction. There is however, need to determine in vivo ascaricidal activity and safety for sustainable utilization of this medicinal plant.

ODERA BO, Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "As-cast and heat-treated alloys of the Pt-Al-V system at the Pt-rich corner." The Journal of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2012;7A:505-515.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "As Flies to Boys Are We to the Gods: Human Identity in Kenyan Myths.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Aryan Kaganof: 12 Shooters," The African Book Publishing Record, No. 3, 2008. 191-92.". In: The African Book Publishing Record, No. 3, 2008. 191-92. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Arts For Personal Therapy.". In: Joy Centre Enterprise New Jersey U.S.A. IPPNW; 1995. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Artists in Development: Creativity Workshop Report and Exhibition.". In: Makerere University. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
"The Artist in the Religious Context.". In: The Murang’a Murals. H.F. Miller; 2014.
Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Janet Achieng Onyango CKM. "Artisanal fishing supports breeding of malaria mosquitoes in Western Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2019;188:77.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Artisanal Fisheries of Lake Victoria Kenya: Options for Management, Production and marketing, Nairobi,Shirikon Publishers.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1992. Abstract
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Ngatia EM, Ng'ang'a PM, Imungi JK, Muita J. "Artificial sucking habits and malocclusion in 3-5-year-olds in Nairobi.". 2001. Abstract
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Baltenweck I;, Ouma R;, Anunda F;, Mwai O;A, Romney D. "Artificial or natural insemination: the demand for breeding services by smallholders.".; 2004. Abstract

Different types of breeding services are available to the Kenyan smallholder farmers. An important question is whether farmers choose the service, or they are constrained in their choice. Assessing the demand for breeding services is crucial for planning purposes since it will help in identifying the constraints faced by smallholders in the aftermath of agricultural liberalisation policies of the 1990’s. Household and community surveys were conducted in March and April 2004 in three different farming systems of the Kenyan Highlands. The study of 300 smallholder cattlekeepers found that while 54% prefer artificial insemination (AI) to natural (bull) service, 81% actually use natural service, suggesting a sharp contrast between actual use and expressed preferences. Even in intensive dairy systems (represented by Ndia division in Kirinyaga district), the majority of smallholders use natural service. Farmers prefer AI service in view of its ability to maintain and/or upgrade their dairy herd but main constraints to use of AI services are low availability and perceived high costs. This study shows that the observed high use of natural service over AI recorded in previous studies may not reflect farmers’ choice but the unavailability of the Demand for breeding services by smallholders alternative service types, cost considerations, information gaps and misinformation amongst farmers, historical reasons among other constraining factors. Some recommendations for breeding policy reform are made.

Nyang’anga MH:, Mande JD. Artificial Intelligent System for Diagnosis and Management of Maize Pest in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Nairobi, KE Doctoral Thesis University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract
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Meru AK, Musau F, Kinoti MW. "Artificial Intelligence-Based Decision Making Applied in Marketing and Sales in Third World Countries." Business Strategy in the Artificial Intelligence Economy. 2018.
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "ARTICLE: TRINITY IN AFRICAN RELIGIONS-IN GABA PUBLICATION.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: The Impacts on Society of possible climatic change: if warning prevails in MAZINGIRA Vol. 1 No. 1 April, 1977, pp. 30-39.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1977. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: Land Settlement and Rural Development in Kenya in Studies in "East African Geography and Development" ed. Prof. S.H. Ominde, 1971.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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EDALIA MROBOTEJULIUS, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Article: Education and Information Technology" in the Faculty of Education Journal.". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 2002. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

EDALIA MROBOTEJULIUS, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Article: Education and Information Technology" in the Faculty of Education Journal.". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 67 No. 2, February 1990, pp.100-8. International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2002. Abstract
The problem of school non-attendance is an increasing one in our setting and yet its cause has not been established. This paper presents data of work done through interviews with parents and observations of the home environments of the sample cases in attempt to establish factors associated with school non-attendance. After the initial interviews, the children were seen periodically for follow-ups, usually at two to three monthly intervals for at least one year, by the team which consisted of a consultant psychiatrist, a clinical psychologist, a paediatric registrar and a psychiatric social worker. Out of the ten cases sampled for the study, nine were of school phobia and one of conduct disorder (truancy). Generally, family characteristics significantly associated with school non-attendance in this study were neuroticism in parents, unstable family relationships occasioned by marital discord, parental expectations of high academic performance by the child and, to some extent, poverty. The common management approaches used were family therapy, counselling and anti-depressant pharmacotherapy.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: A chapter 40 pages long on "The Natural Resources of Kenya" - included in the Kenya Official Handbook - published by East African Publishing House Nairobi, 1972.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Typological Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture in Kenya" - paper presented at the IGU Commission on Agricultural Typology, Ontario, Canada, August, 1972 (published in proceedings, 1973).". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1973. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Post Independence Agricultural Changes in the Kenya Highlands, paper presented at the IGU, Agricultural Typology Commission Meeting in Hissar, India, and at the 20th International Geographical Union Congress in New Delhi, 1968.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "People and Farms in Growing Kenya" - published in the Geographical Magazine, London, September, 1971.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Observations on Typological Problems in a Changing Subsistence Agriculture in Kenya" presented at the IGU Symposium on Agricultural Typology, Verona, Italy, 1970 - published in the Proceedings of the IGU Agricultural Typology Symposium - Ed. By .". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Observations in the Kenya Highlands" - in book entitled "East African Studies" - published by Wirchafts and Social Geographisches Inst., West Germany. Editor Prof. Herfried Berger, Nurnberger, 1968.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1968. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Demographic Implications of Regional Inequalities in Kenya" - paper prepared in collaboration with Prof. S.H. Ominde, presented at the IGU colloquium on Regional Inequalities in Development, Brasil, 1971 published in Proceedings of the Colloquiu.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Article: "Co-operatives in the Kenya Highlands Settlement Schemes" in Proceedings of the Social Sciences Conference, Makerere, 1969.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1969. Abstract
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KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "Article title: Risk factors for kerosene stove explosion burns seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya Journal title: Burns Dr. Alex N Dr.Ombati, Dr.P.L.W.Ndaguatha, Dr.J.K.Wanjeri (Correspnding author) Online publication complete: 19-SEP-2012.". In: BURNS. ELSEVIER; 2012. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "An article entitled.". In: in the Kiswahili journal of the University of Nairobi (MWAMKO) EDITTED BY Mwenda Mbatiah. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1990.
Atoh F. "Arthur Mudogo Kemoli (1945-): The Path of a Musical Giant.". In: A Biography of Kenyan Musicians Vol. I. Nairobi: Government Press; 2010.
MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Arthur M. Kemoli. Survival rate of proximal ART restorations.". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2011. Abstract
Dental caries has been on the increase in many developing nations and even in the poor communities in the developed nations# Dental restorations have been used to manage dental caries, especially, in their early cavitation stages of its development# Atraumatic restorative treatment #ART# has been used as an alternative treatment approach for dental caries in areas where traditional dental treatment is lacking as a result of economic difficulties# Restorations placed in single-surface dental cavities using this ART approach, have been found to have good survival rates in the short to medium term# However, the survival of restorations placed in multi-surface cavities using the same method has been poor# It is important to establish the factors behind the poor survival of these multi-surface restorations, and to use the results of such findings to improve on their survival# This monograph discusses some of the factors influencing the survival rate of proximal ART restorations #example of multi-surface restorations# placed in primary molars# Show More Show Less
MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Arthur M. Kemoli. Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE): A description of four common DDE and their management.". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2011. Abstract
Developmental defects of Enamel (DDE) are common dental problems that are commonly encountered by the dentist during routine dental practice. DDE result from the effects of genetic, environmental and nutritional factors that affects the enamel during its formation or development period. The effects may be on the laying of the enamel matrix or on the maturation of the enamel. The total result is an effect on on the patient of either the function, aesthetics or both. Many dentists experience difficulties in distinguishing one type of DDE from the other, hence the importance of writing this book. In this book, four types of DDE have been described and a suggestion made on the management regimes of each condition. It is hoped that the book will help many of these dentist to adequately understand and deal with DDE when they encounter them during their routine practice. Show More Show Less
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "Arthur Kimani Kuria.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Goo Y-K;, erkawi A;M, ia H;, Aboge O;G, Ooka H, Nelson B;, Kim S;, Sunaga F, Namikawa K;, Igarashi I. "Artesunate, a potential drug for treatment of Babesia infection.". 2010. Abstract

The effects of artesunate, a water-soluble artemisinin derivative, against Babesia species, including Babesia bovis, Babesia gibsoni and Babesia microti were studied. Cultures of B. bovis and B. gibsoni were treated with 0.26, 2.6, 26 and 260 μM artesunate, showing inhibition of parasite growth at concentrations equal to and greater than 2.6 μM artesunate by days 3 post-treatment for B. gibsoni and B. bovis in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with in vitro experiments, artesunate was effective in the treatment of mice infected with B. microti at doses equal to and greater than 10 mg/kg of body weight on days 8–10 post-infection. Taken together, these results suggest that artesunate could be a potential drug against Babesia infection.

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